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First Nations of Canada
 
Contents: Assembly of First Nations - Abegweit - Ahtahkakoop - Akwesasne Mohawks - Blood - Buffalo Point - Chisasibi Cree - Cree Wemindji - Cross Lake - Eskasoni and Mi’kmaq of Cape Breton - Garden Hill - Mohawks of Kahnawake - Kitigan Zibi - Miawpukek - Lac La Ronge - Lennox Island - Muskeg Lake Cree - Norway House - Peguis - Peter Ballantyne - Saddle Lake - Samson Cree- Siksika - Six Nations of Grand River - Stoney Nakoda - Tsuu T'ina - Whapamgoostui

Note: In 2013, there were 634 First Nation communities (also known as reserves) in Canada, with First Nation governments. The term "First Nations" refers to one of three distinct groups recognized as "Aboriginal" in the Constitution Act of 1982. The other two distinct groups characterized as "Aboriginal" are the Mιtis and the Inuit. First Nations have a unique and special relationship with the Crown and the people of Canada as set out in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and manifested in Treaties, the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, Canadian common law and International law and as outlined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. 

  This page lists only the nations with on-reserve membership over 3,000. More data will be added as information becomes available. Do to the large number of entities this section is currently incomplete. Any assistance adding more information is appreciated.    



Assembly of First Nations 

[Assembly of First Nations
                (Canada)]

1968                       National Indian Brotherhood (NIB) established.
Apr 1982                   Assembly of First Nations (AFN) created as the national
                             aboriginal organization on First Nations issues in Canada. 

National Chiefs
1968 - 1970                Walter Dieter                 (b. 1916 - d. 1988) 
                             (Peepeekisis Cree, Saskatchewan)
1970 - 1976                George Manuel                 (b. 1921 - d. 1989) 
                             (Shuswap Nation, British Colombia)
1976 - 1980                Noel Starblanket              (b. 1946)
                             (Starblanket Cree, Saskatchewan)
1980 - 1982                Delbert Riley 
                             (Chippewas of Thames, Ontario)
1982 - 30 Jul 1985         David Ahenakew                (b. 1933 - d. 2010)
                             (Ahtahkakoop Cree, Saskatchewan)
30 Jul 1985 - 1991         George Erasmus                (b. 1948)
                             (Dene Nation, NWT)
1991 - 1997                Ovide Mercredi                (b. 1946)
                             (Grand Rapids Cree, Manitoba)
30 Jul 1997 - Jul 2000     Phil Fontaine (1st time)      (b. 1944)
                             (Sagkeeng Nation, Manitoba)
Jul 2000 - 16 Jul 2003     Matthew Coon Come             (b. 1956)
                             (Mistissini Cree, Quebec)
16 Jul 2003 - 23 Jul 2009  Phil Fontaine (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (Sagkeeng Nation, Manitoba)
23 Jul 2009 -  2 May 2014  Shawn A-in-chut Atleo         (b. 1967)
                             (Ahousaht Nation, British Columbia)
 7 May 2014 - 10 Dec 2014  Ghislain Picard (interim)     (b. 1955)
                             (Innu/Montagnais, Quebec)
10 Dec 2014 -              Perry Bellegarde              (b. 1962)
                             (Mιtis, Saskatchewan)



Abegweit

[Abegweit First Nation
                (Canada)]

1972                       Abegweit Band, covering Morell, Rocky Point and Scotchfort Reserves
                             on Prince Edward Island, secedes from the Lennox Island Band.
1970's                     Abegweit First Nation.

Chiefs
1973 - 1999                George James "Jim" Sark
1999 - 2003                Francis Jadis
 8 Aug 2003 - Aug 2008     Roderick "Roddy" Gould
Aug 2008 -                 Brian Francis



Ahtahkakoop


Ahtahkakoop First Nation flag
                          Adopted 1995

1876                       Sign the Treaty No.6 (1906 – 1986 renamed Sandy Lake).

Chiefs
1876 – 1896                John Starblanket (Atahkakohp)  (b. 1816 – d. 1896)
                            (bf.1870–1876, co-head chief of the House People,
                             a division of the Plains Cree)
1896 – 1898                Band council (4 headmen)
1898 – 1926                Basil Starblanket              (b. 18.. - d. 1926)
                             (Kaynayoostatin)
1927 – 1957                Allan Ahenakew (1st time)      (b. 1892 – d. 19..)
1957 – 1960                Lance Ahenakew (1st time)      (b. 1916)
1960 – 1968                Allan Ahenakew (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1968 – 1972                Paul Ahenakew (1st time)
1972 – 1974                Lance Ahenakew (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1974 – 1980                Paul Ahenakew (2nd time)
1980 – 1985                Fred Sasakamoose               (b. 1933)
1985 – 1990                Barry Leslie Ahenakew (1st time)
1990 – 1992                Clifford S. Ahenakew
1992 – 2005                Barry Leslie Ahenakew (2nd time)
 1 Jul 2005 -              Larry Davis Ahenakew


Mohawks of Akwesasne
 
[Mohawks of Akwesasne flag
              (Canada)]

1749                       Settlement (La Presentation; in 1760, renamed Oswegatchie) at
                             present-day Ogdensburg (in the New York State, the U.S.) by
                             the Iroquois (majority Onondaga) emigrants from the Six Nations
                             Confederacy (details under Onondaga, in the U.S.); a member of
                             the Seven Nations of Canada (details under Mohawks of
                             Kahnawa:ke).

1755                       Another settlement (St.-Regis), originally a sub-community of
                             Sault St.-Louis (present Mohawks of Kahnawa:ke).
1760                       St. Regis formally separated from Sault St. Louis and succeeded
                             declining Oswegatchie as the member of the Seven Nations
                             (by 1806, the last of the Oswegatchies had joined St. Regis).
1783                       Split by the U.S.-British (Quebec) border; the formal British
                             land grant ("concession") is issued for the British side of the
                             settlement.
31 May 1796                Treaty with the U.S. (St. Regis Tribe), under joint protection of
                             the U.K. and U.S. (details of gradual separation of so-called
                             American tribe under Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe, in the U.S.)
1847                       St. Regis Reserve (from 1984, referred to as the Akwesasne
                             Mohawk Territory) organized.
1874 – 1970                St. Regis Indian Agency established.
Jul 1888                   Iroquois of St. Regis Band Council imposed by Canada; the Council
                             of life Chiefs continues in opposition to 1968 with no
                             recognition by Canada.
1984                       Renamed Mohawks of Akwesasne.


