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Ghana
 
[Royal Africa Company and
                                    Guinea Company jack, 1663-1701]
1663 - 1701 Royal Africa Company jack
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
to 1870
 
[Flag
                                    of West Africa Settlements]
1870 - 1877
 
[British
                                    Gold Coast ensign 1877-1957]
1877 - 6 Mar 1957 
 
[Flag of
                                    Ghana]
6 Mar 1957 - 1 Jan 1964;
Re-adopted 28 Feb 1966
[Ghana
                                    flag 1964-1966]
1 Jan 1964 - 28 Feb 1966

Map of Ghana  Hear National Anthem
  "God Bless Our Homeland
Ghana"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1957 (lyrics 1966)
Constitution
(28 Apr 1992)
Capital: Accra
(Osu 1874-1877; Cape Castle
1665-1874; Kormantin
Nov 1631-29 Jan 1665)
Currency: Ghana Cedi (GHS);
  1958-1965 Ghana Pound (GHP);
1914-1958 British West African
 Pound (XBAP)
National Holiday: 6 Mar (1957)
Independence Day
Population: 27,499,924 (2017)
GDP: $130.2 billion (2017)
Exports: $12.16 billion (2017)
Imports: $12.73 billion (2017) 
Ethnic groups: Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%,
 Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%,
Mande-Busanga 1.1%, other 1.6% (2010)
Total Active Armed Forces: 15,500 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 115 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 44 ships (2017)
Religions: Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%,
 Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%,
 traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, C, CCM, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, EITI, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF (associate), OPCW, OST (signatory), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WAMZ, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Ghana Index
Chronology

1471                       Portuguese discover the trade of Oro de la Mina
                           
  (Gold of the Mine), somewhere near Elmina or
                             Shama.
1553                       First English trade expedition to Gold Coast under
                             Thomas Windham and Antonio Anes Pinteado.
1595                       First Dutch trading expedition to Gold Coast.
22 Nov 1631 -  9 Apr 1651  English Gold Coast, with Kormantin (Cormantin) chief
                             post, under Company of Merchants Trading to Guinea
                             administration.
 9 Apr 1651 - Dec 1657    
English posts under Company of London Merchants
                            administration.
Dec 1657 - 10 Jan 1662    
English posts under the East India Company
                             administration.

25 Mar 1663 - 27 Sep 1672 
English posts under the Company of Royal Adventurers
                             of England Trading to Africa administration.
 3 May 1664                English take Cape Coast Castle (at Cabo Corso)
                             (from the Dutch).
29 Jan 1665               
Kormantin captured by Dutch.
27 Sep 1672 - 12 Apr 1750  Under Royal African Company (retained legal rights
                             over the coast until dissolved in Apr 1752)
                             administration.
1673                       James Fort established at Accra by English.
1691                       Fort Metal Cross established at Dixcove by English.
 1 May 1707                British Gold Coast Settlements 
1744 - 1753                French Fort Annamaboe at Anomabu, taken by British
                             forces in 1753.
12 Apr 1750
-  7 May 1821  Company of Merchants Trading to Africa takes over
                             administration.
1753                       Fort William established at Anomabu.
 
1 Jan 1808                British outlaw dealing and trading in African slaves
                             and their transport elsewhere declared unlawful.
 7 May 1821 - 1828         British Gold Coast a crown colony (from 3 Jul 1821
                             subordinated to Sierra Leone).
       
17 Oct 1821 - 25 Jun 1828  Gold Coast Territory, part of West African 

                             Territories (see Sierra Leone).
25 Jun 1828 - 1843         Under Company of Merchants Trading to Africa
                              administration.

 1 Aug 1834                Slavery abolished in the British Empire (by act of
                             Aug 1833).
1843                       British Gold Coast a crown colony (subordinated to

                             Sierra Leone).
24 Jan 1850                Colony of the Gold Coast (a separate colony).
30 Mar 1850                Incorporation of former Danish Gold Coast 
                             settlements.
19 Feb 1866 - 24 Jul 1874  Gold Cost Territory, part of British West African
                             Settlements (see Sierra Leone).
 1 Jan 1868                By convention all Dutch forts to the east of Elmina
                             handed over to U.K., while British forts west of
                             Elmina handed over to the Netherlands.
 
9 Apr 1872                Incorporation of former Dutch Gold Coast 

                             settlements (Ft. Elmina renamed Fort St. George
                             d'Elmina).

