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Falkland Islands
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
1 Apr 1767 - Feb 1811
[Argentina State flag,
                                    1818-2010]
1820 - 3 Jan 1833
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
3 Jan 1833 - 1876
[Falkland Islands Flag 1876
                                    1948]
 1876 - 29 Sep 1948
 
[Falkland Islands Flag 1925
                                    -1948 (de facto not used)]
16 Oct 1925 - 29 Sep 1948 (de facto not used)
 
[Falkland Islands,
                                    1948-1999]
29 Sep 1948 - 2 Apr 1982;
14 Jun 1982 - 25 Jan 1999
[Argentina State flag,
                                    1818-2010]
2 Apr 1982 - 14 Jun 1982
[Falkland
                                    Islands]
Adopted 25 Jan 1999

Map of the Falkland Islands
 Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen" 
 Hear Local Anthem
"Song of the Falklands"
(unofficial)
Constitution Order
(1 Jan 2009)
--------------------------------

Former Constitution Order

(3 Oct 1985 - 1 Jan 2009)
Capital: Stanley
(formerly Port Stanley)
(Puerto Argentino Apr-Jun 1982;
Port Jackson 1843-Jul 1845;
Puerto Luis 1829-1843;
Puerto Soledad 1767-1829;
Fort St. Louis 1764-1767)
Currency: British Pound
(GBP); and from 1901
 Falkland Islands
Pound
(FKP) 
National Holiday: 14 Jun (1982)
Liberation Day
Population: 3,198 (2016)
GDP: $281.8 million (2012) 
Exports: $246 million (2016)
Imports: $82.5 million (2016)
Ethnic groups: Falkland Islander 48.3%, British 23.1%,
St. Helenian 7.5%, Chilean 4.6%, mixed 6%, other 8.5%,
unspecified 2% (2016)
Total Active U.K. Armed Forces: 1,200 (2015)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.K.
Merchant marine: 3 ships (2017) 
Religions: Christian (mainly Anglican, some Roman
 Catholic) 57.1%,  other 1.6%, none 35.4%,
unspecified 5.9% (2016)
International Organizations/Treaties: UPU, WMO
Falkland Islands
Index
Chronology
14 Aug 1592                First confirmed sighting of the islands by
                             English Capt. John Davis (Davis' Land).
  2 Feb 1594                English navigator Richard Hawkins claims the
                             islands for England and names them "Hawkins
                             Maydenlande" (or Hawkins' Maidenland).
27 Jan 1600                First accurate charting of islands by Dutch Capt.
                             Sebald de Weerdt.
1675                       Dutchman Frederik de Wit produces a map showing
                             Falklands shown as "Sybold de Waerde Eylanden."
 1 Feb 1690                First confirmed landing by English Capt. John 
                             Strong at Bald Cove.
1702                       Edmund Halley publishes a revision of his map with
                             the archipelago first named the Falkland Islands.
23 Dec 1708                Named "Falkland's Land" by Capt. Woode Rogers.
1722                       A new French map by Guillaume Delisle refers to
                             the islands as Les Îles Malouines.
 5 Apr 1764                French settlement on East Falkland (Fort St. Louis)
22 Jan 1765                Capt. John Byron (b. 1723 - d. 1786) aboard HMS
                             Dolphin takes takes possession of West Falkland
                             for U.K. based on prior Richard Hawkins claim.
 8 Jan 1766                British settlement on West Falkland (Port Egmont,
                             Falkland Islands).
 1 Apr 1767                French transfer their settlement to Spain
                             (Puerto de Soledad), named Islas Malvinas.
20 May 1774                British garrison withdrawn. U.K. continues to claim
                             sovereignty over all the Falkland Islands.
13 May 1811                Spanish garrison withdraws.
  9 Jul 1816                Independence of United Provinces of the Río de la
                             Plata declared, did not formally claim islands.
 6 Nov 1820                Capt. David Jewett aboard the Heroina takes
                             possession for the United Provinces of the Río de
                             la Plata, but not acknowledged by Buenos Aires.
  9 Jun 1826                Puerto Luis/Port Louis settlement re-established
                             by Frenchman Louis Vernet who obtains a grant to
                             the Falkland Islands from the United Provinces of
                             the Río de la Plata (later Vernet also obtains
                             British acknowledgement of his grant 3 Jan 1826).
10 Jun 1829                First public act claiming the islands by Province
                             Buenos of Aires (protested by British on 19 Nov
                             1829 and 28 Sep 1832).
28 Dec 1831                U.S. Commander Silas Duncan on the U.S.S. Lexington
                             destroys Port Louis (in response to Vernet
                             seizing three American ships).
20 Dec 1832                British Capt. Onslow on H.M.S Clio visits Falklands
                             and reiterates British sovereignty.
 3 Jan 1833                British remove the Argentine settlement.
 9 Jan 1834                British occupation.
 2 Jan 1842                British civil administration begun.
 6 Mar 1892                British crown colony (Falkland Islands).
21 Jul 1908 -  3 Mar 1962  South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands and
                             Graham Land in Antarctica a Falklands dependency
21 Jul 1908 -  3 Oct 1985  South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands a
                             dependency of the Falklands.
 2 Apr 1982 - 14 Jun 1982  Occupied by Argentina (Islas Malvinas).
11 Mar 2013                Referendum votes 99.8% to remain a British
                             territory.
West Falkland
(1765-1774)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors (to 1774 of East Falkland only)
 
