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States of Germany since 1918

States  Baden-Württemberg - Bayern (Bavaria) - Berlin - Brandenburg - Bremen - Hamburg - Hessen - Mecklenburg-Vorpommern - Niedersachsen - Nordrhein-Westfalen - Rheinland-Pfalz - Saarland - Sachsen (Saxony) - Sachsen-Anhalt - Schleswig-Holstein - Thüringen - Former States Anhalt - Baden - East Berlin - Braunschweig (Bunswick) - Hannover - Hessen-Pfalz - Lippe(-Detmold) - Lübeck - Mecklenburg-Schwerin - Mecklenburg-Strelitz - Nordrhein - Westfalen - Oldenburg - Prussia - Ruess - Reuss-Gera - Reuss Greiz - Saxe-Altenburg - Saxe-Coburg - Saxe-Gotha - Saxe-Meiningen - Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach - Schaumburg-Lippe - Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt - Schwarzburg-Sondershausen - Waldek-Pyrmont - Württemberg/Württemburg-Baden - Württemberg-Hohenzollern 

Party abbreviations: CDU = Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands (Christian Democratic Union of Germany, christian-democratic, liberal conservative, center-right, est.26 Jun 1945); CSU = Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern (Christian Social Union in Bavaria, christian democratic, christian democratic, conservative, center-right, Bavaria regionalist, est.13 Oct 1945); FDPFreie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party, liberal, centrist, FDP/Demokratische Volkspartei [FDP/DVP] in Baden-Wurttemberg, est.12 Dec 1948); Grn = Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (Alliance '90/The Greens, environmental, center-left, Greens merged 14 May 1993 with Alliance 90, est.13 Jan 1980); Lft = Die Linke (The Left, democratic socialist, est.16 Jun 2007); SPD = Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democratic Party of Germany, social-democratic, Marxist to 1925, 27 May 1875-22 Jun 1933, re-est.Oct 1945); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ADV = Alldeutscher Verband (All-German [or Pan-German] League, nationalist, imperialist, 9 Apr 1891-13 Mar 1939); ASPD = Alte Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Old Social Democratic Party of Germany, Marxist communist, Saxony regionalist, 8 Jun 1926-1 Jul 1932, split from SPD); BCSV = Badische Christlich-Soziale Volkspartei (Baden Christian Social People's Party, christian-democratic, Baden regionalist, 16 Dec 1945-Apr 1947, merged into CDU); BVP = Bayerische Volkspartei (Bavarian People's Party, catholic conservative, Bavarian regionalist, Nov 1918-4 Jul 1933); CVP = Christliche Volkspartei des Saarlandes (Saarland Christian People's Party, christian democratic, Saarland regionalist, 10 Jan 1946-19 Apr 1959, merged into CDU); DDP = Deutsche Demokratische Partei (German Democratic Party, liberal democratic, center-left, 16 Nov 1918-28 Jun 1933); DemP = Demokratische Partei (Democratic Party, liberal, in Baden and Thüringen, 20 Jan 1946-Apr 1948, merged into FDP/DVP); DNVP = Deutschnationale Volkspartei (German National Party, conservative, nationalist, monarchist, split from DKP, 24 Nov 1918-27 Jun 1933, merged into NSDAP); DP = Deutsche Partei (German Party, national conservative, in Niedersachsen 1946-49 as Niedersächsische Landespartei, 1949-1964); DVP = Deutsche Volkspartei (German People's Party, national liberal, moderate nationalist, constitutional monarchist, 15 Dec 1918-4 Jul 1933, merged into NSDAP); FP = Fortschrittspartei (Progressive Party, left-wing liberal); KPD = Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (Communist Party of Germany, communist, 1 Jan 1919-26 May 1933, 11 Jun 1945-21 Apr 1946, merged into SED, banned in West Germany 17 Aug 1956); LDPD = Liberaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, liberal, 5 Jul 1945-11 Aug 1990, from 9 Feb 1990 as Liberaldemokratische Partei, merged 12 Feb 1990 into BFD which on 11 Aug 1990 merged into FDP); MSPD = Mehrheitssozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany, SPD "Burgfriedensfraktion", 8 Apr 1917-Jan 1919); NLP = Nationalliberale Partei (National Liberal Party, liberal, 1866-Nov 1918); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, German nationalist, national socialist, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, 14 Jul 1933-31 May 1945 only legal party, 24 Nov 1920-10 Oct 1945); PDS = Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus (Party of Democratic Socialism, democratic socialist, former SED, 4 Feb 1990-16 Jun 2007, merged into Lft); SED = Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Marxist-Leninist communist, 1949-89 government party, 21 Apr 1946-4 Feb 1990, named SED-PDS Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands-Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus [Socialist Unity Party of Germany-Party of Democratic Socialism] 16 Dec 1989 - 4 Feb 1990, renamed PDS); SPB = Sozialistischen Partei in Baden (Socialist Party in Baden, socialist, Baden regionalist, 1946-Nov 1948); TLB = Thüringer Landbund (Thuringian State Union, nationalist conservative peasant party, Thuringia regionalist, 1920-1933); USPD = Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, democratic socialist, centrist Marxist, pacifist, split from SPD, 6 Apr 1917-1 Nov 1931, merged into Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands [Socialist Workers' Party of Germany]); ZDeutsche Zentrumspartei "Zentrum" (German Center Party "Center", catholic, centrist, christian democratic, 13 Dec 1870-5 Jul 1933)

Note: state flags (and anthems) were abolished 15 Sep 1935 - May 1945.


Alsace-Lorraine (1940-1945): see under France


Anhalt
[Anhalt Civil Flag
                  1919-1935 (Germany)]
                    18 Jul 1919 - 15 Sep 1935 
 
Capital: Dessau
State Anthem
"Dessauer Marsch"
Population: 436,200 (1939)

12 Nov 1918                Free State of Anhalt (Freisaat Anhalt).
 9 Jul 1945                Merged into Sachsen-Anhalt.


Ministers of state
 8 Nov 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Max Gutknecht                      (b. 1876 - d. 1935)  Non-party
14 Nov 1918 - 23 Jul 1919  Wolfgang Heine                     (b. 1861 - d. 1944)  SDP
23 Jul 1919 -  9 Jul 1924  Heinrich Deist (1st time)          (b. 1874 - d. 1962)  SPD
 9 Jul 1924 - 25 Nov 1924  R. Willi Knorr                     (b. 1878 - d. 1937)  DNVP
25 Nov 1924 - 21 May 1932  Heinrich Deist (2nd time)          (s.a.)               SPD
21 May 1932 -  8 Jan 1940  Alfred Freyberg                    (b. 1892 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
 5 May 1933 - 23 Oct 1935  Friedrich Wilhelm Loeper           (b. 1883 - d. 1935)  NSDAP
                             (Reichsstatthalter)
Oct 1935 - 20 Apr 1937     Fritz Sauckel                      (b. 1894 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
                             (acting Reichsstatthalter)
 8 Jan 1940 - Apr 1945     Rudolf Jordan                      (b. 1902 - d. 1988)  NSDAP
                             (also Reichsstatthalter from 20 Apr 1937)



Baden 
[Baden Civil Flag 1918-
                  1935 and 1945-1952 (Baden, Germany)]
                   4 Jan 1921 - 13 Sep 1935;
                      1945 - 25 Apr 1952
Capital: Karlsruhe
(Freiburg 1945-1952)
State Anthem
"Badner Lied" 
(Song of Baden)
Population: 2,502,000 (1939)
Südbaden: 1,197,100 (1951)
 
22 Nov 1918                Republic of Baden
 7 Jul 1945                Divided into two parts: northern part merged into Württemberg-Baden
                             and southern part becomes state of Südbaden.
 2 Dec 1946                Südbaden renamed Baden.
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
25 Apr 1952                Merged into Baden-Württemberg.
State presidents
14 Nov 1918 - 14 Aug 1920  Anton Geiss                        (b. 1858 - d. 1944)  SPD
14 Aug 1920 - 23 Nov 1921  Gustav Josef Ludwig Trunk          (b. 1871 - d. 1936)  Z
                             (1st time) 
23 Nov 1921 - 23 Nov 1922  Hermann Hummel                     (b. 1876 - d. 1952)  DDP
23 Nov 1922 - 23 Nov 1923  Adam Remmele (1st time)            (b. 1877 - d. 1951)  SDP
23 Nov 1923 - 23 Nov 1924  Heinrich Franz Köhler (1st time)   (b. 1878 - d. 1949)  Z
23 Nov 1924 - 23 Nov 1925  Willy Hugo Hellpach                (b. 1877 - d. 1955)  DDP
23 Nov 1925 - 23 Nov 1926  Gustav Josef Ludwig Trunk          (s.a.)               Z
                             (2nd time)
23 Nov 1926 -  3 Feb 1927  Heinrich Franz Köhler (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Z
 3 Feb 1927 - 23 Nov 1927  Gustav Josef Ludwig Trunk          (s.a.)               Z
                             (3rd time) 
23 Nov 1927 - 23 Nov 1928  Adam Remmele (2nd time)            (s.a.)               SPD
23 Nov 1928 - 20 Nov 1930  Franz Josef Schmitt (1st time)     (b. 1874 - d. 1939)  Z
20 Nov 1930 - 10 Sep 1931  Franz Josef Wittemann              (b. 1866 - d. 1931)  Z
18 Sep 1931 - 11 Mar 1933  Franz Josef Schmitt (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Z
11 Mar 1933 -  8 May 1933  Robert Backfisch (= Robert Wagner) (b. 1895 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
                            (from 1933, Robert Wagner)
                            (also Reichskommissar 8-11 Mar 1933 and
                             5 May 1933 - 3 Apr 1945 Reichsstatthalter)
 8 May 1933 - Apr 1945     Walter Köhler                      (b. 1897 - d. 1989)  NSDAP 
State president
 2 Jun 1945 - 30 Nov 1946  State Administration
                           - Paul Hausser                     (b. 1880 - d. 1966)  DP
                           - Karl Ott                         (b. 1873 - d. 1952)  Non-party
                           - Alfred Bund                      (b. 1882 - d. 1975)  BCSV
                           - Friedrich Leibbrandt             (b. 1894 - d. 1960)  SPB
                              (from 1 Jan 1946)
                           - Carl Diez                        (b. 1877 - d. 1969)  BCSV 
                              (from 20 Feb 1946)
                           - Philipp Martzloff                (b. 1880 - d. 1962)  SP
                              (from 20 Feb 1946)
                           - Paul Zürcher                     (b. 1893 - d. 1980)  BCSV 
                              (from 1 Apr 1946) 
                           (president in rotation)
 2 Dec 1946 - 25 Apr 1952  Leo Wohleb                         (b. 1888 - d. 1955) BCSV;Nov 1947
                            (president of the state secretariat to 24 Jul 1947)   CDU


Baden-Württemberg 
[State Flag with Middle
                  Arms (Baden-Württemberg, Germany)]
                      Adopted 29 Sep 1954
Capital: Stuttgart
State Anthem
"Der Reichste Fürst"
(The Richest Prince)
Adopted 1952
Population: 10,879,618 (20151)

25 Apr 1952                Südweststaat (Southwest State) constituted by the merger of
                             Baden, Württemberg-Baden,
and Württemberg-Hohenzollern.
15 May 1952                Land Baden-Württemberg

Minister-presidents
25 Apr 1952 - 30 Sep 1953  Reinhold Otto Maier                (b. 1889 - d. 1971)  FDP/DVP
30 Sep 1953 - 17 Dec 1958  Gebhard Müller                     (b. 1900 - d. 1990)  CDU
17 Dec 1958 -  1 Dec 1966  Kurt Georg Kiesinger               (b. 1904 - d. 1988)  CDU
 
1 Dec 1966 - 16 Dec 1966  Wolfgang Haussmann (acting)        (b. 1903 - d. 1989)  FDP/DVP
16 Dec 1966 - 30 Aug 1978  Hans Karl Filbinger                (b. 1913 - d. 2007)  CDU

30 Aug 1978 - 13 Jan 1991  Lothar Späth                       (b. 1937 - d. 2016)  CDU

13 Jan 1991 - 22 Jan 1991  Gerhard Weiser (acting)            (b. 1931 - d. 2003)  CDU
22 Jan 1991 - 20 Apr 2005  Erwin Teufel                       (b. 1939)            CDU

21 Apr 2005 -  9 Feb 2010  Günther Hermann Oettinger          (b. 1953)            CDU
10 Feb 2010 - 12 May 2011  Stefan Mappus                      (b. 1966)            CDU
12 May 2011 -              Winfried Kretschmann               (b. 1948)            Grn



Bayern (Bavaria)
 
[Bavaria since
                          1878 (Germany)]
14 Aug 1919 - 15 Sep 1935; 
Re-adopted 2 Dec 1946
[Lozengy Civil
                          and State Flag (Bavaria, Germany)]
Adopted 14 Dec 1953 as Co-Flag
 