Chiefs of La Presentation (from 1760, Oswegatchie)
c.1750 - af.1797           Council of Chiefs
                           (12 lineages of life chiefs)
Chiefs of St. Regis (title of life chief: Rotinonhkwiseres)
c.1760 – 1867              Council of Chiefs
                           (12 lineages [to 1806, 9 lineages] of life chiefs)
1867 – 1888                Council of Chiefs
                           (3 life and 2 elected positions)
                           - John Isaac (life chief)
                           - George Thomas (life chief)   (d. 1893)
                           - Alexander Thompson           (d. 1895)
                              (life chief)
                           - Peter Skin (to 1879)
                           - Loran Solomon (to 1877)      (d. 1889)
                           - Mitchell Solomon (1877 – 1883)
                           - John Sawatis (1879 – 1885)
                           - Loran Jacobs (1883 – 1886)   (d. 1886)
                           - Thomas Lazore (1885 – 1888)
1888 – 1891                John Square
1891 – 1895                Mitchell Jacobs (1st time)     (d. 1915)
1895 – 1897                Joseph Thompson
1897 – 1898                John Skin                      (d. 1899)
1898 – 1899                No elections
1899 – 1902                John Angus Louis ?
                            (heads list of councillors in 1899 and 1901)
1902 – 1906                No elections
1906 – 1909                Mitchell Friday
1909 – 1915                Mitchell Jacobs (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1915 – 1918                John Jacobs (1st time)
1918 – 1928                No elections
1928 – 1931                John Jacobs (2nd time)
1931 – 1934                Thomas Oakes
1934 – 1937                John Jacobs (3rd time)
1937 – 1940                Louis Sunday
1940 – 1943                Frank K. Leaf (1st time)       (d. 1963)
1943 – 1946                Mitchell Oakes
1946 – 1948                Clifford White (1st time)
1948 – 1952                John J. Peters
1952 – 1954                David Benedict                 (d. 1958)
1954 – 1956                Clifford White (2nd time)
1956 – 1958                Frank K. Leaf (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1958 – 1962                Ralph Whitebean
1960 – 1963                Alex H. Oakes
1963 – 1964                Florence Thomas (f)
1964 – 1970                Angus Mitchell                 (b. 1903 – d. 1988)
1970 – 1972                William Sunday (1st time)
1972 – 1974                Lawrence Francis (1st time)    (b. 1943 – d. 2005)
1974 – 1976                William Sunday (2nd time)
1976 – 1978                Lawrence Francis (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1978                       Mary David (f)
1978 – 1980                Angus Bonaparte                (b. 1920 – d. 2000)
1980 – 1984                Lawrence Francis (3rd time)    (s.a.)
1984 – 1988                Michael K. Mitchell            (b. 1948)
Grand Chiefs
1988 – 1994                Michael K. Mitchell (1st time) (s.a.)
1994 – 1997                Russell B. Roundpoint
1997 – 2000                Michael K. Mitchell (2nd time) (s.a.)
2000 – Jul 2000            Raymond Mitchell (1st time)
                             (acting)
Jul 2000 – Apr 2002        Michael K. Mitchell (3rd time) (s.a.)
Apr 2002 – 21 Jun 2003     Raymond Mitchell (2nd time)
21 Jun 2003 – 2006         Angela "Angie" Barnes (f)
2006 – Jul 2009            Timothy D. Thompson
Jul 2009 -                 Michael K. Mitchell (4th time) (s.a.)


Blood

[Blood tribe, Alberta
              (Canada) flag]

17..                       Member of the Blackfoot Confederacy.
1877                       Signs the Treaty No.7 (Blood Band).

Chiefs
1870 - 1900                Mi'kai'stowa "Red Crow"       (b. 1830 - d. 1900)
1900 - 1913                "Crop Eared Wolf"             (b. 1846 - d. 1913)
1913 - 1956                Shot Both Sides
1956 - 1964                Jim Shot Both Sides
1964 - 1966                Rufus Goodstriker
1966 - 1980                Jim Shot Both Sides       
1980 - 29 Nov 1992         Roy Fox (1st time)

29 Nov 1992 - 1992         Harley Frank (1st time)
1992 - 22 Mar 1993         Randy Bottle (interim)
22 Mar 1993 - 30 Jun 1993
  Harley Frank (2nd time)
30 Jun 1993 - 1996
         Roy Fox (2nd time)
1996 - 2004                Christopher Shade
2004 -                     Charles Weasel Head



Buffalo Point

1873                       Buffalo Point Reserve established for the Buffalo Point Band 
                             by Treaty No. 3 in Manitoba.
1970's                     Buffalo Point First Nation.

Chiefs
1873 - 1900                Ayashawath                     (d. 1900)
1900 - 1906                Little Thunder                 (d. 1906)
1906 - 1941                Jim "Old" Thunder              (d. 1941)
1941 - 1969                Warren "Shorty" Thunder        (d. 1972)
1969 - 1997                James "Jim" Thunder
1997 -                     John Thunder



Chisasibi Cree

[Chisasibi Cree flag
              (Quebec, Canada)]

1962                       Fort George Reserve
1975                       Signs the James Bay and Northern Quebec 
                             Agreement (Fort George Band).
19..                       Renamed Chisasibi.