5 Apr 1764 - 1767         Michel François Bougainville de  
                             Nerville 
 2 Apr 1767 - 23 Jan 1773  Felipe Ruíz Puente                
(b. 1724 - d. 1779)
23 Jan 1773 -  5 Jan 1774  Domingo Chauri (interim)           (b. 1722 - d. ....)
 5 Jan 1774 -  1 Feb 1777  Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos   (b. 1736 - d. 1809)
Commandant-governors
 1 Feb 1777 - 22 Nov 1779  Ramón de Carassa y Sousa
(interim) (b. 1740 - d. ....)
22 Nov 1779 - 26 Feb 1781  Salvador de Medina y Juan          (b. 1755 - d. ....)
26 Feb 1781 -  1 Apr 1783  Jacinto Mariano del Carmen         (b. 1754 - d. 1787)
                             Altolaguirre
 1 Apr 1783 - 28 Jun 1784  Fulgencio Montemayor               (b. 1745 - d. ....)
28 Jun 1784 - 15 May 1785  Agustín Figueroa
15 May 1785 - 25 May 1786  Ramón de Clairac y Villalonga      (b. 1748 - d. 1814)
                             (1st time)
25 May 1786 - 15 May 1787  Pedro de Mesa y Castro (1st time)  (b. 1752 - d. ....)
15 May 1787 - 10 Apr 1788  Ramón de Clairac y Villalonga      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
10 Apr 1788 - 16 May 1789  Pedro de Mesa y Castro (2nd time)  (s.a.)
16 May 1789 - 30 Jun 1790  Ramón de Clairac y Villalonga      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
30 Jun 1790 -  1 Mar 1791  Juan José de Elizalde y Ustariz
                             (1st time)
 1 Mar 1791 -  1 Mar 1792  Pedro Pablo Sanguineto (1st time)  (b. 1760 - d. 1806)
 1 Mar 1792 -  1 Feb 1793  Juan José de Elizalde y Ustariz
                             (2nd time)
 1 Feb 1793 - Apr 1794     Pedro Pablo Sanguineto (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Apr 1794 - 15 Jun 1795     José de Aldana y Ortega (1st time) (b. 1758 - d. af.1818)
15 Jun 1795 - 15 Mar 1796  Pedro Pablo Sanguineto (3rd time)  (s.a.)
15 Mar 1796 - 20 Feb 1797  José de Aldana y Ortega (2nd time) (s.a.)
20 Feb 1797 - 17 Mar 1798  Luis de Medina y Torres (1st time) (b. c.1754 - d. af.1815)
17 Mar 1798 - Apr 1799     Francisco Xavier de Viana y        (b. 1764 - d. 1820) 
                             Alzaíbar (1st time)
Apr 1799 - 15 Mar 1800     Luis de Medina y Torres (2nd time) (s.a.)
15 Mar 1800 - 31 Mar 1801  Francisco Xavier de Viana y        (s.a.) 
                             Alzaíbar (2nd time)
31 Mar 1801 - 17 Mar 1802  Ramón Fernández de Villegas
17 Mar 1802 - Feb 1803     Bernardo de Bonavía (1st time)     (b. 1745 - d. 1819)
Feb 1803 - 21 Mar 1804     Antonio Leal de Ibarra y Oxinando  (b. 1766 - d. 1826)
                             (1st time)
21 Mar 1804 - 21 Mar 1805  Bernardo de Bonavía (2nd time)     (s.a.)
21 Mar 1805 - 20 Mar 1806  Antonio Leal de Ibarra y Oxinando  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
20 Mar 1806 - Aug 1808     Bernardo de Bonavía (3rd time)     (s.a.)
Aug 1808 - Jan 1810        Gerardo Bordas                     (b. 1757 - d. 18..)
Jan 1810 - 13 Feb 1811     Pablo Guillén Martínez             (b. 1780 - d. 1839)
13 Feb 1811 -  2 Feb 1824  Vacant
 