Capital: Munich
(München)
Hear State Anthem
"Für Bayern" (For Bavaria)
Adopted 2 Apr 1953
Population: 12,930,751 (2016)
8,223,000 (1939)

 8 Nov 1918                People's State of Bavaria
 7 Apr 1919 -  2 May 1919  Bavarian Soviet Republic or Conciliar Republic
                             of Bavaria (Räterepublik Baiern), in rebellion.
15 Sep 1919                Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern).
 8-9 Nov 1923              "Beer Hall" putsch in Munich led by Adolf Hitler.
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Minister-presidents
 8 Nov 1918 - 21 Feb 1919  Kurt Eisner                        (b. 1867 - d. 1919)  USPD 
 4 Mar 1919 - 15 Mar 1919  Martin Segitz (acting)             (b. 1853 - d. 1927)  SDP 
                            (not recognized by provisional assembly) 
15 Mar 1919 - 14 Mar 1920  Johannes Hoffmann                  (b. 1867 - d. 1930)  SPD
                            (in Bamberg 7 Apr - 2 May 1919)
14 Mar 1920 - 16 Mar 1920  Karl Freiherr von Freyberg (acting)(b. 1866 - d. 1940)  BVP
16 Mar 1920 - 21 Sep 1921  Gustav Ritter von Kahr             (b. 1862 - d. 1934)  BVP
21 Sep 1921 -  8 Nov 1922  Hugo Graf von und zu Lerchenfeld   (b. 1871 - d. 1944)  BVP
                             auf Köfering und Schönberg
 8 Nov 1922 - 28 Jun 1924  Eugen Ritter von Knilling          (b. 1865 - d. 1927)  BVP 
26 Sep 1923 - 16 Feb 1924  Gustav Ritter von Kahr             (s.a.)               BVP
                             (Staatskommissar)
27 Sep 1923 - 23 Oct 1923  Otto von Lossow (
Reichskommissar)  (b. 1868 - d. 1938)  Mil
 8 Nov 1923 -  9 Nov 1923  Ernst Pöhner                       (b. 1870 - d. 1925)  NSDAP
                            (appointed by Hitler, in rebellion)
28 Jun 1924 - 16 Mar 1933  Heinrich Held                      (b. 1868 - d. 1938)  BVP
16 Mar 1933 - 12 Apr 1933  Franz Xaver Ritter von Epp         (b. 1868 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
                            (also Reichskommissar 9-16 Mar 1933 and 
                             10 Apr 1933 - 29 Apr 1945 Reichsstatthalter)
12 Apr 1933 -  1 Nov 1942  Ludwig Siebert                     (b. 1874 - d. 1942)  NSDAP
 2 Nov 1942 - 28 Apr 1945  Paul Giesler                       (b. 1895 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
28 May 1945 - 28 Sep 1945  Fritz Schäffer                     (b. 1888 - d. 1967)  BVP
28 Sep 1945 - 21 Dec 1946  Wilhelm Hoegner (1st time)         (b. 1887 - d. 1980)  SPD
21 Dec 1946 - 14 Dec 1954  Hans Ehard (1st time)              (b. 1887 - d. 1980)  CSU
14 Dec 1954 - 16 Oct 1957  Wilhelm Hoegner (2nd time)         (s.a.)               SPD
16 Oct 1957 - 26 Jan 1960  Franz "Hanns" Wendelin Seidel      (b. 1901 - d. 1961)  CSU
26 Jan 1960 - 11 Dec 1962  Hans Ehard (2nd time)              (s.a.)               CSU
11 Dec 1962 -  6 Nov 1978  Alfons Goppel                      (b. 1905 - d. 1991)  CSU
 6 Nov 1978 -  3 Oct 1988  Franz Josef Strauss                (b. 1915 - d. 1988)  CSU
 3 Oct 1988 - 28 May 1993  Max Balthasar Streibl              (b. 1932 - d. 1998)  CSU
                             (acting to 19 Oct 1998)
28 May 1993 -  9 Oct 2007  Edmund Rüdiger Stoiber             (b. 1941)            CSU
 9 Oct 2007 - 27 Oct 2008  Günther Beckstein                  (b. 1943)            CSU
27 Oct 2008 - 13 Mar 2018  Horst Lorenz Seehofer              (b. 1949)            CSU
14 Mar 2018 - 16 Mar 2018  Barbara Stamm (f)                  (b. 1944)            CSU
                           + Ilse Aigner (f)                  (b. 1964)            CSU
                           (acting)
16 Mar 2018 -              Markus Söder                       (b. 1967)            CSU


Bavarian Soviet Republic
 
[Soviet Republic
                of Bavaria 4th April - 2nd May 1919 (Germany)]
             7 Apr 1919 - 2 May 1919

 7 Apr 1919 -  2 May 1919  Bavarian Soviet Republic (or Conciliar) Republic
                             of Bavaria (Räterepublik Baiern), in Munich rebellion.

Chairmen of the Provisional Revolutionary Central Council (in Munich)
 7 Apr 1919 -  8 Apr 1919  Ernst Karl August Niekisch         (b. 1889 - d. 1967)  USPD
 8 Apr 1919 - 14 Apr 1919  Ernst Toller                       (b. 1893 - d. 1939)  USPD
Chairmen of the Executive Council (in Munich)
14 Apr 1919 - 27 Apr 1919  Eugen Leviné (Niessen)             (b. 1883 - d. 1919)  KPD
                           + Max Levien                       (b. 1885 - d. 1937)  KPD
27 Apr 1919 - 28 Apr 1919  Ernst Toller                       (s.a.)               USPD
29 Apr 1919 -  2 May 1919  Rudolf Eglhofer                    (b. 1896 - d. 1919)  Mil
                            (Commander-in-chief of the Army)



Berlin
 
[Berlin State
                          Flag 1945-1954, East Berlin 1948-1956
                          (Germany)]
20 May 1945 - 1 Sep 1950 
 
[Civil Flag
                          (Berlin, Germany)]
Adopted 1 Sep 1950
(until 3 Oct 1990 for West Berlin) 
[Berlin State
                          Flag (also used as jack by state vessels) ]
Adopted 13 May 1954 State Flag
(until 3 Oct 1990 for West Berlin) 

(West) Berlin
 

Capital: Berlin

Population: 3,711,930 (2017)
4,013,588 (1925)
West Berlin: 2,013,000 (1987)

West Berlin Ethnic groups:
 German 87%,  foreign (mostly Turkish and Croat) 13% (1982)

West Berlin Police: 20,446 (1989)
(incl. civilian personnel)
West Berlin GDP: 55.2 billion
 DEM (1982)
West Berlin Religions: Protestant
 (mostly Lutheran)
70%, Roman
 Catholic
12%, other/
none
18% (1970)
Map of West Berlin
Allied Sectors Map 1945-1990
City Constitution
(1 Oct 1950 - 23 Nov 1995)


 1 Oct 1920                Separated from Brandenburg;
Gross-Berlin (Greater Berlin)
                             (see under Prussian provinces; de facto to 5 Aug 1944).
28 Apr 1945 -  3 Oct 1990  Allied occupation.
17 May 1945                Appointment of municipal government under occupational
                             authorities as Stadt Berlin (Berlin City).
20 Oct 1946                Renamed Gross-Berlin (Greater Berlin).
30 Nov 1948                Separate administrations for East and West Berlin.
                             West Berlin was not part of Federal Republic of Germany ("West
                             Germany") and remained under allied control, but was represented
                             in the federal legislature and internationally represented by
                             the West German government.
 1 Oct 1950                Name changed from Gross-Berlin to Berlin (provision proclaiming
                             Berlin part of the Federal Republic of Germany are included,
                             but become operational only on 3 Oct 1990).
20 Dec 1971                Böttcherberg, Finkenkrug, Grosse Kuhlake, Nuthewiesen exclaves are
                             ceded to East Berlin and Steinstücken is connected to West Berlin.
31 Mar 1988                Falkenhagener Wiese, Lasszins-Wiesen, Wüste Mark ceded to East
                             Berlin and Erlengrund & Fichtewiese are connected to West Berlin.
 3 Oct 1990                East and West Berlin are reunited and incorporated into the
                             Federal Republic as a state.

Lord mayors
 2 May 1945 - 17 May 1945  Vacant
17 May 1945 - 10 Dec 1946  Arthur Werner                      (b. 1877 - d. 1967)  Non-party
10 Dec 1946 - 11 Jun 1947  Otto Ostrowski                     (b. 1883 - d. 1963)  SPD
11 Jun 1947 -  7 Dec 1948  Louise Dorothea Schroeder (f)      (b. 1887 - d. 1957)  SPD
                             (acting [for Ostrowski from 8 May 1947]) 
14 Aug 1948 -  1 Dec 1948  Ferdinand Friedensburg             (b. 1886 - d. 1972)  CDU
                             (acting for Schroeder)
 7 Dec 1948 - 18 Jan 1951  Ernst Rudolf Johannes Reuter       (b. 1889 - d. 1953)  SPD
Governing mayors
18 Jan 1951 - 29 Sep 1953  Ernst Rudolf Johannes Reuter       (s.a.)               SPD
29 Sep 1953 - 11 Jan 1955  Karl Rudolf Walther Schreiber      (b. 1884 - d. 1958)  CDU
                             (acting to 22 Oct 1953)
11 Jan 1955 - 30 Aug 1957  Otto Ernst Heinrich Hermann Suhr   (b. 1894 - d. 1957)  SPD
30 Aug 1957 -  3 Oct 1957  Franz Amrehn (acting)              (b. 1912 - d. 1981)  CDU
 3 Oct 1957 -  1 Dec 1966  Willy Brandt                       (b. 1913 - d. 1992)  SPD
 1 Dec 1966 - 19 Oct 1967  Heinrich Albertz                   (b. 1915 - d. 1993)  SPD
                             (acting to 14 Dec 1966)
19 Oct 1967 -  2 May 1977  Klaus Schütz                       (b. 1926 - d. 2012)  SPD
 2 May 1977 - 23 Jan 1981  Dietrich Stobbe                    (b. 1938 - d. 2011)  SPD
23 Jan 1981 - 11 Jun 1981  Hans-Jochen Vogel                  (b. 1926)            SPD
11 Jun 1981 -  9 Feb 1984  Richard Karl Freiherr von          (b. 1920 - d. 2015)  CDU
                             Weizsäcker

 9 Feb 1984 - 16 Mar 1989  Eberhard Diepgen (1st time)        (b. 1941)            CDU
16 Mar 1989 - 24 Jan 1991  Walter Lutz Momper                 (b. 1945)            SPD
24 Jan 1991 - 16 Jun 2001  Eberhard Diepgen (2nd time)        (s.a.)               CDU
16 Jun 2001 - 11 Dec 2014  Klaus Wowereit                     (b. 1953)            SPD 
11 Dec 2014 -              Michael Müller                     (b. 1964)            SPD

East Berlin
 
[Berlin State
                          Flag 1948-1954, East Berlin 1945-1956
                          (Germany)]
30 Nov 1948 - 7 Nov 1956
[East Berlin
                          1956-1990 (Germany)]
7 Nov 1956 - 3 Oct 1990

Capital: Berlin
Population: 1,279,212 (1989)

30 Nov 1948                City government convened in Soviet sector, Berlin is partitioned
                             de facto into separate East and West Berlin.
 7 Oct 1949                Gross-Berlin (Greater Berlin) becomes de facto capital and
                             is declared, contrary to international agreement, to be
                             incorporated into German Democratic Republic ("East Germany")
                            (the western allies and the West Germany do not recognize
                             incorporation of East Berlin into East Germany).
1952                       Becomes a district with special status.
 7 Sep 1961                Officially declared a district
1977                       Name changed from Gross-Berlin to Berlin; formally declared
                             to be the capital of East Germany (not recognized by
                             western allies or West Germany).
 3 Oct 1990                Re-united with West Berlin as a state of the Federal 
                             Republic of Germany.