Chiefs
c.1920 - 1931              Peter Waskigan
1931 - 1935?               John (Joe) Naposh (1st time)
1935? - 1938               John Chishkamush
1938 - 19..                John (Joe) Naposh (2nd time)
1967 - 1977                Robert Kanatewat
1977 - 1979                Josie Sam Atkinson              (b. 1928 - d. 1995)
1979 - 1982                Samuel Tapiatic
1982 - 1985                James Bobbish (1st time)
1985 - 1986                Robbie Matthew
1986 - 1989                James Bobbish (2nd time)
1989 - 1995                Violet Pachano(s)(1st time)
1995 - 1999                Charles Bobbish
1999 - 2001                Violet Pachano(s)(2nd time)
2001 - 2007                Abraham Rupert (1st time)
2007 - 2010                Roderick Pachano
2010 - 12 Feb 2012         Abraham Rupert (2nd time)
23 Mar 2012 -              Davey Bobbish



Cree Wemindji

[Cree Nation of
                  Wemindji (Canada)]

Chiefs

1978 - 1999                Walter Hughboy
1999 - 2005                Reggie Mark
2005 -                     Rodney Mark



Cross Lake

[Pimicikamak Cree
                Nation - Cross Lake Cree (Canada)]

1875                       Sign the Treaty No.5 (Cross Lake), confirmed in 1908 (from 1996,
                             identify
itself as the Pimicikamak Cree Nation).


Chiefs (title: Okimahkan)
1875 – 1881                Donald William Sinclair Ross   (b. c.1805 – d. 1881)
                            (Tepastenam)
1882 – 1885                David Ross

1886                       George Garrioch
1887 – 1891                Sandy Garrioch
1892 – 1895                Jacob Ross
1896 – 1899                Thomas Ross
1899 – 1922                Peter Ross
1922 – 1924                Vacant
1924 – 1928                Felix Scott
1929 – 1935                John Ross
1936 – 1939                Albert Sinclair                (b. 1881 – d. 1949)
1940 – 1941                Spence Ross
1941 – 1943                Vacant
1943 – 1953                Henry Beardy (1st time)
1953 – 1955                Bello Ross (1st time)
1955 – 1959                Henry Beardy (2nd time)
1959 – 1961                Samuel McKay (1st time)
1961 – 1963                Sandy Beardy                   (b. 1920 – d. 2001)
1963 – 1965                Bello Ross (2nd time)
1965 – 1967                Charles Sinclair
1967 – 1969                Samuel McKay (2nd time)
1969 – 1972                Walter F. Monias (1st time)
1972 – 1973                Jonah McKay
1973 – 1975                Walter F. Monias (2nd time)
1975 – 1977                Catherine Frances Ross (f)     (b. 1923)
1977 – 1978                Walter F. Monias (3rd time)
1978 – Sep 1981            George M. Ross
Sep 1981 – 1985            Walter F. Monias (4th time)
1985 – 1987                Etienne Robinson               (b. 1945 - d. 2008)
1987 – 1989                Walter F. Monias (5th time)
1989 – 1998                Sydney B. Garrioch
1998 – 1999                Roland Robinson
1999 – 2008                John M. Miswagon               (b. 1964)
Aug 2008 – Dec 2008        Alex J. Robinson
Dec 2008 – 2013            Garrison W. Settee
                             (acting to Sep 2009)
2013 -                     Catherine "Cathy" Merrick (f)

Garden Hill

1909                       Adherence to the Treaty No. 5 (Island Lake Band).
1969                       Split into four bands, the largest 
                             is the Garden Hill Band.

Chiefs
1909                       George Knott
1931 - 1953                Henry Fiddler
c.1970 - c.1976            Charlie Knott
19.. - 1994                Geordie Little
1994 - 1996                Jack Fiddler
1996 - 1998                Harvey Fiddler
1998 - 2000                David Harper (1st time)
2000 - 2002                Darcy Wood
2002 - 2004                Russell Harper
2004 - 2006                David Harper (2nd time)
2006 - 2008?              
Dino Flett (1st time)     
2008 -  Aug 2009           David Harper (3rd time)
2009 - 2013                Dino Flett (2nd time)
 8 Feb 2013 - Mar 2014     Buddy Beardy



Mohawks of Kahnawake
 
[Mohawk Nation Flag]

1668                       Settlement (La Prairie) by the Iroquois (majority Mohawk)
                             emigrants from the Five Nations confederacy (details under
                             Onondaga, in the U.S.).

1680                       French land grant ("reduction") at Sault St.-Louis to the Jesuit
                             Fathers for the use by the Iroquois.

c.1720 – c.1830            Seven Nations of Canada, a confederacy of Indian settlements in
                             Quebec; the final Seven Nations were: Mohawks of Sault St. Louis
                             (location of the Grand Council of the confederacy), Hurons of
                             Lorette (present Huronne-Wendat, the ceremonial chair of the
                             confederacy), Abenakis of St. Francis and Becancour (present
                             Odanak, Abenakis de Wolinak), Mohawks of St. Regis (present
                             Mohawks of Akwesasne), Mohawks of Lake of Two Mountains (present
                             Mohawks of Kanesatake), Algonquins and Nipissings of Lake of
                             Two Mountains (2 separate nations; present Kitigan Zibi
                             Anishinabeg).

1760                       Alliance with the British by the treaty with the Seven Nations
                            (in 1762, the Jesuit title to the land grant vested with the
                             Crown).

1854                       Sault Saint Louis Reserve (from 1981, referred to as the
                             Kahnawake Mohawk Territory) organized.

1874 – 1968                Caughnawaga Indian Agency established.
1889                       Iroquois of Caughnawaga Band Council imposed by Canada; the
                             Council of Chiefs continues in opposition to at least 1923
                             with no recognition by Canada.

22 May 1981                Renamed Mohawks of Kahnawake.
2012                       Renamed Mohawks of Kahnawa:ke.

Chiefs
c.1694 – 1889              Council of Chiefs
                           (7 lineages [to c.1840, 9 lineages] of life chiefs,
                            title: Rotinonhkwiseres; composition as of 1878 below)