6 Nov 1820 - Feb 1821     David Jewett (commander)           (b. 1772 - d. 1842)
 
2 Feb 1824 - Aug 1824     Pablo Areguatí
                    (b. 1780 - d. 1831)
                            
(military commandant)
Governors

10 Jun 1829 - 10 Sep 1832  Louis Élie Vernet                  (b. 1791 - d. 1871)
10 Sep 1832 - 10 Oct 1832 
Vacant
10 Oct 1832 - 30 Nov 1832
  Juan Esteban Francisco Mestivier   (d. 1832)
                            
(Joseph François Etienne Mestivier)
                             (military and civil commander)
30 Nov 1832 - 29 Dec 1832  José Antonio Gomila 
                             (garrison commander) 
29 Dec 1832 -  3 Jan 1833  José María Pinedo                  (
b. 1795 - d. 1885)
                             (garrison commander)  
 3 Jan 1833 - 26 Aug 1833  Juan (Jean) Simón
(acting)         (b. 1802 - d. 1833)
                             (political and military commander) 
Mar 1833 - 26 Aug 1833     Matthew Brisbane (superintendent)  (b. 1797 - d. 1833)
Resident Naval officers-in-charge

20 Dec 1832 -  5 Jan 1833  John James Onslow                  (b. 1785 - d. 1856)
                             (British commander)
 
5 Jan 1833 - 26 Aug 1833  William Dickson                    (b. 1805 - d. 1833)
                             (British representative)
 9 Jan 1834 - 30 Nov 1837  Henry Smith
                       (b. 1797 - d. 1854)
30 Nov 1837 - Aug 1839     Robert Lowcay                      (b. 1792 - d. 1853)
Aug 1839 - 23 Dec 1839     William Robinson (acting)
23 Dec 1839 - 22 Jan 1842  John Tyssen                        (b. 1811 - d. 1893)
Governors
(from 1962-1990 also High Commissioners of British Antarctic Territory;
and from 1985 also Commissioners for South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands)
22 Jan 1842 -  6 Jul 1848  Richard Clement Moody              (b. 1813 - d. 1887)
                             (lieutenant governor to 28 Nov 1843)

 
6 Jul 1848 -  4 Nov 1855  George Rennie                      (b. 1802 - d. 1860)
 
4 Nov 1855 - 22 Nov 1862  Thomas Edward Laws Moore           (b. 1819 - d. 1872)
22 Nov 1862 - 24 Jun 1866  James George Mackenzie             (b. 1803? - d. 1879)
24 Jun 1866 -  5 Apr 1870  William Cleaver Francis Robinson   (b. 1834 - d. 1897)
 