First Secretaries of the Socialist Unity Party (SED)
21 Apr 1946 - 1948         Hermann Matern                     (b. 1893 - d. 1971)
1948 - 1953                Hans Jendretzky                    (b. 1897 - d. 1992)
1953 - 1957                Alfred Neumann                     (b. 1909 - d. 2001)
1957 - 1959                Hans Kiefert                       (b. 1905 - d. 1966)
1959 - May 1971            Paul Verner                        (b. 1905 - d. 1986)
May 1971 - Nov 1985        Konrad Neumann                     (b. 1929 - d. 1992)
Nov 1985 - Nov 1989        Günter Schabowski                  (b. 1929 - d. 2015)
Nov 1989 - 1989            Heinz Albrecht                     (b. 1935)

Lord mayors
30 Nov 1948 -  5 Jul 1967  Friedrich Ebert                    (b. 1894 - d. 1979)  SED
                             (provisional to 17 Oct 1954)
 5 Jul 1967 - 11 Feb 1974  Herbert Kurt Fechner               (b. 1913 - d. 1998)  SED
11 Feb 1974 - 15 Feb 1990  Erhard Krack                       (b. 1931 - d. 2000)  SED;
                                                 15 Dec 1989: SED-PDS; 4 Feb 1990: PDS
Jan 1979 - 1980            Hannelore Mensch (f)               (b. 1937)            SED
                             (acting for Krack)
15 Feb 1990 - 23 Feb 1990  Ingrid Pankraz (f)(acting)         (b. 1948)            PDS
23 Feb 1990 - 30 May 1990  Christian Matthias Wilhelm         (b. 1948)            PDS
                             Hartenhauer
30 May 1990 - 11 Jan 1991  Tino-Antoni Schwierzina            (b. 1927 - d. 2003)  SPD
11 Jan 1991 - 24 Jan 1991  Thomas Krüger (acting)             (b. 1959)            SPD

Allied Occupation

28 Apr 1945                Soviet forces begin invasion of Berlin.

 2 May 1945                Berlin surrenders to Soviet forces.
 8 May 1945                Germany surrenders to the allies.
 5 Jul 1945                British forces arrive.
11 Jul 1945                American and French forces arrive.
 3 Oct 1990                After reunification of Germany, formal end of allied control
                             15 Mar 1991.

American Sector

[US flag]

City commandants
 4 Jul 1945 -  2 Sep 1945  Floyd L. Parks                     (b. 1896 - d. 1959)
 3 Sep 1945 - 10 Oct 1945  James M. Gavin                     (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
11 Oct 1945 -  1 May 1946  Ray W. Barker                      (b. 1889 - d. 1974)
 1 May 1946 - 13 May 1947  Frank A. Keating                   (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
14 May 1947 - 23 Sep 1947  Cornelius E. Ryan                  (b. 1896 - d. 1972)
24 Sep 1947 - 30 Nov 1947  William Hesketh                    (b. 1895 - d. 1986)
 1 Dec 1947 - 31 Aug 1949  Frank Leo Howley                   (b. 1903 - d. 1993)
31 Aug 1949 - 31 Jan 1951  Maxwell D. Taylor                  (b. 1901 - d. 1987)
 1 Feb 1951 -  2 Jan 1953  Lemuel Mathewson                   (b. 1889 - d. 1970)
 3 Jan 1953 -  4 Aug 1954  Thomas S. Timberman                (b. 1900 - d. 1989)
 5 Aug 1954 -  9 Sep 1955  George B. Honnen                   (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
10 Sep 1955 -  3 Jun 1957  Charles L. Dasher                  (b. 1900 - d. 1968)
 4 Jun 1957 - 15 Dec 1959  Barksdale Hamlett                  (b. 1908 - d. 1979)
20 Dec 1959 -  3 May 1961  Ralph M. Osborne                   (b. 1903 - d. 1991)
 4 May 1961 -  2 Jan 1963  Albert Watson II                   (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
 2 Jan 1963 - 31 Aug 1964  James H. Polk                      (b. 1911 - d. 1972)
 1 Sep 1964 -  3 Jun 1967  John F. Franklin, Jr.              (b. 1911 - d. 1990)
 3 Jun 1967 - 28 Feb 1970  Robert G. Fergusson                (b. 1911 - d. 2001)
28 Feb 1970 - 12 May 1971  George M. Seignious II             (b. 1921 - d. 2005)
12 May 1971 - 10 Jun 1974  William W. Cobb                    (b. 1917 - d. 2007)
10 Jun 1974 - 11 Aug 1975  Sam Sims Walker                    (b. 1925 - d. 2015)
11 Aug 1975 -  7 Jun 1978  Joseph C. McDonough                (b. 1924 - d. 2005)
 7 Jun 1978 -  5 Jul 1981  Calvert P. Benedict                (b. 1924 - d. 2011)

 5 Jul 1981 - 27 Jun 1984  James G. Boatner                   (b. 1930 - d. 2017)
27 Jun 1984 -  1 Jun 1988  John H. Mitchell                   (b. 1933 - d. 2013)
 1 Jun 1988 -  2 Oct 1990  Raymond E. Haddock                 (b. 1936)


British Sector

United Kingdom flag

City commandants
 5 Jul 1945 - 30 Aug 1945  Lewis Owen Lyne                    (b. 1899 - d. 1970)
30 Aug 1945 - 13 Jun 1947  Eric Paytherus Nares               (b. 1892 - d. 1947)
13 Jun 1947 - 23 Jan 1949  Edwin Otway Herbert                (b. 1901 - d. 1984)
23 Jan 1949 - 24 Oct 1951  Geoffrey Kemp Bourne               (b. 1902 - d. 1982)
24 Oct 1951 - 13 Mar 1954  Cyril Frederick Charles Coleman    (b. 1903 - d. 1974)
13 Mar 1954 - 30 Apr 1955  William Pasfield Oliver            (b. 1901 - d. 1981)
 1 May 1955 -  6 Feb 1956  Robert Charles Cottrell-Hill       (b. 1903 - d. 1965)
26 Mar 1956 - 20 Mar 1959  Francis David Rome                 (b. 1905 - d. 1985)
23 Mar 1959 -  4 May 1962  Rohan Delacombe                    (b. 1906 - d. 1991)
                             (from 10 Jun 1961, Sir Rohan Delacombe) 
 4 May 1962 -  7 Dec 1962  Claude Ian Hurley Dunbar           (b. 1909 - d. 1971)
 7 Dec 1962 - 28 Jan 1966  David Peel-Yates                   (b. 1911 - d. 1978)
28 Jan 1966 -  7 Mar 1968  Sir Eustace John Blois Nelson      (b. 1912 - d. 1993)
 7 Mar 1968 - 19 Nov 1970  Francis James Cecil Bowes-Lyon     (b. 1917 - d. 1977)
19 Nov 1970 -  2 Aug 1973  Alan Cathcart, Earl Cathcart       (b. 1919 - d. 1999)
 2 Aug 1973 - 29 Nov 1975  David William Scott-Barrett        (b. 1922 - d. 2004)
29 Nov 1975 - 24 Jan 1978  Roy Michael Frederick Redgrave     (b. 1925 - d. 2011)
24 Jan 1978 - 15 Sep 1980  Robert Francis Richardson          (b. 1929 - d. 2014)
15 Sep 1980 -  7 Oct 1983  Joseph David Frederick Mostyn      (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
 7 Oct 1983 - Dec 1985     Bernard Charles Gordon Lennox      (b. 1932 - d. 2017)
Dec 1985 - 16 Jan 1989     Patrick Guy Brooking               (b. 1937 - d. 2014)
16 Jan 1989 -  2 Oct 1990  Robert John Swan Corbett           (b. 1940) 


French Sector

City commandants
11 Jul 1945 - 12 Mar 1946  Geoffroi du Bois de Beauchesne     (b. 1883 - d. 1957)
12 Mar 1946 -  4 Oct 1946  Charles J.M.A. Lançon              (b. 1890 - d. 1956)
 4 Oct 1946 -  5 Oct 1950  Jean Ganeval                       (b. 1894 - d. 1981)
 1 Oct 1950 - 31 Dec 1952  Pierre Carolet                     (b. 1898 - d. 1981)
 1 Jan 1953 - 31 Dec 1954  Pierre Mançeaux-Démiau             (b. 1898 - d. 1979)
 1 Jan 1955 - 30 Sep 1958  Amédée J.B. Gèze                   (b. 1898 - d. 1988)
 1 Oct 1958 - 25 Feb 1962  Jean Lacomme                       (b. 1902 - d. 1983)
26 Feb 1962 - 30 Sep 1964  Édouard K. Toulouse
 1 Oct 1964 - 11 Oct 1967
  François Binoche                   (b. 1911 - d. 1997)
11 Oct 1967 - 1970         Bernard Huchet de Quénetain        (b. 1911 - d. 1983)
1970 - 1973                Maurice Routier
1973 - 1975                Camille Metzler
1975 - 1977                Jacques Mangin
1977 - 1980                Bernard d'Astorg                   (b. 1921 - d. 2014)
1980 - 1984                Jean-Pierre Liron                  (b. 1924 - d. 2007)
1984 - 1985                Olivier Le Taillandier de Gabory   (b. 1926 - d. 1995)
1985 - 1987                Paul Cavarrot                      (b. 1937 - d. 2012)

1987 -  2 Oct 1990         François Robert Cann               (b. 1932)


Soviet Sector

[Flag of USSR]

Military commandants (from 10 Oct 1949, City commandants)
 2 May 1945 - 16 Jun 1945  Nikolay Erastovich Berzarin        (b. 1904 - d. 1945) 
17 Jun 1945 - 19 Nov 1945  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Gorbatov     (b. 1891 - d. 1973) 
19 Nov 1945 -  1 Apr 1946  Dmitriy Sergeyevich Smirnov        (b. 1901 - d. 1975) 
 1 Apr 1946 -  7 Jun 1950  Aleksandr Georgiyevich Kotikov     (b. 1902 - d. 1981) 
 7 Jun 1950 - 28 May 1953  Sergey Alekseyevich Dengin         (b. 1900 - d. 1989) 
                            (Berlin representative of the Soviet Control Commission)
28 May 1953 - 23 Jun 1956  Pyotr Akimovich Dibrova            (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
28 Jun 1956 - 26 Feb 1958  Andrey Sergeyevich Chamov          (b. 1905 - d. 1981)
26 Feb 1958 -  9 May 1961  Nikolay Fyodorovich Zakharov   
 9 May 1961 - 22 Aug 1962  Andrey Y. Solov'yov (Soloviev)
22 Aug 1962 - 31 May 1971  Helmut Poppe                       (b. 1926 - d. 1979)
 1 Jun 1971 - 31 Aug 1978  Artur Kunath                       (b. 1914 - d. 1995)
 1 Sep 1978 - 31 Dec 1989  Karl-Heinz Drews                   (b. 1929)
 1 Jan 1989 - 30 Sep 1990  Wolfgang Dombrowski                (b. 1933 - d. 2006)
30 Sep 1990 -  2 Oct 1990  Detlef Wendorf (acting)



Brandenburg
 
[Brandenburg
                          (Germany), October-December 1945]
24 Oct 1945 - 15 Dec 1945 
 
[Civil Flag
                          1945-1952 (Brandenburg, Germany)]
15 Dec 1945 - 23 Jul 1952  Civil Flag
 
[State Flag
                          1945-1952 (Brandenburg, Germany)]
15 Dec 1945 - 23 Jul 1952  State Flag
 
[Brandenburg
                          unofficial 1990 (Germany)]
3 Oct 1990 - 30 Jan 1991 Unofficial
[Brandenburg
                          (Germany)]
Adopted 30 Jan 1991

Capital: Potsdam
State Anthem
 "Märkische Heide, 
märkischer Sand"
Adopted 1990 (unofficial)
Population: 2,494,648 (2016)

21 Jul 1947                Former Prussian province of Brandenburg becomes a state
                             (Mark Brandenburg).

 7 Oct 1949                Part of the German Democratic Republic.
23 Jul 1952                State dissolved into districts (Potsdam, Frankfurt, and Cottbus).
 3 Oct 1990                Reconstituted as state of the Federal Republic of Germany.