                           - Louis Beauvais               (b. 1833 – d. af.1889)
                           - Thomas Deer                  (d. 1887)
                           - Thomas B. Jocks              (b. 1859 – d. 1893)
                           - Peter Murray                 (b. 1837 – d. af.1881)
                           - Thomas Rice                  (b. 1852 – d. af.1886)
                           - Louis Tehorakaron            (d. 1886)
                           - Joseph Williams              (b. 1846 - d. 1885)
Chief Councillors (also referred to as the mayors)
1889 – 1890                Thomas B. Jocks                (s.a.)
1890 – af.1891             Louis F. Jackson               (b. 1843 – d. 19..)
bf.1897 - 1898             Michel Daillebout
1898 – 1899                No elections
1899 – 190.                Pierre Beauvais                (b. 1860 – d. 19..)
c.19..                     Angus Patton
c.1914                     Frank McDonald Jacobs
c.1917                     John T. Daillebout
c.1919                     Peter J. Delisle (1st time)
c.1924                     Joseph Canadian
c.1927                     Louis K. Beauvais              (d. 1927)
c.1930                     Peter Williams
c.1932                     Peter J. Delisle (2nd time)
c.1933                     Joseph M. Lefebvre
c.1938                     Joseph Delisle (1st time)
c.1939                     Peter K. Delisle
c.1941                     Andrew Delisle
c.1943                     Peter Lazare
c.1944                     Joseph Delisle (2nd time)
Chiefs
1952 – 1956                Joseph A. Beauvais             (b. 1899 – d. 1958)
1956 – 1958                Michael T. Montour
1958 – 195.                Mike Lefebvre
c.1959                     Matthew Lazare
c.1961                     John Lazare
1962 – 1970                Andrew T. Delisle (1st time)   (b. 1933)
1970 – 1976                Ronald Kirby                   (b. 1936 – d. 2011)
1976 – 1980                Andrew T. Delisle (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1980 – 1982                Joseph Tokwiro Norton          (b. 1950)
Grand Chiefs
1982 –  3 Jul 2004         Joseph Tokwiro Norton          (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
 3 Jul 2004 - 22 Jun 2015  Michael Ahrirhon Delisle       (b. 1965)
22 Jun 2015 -              Joseph Tokwiro Norton          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Kitigan Zibi Algonquin Band

[Kitigan Zibi Algonquin
              Band (Canada)]


Chiefs

1854 - 1874                Antoine Pakinawatik
1874 - 1884                Peter Tenasco (1st time)
1884 - 1890                Simon Odjick
1890 - 1896                Peter Tenasco (2nd time)
1896 - 1899                Louizon Commanda
1899 - 1911                John Tenasco
1911 - 1917                Michael Commanda
1917 - 1920                John Cayer
1920 - 1924                John B. Chabot (1st time)
1927 - 1933                Vincent Odjick
1933 - 1936                Patrick Brascoupe
1936 - 1939                Abraham McDougall
1939 - 1951                John B. Chabot (2nd time)
1951 - 1970                William Commanda
1970 - 1976                Ernest McGregor
1976 - 2006                Jean Guy Whiteduck
2006 - 2008                Stephen McGregor
2008 -                     Gilbert Whiteduck


Lac La Ronge
 
[ Lac La Ronge Indian
              Band (Canada)]

11 Feb 1889                Adherence to the Treaty No. 6 (James Roberts Band).
1910                       James Roberts Band split into two Bands.
1950                       Bands amalgamated and became as the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.

Chiefs of James Roberts Band (La Ronge, Sask.)
1888 - 1901                James Roberts
1901 - 1910                Amos Charles
1910 - 1946                Joseph Charles
1946 - 1950                Moses Ratt 
Chiefs of the Amos Charles Band (Stanley Mission, Sask.)
1910 - 1930                Amos Charles
1930 - 1945                Walter McKenzie
1945 - 1950                Nehemiah Charles
Chiefs of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band 
1950 - 1955                Moses Ratt 
                           - jointly with -
1950 - 1955                Nehemiah Charles
1955 - 1967                Vacant
1967 - 1969                Isaiah Charles
1969 - 1971                John Cook
1971 - 1983                James Myles Venne (1st time)
1983 - 1985                Thomas "Tom" McKenzie
1985 - 1987                James Myles Venne (2nd time)
1987 - 31 May 2005         Harry D. Cook
31 May 2005 -              Tammy Cook-Searson (f)



Lennox Island

1846                       Morell Reserve established for the Prince Edward Island Band 
                             (later renamed the Lennox Island Band).
1870                       Lennox Island Reserve added.
1879                       Scotchfort Reserve added.
1913                       Rocky Point Reserve added.
1972                       Abegweit Band, covering Morell, Rocky Point and Scotchfort
                             Reserves secedes.
1970's                     Lennox Island First Nation.

Chiefs
1910 - 1930                John Thomas Sark
1930 - 1960                Jacob Sark
1960 - 1962                Mary Bernard (f)
1962 - 1964                Frank Jadis
1964 - 1966                Raymond Lewis
1966 - 1970                James Sark
1970 - 1972                George James "Jim" Sark
1972 - 1998                Jack J.T. Sark
1998 - 2001                Charles "Charlie" Sark
2001 -  1 Jun 2013         Darlene Bernard (f)            (b. 1962)
 1 Jun 2013 -              Matilda Ramjatton


Miawpukek 

[Miawpukek of
                Ktaqmkuk [Newfoundland](Canada)]

Chiefs (Saqamaw)
.... - c.12 Dec 1842       Michel Agathe                  (d. c.1842)
21 Jul 1860 - 1880         Maurice Louis                  (d. 1880)
1880 - 1900                Joe Bernard                    (b. 1812 - d. 1900)
1900 -  1 Dec 1918         Lupe'n                         (b. 1852 - d. 1918)
 26 Jul 1919 - 1945        Newell Jeddore Gietol          (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
1945 - 1980                Vacant
1945                       Antel (refused office)         (b. 1889 - d. 1960)
1945 - 1954                Joe Jeddore (acting)           (b. 1883 - d. 1956) 
1954 - 1971                Piel (Peter Jeddore)           (b. 1892 - d. 1971)
                             (acting)
1973 - 1974                John N. Jeddore                (b. 1922)
1974 - 1975                Walter John                    (b. 1926)
1975 - Dec 1982            William Joe                    (b. 1925 - d. 1982)
 7 Jan 1983 -              Mise’l Joe                     (b. 1947)
                             (from 1987 also, Administrative Saqamaw)

Eskasoni and Mi’kmaq of Cape Breton
 
[Mi'kmaq
                          national flag, Canada]
        Mi'kmaq National Flag Adopted 4 Oct 1900
[Mi'kmaq Grand
                          Council flag]
                     Mi'kmaq Grand Council Flag

1610                       Micmacs (or Mi'kmaq) in alliance with the French.
1725                       Ally (from 1761, subject) of the British (except 1744-52,
                             and 1755-61).
1749                       Grand chief of the Micmac, residing at the Chapel Island
                            (from 1869, at Eskasoni), recorded for the first time (1752-
                             1895 the position also is claimed by chiefs of Shubenacadie).
1783                       British begun to establish reserves for the Micmac (Eskasoni
                             Reserve in 1834).
1872 – 1971                Cape Breton (from 1902, Eskasoni) Indian Agency established.
1958                       Dissolution of the Micmacs of Cape Breton Island band into 5 bands,
                             including Eskasoni (the office of the Grand Chief continues as
                             traditional leadership).