24 Jul 1874                Gold Coast colony (with Lagos to 13 Jan 1886).
26 Sep 1901                Gold Coast crown colony.
 1 Jan 1902                Asante and Northern Territories annexed
                             (administration under governor of Gold Coast).
 8 Jan 1951                Self-rule achieved.

 6 Mar 1957                Gold Coast colony, Ashanti region, Northern
                             territories
and British Togoland independent
as
                             Ghana.

 1 May 1959 - May 1963     Part of the Union of Independent African States, a
                             loose federation of
Ghana and Guinea (which on
                             1 Jul 1961, is renamed Union of African
States
                             with the inclusion of Mali).

 1 Jul 1960                Republic of Ghana
 1 Jul 1960 - 24 Feb 1966  ("First Republic") 
 1 Oct 1969 - 13 Jan 1972  ("Second Republic")
24 Sep 1979 - 31 Dec 1981  ("Third Republic")
 7 Jan 1993 -              ("Fourth Republic")

Traditional
States

Ashanti
Northern
Territories

(1897-1957)
Gold Coast
Colony Region

(1945-1953)
Danish
Gold Coast
(1658-1850)
Dutch Gold
Coast

(1598-1871)
Prussian
Gold Coast
(1682-1724)
Portuguese
Gold Coast
(1482-1642)
Swedish Gold Coast
(1650-1663)
 