First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party
21 Apr 1946 - 23 Jul 1952  Willy Sägebrecht                   (b. 1904 - d. 1981)

President of the provisional administration
 4 Jul 1945 - 20 Dec 1946  Karl Steinhoff                     (b. 1892 - d. 1981)  SPD
Minister-presidents
20 Dec 1946 -  5 Dec 1949  Karl Steinhoff                     (s.a.)               SPD;
                                                                              21 Apr 1946: SED 
 5 Dec 1949 - 23 Jul 1952  Rudi Jahn                          (b. 1906 - d. 1990)  SED
 3 Oct 1990 -  1 Nov 1990  Jochen Wolf                        (b. 1941)            SPD
                             (Landesbevollmächtigter)
 1 Nov 1990 - 26 Jun 2002  Manfred Stolpe                     (b. 1935)            SPD
26 Jun 2002 - 28 Aug 2013  Matthias Platzeck                  (b. 1953)            SPD
28 Aug 2013 -              Dietmar Woidke                     (b. 1961)            SPD


Bremen
 
[State Flag
                          with 'Middle' Arms (Bremen, Germany)]
4 Feb 1919 - 15 Sep 1935;
Re-adopted 21 Nov 1947
Bremen Soviet
                          1919
10 Jan 1919 - 4 Feb 1919
 
Capital: Bremen
State Anthem
 "Der Bremer Schluessel"
(The Key of Bremen)
Population: 671,489 (2015)
450,000 (1939)

 6 Nov 1813                Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen).
10 Jan 1919 -  4 Feb 1919  Independent Socialist-Communist Republic of Bremen
                            (Bremer Räterepublik).
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

First Mayor
 1 Jan 1918 - 10 Jan 1919  Hermann Christian Ferdinand        (b. 1849 - d. 1939)  1919: DDP
                             Hildebrand 
Chairman of the Workers' and Soldiers' Council
14 Nov 1918 - 10 Jan 1919  Alfred Henke (in rebellion)        (b. 1868 - d. 1946)  USPD
10 Jan 1919 -  4 Feb 1919  Rat der Volksbeauftragten
                           - Alfred Henke                     (s.a.)               USPD
                           - Adam Frasunkiewicz                                    USPD
                           - Johann Knief                     (b. 1880 - d. 1919)  KPD
                           - Karl Jannack                     (b. 1891 - d. 1968)  SPD
First Mayors

 4 Feb 1919
- 10 Apr 1919  Hermann Christian Ferdinand        (s.a.)               DDP
                             Hildebrand 
10 Apr
1919 - 18 May 1920  Karl Deichmann                     (b. 1863 - d. 1940)  SPD
18 May 1920 - 18 Mar 1933  Martin Donatus Ferdinand Donandt   (b. 1852 - d. 1937)  Non-party
18 Mar 1933 - 23 Oct 1934  Richard Markert                    (b. 1891 - d. 1957)  NSDAP
                             (Reichskommissar 6 Mar - 13 May 1933)
 5 May 1933 - 15 May 1942  Karl Röver (Reichsstatthalter)     (b. 1889 - d. 1942)  NSDAP
23 Oct 1934 - 16 Apr 1937  Karl Hermann Otto Heider           (b. 1896 - d. 1960)  NSDAP
16 Apr 1937 - 16 Jun 1944  Johann Heinrich Adolph Böhmcker    (b. 1896 - d. 1944)  NSDAP
27 May 1942 - Apr 1945     Paul Wegener (Reichsstatthalter)   (b. 1908 - d. 1993)  NSDAP
 1 Jul 1944 - 27 Apr 1945  Richard Duckwitz                   (b. 1886 - d. 1972)  NSDAP
27 Apr 1945 - 30 Apr 1945  Johannes Schroers (acting)         (b. 1885 - d. 1960)  NSDAP
Governing mayor
 4 May 1945 -  1 Aug 1945  Erich Vagts                        (b. 1896 - d. 1981)  Non-party
Mayors and Presidents of the Senate
 1 Aug 1945 - 20 Jul 1965  Wilhelm Kaisen                     (b. 1887 - d. 1979)  SPD
20 Jul 1965 - 28 Nov 1967  Willy Dehnkamp                     (b. 1903 - d. 1985)  SPD
28 Nov 1967 - 18 Sep 1985  Hans Koschnick                     (b. 1929 - d. 2016)  SPD
18 Sep 1985 -  4 Jul 1995  Klaus Wedemeier                    (b. 1944)            SPD
 4 Jul 1995 -  8 Nov 2005  Henning Scherf                     (b. 1938)            SPD
 8 Nov 2005 - 15 Jul 2015  Jens Böhrnsen                      (b. 1949)            SPD
15 Jul 2015 -              Carsten Sieling                    (b. 1959)            SPD



Brunswick (Braunschweig)

[Republic of Brunswick
                1922-1935 (Germany)]
    6 Jan 1922 - 15 Sep 1935; 1945 - 1946
 
Capital: Brunswick
(Braunschweig)
State Anthem
Population: 599,200 (1939)

 8 Nov 1918                Free State of Brunswick (Freistaat Braunschweig).
 9 Dec 1946                Part of Niedersachsen.

President
 
9 Nov 1918 - 22 Feb 1919  August Ernst Reinhold Merges       (b. 1870 - d. 1945)   USPD

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners
10 Nov 1918 - 13 Apr 1919  Sepp Oerter                        (b. 1870 - d. 1928)   USPD
17 Apr 1919 - 21 Oct 1919  Heinrich Otto Jasper               (b. 1875 - d. 1945)   SPD
Minister-presidents
21 Oct 1919 - 22 Jun 1920  Heinrich Otto Jasper (1st time)    (s.a.)                SPD
22 Jun 1920 - 25 Nov 1921  Sepp Oerter                        (s.a.)                USPD
25 Nov 1921 - 23 Mar 1922  August Junke                       (b. 1886 - d. 1926)   USPD
23 Mar 1922 - 23 May 1922  Otto Friedrich Wilhelm Antrick     (b. 1858 - d. 1924)   SPD
23 May 1922 - 24 Dec 1924  Heinrich Otto Jasper (2nd time)    (s.a.)                SPD
24 Dec 1924 - 14 Dec 1927  Gerhard Marquordt                  (b. 1881 - d. 1950)   Non-party
14 Dec 1927 -  1 Oct 1930  Heinrich Otto Jasper (3rd time)    (s.a.)                SPD
 1 Oct 1930 -  5 May 1933  Werner Küchenthal                  (b. 1882 - d. 1976)   DNVP
 5 May 1933 - 12 Apr 1945  Dietrich Klagges                   (b. 1891 - d. 1971)   NSDAP
 5 May 1933 - 23 Oct 1935  Friedrich Wilhelm Loeper           (b. 1883 - d. 1935)   NSDAP
                             (Reichsstatthalter)
Oct 1935 - Apr 1937        Fritz Sauckel                      (b. 1894 - d. 1946)   NSDAP
                             (acting Reichsstatthalter)
20 Apr 1937 - Apr 1945     Rudolf Jordan (Reichsstatthalter)  (b. 1902 - d. 1988)   NSDAP
Minister-presidents
May 1945 - Jan 1946        Hubert Schlebusch                  (b. 1893 - d. 1955)   SPD
Jan 1946 -  9 Dec 1946     Alfred Kubel                       (b. 1909 - d. 1999)   SPD


Danzig-West Prussia 1939-1945: see under Poland


Hamburg
 
[Hamburg
                          (Germany)]
1919 - 15 Sep 1935; 1945 - 1952
Formally Re-adopted 6 Jun 1952
Hamburg Soviet
                          1918-1919
12 Nov 1918 - 31 Mar 1919
     
 
Capital: Hamburg
State Anthem
 "Heil über dir Hammonia"
Population: 1,805,316 (2016)
1,712,000 (1939)

20 Dec 1819                Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg)
 1 Apr 1938                Hanseatic City of Hamburg
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
 6 Jun 1952                Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg

Chairmen of the Workers' and Soldiers' Council
12 Nov 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  Heinrich Laufenberg                (b. 1872 - d. 1932)  KDP
11 Jan 1919 - 31 Mar 1919  Karl Hense                         (b. 1871 - d. 1946)  SPD
First mayors
31 Mar 1919 - 31 Dec 1919  Werner von Melle (3rd time)        (b. 1853 - d. 1937)  Non-party
 1 Jan 1920 -  2 Feb 1920  Gustav Friedrich Carl Johann       (b. 1856 - d. 1931)  Non-party
                             Sthamer 
 2 Feb 1920 -  3 Jan 1924  Arnold Friedrich Georg Diestel     (b. 1857 - d. 1924)  DDP
 9 Jan 1924 - 31 Dec 1929  Carl Wilhelm Petersen (1st time)   (b. 1868 - d. 1933)  DDP
 1 Jan 1930 - 31 Dec 1931  Rudolf Adolf Wilhelm Ross          (b. 1872 - d. 1951)  SPD
 1 Jan 1932 -  8 Mar 1933  Carl Wilhelm Petersen (2nd time)   (s.a.)               DDP
 8 Mar 1933 - 30 Jul 1936  Carl Vincent Krogmann              (b. 1889 - d. 1978)  NSDAP
                             (from 18 May 1933, Governing Mayor)
30 Jul 1936 -  3 May 1945  Karl Otto Kurt Kaufmann            (b. 1900 - d. 1969)  NSDAP
                             (also Reichsstatthalter 16 May 1933 - 3 May 1945)
15 May 1945 - 22 Nov 1946  Rudolf Petersen                    (b. 1879 - d. 1962)  Non-party
22 Nov 1946 -  2 Dec 1953  Max Brauer (1st time)              (b. 1887 - d. 1973)  SPD
 2 Dec 1953 -  4 Dec 1957  Kurt Sieveking                     (b. 1897 - d. 1986)  CDU
 4 Dec 1957 -  1 Jan 1961  Max Brauer (2nd time)              (s.a.)               SPD
 1 Jan 1961 -  9 Jun 1965  Paul Nevermann                     (b. 1902 - d. 1979)  SPD
 9 Jun 1965 - 16 Jun 1971  Herbert Weichmann                  (b. 1896 - d. 1983)  SPD
16 Jun 1971 - 12 Nov 1974  Peter Schulz                       (b. 1930 - d. 2013)  SPD
12 Nov 1974 - 24 Jun 1981  Hans-Ulrich Klose                  (b. 1937)            SPD
24 Jun 1981 -  8 Jun 1988  Klaus von Dohnanyi                 (b. 1928)            SPD
 8 Jun 1988 - 12 Nov 1997  Henning Voscherau                  (b. 1941 - d. 2016)  SPD
12 Nov 1997 - 31 Oct 2001  Ortwin Runde                       (b. 1944)            SPD
31 Oct 2001 - 25 Aug 2010  Ole von Beust                      (b. 1955)            CDU
25 Aug 2010 -  7 Mar 2011  Christoph Ahlhaus                  (b. 1969)            CDU
 7 Mar 2011 - 13 Mar 2018  Olaf Scholz                        (b. 1958)            SPD
14 Mar 2018 -
28 Mar 2018  Katharina Fegebank (f) (acting)    (b. 1977)            Grn
28 Mar 2018 -              Peter Tschentscher                 (b. 1966)            SPD


 
Hannover
[Hanover (Germany)]
                   5 Dec 1945 - 9 Dec 1946
c.Jun 1946                 Incorporation of Schaumburg-Lippe.
23 Aug 1946                Former Prussian province made Free State of Hannover.
 9 Dec 1946                Part of Niedersachsen.

Oberpräsident
12 Jul 1945 - 21 Aug 1946  August Josef Hagemann              (b. 1875 - d. 1950)  CDU
Minister-president
23 Aug 1946 -  9 Dec 1946  Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf               (b. 1893 - d. 1961)  SPD



Hessen 
 
[Civil Ensign
                        1923-1935 (Hesse, Germany)]
5 Jul 1923 - 1 Sep 1935 State Flag
 
[Civil Flag
                          (Hesse, Germany)]
1 Dec 1946 - 4 Aug 1948
[State Flag
                          (Hesse, Germany)]
Adopted 4 Aug 1948
 
Capital: Wiesbaden
(to 1945 Darmstadt)
State Anthem
"Hessenlied"
Adopted 1949?
Population: 6,213,088 (2016)
1,469,000 (1939)

 2 Mar 1919                People's State of Hesse (Volksstaates Hessen).
19 Sep 1945                Land Hesse(-Darmstadt)(without administrative district of
                             Rheinhessen) is merged with the greater part of Prussian
                             provinces of Kurhessen and Nassau to form Greater Hesse
                             (Gross-Hessen).