Chiefs of Cape Breton Island (originally Isle Royale) (title: Saqmaw)
c.1716                     Isidorus
17.. – 1750                Michel Denny                   (d. 1750)
1750 – 1778                Jeannot Pequidalouet           (b. c.1705 – d. 17..)
c.1783                     Lemable Janot
1792 – 1958                the Grand Chiefs of Micmac
Grand Chiefs of Micmac (title: Kji’saqmaw wjit Mi’kmaq)
c.1749                     Tomah Denys
c.1752                     Jean Baptiste Cope             (b. 1698 – d. 1760)
                             (in opposition, recognized by British; chief of Shubenacadie)
1792 – 1818                Francis Basque
1818 – 1842                Michael Tomah                  (d. 1842)
1842 – 1869                Francis Gregory Tomah
1869 – 1881                John Denny                     (d. 1881)
1881 – 12 Apr 1918         John B. Denny, Jr.             (b. 1841 – d. 1918)
1918 – May 1963            Gabriel J. Sylliboy            (b. 1874 – d. 1963)
                             (acting to 1 Aug 1919)
Jun 1964 - 25 Aug 1991     Donald Marshall                (b. 1925 – d. 1991)
Sep 1991 -                 Benjamin "Ben" Sylliboy
                             (acting to 1992
Chiefs of Eskasoni (title: Saqmaw)
1958 – 19..                ....
bf.1963 - c.1965           Charlie Francis
1966 – af.1969             Lawrence Paul
1970 - c.1976              Dan K. Stevens
1978 – 1980                Allison M. Bernard (1st time)  (b. 1941 – d. 2007)
1980 – 1982                ....
1982 – 2000                Allison M. Bernard (2nd time)  (s.a.)
2000 - 2006                Blair Stephen Francis
2006 – Feb 2010            Charles Joe Dennis
Nov 2010 -                 Leroy D.C. Denny               (b. 1976)



Muskeg Lake Cree

[Muskeg Lake Cree
                Nation (Canada)]

1876                       Kitowehow Reserve established for the Kitowehow Band by the
                             Treaty No. 6 in present-day Saskatchewan.
1880                       Petequakey Band and Reserve.
1920                       Muskeg Lake Band and Reserve.
1970's                     Muskeg Lake Cree Nation.

Chiefs
1876 - 1880                Alexandre Cayen (Kitowehow)    (b. 1834 - d. 1886)
1880 - 1889                Isidore Cayen (Petequakey)     (b. 1845 - d. 1889)
1889 - 1900                Vacant
1900 - 1914                Jean Baptiste Lafond           (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
1915 - 1917                George H. Greyeyes             (b. 1875 - d. 1917)
1917 - 1920                Vacant
1920 - 1932                Andrew Lafond                  (b. 1880 - d. 1952)
1933 - 1956                Joseph Ledoux                  (b. 1877 - d. 1956)
1956 - 1958                Emile Venne                    (b. 1918 - d. 1999)
1958 - 1959                David Georges Greyeyes         (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
1959 - 1960                Louis O. "Meskanas" Arcand     (b. 1898 - d. 1992)
                             (acting)
1960 - 1962                Alphonsine "Alpha" Lafond (f)  (b. 1926)
1962 - 1964                Joseph Greyeyes                (b. 1905 - d. 1990)
1964 - 1972                Frederick "Sonny" Lafond       (b. 1931 - d. 1989)
                             (1st time) 
1972 - 1974                Richard "Dickie" Greyeyes      (b. 1930)
1974 - 1978                Frederick "Sonny" Lafond       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1978 - 1982                Leonard Ledoux                 (b. 1943)
1982 - 1989                Wallace Tawpisim               (b. 1951)
1989 - 1990                David Lafond (acting)
1990 - 2000                Harry James Lafond             (b. 1949)
2000 - 2009                Gilbert Ledoux
2009 -                     Clifford Tawpisin, Jr.



Norway House

[Norway House
                Creen Nation (Canada)]

1875                       Local Cree Sign the Treaty No. 5 (Norway House Band).

Chiefs
18.. - 1877                David Rundle
1908                       Sandy Sanders
Nov 1971 - c.1975          Jean Folster (f)               (b. 1922 - d. 1994)
c.1981 - c.1983            Maggie Balfour
1986 - 1996                Alan James Ross
1996 - Aug 2005            Ronald Evans (1s time)         (b. 1958)
Aug 2005 - 16 Mar 2006     Fred Muskego (acting)
16 Mar 2006 - 2008         Marcel Balfour
Aug 2008 - 2010            Ronald Evans (2nd time)        (s.a.)
30 Mar 2010 - 17 Mar 2011  Eric Apetagon
2011 -                     Ronald Evans (3rd time)        (s.a.)



Peguis
[Peguis Band, Manitoba
                  (Canada)]
                  Adopted 1990's

1817                       Treaty with the British
1871                       St. Peter's Reserve established for the St. Peter's Band 
                             by Treaty No. 1 in Manitoba.
1909                       Renamed Peguis Band.