Chief Factors of the Company of Merchants Trading to Guinea
31 Jul 1632 –  8 Dec 1633  Arend de Groot (1st time)
1633 – 1638                John Wood
Aug 1638 –  5 Mar 1640     Timothy Mulgrave (1st time)
 5 Mar 1640 – c.Sep 1641   Arend De Groot (2nd time)
c.Sep 1641 – 15 Aug 1642   Timothy Mulgrave (2nd time)
Sep 1642 – Jul 1644        .... [six workmen names unknown]
25 Jul 1644 – 22 Oct 1644  Timothy Mulgrave (3rd time)
22 Oct 1644 –  7 Oct 1645  Francis Searle (1st time)          (d. 1646)
 7 Oct 1645 – 20 Nov 1645  James Leveson (1st time)
20 Nov 1645 – Jun 1646     Timothy Mulgrave (4th time)
c.Jun 1646 – c.Sep 1646    James Leveson (2nd time)
c.Sep 1646 -  8 Nov 1646   Francis Searle (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 8 Nov 1646 – c.Apr 1650   George Middleton (1st time)
c.Apr 1650 - c.Jan 1651    Thomas Crispe
c.Jan 1651 -  9 Apr 1651   George Middleton (2nd time)
Chief Factors
of the Company of London Merchants
 9 Apr 1651 - 19 Feb 1654  George Middleton
19 Feb 1654 – 14 Feb 1655  John Hulwood
14 Feb 1655 – Dec 1657     Lancelot Stavely                   (b. 1623 - d. 1670)
Agents of the East India Company
Dec 1657 - 3 Jul 1658      Lancelot Stavely                   (s.a.)
 3 Jul 1658 – Oct 1659     James Congett
Oct 1659 – 22 Dec 1661     Chappell
22 Dec 1661 – c.May 1662   Edmund Young                       (d. 1662)
c.May 1662 -  6 Jan 1663   John Puliston (Puleston)           (d. 1663)
 6 Jan 1663 – Mar 1663     Thomas Davies
Mar 1663 – 25 Mar 1663     Stephen Mitchell
                            (superintendent and chief manager)
Agents of the Royal Company of Adventurers
25 Mar 1663 – c.Sep 1663   Francis Selwyn (1st time)          (d. 1665)
                           + Thomas Allen (to 19 Jul 1663)    (d. 1663)
c.Sep 1663 – c.May 1664    Seven Merchants
                           (rotating monthly, incl. Selwyn)
c.May 1664 – 29 Jan 1665   Francis Selwyn (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                            (Dutch prisoner 29 Jan - 8 Feb 1665)
29 Jan 1665 – 1667         Gilbert Beavis (at Cape Coast)    
1667 – 1672                Thomas Pearson
1672 - 27 Sep 1672         Abraham Holditch                   (b. c.1639 - d. 1678)
Agents-general
of the Royal African Company
27 Sep 1672 – 1673         Abraham Holditch                   (s.a.)
1673 – c.Jul 1676          Thomas Mellish
c.Jul 1676 – c.Aug 1677    Ralph Hodgkins                     (d. 1677)
c.Aug 1677 - c.Mar 1678    William Croxton                    (d. 1678)
c.Mar 1678                 Factors
                           - Fowler Aylmer
                           - Arthur Harbin
                           - Matthias Halstead
c.Mar 1678 –  7 Dec 1680   Nathaniel Bradley
 7 Dec 1680 –  3 Apr 1684  Henry Greenhill
 3 Apr 1684 –  5 Jun 1684  Richard Thelwall                   (d. 1685)
                           + John Adams                       (d. 1684)
                           + Mark Bedford Whiting             (d. 1692)
                           + Robert Elrves                    (d. 1692)
 5 Jun 1684 –  4 Jul 1687  Henry Nurse
Chief Merchants of the Royal African Company
(three-man administration)
 4 Jul 1687 - 1691         Samuel Humphreys (to c.May 1691)
                           + Rice Wight (to 16 Jun 1691)
                           + John Boylston (to 19 Mar 1690)   (d. 1690)
                           + Robert Elrves                    (s.a.)  
                             (from c.May 1690)     
1691 - 1692                Robert Elrves (to May 1691)        (s.a.)  
                           + John Bloome (c.Jun 1691 – Jan 1692)
                           + Mark Bedford Whiting             (s.a.)
                             (c.Jul 1691 to Aug 1692)
1692 - 1693                Mark Bedford Whiting               (s.a.)        
                             (to Aug 1692)
                           + Robert Elrves                    (s.a.)  
                             (to 23 Jun 1692)    
                           + Joshua Platt (from Jan 1692)     (d. 1695)
                           + William Ronan (from c.Jul 1692)  (d. 1697)
                           + John Gregory (c.Aug - Oct 1692)  (d. 1692)
                           + William Mellross (from Oct 1692)
1693 - 1696                Joshua Platt (to 11 Jan 1695)      (s.a.)
                           + William Ronan                    (s.a.)
                           + William Mellross
                           + Nicholas Buckeridge
                             (from Jan 1695)
1696 - 1697                William Ronan                      (s.a.)
                           + William Mellross
                           + Nicholas Buckeridge
1697 - 1698                William Ronan (to 8 Oct 1697)      (s.a.)
                           + William Mellross
                           + Nicholas Buckeridge
                           + William Cooper (from c.Jul 1697) (d. 1699)
                           + John Brown (from c.Oct 1697)
1698 - 1699                Nicholas Buckeridge
                           + William Cooper                   (s.a.)
                           + John Brown
1699 - 1700                Nicholas Buckeridge
                           + William Cooper (to 3 Jan 1699)   (s.a.)
                           + John Brown (to c.Feb 1699)
                           + Howsley Freeman (from c.Mar 1699)
                           + Samuel Wallis (from c.Mar 1699)
1700 - Dec 1700            Nicholas Buckeridge (to Sep 1700)
                           + Howsley Freeman
                           + Samuel Wallis
Agents-general of the Royal African Company
Dec 1700 – bf.4 Feb 1701   Joseph Baggs                       (d. 1701)
1701 - 1702                Edward Newse (to Sep 1701)         (d. 1702)
                           + Howsley Freeman
                           + Samuel Wallis (to 1701/02)
                           + Gerrard Gore (to c.Sep 1701)     (d. 1717)
                           + Thomas Peck
                             (from c.Sep 1701)
                           + William Hicks
                             (from c.Sep 1701)
1702 - 1703                Howsley Freeman
                           + Thomas Peck
                             (to c.Sep 1702)
                           + William Hicks
                           + Peter Dowse
                             (c.Sep 1702 - c.Apr 1703)
1703 - 17 Dec 1703         Howsley Freeman (to c.Apr 1703)
                           + William Hicks (to c.Apr 1703)
                           + Peter Dowse (to c.Apr 1703)
                           + Joseph Major (from c.Apr 1703)
                           + Richard Willis (from c.Apr 1703)
                           + John Bray
                              (c.Apr 1703 – c.Jun 1703)
                           + John Snow
                              (c.Apr 1703 - c.Jun 1703)
                           + John Brown (from c.Sep 1703)
17 Dec 1703 -  3 Jan 1711  Sir Dalby Thomas                   (b. c.1650 - d. 1711)
 3 Jan 1711 – 27 Mar 1717  Seth Grosvenor (to c.Aug 1714)
                           + James Phipps                     (b. c.1687 - d. 1723)
                           + Robert Bleau (from May 1713)     (d. 1718)
                           + Gerrard Gore                     (d. 1717)
                             (Jul 1713 – 14 Jan 1717)  
                           + Randle Logan (1714)
Captains-general of the Royal African Company
27 Mar 1717 - 14 Jun 1718  William Johnson                    (d. 1718)
14 Jun 1718 - 27 Jan 1719  James Phipps                       (s.a.)
                           + Walter Charles
                           + John Stevenson (from c.Mar 1719)
27 Jan 1719 –  7 Apr 1719  James Deane                        (d. 1719)
 7 Apr 1719 – 29 Sep 1719  James Phipps                       (s.a.)
                           + Walter Charles (to 11 Apr 1719)
                           + John Stevenson
29 Sep 1719 - c.Sep 1722   James Phipps                       (s.a.)