11 Dec 1946                Renamed Hessen (or Land Hesse)(retroactive from 1 Dec 1946).
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Minister-president
11 Nov 1918 -  2 Mar 1919  Carl Ulrich                        (b. 1853 - d. 1933)  SPD
State presidents
 2 Mar 1919 - 14 Feb 1928  Carl Ulrich                        (s.a.)               SPD
14 Feb 1928 - 13 Mar 1933  Bernhard Adelung                   (b. 1876 - d. 1943)  SPD
13 Mar 1933 - May 1933     Heinrich Josef Philipp Müller      (b. 1896 - d. 1945)  NSDAP 
May 1933 - 23 Sep 1933     Ferdinand Werner                   (b. 1876 - d. 1961)  NSDAP
23 Sep 1933 -  1 Mar 1935  Philipp Wilhelm Jung               (b. 1884 - d. 1965)  NSDAP
 1 Mar 1935 - Mar 1945     Jakob Sprenger                     (b. 1884 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
                            (also Reichsstatthalter 5 May 1933 - Mar 1945)
Mar 1945 - Apr 1945        Heinrich Reiner (acting)           (b. 1892 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
14 Apr 1945 - 19 Sep 1945  Ludwig Bergsträsser (acting)       (b. 1883 - d. 1960)  Non-party
Minister-presidents
19 Sep 1945 - 14 Oct 1945  Ludwig Bergsträsser                (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Oct 1945 - 20 Dec 1946  Karl Hermann Geiler                (b. 1878 - d. 1953)  Non-party
20 Dec 1946 - 14 Dec 1950  Christian Stock                    (b. 1884 - d. 1967)  SPD
14 Dec 1950 -  3 Oct 1969  Georg-August Zinn                  (b. 1901 - d. 1976)  SPD
 3 Oct 1969 - 12 Oct 1976  Albert Osswald                     (b. 1919 - d. 1996)  SPD
12 Oct 1976 - 23 Apr 1987  Holger Börner                      (b. 1931 - d. 2006)  SPD
23 Apr 1987 -  5 Apr 1991  Walter Wallmann                    (b. 1932 - d. 2013)  CDU
 5 Apr 1991 -  7 Apr 1999  Hans Eichel                        (b. 1941)            SPD
 7 Apr 1999 - 31 Aug 2010  Roland Koch                        (b. 1958)            CDU
31 Aug 2010 -              Volker Bouffier                    (b. 1951)            CDU



Lippe (-Detmold)
[Civil and State Flag
                  c.1880-1935 (Lippe, Germany)]
   1918 - 15 Sep 1935, 1946 - 21 Jan 1947
Capital: Detmold
State Anthem
"Altes Soldatenlied aus den
Befreiungskriegen"
Population: 187,200 (1939)

12 Nov 1918                Free State of Lippe (Freistaat Lippe)
21 Jan 1947                Part of Nordrhein-Westfalen.

First Chairman of the People's and Soldiers Council
Nov 1918 - 13 Feb 1919     Clemens Becker                      (b. 1869 - d. 1961)  SPD
Chairmen of State Presidium
13 Feb 1919 - 17 Dec 1920  Clemens Becker                      (s.a.)               SPD
17 Dec 1920 -  8 Jun 1921  Heinrich Hermann Drake (1st time)   (b. 1881 - d. 1970)  SPD
 8 Jun 1921 - 14 Jun 1921  Wilhelm Meier                       (b. 1887 - d. 1957)  SPD
                            (chairman State Committee)
14 Jun 1921 -  7 Feb 1933  Heinrich Hermann Drake (2nd time)   (s.a.)               SDP
                            (from 1932, president of the state government)
Ministers of state 
 7 Feb 1933 - 23 May 1933  Ernst Krappe                        (b. 1891 - d. 1977)  NSDAP
23 May 1933 - 1936         Hans-Joachim Riecke                 (b. 1899 - d. 1987)  NSDAP
16 May 1933 - Apr 1945     Alfred Meyer                        (b. 1891 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
                            (also Reichsstatthalter 16 May 1933 - 4 Apr 1945)
State president
 9 May 1946 - 21 Jan 1947  Heinrich Hermann Drake              (s.a.)               SPD



Lübeck
[State Flag of Lübeck,
                  1900]
     19 Nov 1890 - 15 Sep 1935 State Flag
   

Capital: Lübeck
State Anthem
Population: 136,500 (1933)

1813                       Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck (Freie und Hansestadt Lübeck
 1 Apr 1937                Part of Prussia.
23 Aug 1946                Merged into Schleswig-Holstein.


Presiding Mayors

 1 Jan 1917 - 1920         Emil Ferdinand Fehling           (b. 1847 - d. 1927)  Non-party
1920 - 1926                Johann Martin Andreas Neumann    (b. 1865 - d. 1928)  Non-party
1926 - May 1933            Paul Bernhard Heinrich Löwigt    (b. 1873 - d. 1934)  SDP
May 1933 - 31 Mar 1937     Otto Heinrich Drechsler          (b. 1895 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
                             (continues to 5 May 1945)
26 May 1933 - 31 Mar 1937  Friedrich Hildebrandt            (b. 1898 - d. 1948)  NSDAP 

                             (Reichsstatthalter)



Mecklenburg-Vorpommern  (Mecklenburg-West Pomerania)
 
[Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
                          (Mecklenburg-Hither Pomerania, Germany)]
1 Jan 1934 - 15 Sep 1935; 
16 Jan 1947 - 23 Jul 1952
[Unofficial
                          Flag 1990 (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany)]
3 Oct 1990 - 29 Jan 1991 Unofficial
[State Flag
                          (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany)]
Adopted 29 Jan 1991
[Civil Flag
                          (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany)]
Adopted 29 Jan 1991 Civil Flag


Capital: Schwerin
State Anthem
Population: 1,610,674 (2016)
900,000 (1939)
 
14 Nov 1918                Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Freistaat Mecklenburg-Schwerin),
                             Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Freistaat Mecklenburg-Strelitz)
 1 Jan 1934                Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz united (Mecklenburg).
 9 Jul 1945                Mecklenburg and part of the Prussian province of Pomerania
                             merged as Mecklenburg.
31 Jul 1945                Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
 1 Mar 1947                Mecklenburg (Land Mecklenburg)
 7 Oct 1949                Part of the German Democratic Republic.
23 Jul 1952                State dissolved into districts (Schwerin, Rostock,
                             and Neubrandenburg).
 3 Oct 1990                Reconstituted as Mecklenburg-Vorpommern,
                             state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Mecklenburg-Schwerin

[Mecklenburg-Schwerin flag
              (Germany) 1918-1935]          
                       1918 - 15 Sep 1935

Capital: Schwerin
State Anthem
Population: 804,900 (1933)

President of the state ministry
 9 Nov 1918 - 22 Feb 1919  Hugo Wendorff                     (b. 1864 - d. 1945)  DDP
Minister-presidents
22 Feb 1919 - 28 Jul 1920  Hugo Wendorff                     (s.a.)               DDP
28 Jul 1920 - 14 Jan 1921  Hermann Reincke-Bloch             (b. 1867 - d. 1928)  DVP
14 Jan 1921 - 18 Mar 1924  Johannes Stelling                 (b. 1877 - d. 1933)  SPD
18 Mar 1924 -  8 Jul 1926  Joachim Freiherr von Brandenstein (b. 1864 - d. 1941)  DNVP
 8 Jul 1926 - 10 Jul 1929  Paul Schröder                     (b. 1875 - d. 1932)  SPD
10 Jul 1929 - 13 Jul 1932  Karl Eschenburg                   (b. 1877 - d. 1943)  DNVP
13 Jul 1932 - 10 Aug 1933  Walter Granzow                    (b. 1887 - d. 1952)  NSDAP
10 Aug 1933 - 31 Dec 1933  Hans Egon Engell                  (b. 1897 - d. 1974)  NSDAP
26 May 1933 - 31 Dec 1933  Friedrich Hildebrandt             (b. 1898 - d. 1948)  NSDAP 

                            (Reichsstatthalter)


Mecklenburg-Strelitz

[Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1923-1935 (Germany)]
                24 May 1923 - 15 Sep 1935
 
Capital: Neustrelitz 
State Anthem
Population: 110,371 (1925)

Chairmen of the state ministry
11 Nov 1918 -  7 Jan 1919  Peter Franz Stubmann               (b. 1876 - d. 1962)  DDP
 7 Jan 1919 - 13 Oct 1919  Hans Krüger                        (b. 1884 - d. 1933)  SPD
Ministers of state
13 Oct 1919 -  2 Aug 1923  Kurt Gustav Hans Otto              (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  SPD
                             Freiherr von Reibnitz (1st time)
 2 Aug 1923 - 13 Mar 1928  Karl Schwabe                       (b. 1877 - d. 1938)  DNVP
13 Mar 1928 - 12 Apr 1929  Kurt Gustav Hans Otto              (s.a.)               SPD
                             Freiherr von Reibnitz (2nd time) 
12 Apr 1929 - 16 Apr 1929  Kurt Häntzschel (Reichskommissar)  (b. 1889 - d. 1941)  DDP
16 Apr 1929 -  4 Dec 1931  Kurt Gustav Hans Otto              (s.a.)               SPD 
                             Freiherr von Reibnitz (3rd time) 
 4 Dec 1931 - 27 May 1933  Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand         (b. 1888 - d. 1942)  DNVP
                             von Michael 
27 May 1933 - 31 Dec 1933  Fritz Stichtenoth                  (b. 1895 - d. 1935)  NSDAP
26 May 1933 - 31 Dec 1933  Friedrich Hildebrandt              (b. 1989 - d. 1948)  NSDAP
                            (Reichsstatthalter) 


Mecklenburg-Vorpommern  (Mecklenburg-Hither Pomerania)

First Secretaries of the Socialist Unity Party
21 Apr 1946 - 28 Jul 1951  Kurt Bürger                        (b. 1894 - d. 1951)
1951 - 1952                Karl Mewis                         (b. 1907 - d. 1987)

Minister-presidents
 1 Jan 1934 - 25 Oct 1934  Hans Egon Engell                   (s.a.)               NSDAP
25 Oct 1934 - May 1945     Friedrich Scharf                   (b. 1897 - d. 1974)  NSDAP
 1 Jan 1934 -  1 May 1945  Friedrich Hildebrandt              (b. 1898 - d. 1948)  NSDAP

                            (Reichsstatthalter)
Leaders of the State Administration

May 1945                   Hans Jess (1st time)               (b. 1887 - d. 1975)  CDU
May 1945 - 18 Jun 1945     Eduard Friedrich Stratmann         (b. 1875 - d. 1952)  LDPD
18 Jun 1945 - Jun 1945     Hans Jess (2nd time)               (s.a.)               CDU
Jun 1945 -  9 Jul 1945     Reinhold Lobedanz                  (b. 1880 - d. 1955)  CDU
President of the State Administration
 9 Jul 1945 - 31 Jul 1945  Wilhelm Höcker                     (b. 1886 - d. 1955)  SPD
President
31 Jul 1945 -  9 Dec 1946  Wilhelm Höcker                     (s.a.)     SPD;22 Apr 1946: SED
Minister-presidents
 9 Dec 1946 - 20 Jul 1951  Wilhelm Höcker                     (s.a.)               SED
20 Jul 1951 - 30 Jul 1951  Kurt Bürger                        (s.a.)               SED
30 Jul 1951 - 23 Jul 1952  Bernhard Quandt                    (b. 1903 - d. 1999)  SED
 3 Oct 1990 - 27 Oct 1990  Martin Brick                       (b. 1939)            CDU
                            (Landesbevollmächtigter)
27 Oct 1990 - 19 Mar 1992  Alfred Gomolka                     (b. 1942)            CDU
19 Mar 1992 -  3 Nov 1998  Berndt Seite                       (b. 1940)            CDU
 3 Nov 1998 -  6 Oct 2008  Harald Ringstorff                  (b. 1939)            SPD
 6 Oct 2008 -  4 Jul 2017  Erwin Sellering                    (b. 1949)            SPD 
 4 Jul 2017 -              Manuela Schwesig (f)               (b. 1974)            SPD


 
Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony)
 
[Niedersachsen unofficial
                      flag c.1946-52]
c.1946 - 13 Oct 1952 Unofficial
 
[Lower Saxony
                          (Germany)]
Adopted 13 Oct 1952
Capital: Hannover
State Anthem
"Niedersachsenlied"
(unofficial)
Population: 7,926,599 (2016)

 9 Dec 1946                Constituted by the merger of Braunschweig, Oldenburg, 
                             and Hannover.
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Minister-presidents
 9 Dec 1946 - 26 May 1955  Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf               (b. 1893 - d. 1961)  SPD
                             (1st time)
26 May 1955 - 12 May 1959  Heinrich Hellwege                  (b. 1908 - d. 1991)  DP
12 May 1959 - 21 Dec 1961  Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf               (s.a.)               SPD
                             (2nd time)
29 Dec 1961 -  8 Jul 1970  Georg Diederichs                   (b. 1900 - d. 1983)  SPD
 8 Jul 1970 -  6 Feb 1976  Alfred Kubel                       (b. 1909 - d. 1999)  SPD
 6 Feb 1976 - 21 Jun 1990  Ernst Albrecht                     (b. 1930 - d. 2014)  CDU
21 Jun 1990 - 28 Oct 1998  Gerhard Schröder                   (b. 1944)            SPD
28 Oct 1998 - 15 Oct 1999  Gerhard Glogowski                  (b. 1943)            SPD
15 Oct 1999 -  4 Mar 2003  Sigmar Gabriel                     (b. 1959)            SPD
 4 Mar 2003 - 30 Jun 2010  Christian Wulff                    (b. 1959)            CDU
30 Jun 2010 -  1 Jul 2010  Jörg Bode (acting)                 (b. 1970)            FDP
 1 Jul 2010 - 19 Feb 2013  David McAllister                   (b. 1971)            CDU
19 Feb 2013 -              Stephan Weil                       (b. 1958)            SPD



Nordrhein-Westfalen  (North Rhine-Westphalia)
[State Flag (North
                  Rhine-Westphalia, Germany)]
      Adopted 10 Mar 1953 (in use from 1948)
Capital: Düsseldorf
State Anthem
"Westfalenlied"
(Song of Westfalia)
(unofficial)
Population: 17,890,100 (2016)

23 Aug 1946                Former Prussian provinces of Westfalen and the northern 
                             part of Rheinland (Nordrhein) merged to form state of
                             Nordrhein-Westfalen.
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Minister-presidents
23 Aug 1946 - 16 Jun 1947  Rudolf Amelunxen                   (b. 1888 - d. 1969)  Non-party; 
                                                                                   1947: Z
17 Jun 1947 - 20 Feb 1956  Karl Arnold                        (b. 1901 - d. 1958)  CDU
20 Feb 1956 - 21 Jul 1958  Fritz Steinhoff                    (b. 1897 - d. 1969)  SPD
21 Jul 1958 -  8 Dec 1966  Franz Meyers                       (b. 1908 - d. 2002)  CDU
 8 Dec 1966 - 20 Sep 1978  Heinz Kühn                         (b. 1912 - d. 1992)  SPD
20 Sep 1978 - 27 May 1998  Johannes Rau                       (b. 1931 - d. 2006)  SPD
27 May 1998 - 22 Oct 2002  Wolfgang Clement                   (b. 1940)            SPD
22 Oct 2002 -  6 Nov 2002  Michael Vesper (acting)            (b. 1952)            Grn
 6 Nov 2002 - 22 Jun 2005  Peer Steinbrück                    (b. 1947)            SPD
22 Jun 2005 - 14 Jul 2010  Jürgen Rüttgers                    (b. 1951)            CDU
14 Jul 2010 - 27 Jun 2017  Hannelore Kraft (f)                (b. 1961)            SPD
27 Jun 2017 -              Armin Laschet                      (b. 1961)            CDU


Nordrhein (North Rhine)

20 Jun 1945                Nordrhein province formed from northern part of Prussian
                             province of Rheinland.