Chiefs
1791 - 1864                William King (Peehquaais)      (b. 1774 - d. 1864)
1864 - 1882                Henry Prince (Miskookeenew) 
                             (1st time)
1882 - 1888                William Prince (1st time)
1888 - 1891                Henry Prince (2nd time)
1891 - 1897                William Asham
1897 - 1902                Henry Prince (3rd time)
1902 - 1911                William Prince (2nd time)
1911 - 1917                Albert Rose
1917 - 1923                William Pahkoo
1923 - 1926                Thomas John Stevenson
1926 - 1929                Fred Thomas
1929 - 1932                Alex Greyeyes
1932 - 1935                Robert Sinclair
1935 - 1941                Nathaniel Asham (1st time)
1941 - 1944                Albert Edward Prince
1944 - 1947                Alex Williams                  (d. 1947)
1947 - 1953                Nathaniel Asham (2nd time)
1953 - 1955                Alex Sinclair
1955 - 1961                Campbell Sutherland
1961 - 1973                Albert Edward Thompson         (d. 1973)
1973 - 1981                Jack Sinclair
1981 - 2007                Louis John Stevenson           (b. 1950 - d. 2014)
2007 - 2015                Glenn Hudson
2015 -                     Cindy Spence(f)



Peter Ballantyne

[Peter Ballantyne
                Cree Nation (Canada)]

1895                       Peter Ballantyne and 7 other families of Ballantyne were 
                             paid annuities under James Roberts Band.
1900                       Split from Lac La Ronge Band (Peter Ballantyne Cree).

Chiefs
1911 - 1922                Peter Ballantyne
1922 - 1930                Cornelius Ballantyne (Bear)
1930 - 1939                Joe Highway
1939 - 1948                Solomon Merasty
1948 - 1954                Simon Linklater (1st time)
1954 - 1956                Vacant
1956 - 1957                Simon Linklater (2nd time)
1958 - 1969                Peter Linklater
1969 - 1971                Simon Linklater (3rd time)
1971 - 1973                Arthur Morin
1973 - 1975                Albert Ratt
1975 - 1979                Phillip Morin
1979 - 1985                Joseph Custer
1985 - 1999                Ronald Michel (1st time)
1999 - 2001                Susan (Linklater) Custer (f)
2001 - 2005                Ronald Michel (2nd time)
2005 - 2007                Harold Linklater
2007 - 2013                Darrell McCallum
2013 –                     Peter A. Beatty



Saddle Lake

[Saddle Lake Cree
                Nation (Canada)]

18..                       Onchaminahos and Seenum Bands members of the 
                             Plains Cree Confederacy.
1876                       Signs Treaty No. 6.
1902                       Both bands amalgamated (Saddle Lake Band), but
                             reserves administered separately. 

Chiefs of Saddle Lake (originally Onchaminahos) Band
18.. - 1880                Onchaminahos "Little Hunter"    (b. 1830 - d. 1880)
1880 - c.1924              ....
c.1924 - c.1926            Thomas Makokis                  (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
c.1926 - 1966              ....
1966 - 1969                Ralph Garvin Steinhauer         (b. 1905 - d. 1987)
1969 - 1975                Joe P. Cardinal                 (b. 1921 - d. 2004)
1975 - 1981                ....
1981 - 1984                Henry Quinney

1984 - 1985                Eugene Steinhauer (1st time)    (b. 1928 - d. 1995)
1985 - 1987                Eugene Houle                    (b. 1949 - d. 2012)
1987 - 1989                Eugene Steinhauer (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1989 - 1992                Carl Quinn
c.1994 - c.1997            Eric J. Large
c.1997 - 2001              John Shirt
2001 - 19 Jun 2013         Eddy Makokis
19 Jun 2013 -              Leonard Jackson 

Whitefish Lake

[Whitefish Lake
                First Nation (Canada)]

Chiefs of Whitefish Lake (originally Seenum) Band
1876                       James Seenum (Pakan) "Hard Nut" (b. 1842 - d. 18..)
1902                       John Seenum
1902 - 199.                ....
 6 Oct 1987 - c.1990       Ernest Houle
c.1997 - 1999              Allen Houle
1999 - 2002                Allen J. Makokis
2002 - 20..                Leonard "Tommy" Houle
27 Nov 2011 -              James Jackson       



Samson Cree

[Samson Cree Nation
                (Canada)]

18..                       Mountain Cree Confederacy
1877                       Adherence to the Treaty No. 6 (Bobtail Band).
1879                       Samson Band split from Bobtail Band.
1886                       Bobtail Band dissolved.

Head Chiefs of the Mountain Cree
183. - 184.                Louis Piche (Pesew) "Bobcat" (d. 184.)
184. - 185.                None
185. - 186.                Maskipitonew "Broken Arm"    (b. 1805 - d. 1869)
186. - 1886                Alexis Piche (Kiskiyew) "Bobtail"
                            (from 1877, chief of Bobtail Band)
Chiefs
1879 - 1899                Samson (Kanatakasu)          (d. 1899)
1899 - 1942                Joe Samson
1942 - 1952                James Crane
1952 - 1953                Vacant
1953 - 1955                Baptiste Saddleback
1955 - 1957                John S. Samson (1st time)
1957 - 1959                Felix Buffalo (1st time)
1959 - 1961                John S. Samson (2nd time)
1961 - 1963                Felix Buffalo (2nd time)
1963 - 1965                Harry Rain
1965 - 1969                Jacob Louis
1969 - 1973                Norman Yellowbird
1973 - 1975                Arthur Potts
1975 - 1979                Frank Buffalo
1979 - 1981                Jim Omeasoo (1st time)
1981 - 1983                Victor Buffalo (1st time)
1983 - 1989                Jim Omeasoo (2nd time)
1989 - 1993                Victor Buffalo (2nd time)
1993 - 1996                Terry Buffalo
1996 - 1999                Florence Buffalo (f)
1999 - 2002                Lena Cutknife (f)
2002 - 2008                Victor Buffalo (3rd time)
Feb 2008 - Feb 2014        Marvin Yellowbird
Feb 2014 -                 Kurt Buffalo



Siksika

[Siksika Nation (Canada)]

17..                       Member of the Blackfoot Confederacy
1877                       Signs the Treaty No.7 (Blackfoot Band)
19..                       Renamed Siksika Nation.