c.Sep 1722 – Mar 1723      Henry Dodson
Mar 1723 – Apr 1726        John Tinker                        (b. 1700? - d. 1758)
Apr 1726 –  8 Jun 1727     Philip Franklin
                           + Walter Smith
                           + Charles Ross
Chief Agents of the Royal African Company
(three-man administration)
 8 Jun 1727 - Sep 1727     Philip Franklin
                           + Walter Smith (to Sep 1727)
                           + Charles Ross (to Sep 1727)
Sep 1727 – 1729            Philip Franklin (to 2 Sep 1728)
                           + George Breakes (to 1727)         (d. 1727)
                           + John Reed (to Nov 1728)
                           + Benjamin Peake (to Jul 1728)     (d. 1733)
                           + Robert Cruikshank                (d. 1731)
                             (from 24 Jul 1728)
                           + John Braithwaite
                             (from c.Nov 1728)
1729 - 1732                John Braithwaite (to Jun 1732)

                           + Robert Cruikshank                (s.a.)
                           + Benjamin Peake (from c.May 1729)
1732 – 1734                Benjamin Peake (to 11 Mar 1733)    (s.a.)
                           + William Knight
                             (from Jun 1732 - 1733)
                           + Charles Whitaker
                             (Jun 1732 – 24 Feb 1733)
                           + Edward Stephens
                             (from 18 Jan 1733)
                           + Francis Gilburne Wheeler         (d. 1736)
                             (from c.Oct 1733)
                           + William Whetstone Rogers         (d. 1735)
                             (from 1 Dec 1733)
1734 - 1735                Edward Stephens 
                           + Francis Gilburne Wheeler         (s.a.)
                           + William Whetstone Rogers         (s.a.)
                             (to Nov 1734)
1735 – 1736                Edward Stephens
                           + Francis Gilburne Wheeler         (s.a.)
1736 – 1737                Edward Stephens (to 17 Dec 1736)
                           + Francis Gilburne Wheeler         (s.a.)
                             (to 20 Jan 1736) 
                           + Jeremiah Tinker                  (d. 1737)
                             (from 17 Dec 1736)
                           + Thomas Essen (from 17 Dec 1736)  (d. 1737)
                           + John Cope (from 17 Dec 1736)
1737 – 1738                Jeremiah Tinker (to 26 Oct 1737)   (s.a.)
                           + Thomas Essen (to 9 Mar 1737)     (s.a.)
                           + John Cope
                           + William Tymewell                 (d. 1756)
                             (from 14 Nov 1737)
                           + Thomas Melvil (from 14 Nov 1737) (d. 1756)
1738 – 1739                John Cope
                           + William Tymewell                 (s.a.)
                           + Thomas Melvil (to Mar 1738)      (s.a.)
                           + James Hope (from c.Mar 1738)     (d. 1740)
1739 – 1740                
John Cope
                           + James Hope (to 27 Jul 1739)      (s.a.)
                           + William Tymewell                 (s.a.)
                             (to c.17 Jan 1739, from c.Aug 1739)
                           + William Lea
                             (17 Jan 1739 – 2 Oct 1739)
                           + Nathaniel Drybutter (from Oct 1739)
1740 – 1741                John Cope
                           + William Tymewell (to c.Aug 1740) (s.a.)
                           + Nathaniel Drybutter      
                             (to 4 May 1740)                  (d. 1740)
                           + Charles Bladwell (from May 1740)
                           + John Castres (from 25 Aug 1740)  (d. 1741)
1741 – 1742                John Cope (to Dec 1741)
                           + John Castres (to Aug 1741)       (s.a.)
                           + Bladwell (to Dec 1741)
                           + David Crichton (from 25 Dec 1741)
                           + Thomas Chalmer (from 25 Dec 1741)
1742 - 1743                David Crichton
                           + Thomas Chalmer
                           + Thomas Melvil (to c.May 1742)    (s.a.)
                           + William Husbands                 (d. 1758)
                             (from 18 Aug 1742)
1743 - 1744                David Crichton 
                           + William Husbands                 (s.a.)
                             (to Dec 1743/Jan 1744)
                           + Thomas Chalmer
                           + James Craik (from Dec? 1743)    
1744 - 1746                David Crichton 
                           + Thomas Chalmer
                           + James Craik
1746 - 1748                David Crichton 
                           + Thomas Chalmer (to c.Oct 1747)
                           + James Craik
1748 - 1749                David Crichton (to c.Feb 1748)  
                           + James Craik (to c.Apr 1748)
                           + Thomas Boteler (from c.Feb 1748) 
1749 - 15 May 1749         Thomas Boteler
Governors of the Royal African Company
15 May 1749 –  2 Feb 1750  Richard Stockwell
 2 Feb 1750 – 12 Apr 1750  John Roberts                       (d. 1781)
                             (president of the council)
Governors of the Committee of Merchants