6 Apr 1870 - 30 Apr 1876  George Abbas Kooli D'Arcy          (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
30 Apr 1876 - 15 May 1878  Jeremiah Thomas Fitzgerald         (b. 1827 - d. 1881)
                             Callaghan (1st time)
15 May 1878 - 20 Dec 1878  Arthur Bailey (acting)             (b. 1818 - d. 1883)
20 Dec 1878 -  6 Apr 1880  Jeremiah Thomas Fitzgerald         (s.a.)
                             Callaghan (2nd time)
 6 Apr 1880 - 24 Nov 1880  Robert Christopher Packe (acting)  (b. 1824 - d. 1893)

24 Nov 1880 -  3 Mar 1886  Thomas Kerr (1st time)             (b. 1818 - d. 1907)
 
3 Mar 1886 - 16 Dec 1886  Arthur Cecil Stuart Barkly         (b. 1843 - d. 1890)
                            
(acting)
16 Dec 1886 - 31 Jul 1889  Thomas Kerr (2nd time)             (s.a.)

31 Jul 1889 - 19 Feb 1890  Edward Pakenham Brooks (acting)    (b. 1849 - d. 1896)
19 Feb 1890 - 28 Mar 1891  Thomas Kerr (3rd time)             (s.a.)
28 Mar 1891 - 13 Apr 1891  Frederick Shedden Sanguinetti      (b. 1847 - d. 1906)

                             (acting)
13 Apr 1891 - 13 Apr 1893  Sir Roger Tuckfield Goldsworthy    (b. 1839 - d. 1900)
                            
(1st time)
13 Apr 1893 - 14 Oct 1893  George Melville (acting)           (b. 1842 - d. 1924)
14 Oct 1893 - 18 Jul 1894  Sir Roger Tuckfield Goldsworthy    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
18 Jul 1894 -  4 Nov 1894  Thomas A. Thompson (acting)
 4 Nov 1894 - 17 Apr 1897  Sir Roger Tuckfield Goldsworthy    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
17 Apr 1897 - 20 Oct 1897  Fred Craigie-Halkett (acting)      (b. 1852 - d. 1899)

20 Oct 1897 -  1 May 1902  William Grey-Wilson (1st time)     (b. 1852 - d. 1926)
 
1 May 1902 -  1 Nov 1902  William Hart Bennett (1st time)    (b. 1861 - d. 1918)
                             (acting)
 1 Nov 1902 - 22 Jun 1904  William Grey-Wilson (2nd time)     (s.a.)
22 Jun 1904 -  1 Sep 1904  William Hart Bennett (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)

 
1 Sep 1904 - 24 Apr 1907  William Lamond Allardyce (1st time)(b. 1861 - d. 1930)
24 Apr 1907 - 25 Sep 1907  Henry Eugene Walter Grant (acting) (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
25 Sep 1907 - 29 Dec 1909  William Lamond Allardyce (2nd time)(s.a.)
29 Dec 1909 - 15 Dec 1910  Thomas Alexander Varis Best        (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
15 Dec 1910 - 21 Apr 1913  William Lamond Allardyce (3rd time)(s.a.)
21 Apr 1913 - 30 Apr 1914  John Quayle Dickson (acting)       (b. 1860 - d. 1944)
30 Apr 1914 -  2 Apr 1915  William Lamond Allardyce (4th time)(s.a.)
 2 Apr 1915 - 15 May 1915  Claude Forlong Condell (acting)    (b. 1865 - d. 1922)

15 May 1915 - 27 Sep 1919  William Douglas Young              (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
                             (from 27 Jun 1919, Sir William Douglas Young) 
27 Sep 1919 -  1 Apr 1920  Thomas Reginald St. Johnston       (b. 1881 - d. 1950)
                             (acting)
 
1 Apr 1920 - 25 Dec 1920  William Paulin Martin (acting)
25 Dec 1920 - 
1 Jun 1923  John Middleton (1st time)          (b. 1870 - d. 1954) 
                             (from 3 Jun 1924, Sir John Middleton)
 1 Jun 1923 –  8 May 1924  Herbert Henniker Heaton (acting)   (b. 1880 - d. 1961)
 