Chiefs
1890 - 1...                Neo'kis'tomi "Three Bulls" 
18.. - 1890                Isapo-Muxika "Crowfoot" (head chief)(b. 1830 - d. 1890)
1890? - 1900?              Calf Bull (appointed by Indian Agent)
- West Side -
1900 - 1905                Old Sun

1905 - 1912                Running Rabbit                      (b. c.1833 - d.1912)
-East Side -  
1900 - 1912                Iron Shield                         (b. 18.. - d. 1912)

Head Chiefs
1912 - 192.                Yellow Horse
192. - 1950                Duck Chief
1950 - 1958                Joseph Crowfoot (1st time)
1958 - 1964                Clarence McHugh
1964 - 1968                Joseph Crowfoot (2nd time)
1968 - 1972                Percy Yellow Fly
1972 - 1980                Leo (Pretty) Young Man (1st time)
1980 - 1982                Roy Little Chief
1982 - 1988                Leo (Pretty) Young Man (2nd time?)
1988 - 1995                Strater J. Crowfoot
1995 - 1997                Robert Ryan Breaker, Jr.
1997 - 2000                Darlene Yellow Old Woman-Munro (f)  (b. 1953)
2000 – 2006                Adrian Stimson, Sr.
2007 – 2010                Leroy Good Eagle
2010 - 2013                Fred Rabbit Carrier
Nov 2013 -                 Vincent Yellow Old Woman



Six Nations of the Grand River

[Six Nations flag
                (Canada)]

1784                       Settlement (Grand River) by the pro-British emigrants (majority
                             Mohawk and Cayuga) of the Six Nations confederacy (in Mohawk:
                             Rotinonshonni "Longhouse People") from the New York State, U.S.
                            (see also Cayuga, Oneida of New York, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora;
                             in the U.S.), governed by the Great Council of the confederacy
                            (50 lineages of titled/named life chiefs of five original nations,
                             added by non-voting chiefs of Tuscarora and of three allied
                             nations: Delaware, Nanticoke, Tutelo [latter two extinct
                             respectively by c.1900 and c.1850]).
1792 – 1969                Six Nations (1832 - 1891, Grand River) Indian Superintendency
                             established.
1793                       Formal British patent to the land grant issued to the Six Nations.
1847                       Six Nations Reserve (from 1988, referred also to as the Six Nations
                             of the Grand River Territory) organized; the Councils of Chiefs
                             of the individual nations abolished.
1900                       Official publication of the oral constitution of the Six Nations 
                             confederacy (in Mohawk: Kaianere’ko:wa "Great Peace"), the
                             first time written down in 1880.
Mar 1924                   Six Nations unsuccessfully apply for the membership in the League
                             of Nations (under the name of the Hodenosaunee Confederation of
                             the Grand River).
22 Oct 1924                Six Nations of the Grand River Band Council imposed by Canada
                             (the Council is single government of 13 separate bands: Bay
                             of Quinte Mohawk, Bearfoot Onondaga, Delaware, Konadaha Seneca,
                             Lower Cayuga, Lower Mohawk, Ninarondasa Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga
                             Clear Sky, Tuscarora, Upper Cayuga, Upper Mohawk, Walker Mohawk);
                             the Confederacy Council continues (to the late 20th century in
                             opposition) with no recognition by Canada.
 5 Mar 1959 - 13 Mar 1959  Confederacy chiefs take over the reserve, declare the elected
                             Band Council dissolved.
24 Jun 1970 - 10 Jul 1970  Supporters of the Confederacy chiefs seize the Council House,
                             following the Iroquois Declaration of Independence of Nov 1969.


First chiefs of Onondaga
(by precedence; title/name: Thadoda:ho;
ceremonial chair of the Great Council)
bf.1812 - af.1858          Rawenerse "The Echo"
1870 – 1904                Nicholas Gibson                (d. 1904)
1904 – 1961                Joseph Logan, Sr.              (b. 1878 - d. 1961)
                            (from 1924, not recognized by Canada; last Thadoda:ho in Canada)

Chief Councillors

22 Oct 1924 -  5 Nov 1925  Hilton M. Hill
 5 Nov 1925 -  3 Nov 1927  Archie Russell
 3 Nov 1927 –  2 Nov 1933  Frank Miller (1st time)
 2 Nov 1933 –  1 Nov 1934  William Smith (1st time)
 1 Nov 1934 –  7 Nov 1935  Frank Miller (2nd time)
 7 Nov 1935 –  5 Nov 1936  William Smith (2nd time)
 5 Nov 1936 -  1 Nov 1945  Frank Miller (3rd time)
 1 Nov 1945 -  7 Nov 1946  Fred J. Hill
 7 Nov 1946 -  6 Nov 1947  Enos Maracle
 6 Nov 1947 - Nov 1949     Leonard Staats                 (b. 1903 – d. 1967)
Nov 1949 - Nov 1950        Arnold Moses
Nov 1950 - Jan 1952        Edward P. Garlow
Chiefs (often referred to as the Chief councillors until c.1994)
Jan 1952 - Jan 1956        James S. Powless
Jan 1956 - Jan 1958        Clifford E. Styres
Jan 1958 - Jan 1962        Edward P. Garlow (2nd time)
Jan 1962 -  2 Mar 1967     George D. Van Every
 2 Mar 1967 - Dec 1978     Richard Isaac
Dec 1978 - Jan 1980        Renson Jamieson
Jan 1980 - 17 Dec 1985     Wellington C. Staats (1st time)(b. 1932 - d. 2014)
 7 Jan 1986 - 17 Dec 1991  William "Bill" K. Montour      (b. 1941)
                             (1st time)
 7 Jan 1992 -  5 Dec 1995  Steve Williams
19 Dec 1995 - 20 Nov 2001  Wellington C. Staats (2nd time)(s.a.)
 4 Dec 2001 -  6 Dec 2004  Roberta L. Jamieson (f)        (b. 1953)
 7 Dec 2004 -  3 Dec 2007  David M. General
 4 Dec 2007 -  3 Dec 2013  William "Bill" K. Montour      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 3 Dec 2013 -              Gail Ava Hill (f)              (b. 1950)