12 Apr 1750 – 20 Jun 1751  John Roberts (1st time)            (s.a.)
                             (president of the council to Dec 1750)
20 Jun 1751 – 23 Jan 1756  Thomas Melvil                      (s.a.)
                             (president of the council to Feb 1752)
23 Jan 1756 - 10 Feb 1756  William Tymewell                   (s.a.)
17 Feb 1756 - 15 Oct 1757  Charles Bell (1st time)(interim)   (d. 1785)
15 Oct 1757 - 10 May 1761  Nassau Senior (acting)
10 May 1761 - 15 Aug 1763  Charles Bell (2nd time)            (s.a.)
15 Aug 1763 -  1 Mar 1766  William Mutter
 1 Mar 1766 - 11 Aug 1766  John Hippisley (Hippersley)        (b. 1729? - d. 1767)
11 Aug 1766 - 21 Apr 1769  Gilbert Petrie                     (b. 1720 - d. 1807)
21 Apr 1769 - 11 Aug 1770  John Grosle (Grossle)              (d. 1770)
11 Aug 1770 - 20 Jan 1777  David Mill                         (d. 1777?)
20 Jan 1777 - 25 Mar 1780  Richard Miles (1st time)(interim)
25 Mar 1780 - 20 May 1781  John Roberts (2nd time)            (s.a.)
20 May 1781 - 29 Apr 1782  Jerome Bernard Weuves (acting)     (d. 1794)
29 Apr 1782 - 29 Jan 1784  Richard Miles (2nd time)
29 Jan 1784 - 24 Jan 1787  James Morgue
24 Jan 1787 - 27 Apr 1787  Thomas Price                       (d. 1787)
27 Apr 1787 - 20 Jun 1789  Thomas Norris
20 Jun 1789 - 15 Nov 1791  William Field (Fielde)
15 Nov 1791 - 31 Mar 1792  John Gordon (1st time)
(interim)
31 Mar 1792 - 16 Dec 1798  Archibald Dalzel (1st time)        (b. 1740 - d. 1811)
16 Dec 1798 -  4 Jan 1799  Jacob Mould (1st time)
 4 Jan 1799 - 28 Apr 1800  John Gordon (2nd time) (interim)
28 Apr 1800 - 30 Sep 1802  Archibald Dalzel (2nd time)        (s.a.)
30 Sep 1802 -  8 Feb 1805  Jacob Mould (2nd time)
 8 Feb 1805 -  4 Dec 1807  George Torrane                     (b. 17.. - d. 1807)
 4 Dec 1807 - 21 Apr 1816  Edward William White               (d. 1816)
21 Apr 1816 - 12 Jan 1817  Joseph Dawson (interim)
12 Jan 1817 - 27 Mar 1822  John Hope Smith                    (b. 1786 - d. 1831)
Governors
27 Mar 1822 - 17 May 1822  Sir Charles MacCarthy (1st time)   (b. 1768 - d. 1824)
17 May 1822 - 28 Nov 1822  James Chisholm -Commandant         (d. 1824)
                             (1st time)
28 Nov 1822 - 21 Jan 1824  Sir Charles MacCarthy (2nd time)   (s.a.)
21 Jan 1824 - 17 Oct 1824  James Chisholm (2nd time)          (s.a.)
17 Oct 1824 - 22 Mar 1825  Edward Purdon -Commandant
22 Mar 1825 -  7 Mar 1826  Charles Turner                     (d. 1826)
 