8 May 1924 -  9 May 1926  John Middleton (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 9 May 1926 - 21 Apr 1927  Alexander Elder Beattie (acting)   (b. 1888 - d. 1951)

21 Apr 1927 -  8 Jun 1927  John Medlicott Ellis (acting)      (b. 1895 - d. 19..)
 
9 Jun 1927 - 11 Jun 1928  Sir Arnold Wienholt Hodson         (b. 1881 - d. 1944)
                             (1st time)
11 Jun 1928 -  9 Jan 1929
  John Medlicott Ellis (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)

 9 Jan 1929 -  3 Feb 1931  Sir Arnold Wienholt Hodson         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 3 Feb 1931 - 20 Jun 1931  John Medlicott Ellis (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
20 Jun 1931 - 11 Feb 1934  Sir James O'Grady                  (b. 1866 - d. 1934)

11 Feb 1934 - 10 Feb 1935  John Medlicott Ellis (acting)      (b. 1895 - d. 1949)
10 Feb 1935 - 28 Jan 1941  Sir Herbert Henniker Heaton        (s.a.)

28 Jan 1941 - 26 Jul 1946  Allan Wolsey Cardinall             (b. 1887 - d. 1956) 
                             (from 1 Jan 1943, Sir Allan Wolsey Cardinall)
                             (acting to 8 Feb 1941
)
26 Jul 1946 – 26 Nov 1946  Arnold Burnett Mathews (acting)    (b. 1898 - d. 19..)
26 Nov 1946 -  9 Mar 1954  Geoffrey Miles Clifford            (b. 1897 - d. 1986) 

                             (from 9 Jun 1949, Sir Geoffrey Miles Clifford)
 
9 Mar 1954 - 31 Mar 1954  Colin Campbell (acting)            (b. 1918 - d. 1997)
 1 Apr 1954 - 28 Feb 1957  Oswald Raynor Arthur               (b. 1905 - d. 1973)

28 Feb 1957 - 11 May 1964  Edwin Porter Arrowsmith            (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
                             (from 13 Jun 1959, Sir Edwin Porter Arrowsmith)
14 May 1959 - 27 Oct 1959  Aubrey Gordon Denton-Thompson      (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
                             (acting for absent Arrowsmith)
11 May 1964 -  9 Oct 1964  Willoughby Harry Thompson (acting) (b. 1919 - d. 2018)
 
9 Oct 1964 - 27 Sep 1970  Cosmo Dugal Patrick Thomas Haskard (b. 1916 - d. 2017)
                             (from 23 Oct 1964, Sir Cosmo Dugal Patrick Thomas Haskard)
27 Sep 1970 -  8 Jan 1971  John Ashley Jones (acting)
 8 Jan 1971 - 20 Jan 1975  Sir Ernest Gordon Lewis            (b. 1918 - d. 2006)

27 Jan 1975 -  2 Dec 1976  Sir Neville Arthur Irwin French    (b. 1920 - d. 1996)
16 Dec 1976 - 31 Jan 1980  Sir James Roland Walter Parker     (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
27 Feb 1980 -  2 Apr 1982  Rex Masterman Hunt (1st time)      (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
Argentine Military Governors
 2 Apr 1982 -  3 Apr 1982  Osvaldo Jorge García (interim)     (b. 1949 - d. 1982)
 