Speakers of Six Nations (chief executives; nation affiliation in parentheses)
1858 – 1871                John Smoke Johnson (Mohawk)    (b. 1792 – d. 1886)
1871 – 1892                Nicholas H. Burning (Mohawk)
1892 – 1898                Chief David Hill (Seneca)
1898                       Alexander G. Smith (1st time)
                             (Mohawk)
1898 – 1903                Chief Elias Lewis (Mohawk)
1903 – 1916                John Charles Martin (Mohawk)
1916 – 1917                Chief Alexander G. Smith (2nd time)
                             (Mohawk)
1917 – 1918                Chief William D. Loft (Mohawk)  (b. 1858 – d. 1943)
1918 – 1922                Chief Andrew Staats (Mohawk)
1922 – 1924                Chief Levi General (Cayuga)     (b. 1873 – d. 1925)
                             (in 1923 left for Europe)
1923 – 1945                Chauncey Garlow (Mohawk)        (b. 1878 – d. 1945)
                            (to 1924, acting for General; from 1924, not recognized by Canada)

British (from 1867, Canadian) Superintendents (to 1792, Deputy Superintendents)
1775 – 1778                John Butler (1st time)          (b. 1728 – d. 1796)
                             (acting to 1776)
1778 – 1787                Christian Daniel Claus          (b. 1727 – d. 1787)
1787 – 1796                John Butler (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1796 – 1826                William Claus                   (b. 1765 – d. 1826)
1826 – 1828                James Givins                    (b. 1759 – d. 1846)
1828 – 1832                Chief John Brant                (b. 1794 – d. 1832)
1832 – 1845                James Winniett                  (b. 1777 – d. 1849)
1845 – 1862                David Thorburn                  (b. 1790 – d. 1862)
1862 – 1891                Jasper Tough Gilkison
1891 – 1906                Edwin D. Cameron
1906 – 1924                Gordon J. Smith
1924 – 1935                Cecil E. Morgan
1935 – 1953                E.P. Randle



Stoney Nakoda

[St'at'imc (Stoney
                Nakoda) Nation, Alberta (Canada)]

18..                       Members of the Mountain Cree Confederacy.
1877                       Signs the Treaty No. 7 (Stoney Nakoda Band), three
                             (Bearspaw, Chiniki and Wesley) amalgamated bands
                             administered separately.
1968                       Joint Band Council established.

Chiefs of Bearspaw Band
1877 - 1903                Jacob Bearspaw (Maskwaahsid)   (b. c.1837 - d. 1903)
1912 - 1916                George MacLean                 (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
1917 - 1956                David Bearspaw
1956 - 19..                Jonas Rider?
1961 - 1963                Frank Kaquitts                 (b. 1925 - d. 2002)
1963 - 1966                Tom Two Young Man (1st time)
1966 - 1968                Bill MacLean (1st time)
1968 - 1971                Tom Two Young Man (2nd time)
1971 - 1973                Bill MacLean (2nd time)
1973 - 1975                ....
1975 - 1978                Bill MacLean (3rd time)
1978 - 1984                Bill Ear
1984 - 1986                Una Wesley (f) (1s time)
1986 - 1988                Dandy Amos
1988 - 1990?               Una Wesley (f) (2nd time)
199. - 1996                Harvey Baptiste
1996 - 1998                Philomene Stephens (f)
1998 - c.2003              Darcy Lee Dixon (1st time)
c.2005 - c.2007            John Ear
2008 - 2011                David Bearspaw, Jr.
2011 -                     Darcy Lee Dixon (2nd time)

Chiefs of Chiniki Band
bf.1877 - 1906             John Chiniki (Cheneki)
1906 - 1911                Jonas Two Young Man
1912 - 1922                Tom Chiniki
1922 - 1932                Hector Crawler (Calf Child)
1933 - 1960                Jacob Two Young Man
1960 - 1962                Daniel Wildman
1965 - c.1966              George Labelle (1st time)
1973 - 1975                Frank Kaquitts (1st time)
c.1978                     Alvin Two Young Man (1st time)
c.1981 - 1984              Frank Powderface
1984 - 1986                Frank Kaquitts (2nd time)
1986 - 1988?               Alvin Two Young Man (2nd time)
c.1988 - c.1989            George Labelle (2nd time)
c.1991 - 1996              Ken Soldier
1996 - 1998                Henry Holloway
1998 - 2002                Paul Chiniquay
2002 - 2006?               Aaron Young
2006 -                     Bruce Labelle

Chiefs of Wesley (originally Goodstoney) Band
1877 - 1885                Jacob Goodstoney (Kichipwot)
1885 - 189?                Jonas Goodstoney
1891? - 1935               Peter Wesley (Moosekiller)     (d. 1935)
1935 - 1938                Amos Bigstoney
1938? - 1949               Enos Hunter                    (d. 1949)
1949 - 1955                Tom Snow
1967 - 1968                Tom Kaquitts
1968 - 1992                John Snow                      (b. 1933)
1992 - 1996                Ernest Wesley (1st time)
1996 - 2002                John Snow, Jr.
2002 - 2006                Ernest Wesley (2nd time)
2006 - 2011                Clifford Poucette
Jan 2011 -                 Ernest Wesley (3rd time)


Tsuu T'ina

[Tsuu T'ina
                      First Nation (Canada)

Chiefs
c.1877 - 1911              Bull Head                      (b. 1833 - d. 1911)
1912 - 1920                Big Belly                      (d. 1920)
1920 - 1946                Joseph "Joe" Big Plume
1946 - 1953                David Crowchild                (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
1953 - c.1965              James "Jim" Starlight
1968 - 1976                Gordon Crowchild               (b. 1929 - d. 2015)
c.1978 - 1984              Clifford Big Plume (1st time)
1984 - 1986                Roy Whitney (1st time)
1986 - 1988?               Clifford Big Plume (2nd time)
1988 - 2001                Roy Whitney (2nd time)
2002 - 2012                Sandford Big Plume
2012 -                     Roy Whitney (3rd time)



Whapmagoostui
 
[Whapmagoostui
                  First Nation (Canada)]

Chiefs

1975 - 1977                Joseph Petagumskum
1977 - 1985                Robbie Dick (1st time)
1985 - 1987                Isaac Masty
1987 - 1992                Robbie Dick (2nd time)  
1994 - 2000                Matthew Mukash
2000 - 2006                David Masty (1st time)
2006 - 2009                Losty Mamianskum
2009 -
                    David Masty (2nd time)








© Ben Cahoon