Oberpräsidenten
 4 Jul 1945 -  2 Oct 1945  Hans Fuchs                         (b. 1874 - d. 1956)  Non-party
 2 Oct 1945 - 24 Jul 1946  Robert Lehr                        (b. 1883 - d. 1956)  CDU


Westfalen (Westphalia)
[Westphalia 1945-1946
                  (Germany)]
                       21 Dec 1945 - 23 Aug 1946
Oberpräsident
 7 Jun 1945 - 23 Aug 1946  Rudolf Amelunxen                   (s.a.)               Non-party


Oldenburg
[Flag of Oldenburg]
                   3 Oct 1919 - 15 Sep 1935
 
Capital: Oldenburg
State Anthem
"Heil dir, o Oldenburg!"
Population: 578,000 (1939)
   
11 Nov 1918                Free State of Oldenburg (Freistaat Oldenburg)
 7 Sep 1919                Incorporation of Birkenfeld.
 9 Dec 1946                Part of Niedersachsen.


President of the Directory
14 Nov 1918 - 21 Jun 1919  Bernhard Kuhnt                     (b. 1876 - d. 1946)  USPD
Minister-presidents
21 Jun 1919 - 17 Apr 1923  Theodor Johann Tantzen (1st time)  (b. 1877 - d. 1947)  DDP
17 Apr 1923 - 13 Jul 1930  Eugen von Finckh                   (b. 1860 - d. 1930)  Non-party
14 Dec 1930 - 16 Jun 1932  Friedrich Cassebohm                (b. 1872 - d. 1951)  Non-party
16 Jun 1932 -  6 May 1933  Carl Röver                         (b. 1889 - d. 1942)  NSDAP
                             (also Reichsstatthalter 5 May 1933 - 15 May 1942)
 6 May 1933 - Apr 1945     Georg Joel                         (b. 1898 - d. 1981)  NSDAP
27 May 1942 - Apr 1945     Paul Wegener (Reichsstatthalter)   (b. 1908 - d. 1993)  NSDAP
Apr 1945 -  9 Dec 1946     Theodor Johann Tantzen (2nd time)  (s.a.)               FDP



Birkenfeld

14 Jul 1919                Land of Birkenfeld, part of Oldenburg. 
 7 Sep 1919                Re-incorporated into Oldenburg.
 
1 Apr 1937                Incorporated into Prussia (part of Rheinland province). 

Presidents and directors of the government (Regierungspräsidenten) in Birkenfeld
29 Nov 1917 - 15 Jun 1919  Hermann Gerhard Pralle (acting)       (b. 1863 - d. 1939)
15 Jun 1919 - 30 Aug 1919  Konrad Wilhelm Heinrich Hartong       (b. 1861 - d. 1931)
                             (acting) 
14 Jul 1919 - 30 Aug 1919  Rudolf Schmeyer 
Head of state
30 Aug 1919 -  7 Sep 1919  Philipp Ludwig Eberhard Zoeller
Presidents and directors of the government in Birkenfeld
 7 Sep 1919 - 31 Oct 1923  Hugo Walther Dörr (1st time)          (b. 1879 - d. 1964)  DDP
                             (acting to 14 Feb 1920)
31 Oct 1923 - 15 Jan 1924  Karl Nieten (acting)                  (b. 1883 - d. 1957)
15 Jan 1924 - 21 Oct 1932  Hugo Walther Dörr (2nd time)          (s.a.)               DDP
21 Oct 1932 - 31 Mar 1937  Wilhelm Herbert Wild                  (b. 1886 - d. 1969)  NSDAP
                             (acting to 1933)



Prussia
 
[Prussia]
16 Dec 1921 - 15 Sep 1935 Civil Flag

[State Flag
                          1922-1935 (Prussia, Germany)]
24 Feb 1922 - 15 Sep 1935 State Flag
 
Capital: Berlin
Population: 41,334,000 (1939)
Prussia Provinces to 1945

 9 Nov 1918                Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Prussen).
Apr 1945                   End of central Prussian government.
25 Feb 1947                Allied Control Commission declares Prussia dissolved.

Presidents of the Government
 9 Nov 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  Friedrich Ebert                    (b. 1871 - d. 1925)  SPD
11 Nov 1918 - 25 Mar 1919  Paul Hirsch                        (b. 1868 - d. 1940)  SPD
Presidents of the State's Ministry
25 Mar 1919 - 27 Mar 1920  Paul Hirsch                        (s.a.)               SPD
13 Mar 1920 - 17 Mar 1920  Wolfgang Kapp -Minister-president  (b. 1858 - d. 1922)  ADV
                             (in rebellion)
27 Mar 1920 - 21 Apr 1921  Otto Braun                         (b. 1872 - d. 1955)  SPD
Minister-presidents
21 Apr 1921 -  5 Nov 1921  Adam Stegerwald                    (b. 1874 - d. 1945)  Z
 5 Nov 1921 - 18 Feb 1925  Otto Braun (1st time)              (s.a.)               SPD
18 Feb 1925 -  6 Apr 1925  Wilhelm Marx                       (b. 1863 - d. 1946)  Z
 6 Apr 1925 - 10 Apr 1933  Otto Braun (2nd time)              (s.a.)               SDP
                            (from 20 Jul 1932, in opposition
                             to the Reichskommissar)
 6 Jun 1932 - 20 Jul 1932  Heinrich Hirtsiefer                (b. 1876 - d. 1941)  Z
                            (acting for Braun) 
20 Jul 1932 -  3 Dec 1932  Franz von Papen (1st time)         (b. 1879 - d. 1969)  Z
                            (Reichskommissar)
 3 Dec 1932 - 28 Jan 1933  Kurt von Schleicher                (b. 1882 - d. 1934)  Non-party 
                            (Reichskommissar)
30 Jan 1933 - 10 Apr 1933  Franz von Papen (2nd time)         (s.a.)               DNVP
                            (Reichskommissar)
10 Apr 1933 - 24 Apr 1945  Hermann Göring                     (b. 1893 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
25 Apr 1933 - 30 Apr 1945  Adolf Hitler (
Reichsstatthalter)   (b. 1889 - d. 1945)  NSDAP



Reuss
[People's Republic of
                  Reuss]
                     1919 - 1 May 1920
17 Apr 1919                People's State of Reuss (Volksstaat Reuss) (merger of Free State
                             Reuss Younger Line and
Free State Reuss Senior Line).
 1 May 1920                Part of Thüringen.

Ministers of state
17 Apr 1919 -  1 May 1920  Karl Eduard Emil Franz Moritz      (b. 1875 - d. 1946)  Non-party 
                             Freiherr von Brandenstein
                           + William Oberländer               (b. 1869 - d. 1946)  DDP


Reuss Younger Line  (Reuss-Gera)
[Reuss]
               1918 - 17 Apr 1919 

Nov 1918                   Free State Reuss Younger Line (Freistaat Reuss jüngerer Linie).
17 Apr 1919                Two lines united as People's State of Reuss.

Leading minister of state
10 Nov 1918 - 17 Apr 1919  Karl Eduard Emil Franz Moritz      (s.a.)               Non-party 
                             Freiherr von Brandenstein


Reuss Senior Line (Reuss-Greiz)
[Reuss]
               1918 - 17 Apr 1919 

Nov 1918                   Free State Reuss Senior Line (Freistaat Reuss älterer Linie).
17 Apr 1919                Two lines united as People's State of Reuss.

Leading minister of state
Nov 1918 - 17 Apr 1919     William Oberländer                 (s.a.)                  FP 



Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate)

[Rhineland-Palatinate
                (Germany)]
                 Adopted 18 May 1948
 
Capital: Mainz
State Anthem
Population: 4,052,803 (2015)

15 Jun 1945                Rheinland-Hessen-Nassau province is formed by merger of the
                             southern part of the Prussian province Rheinland and western 
                             parts of the Prussian province Hessen.
 1 Dec 1946                Rheinland-Hessen-Nassau and Pflaz are merged to form the state 
                             of Rheinland-Pfalz.
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Minister-presidents
19 Nov 1945 -  9 Jul 1947  Wilhelm Boden                      (b. 1890 - d. 1961)  CDU
                            (Oberpräsident of Rhineland-Hessen-Nassau to 1 Dec 1946)
 9 Jul 1947 - 19 May 1969  Peter Altmeier                     (b. 1899 - d. 1977)  CDU
19 May 1969 -  2 Dec 1976  Helmut Kohl                        (b. 1930 - d. 2017)  CDU
 2 Dec 1976 -  8 Dec 1988  Bernhard Vogel                     (b. 1932)            CDU
 8 Dec 1988 - 21 May 1991  Carl-Ludwig Wagner                 (b. 1930 - d. 2012)  CDU
21 May 1991 - 26 Oct 1994  Rudolf Scharping                   (b. 1947)            SPD
26 Oct 1994 - 16 Jan 2013  Kurt Beck                          (b. 1949)            SPD
16 Jan 2013 -              Malu Dreyer (f)                    (b. 1961)            SPD


Hessen-Pfalz

13 Jul 1945                Pfalz (Palatinate) district of Bavaria and the Rheinhessen
                             district of Hessen(-Darmstadt) are merged to form
                             Hessen-Pfalz province (
also called Saarland-Pfalz-Südhessen
                             or Mittelrhein-Saar)‏.
15 Oct 1945                Hessen-Pfalz is dissolved; Rheinhessen district becomes part
                             Rheinland-Hessen-Nassau, the remaining part is now called
                             of upper-administrative district Pfalz.
 1 Dec 1946                Rheinland-Hessen-Nassau and Pflaz are merged to form the state
                             of Rheinland-Pfalz.

Oberregierungspräsidenten
10 May 1945 –  7 Jul 1945  Hermann Heimerich                  (b. 1885 – d. 1963)  SPD
 7 Jul 1945 –  2 Oct 1945  Hans Hoffmann                      (b. 1893 – d. 1952)  SPD
 2 Oct 1945 –  1 Dec 1946  Otto Eichenlaub                    (b. 1898 – d. 1954)  CDU



Saarland (Saar)
 
[Saar 1947-1956
                          (Germany)]
8 Nov 1947 - 1 Jan 1957
 
[Saar (Germany)]
Adopted 1 Jan 1957
 
Capital: Saarbrücken
Hear State Anthem
"Saarlied" (The Saar Song)
Adopted 1948 (Lyrics 2003)
Population: 996,651 (2016))

31 Jul 1945                French administration: Saargebiet = Territoire de la Sarre (also
                             in official use: Sarre [French]; Saarland [German, gradually
                             enters into official use after 8 Oct 1946])
                             (for Saar 1918-1945 see under Germany).
17 Dec 1947                Constituted as an autonomous state in economic union with France
                             (Saarland).
 1 Jan 1957                Incorporated into Federal Republic of Germany as a state.