3 Apr 1982 - 14 Jun 1982  Mario Benjamín Menéndez            (b. 1930 - d. 2015)
Commander of British Forces
14 Jun 1982 - 25 Jun 1982  John Jeremy Moore                  (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
Civil Commissioner
25 Jun 1982 - 16 Oct 1985  Rex Masterman Hunt (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
                             (from 11 Oct 1982, Sir Rex Masterman Hunt) 
Governors
16 Oct 1985 - Nov 1988     Gordon Wesley Jewkes               (b. 1931)
Nov 1988 - 22 Jul 1992     William Hugh Fullerton             (b. 1939)
Aug 1992 - Dec 1995        David Everard Tatham               (b. 1939)
 8 Jan 1996 - 1999         Richard Peter Ralph                (b. 1946)
12 May 1999 - 23 Nov 2002  Donald Alexander Lamont            (b. 1947)
23 Nov 2002 -  3 Dec 2002  Russ Jarvis (acting)
 3 Dec 2002 -  5 Aug 2006  Howard John Stredder Pearce        (b. 1949)
 5 Aug 2006 - 28 Aug 2006  Harriet Hall (f) (acting)
28 Aug 2006 - 18 Sep 2010  Alan Edden Huckle                  (b. 1948)
18 Sep 2010 - 16 Oct 2010  Ric Nye (acting)
16 Oct 2010 - 25 Feb 2014  Nigel Robert Haywood               (b. 1955)
25 Feb 2014 - 27 Feb 2014  Sandra Tyler-Haywood (f) (acting)
27 Feb 2014 - 29 Apr 2014  John Duncan (acting)               (b. 1958)
29 Apr 2014 -
18 Jul 2017  Colin Roberts                      (b. 1959)
18 Jul 2017 - 12 Sep 2017  Richard Alexander "Alex" John      (b. 1975)
                             Mitham (acting)
12 Sep 2017 -              Nigel Phillips                     (b. 1963)


Chief Executives 

Dec 1983 - Apr 1987        David George Pendleton Taylor      (b. 1933 - d. 2007)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
Apr 1987 - May 1988        Brian Cummings                                          Non-party
Jun 1988 - Aug 1988        Colin Frank Redston (acting)       (b. 1939)            Non-party
Aug 1988 - Sep 1988        Rex Browning (acting)                                   Non-party
Sep 1988 - Apr 1989        David George Pendleton Taylor      (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time) (interim)
Apr 1989 -  2 Sep 1994     Ronald Sampson                                          Non-party
 
2 Sep 1994 - Nov 1999     Andrew Murray Gurr                 (b. 1944)            Non-party
Jan 2000 - Mar 2003        Michael Dennis Blanch (1st time)   (b. 1947)            Non-party
Mar 2003 - 12 Sep 2007     Chris John Simpkins                (b. 1952)            Non-party
12 Sep 2007 -  3 Jan 2008  Michael Dennis Blanch (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (interim)
 3 Jan 2008 -  1 Feb 2012  Timothy "Tim" Rupert Thorogood     (b. 1962)            Non-party
 1 Feb 2012 -  3 Oct 2016  Keith Padgett                                           Non-party
                             (interim to 6 Mar 2012)
 3 Oct 2016 -              Barry Alan Rowland                 (b. 1961)            Non-party

Territorial Dispute: Claimed by Argentina (as Islas Malvinas) whose forces briefly occupied 
it in 1982, agreed in 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force; U.K. continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks. 

No Political Parties Exist


West Falkland

[Flag of the United Kingdom]

22 Jan 1765                Capt. John Byron (b. 1723 - d. 1786) aboard HMS Dolphin takes
                             possession of West Falkland for U.K.
 8 Jan 1766                British settlement on West Falkland (Port Egmont).
10 Jun 1770 - 13 Sep 1771  Spanish force British to withdraw.
20 May 1774                British withdraw, but continue to claim sovereignty 
                             over Falklands.

Naval Officers-in-charge
 8 Jan 1766 - Jan 1767     John MacBride                      (b. c.1735 - d. 1800)
Jan 1767 - Feb 1768        John Raynor                        (d. 1799)
11 Feb 1768 -  7 Mar 1770  Anthony Hunt                       (b. 1734 - d. 1796)

Mar 1770 - 10 Jun 1770     George Farmer                      (b. 1732 - d. 1779)
10 Jun 1770 - 16 Apr 1771  Vacant
16 Apr 1771 - 13 Sep 1771  John Stott
13 Sep 1771 - 29 Feb 1773  John Burr 
29 Feb 1773 - 20 May 1774  Samuel Wittewrong Clayton          (b. 1734 - d. 1795)







© Ben Cahoon