Superior Delegate for the Military Government of Saarland
30 Aug 1945 -  7 Sep 1945  Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval       (b. 1904 - d. 1981)  Mil
Governor of the Saar
 7 Sep 1945 - 10 Jan 1948  Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval       (s.a.)               Mil

High Commissioner of the French Republic in the Saar

10 Jan 1948 -  1 Jan 1952  Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval       (s.a.)
Chiefs of the Diplomatic Mission of the French Republic in the Saar 
 1 Jan 1952 -  8 Jul 1955  Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval       (s.a.)
 8 Jul 1955 - 27 Oct 1956  Charles Marie Eric de Carbonnel    (b. 1910 - d. 1965)

President of the Government (Regierungspräsident)
 
4 May 1945 -  8 Oct 1946  Hans Neureuter                     (b. 1901 - d. 1953)  Non-party
                             (in Saarbrücken only to 31 Jul 1945)
Chairman of the Administrative Commission
 8 Oct 1946 - 20 Dec 1947  Erwin Müller                       (b. 1906 - d. 1968)  Non-party
Minister-presidents
15 Dec 1947 - 29 Oct 1955  Johannes Hoffmann                  (b. 1890 - d. 1967)  CVP
29 Oct 1955 - 10 Jan 1956  Heinrich Welsch                    (b. 1888 - d. 1976)  Non-party
10 Jan 1956 -  4 Jun 1957  Hubert Ney                         (b. 1892 - d. 1984)  CDU
 4 Jun 1957 - 23 Apr 1959  Hans Egon Reinert                  (b. 1908 - d. 1959)  CDU
23 Apr 1959 - 26 Jun 1979  Franz Josef Röder                  (b. 1909 - d. 1979)  CDU
                             (acting to 30 Apr 1979)
26 Jun 1979 -  5 Jul 1979  Werner Klumpp (acting)             (b. 1928)            FDP
 5 Jul 1979 -  9 Apr 1985  Werner Zeyer                       (b. 1929 - d. 2000)  CDU
 9 Apr 1985 - 10 Nov 1998  Oskar Lafontaine                   (b. 1943)            SPD
10 Nov 1998 - 29 Sep 1999  Reinhard Klimmt                    (b. 1942)            SPD
29 Sep 1999 - 10 Aug 2011  Peter Aloysius Müller              (b. 1955)            CDU
10 Aug 2011 -  1 Mar 2018  Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (f)     (b. 1962)            CDU
 1 Mar 2018 -              Tobias Hans                        (b. 1978)            CDU



Sachsen (Saxony)
 
[Soviet
                          Republic of Saxony 1918-1919 (Germany)]
1918 - 1919 Saxon Soviet (in rebellion)
 
[Saxony]
1 Nov 1920 - 15 Sep 1935; 
9 Dec 1947 - 23 Jul 1952 
[Saxony state
                          flag]
Unofficial 3 Oct 1990 - 4 Mar 1991
Adopted 4 Mar 1991
Capital: Dresden
State Anthem
Population: 4,081,783 (2016)
5,232,000 (1939)
 
13 Nov 1918                Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen)
Nov 1918 - 14 Mar 1919     Saxon Soviet (in rebellion).
 7 Oct 1949                Part of the German Democratic Republic.
23 Jul 1952                State dissolved into districts (Leipzig, Dresden
                             and Karl-Marx-Stadt).
 3 Oct 1990                Reconstituted as state of the Federal Republic of Germany
                             (Free State of Sachsen).
 
First Secretaries of the Socialist Unity Party
21 Apr 1946 - 1949         Wilhelm Koenen                     (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
1949 - 1952                Ernst Lohagen                      (b. 1897 - d. 1971)
1952 - Jul 1952            Karl Schirdewan                    (b. 1907 - d. 1998)

Minister-president
26 Oct 1918 - 13 Nov 1918  Karl Rudolf Heinze (1st time)      (b. 1865 - d. 1928)  NLP
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners
15 Nov 1918 - 21 Jan 1919  Robert Richard Lipinski            (b. 1867 - d. 1936)  USPD
21 Jan 1919 - 14 Mar 1919  Georg Gradnauer                    (b. 1866 - d. 1946)  SPD
Minister-presidents
14 Mar 1919 -  4 May 1920  Georg Gradnauer                    (s.a.)               SPD
 4 May 1920 - 21 Mar 1923  Johann Wilhelm Buck                (b. 1869 - d. 1945)  SPD
21 Mar 1923 - 29 Oct 1923  Erich Zeigner                      (b. 1886 - d. 1949)  SPD
29 Oct 1923 - 31 Oct 1923  Karl Rudolf Heinze (2nd time)      (s.a.)               DVP
                            (Reichskommissar
31 Oct 1923 -  4 Jan 1924  Alfred Karl Fellisch               (b. 1884 - d. 1973)  SPD
 4 Jan 1924 - 25 Jun 1929  Max Wilhelm August Heldt           (b. 1872 - d. 1933)SPD;1927 ASPD
25 Jun 1929 -  6 May 1930  Wilhelm Robert Ferdinand Bünger    (b. 1870 - d. 1937)  DVP
 6 May 1930 - 10 Mar 1933  Karl Alfred Walther Schieck        (b. 1874 - d. 1946)  Non-party
10 Mar 1933 - 28 Feb 1935  Manfred Freiherr von Killinger     (b. 1886 - d. 1944)  NSDAP
                            (Reichskommissar to 5 May 1933)
28 Feb 1935 -  7 May 1945  Martin Mutschmann                  (b. 1879 - d. 1947)  NSDAP
                            (also Reichsstatthalter from 5 May 1933)
 4 Jul 1945 - 31 Jun 1947  Rudolf Friedrichs                  (b. 1892 - d. 1947)  SPD;
                                                                               22 Apr 1946:SED
31 Jul 1947 - 23 Jul 1952  Max Seydewitz                      (b. 1892 - d. 1987)  SED 
 3 Oct 1990 - 27 Oct 1990  Rudolf Krause                      (b. 1939)            CDU
                            (Landesbevollmächtigter)
27 Oct 1990 - 18 Apr 2002  Kurt Biedenkopf                    (b. 1930)            CDU
18 Apr 2002 - 28 May 2008  Georg Milbradt                     (b. 1945)            CDU
28 May 2008 - 13 Dec 2017  Stanislaw Tillich                  (b. 1959)            CDU
13 Dec 2017 -              Michael Kretschmer                 (b. 1975)            CDU


Sachsen-Anhalt  (Saxony -Anhalt)
 
[Civil Flag
                          (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany)]
24 Oct 1945 - 23 Jul 1952 
 
[State Flag
                          1948-52 (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany)]
14 Dec 1948 - 23 Jul 1952 State Flag

[Saxony-Anhalt
                          unoffical 1990 (Germany)]
3 Oct 1990 - 30 Jan 1991 Unofficial
 
[Saxony-Anhalt
                          (Germany)]
Adopted 30 Jan 1991


Capital: Magdeburg
State Anthem
Population: 2,245,470 (2015)

23 Jul 1945                Province of Sachsen-Anhalt formed by merger of the Prussian
                             provinces of Magdeburg and Halle-Merseburg and the state
                             of Anhalt.
21 Jul 1947                State (Land Sachsen-Anhalt).
 7 Oct 1949                Part of the German Democratic Republic.
23 Jul 1952                State dissolved into districts (Halle and Magdeburg).
 3 Oct 1990                Reconstituted as state of the Federal Republic of Germany.

First secretary of the Socialist Unity Party
21 Apr 1946 - 1952         Bernhard Koenen                    (b. 1889 - d. 1964)

Minister-presidents
20 Jul 1945 - 13 Aug 1949  Erhard Hübener                     (b. 1881 - d. 1952)  LDPD
13 Aug 1949 - 23 Jul 1952  Werner Bruschke                    (b. 1898 - d. 1995)  SED
 3 Oct 1990 - 28 Oct 1990  Karl-Hermann Steinberg             (b. 1941)            CDU
                             (Landesbevollmächtigter)
28 Oct 1990 -  4 Jul 1991  Gerd Gies                          (b. 1943)            CDU
 4 Jul 1991 -  2 Dec 1993  Werner Münch                       (b. 1940)            CDU
 2 Dec 1993 - 21 Jun 1994  Christoph Bergner                  (b. 1948)            CDU
21 Jun 1994 - 16 May 2002  Reinhard Höppner                   (b. 1948 - d. 2014)  SPD
16 May 2002 - 19 Apr 2011  Wolfgang Böhmer                    (b. 1936)            CDU
19 Apr 2011 -              Reiner Haseloff                    (b. 1954)            CDU



Saxe-Altenburg

[Free State of Altenburg
              1918-1920 (Germany)]

14 Nov 1918                Free State of Saxe-Altenburg (Freistaat Saxe-Altenburg).
 1 May 1920                Part of Thüringen.

Chairmen of the state ministry
13 Nov 1918 - 27 Mar 1919  Wilhelm Tells                      (b. 1871 - d. 1950)   FP
27 Mar 1919 -  1 May 1920  August Frölich                     (b. 1877 - d. 1966)   SPD



Saxe-Coburg

[Free State of Saxe Coburg
                      1918-1920 (Germany)]
1918 - 1920
 [Free State of Coburg
                      regional flag 1918-1920]
1918 - 1920
  Regional Flag

 9 Nov 1918                Free State of Saxe Coburg (Freistaat Gotha).
14 Nov 1918                De facto separation of Gotha following the resignation of the Duke
                             of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (de jure from 12 Apr 1919).

10 Mar 1919                Free State of Coburg (Freistaat Coburg).
 1 Jul 1920                Part of Bavaria.

Chairmen of the State council (from 10 Mar 1919, State government)
 9 Nov 1918 - 11 Jul 1919  Karl Hermann Quarck                (b. 1873 - d. 1932)  NL
11 Jul 1919 -  1 Jul 1920  Franz Xaver Klinger                (b. 1875 - d. 1933)  SPD



(Saxe-) Gotha

[Saxe-Gotha 1919-1920
                (Germany)]

 9 Nov 1918                Gotha Republic (Gothaer Republik), Duke is declared deposed by
                              Workers and Soldiers Council in Gotha.
14 Nov 1918                De facto separation of Gotha following the resignation of the Duke
                             of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (de jure from 12 Apr 1919).

24 Dec 1919               
Republic of Gotha (Republik Gotha)
1920                       Free State of Saxe-Gotha (Freistaat Sachsen-Gotha)
 1 May 1920                Part of
Thüringen.

Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Workers' and Soldiers Council
 9 Nov 1918 -
30 Nov 1918  Otto Geithner                      (b. 1876 - d. 1948)  USPD
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
30 Nov 1918 - 25 Mar 1919  Otto Geithner                      (s.a.)               USPD

Senior minister of state

25 Mar 1919 -  1 May 1920  Otto Geithner                      (s.a.)               USPD
10 Apr 1920 - 30 May 1920  Albert Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm  (b. 1866 - d. 1945)
                             Holle (Reichskommissar)



Saxe-Meiningen

[Saxe-Meiningen
                  1918-1920 (Germany)]

12 Nov 1918                Free State of Saxe-Meiningen (Freistaat Sachsen-Meiningen).
 1 May 1920                Part of Thüringen.

Secret state councillor (from Mar 1919, Leading minister)
12 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920  Ludwig Freiherr von Türcke         (b. 1857 - d. 1933)  Non-party



Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
[Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
                  1918-1920 (Germany)]

 9 Nov 1918                Free State of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Freistaat Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach)
20 May 1919                Free People's State of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
                            (Freie Volksstaat Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach).
 1 May 1920                Part of Thüringen.

State commissioner
 8 Nov 1918 - 20 May 1919  August Baudert                    (b. 1860 - d. 1942)  SPD
                            (to 23 Dec 1918, Head of Soldiers' and Workers' Council)
Presiding Minister of State
20 May 1919 -  1 May 1920  Arnold Rudolf Paulssen            (b. 1864 - d. 1942)  DDP



Schaumburg-Lippe

[Schaumburg-Lippe]
                 24 Feb 1922 - 15 Sep 1935
 
Capital: Bückeburg
State Anthem
Population: 48,044 (1925)

16 Nov 1918                Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe (Freistaat Schaumburg-Lippe)
c.Jun 1946                 Incorporated into Hannover.

Minister of state
1898 -  4 Dec 1918         Friedrich Rudolf Ernst Freiherr    (b. 1858 -  d. 1942)
                             von Feilitzsch
Chairman of the State Council
 4 Dec 1918 - 14 Mar 1919  Heinrich Lorenz                    (b. 1870 - d. 1947)  SPD
State councillors
14 Mar 1919 - 22 May 1922  Heinrich Friedrich Otto Bömers     (b. 1857 - d. 1931)  Non-party
22 May 1922 - 28 May 1925  Konrad Wippermann                  (b. 1858 - d. 1935)  Non-party
28 May 1925 -  7 Oct 1927  Erich Steinbrecher                 (b. 1882 - d. 19..)  SPD
 7 Oct 1927 -  7 Mar 1933  Heinrich Lorenz                    (s.a.)               SPD
 1 Apr 1933 - 23 May 1933  Hans Joachim Riecke                (b. 1899 - d. 1987)  NSDAP
State president
23 May 1933 - Mar 1945     Karl Heinrich Dreier               (b. 1898 - d. 1974)  NSDAP
16 May 1933 -  4 Apr 1945  Alfred Meyer                    
  (b. 1891 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
                            (Reichsstatthalter)
Minister

1945 - 30 Apr 1946         Heinrich Hermann Drake             (b. 1881 - d. 1970)  SPD



Schleswig-Holstein

[Civil flag of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)]
29 Aug 1948 - 18 Jan 1957
[State flag of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)]
Adopted 18 Jan 1957

Capital: Kiel
State Anthem
"Schleswig-Holstein
meerumschlungen"
(Schleswig-Holstein,
Embraced by the Sea)
(unofficial)
Population: 2,881,926 (2016)

23 Aug 1946                Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein becomes a state.
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Oberpräsidenten
14 May 1945 - 15 Nov 1945  Otto Hoevermann (acting)           (b. 1888 - d. 1953)  Non-party
15 Nov 1945 - 12 Sep 1946  Theodor Hans Steltzer              (b. 1885 - d. 1967)  CDU
Minister-presidents
12 Sep 1946 - 29 Apr 1947  Theodor Hans Steltzer              (s.a.)               CDU
29 Apr 1947 - 29 Aug 1949  Hermann Lüdemann                   (b. 1880 - d. 1959)  SPD
29 Aug 1949 -  5 Sep 1950  Bruno Diekmann                     (b. 1897 - d. 1982)  SPD
 5 Sep 1950 - 25 Jun 1951  Walter Bartram                     (b. 1893 - d. 1971)  CDU
25 Jun 1951 -  2 Oct 1954  Friedrich Wilhelm Lübke            (b. 1887 - d. 1954)  CDU
11 Oct 1954 - 14 Jan 1963  Kai-Uwe von Hassel                 (b. 1913 - d. 1997)  CDU
14 Jan 1963 - 24 May 1971  Helmut Lemke                       (b. 1907 - d. 1990)  CDU
24 May 1971 - 14 Oct 1982  Gerhard Stoltenberg                (b. 1928 - d. 2001)  CDU
14 Oct 1982 -  2 Oct 1987  Uwe Barschel                       (b. 1944 - d. 1987)  CDU
 2 Oct 1987 - 31 May 1988  Henning Schwarz (acting)           (b. 1928 - d. 1993)  CDU
31 May 1988 - 19 May 1993  Björn Engholm                      (b. 1939)            SPD
19 May 1993 - 27 Apr 2005  Heide Simonis (f)                  (b. 1943)            SPD
27 Apr 2005 - 12 Jun 2012  Peter Harry Carstensen             (b. 1947)            CDU
12 Jun 2012 - 28 Jun 2017  Torsten Albig                      (b. 1963)            SPD
28 Jun 2017 -              Daniel Günther                     (b. 1973)            CDU



Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
[Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
                  Civil Flag 1866-1920 (Germany)]

23 Nov 1918                Free State of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Freistaat
                             Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt).
 1 May 1920                Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 
                             united as part of Thüringen.

People's government ministers
23 Nov 1918 - Mar 1919     Franz Ernst Wilhelm Karl Freiherr
                             von der Recke                   (b. 1854 - d. 1923)  Non-party 
                           + Richard Werner                                       Non-party
                           + Friedrich Wissmann              (b. 1865 - d. 1942)  Non-party
                           + Ernst Otto                                           SPD
                           + Emil Hartmann                   (b. 1868 - d. 1942)  SPD
                           + Albert Scholl                                        SPD
                           + Oskar Hertel                                         DDP
Leading minister of state
Mar 1919 -  1 May 1920     Emil Hartmann                     (s.a.)               SPD



Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
[Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Civil Flag c.1815-1920
                  (Germany)]

25 Nov 1918                Free State of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (Freistaat
                             Schwarzburg-Sondershausen).
 1 May 1920                Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 
                             united as part of Thüringen.

Leading ministers of state
Nov 1918 - Mar 1919        Harald Bielfeld                   (b. 1863 - d. 1933)  DDP
Mar 1919 -  1 May 1920     Wilhelm Bärwinkel                 (b. 1880 - d. 1969)  USPD


Sudetenland 1938 - 1945: see under Czech Republic


Thüringen  (Thuringia)
 
[Thuringia Land Flag]
7 Apr 1921 - 15 Sep 1935 Civil Flag,
and 20 Dec 1945 - 23 Jul 1952

 
[Thuringia State Flag
                      1921-1933]
25 Apr 1922 - 15 Aug 1933 State Flag
   
[Thuringia State Flag
                      1933-1935]
15 Aug 1933 - 15 Sep 1935 State Flag
 
[Thuringia State Flag
                      1945-52]
13 Aug 1945 - 23 Jul 1952 State Flag

 
[Thuringia unoffical flag
                      1990 (Germany)]
3 Oct 1990 - 10 Jan 1991 Unofficial
[Thuringia (Germany)]
Adopted 10 Jan 1991
Capital: Erfurt
(Weimar 1920-1948)
State Anthem
Population: 2,158,128 (2016)
1,712,000 (1939)

14 Jul 1919                Council of State entrusted with the elaboration of a 
                             common constitution and with the provisional 
                             administration of the Union.
 4 Jan 1920                The treaty on formation of the Thüringian Community 
                             (Thüringer Gemeinschaft) signed.
 1 May 1920                Reuss, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen,
                             Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and
                             Schwarzburg-Sondershausen united as Free State of Thüringen
                             (Freistaat Thüringen).

 8 Nov 1923 - 28 Feb 1924  Under martial law, administered by central government.
 7 Oct 1949                Part of the German Democratic Republic.
23 Jul 1952                State dissolved into districts (Suhl, Gera, and Erfurt).
 3 Oct 1990                Reconstituted as state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
23 Nov 1993                Named Free State of Thüringen.

First Secretaries of the Socialist Unity Party
21 Apr 1946 - 1947         Werner Karl Jakob Eggerath         (b. 1900 - d. 1977)
1947 - 1949                Erich Ernst Kops                   (b. 1905 - d. 1961)
1949 - 26 Jul 1952         Erich Mückenberger                 (b. 1910 - d. 1998)

Chairman of State Council
14 Jul 1919 - 30 Apr 1920  Arnold Rudolf Otto Paulssen        (b. 1864 - d. 1942)  DDP
                            (also Reichskommissar 22 Mar - 10 Apr 1920
Leading Ministers of State
 1 May 1920 - 11 Nov 1920  August Frölich (1st time)          (b. 1867 - d. 1964)  SPD
11 Nov 1920 -  6 Oct 1921  Arnold Rudolf Otto Paulssen        (s.a.)               DDP
 7 Oct 1921 - 21 Feb 1924  August Frölich (2nd time)          (s.a.)               SPD
                            (acting from 7 Dec 1923)
 8 Nov 1923 - 28 Feb 1924  Paul Hasse                         (b. 1864 - d. 1945)  Mil
                            (military administrator)
Minister-presidents
21 Feb 1924 -  6 Nov 1928  Richard Leutheusser                (b. 1867 - d. 1945)  DVP
 6 Nov 1928 - 13 Jan 1930  Arnold Rudolf Paulssen             (s.a.)               DDP

13 Jan 1930 - 26 Aug 1932  Erwin Baum                         (b. 1868 - d. 1950)  TLB

26 Aug 1932 -  8 May 1933  Fritz Sauckel                      (b. 1894 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
                            (also Reichsstatthalter 6 May 1933 - 12 Apr 1945)
 8 May 1933 - 12 Apr 1945  Wilhelm "Willy" E.K. Marschler     (b. 1893 - d. 1952)  NSDAP
12 Apr 1945 -  7 May 1945  Karl Müller (acting)
Leader of the State administration
 7 May 1945 -  9 Jun 1945  Hermann Louis Brill                (b. 1895 - d. 1959)  SPD
President of the Government
 9 Jun 1945 - 16 Jul 1945  Hermann Louis Brill                (s.a.)               SPD
Minister-presidents
16 Jul 1945 -  1 Sep 1947  Rudolf Paul                        (b. 1893 - d. 1978)  DemP;
                            (leader of the state administration to 4 Dec 1946)    Apr 1946: SED
 2 Sep 1947 - 23 Jul 1952  Werner Karl Jakob Eggerath         (s.a.)               SED
                            (acting to 8 Oct 1947)
 3 Oct 1990 -  5 Feb 1992  Josef Duchac                       (b. 1938)            CDU
                            (Landesbevollmächtigter to 8 Nov 1990)
 5 Feb 1992 -  5 Jun 2003  Bernhard Vogel                     (b. 1932)            CDU
 5 Jun 2003 - 30 Oct 2009  Dieter Althaus                     (b. 1958)            CDU
 1 Jan 2009 - 20 Apr 2009  Birgit Diezel (f)                  (b. 1958)            CDU
                             (acting for Althaus)
30 Oct 2009 -  5 Dec 2014  Christine Lieberknecht (f)         (b. 1958)            CDU
 5 Dec 2014 -              Bodo Ramelow                       (b. 1956)            Lft



Waldek-Pyrmont

[Waldeck-Pyrmont c.1830-1929
                (Germany)]
                     1918 - 1 Apr 1929
 
Capital: Arolsen
State Anthem
"Das Waldecker Lied"
Population: 55,750 (1925)

             
13 Nov 1918                Free State of Waldek-Pyrmont (Freisaat Waldeck-Pyrmont)
                             (under Prussian administration).
30 Nov 1921                Free State of Waldeck (Freistaat Waldeck); Pyrmont incorporated
                             into Prussia.
 1 Apr 1929                Waldek incorporated into Prussia (part of Hessen-Nassau).

State directors
1914 -  1 Sep 1920         Karl Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm     (b. 1867 - d. 1940) 
                             von Redern
 1 Sep 1920 -  7 Feb 1929  Wilhelm Schmieding                 (b. 1878 - d. 1929)  DVP
25 Feb 1929 - 31 Mar 1929  Herbert Herberg                                         DVP


Wartheland/Posen (1939-1945): see under Prussian Provinces


Württemberg (Württemberg-Baden)

[State Flag 1922-1933 Württemberg (Germany)]
20 Feb 1922 - 30 Jan 1933
[Württemberg-Baden unofficial flag
                      c.1946-52]
c.1946 - 25 Apr 1952 Unofficial

Capital: Stuttgart
State Anthem
"Württemberg Hymne"
(unofficial)
Population: 2,897,000 (1939)

30 Nov 1918                People's State of Württemberg (Volksstaat Württemberg).
13 Jul 1945                States of Baden and Württemberg divided; northern parts
                             merged into one state (Württemberg).
29 Oct 1945                Northern part named Nordwürttemberg-Nordbaden.
20 Dec 1945                Renamed Württemberg-Baden.
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
25 Apr 1952                Merged into Baden-Württemberg.

State presidents
11 Nov 1918 - 23 Jun 1920  Wilhelm Blos                       (b. 1849 - d. 1927) MSPD;1919 SPD
23 Jun 1920 -  8 Apr 1924  Johannes von Hieber                (b. 1862 - d. 1951)  DDP
 8 Apr 1924 -  3 Jun 1924  Eduard Rau (acting)                (b. 1868 - d. 1953)  Non-party
 3 Jun 1924 -  8 Jun 1928  Wilhelm Bazille                    (b. 1874 - d. 1934)  DNVP
 8 Jun 1928 - 15 Mar 1933  Eugen Bolz                         (b. 1881 - d. 1945)  Z
15 Mar 1933 - 12 May 1933  Wilhelm Murr                       (b. 1888 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
                            (also Reichskommissar 8-15 Mar 1933 and
                             5 May 1933 - 20 Apr 1945 Reichsstatthalter)
12 May 1933 - Apr 1945     Christian Mergenthaler             (b. 1884 - d. 1980)  NSDAP
Minister-president
19 Sep 1945 - 25 Apr 1952  Reinhold Maier                     (b. 1889 - d. 1971)  FDP/DVP


Württemberg-Hohenzollern  (Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern)

[Württemberg-Hohenzollern
                1945-1952]
                        1945 - 25 Apr 1952

Capital: Tübingen
State Anthem
Population: 1,117,600 (1951)

13 Jul 1945                Württemberg divided: the southern part merged with the former
                             Prussian district of Sigmaringen (Hohenzollern) into
                             Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern.
22 Jul 1947                Renamed Württemberg-Hohenzollern.
 7 Sep 1949                Part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
25 Apr 1952                Merged into Baden-Württemberg.

State presidents
16 Oct 1945 - 22 Jul 1947  Carlo Schmid (1st time)            (b. 1896 - d. 1979)  SPD
                            (chairman Directorate of the 
                             state secretariat to 4 Dec 1946)
22 Jul 1947 -  3 Aug 1948  Lorenz Bock                        (b. 1883 - d. 1948)  CDU
 4 Aug 1948 - 13 Aug 1948  Carlo Schmid (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)               SPD
13 Aug 1948 - 25 Apr 1952  Gebhard Müller                     (b. 1900 - d. 1990)  CDU






© Ben Cahoon