8 Mar 1826 - 18 May 1826  Kenneth Macaulay (acting)          (b. 1792 - d. 1829)
18 May 1826 - 15 Nov 1826  Sir Neil Campbell                  (b. 1776 - d. 1827)

15 Nov 1826 - 11 Oct 1827  Henry John Ricketts -Commandant    (b. 1787 - d. 1838)
                            
(1st time)
11 Oct 1827 - 10 Mar 1828  Hugh Lumley (acting)               (d. 1828)
                             (lieutenant governor)
10 Mar 1828 -  5 Jun 1828  James (George) Hingston
-Commandant
 5 Jun 1828 - 25 Jun 1828  Henry John Ricketts -Commandant    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Presidents of the Council of the Committee of Merchants
25 Jun 1828 - 15 Feb 1830  John Jackson  
15 Feb 1830 - 26 Jun 1836  George Maclean (1st time)          (b. 1801 - d. 1847)
26 Jun 1836 - 15 Aug 1838  William Topp (interim)
15 Aug 1838 -  6 Mar 1843  George Maclean (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Lieutenant governors
 
6 Mar 1843 -  8 Mar 1845  Henry Worsley Hill
                 (b. 1799 - d. 1868)
 
8 Mar 1845 - 15 Apr 1846  James Lilley (Lelley)(acting)

15 Apr 1846 - 31 Jan 1849  William Winniett (1st time)        (b. 1793 - d. 1850)

 
1 Feb 1849 - 13 Jan 1850  James Coleman Fitzpatrick          (b. 1816 - d. 1880)
                             (1st time) 
Governor
13 Jan 1850 -  4 Dec 1850  Sir William Winniett (2nd time)    (s.a.)

Lieutenant governor
 4 Dec 1850 - 14 Oct 1851  James Bannerman                    (b. 1790 - d. 1858)

Governor
14 Oct 1851 -  7 Jun 1853  Stephen John Hill (1st time)       (b. 1809 - d. 1891)

Lieutenant governors
 
7 Jun 1853 - Aug 1853     James Coleman Fitzpatrick          (s.a.)

                             (2nd time) 
Aug 1853 - 16 Jan 1854     Brodie G. Cruickshank              (b. 1814 - d. 1854)
Governors and Commanders-in-chief
16 Jan 1854 - 13 Dec 1854  Stephen John Hill (2nd time)       (s.a.)

13 Dec 1854 - 23 Mar 1857  Henry Connor (acting)              (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
23 Mar 1857 - 12 May 1858  Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
12 May 1858 - 20 Apr 1860  Henry Bird (acting)
20 Apr 1860 - 14 Apr 1862  Edward Bullock Andrews
14 Apr 1862 - 20 Oct 1862  William A. Ross (acting)
20 Oct 1862 - May 1864     Richard Pine (1st time)

May 1864 - 1864            Sir William Hackett (acting)       (b. 1824 - d. 1877)
1864 - Apr 1865            Richard Pine (2nd time)
Jan 1865 - Mar 1865        Harry St. George Ord               (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
                             (special commissioner)
Apr 1865 - May 1865        Rokeby Steele Wilkinson Jones      (d. 1865)

                            
(acting)
May 1865 - 19 Aug 1865     William Elliot Mockler (acting)    (b. 1817 - d. 1874)
19 Aug 1865 - 19 Feb 1866  Edward Conran (acting)
Administrators-in-chief

19 Feb 1866 -  9
Feb 1867  Edward Conran (acting)
 
9 Feb 1867 - Aug 1868     Herbert Taylor Ussher (1st time)   (b. 1836 - d. 1880) 
                             (acting to 20 Jul 1867)
Aug 1868 - Dec 1869        William Henry Simpson (acting)
     (b. 1830 - d. 1872)
Dec 1869 - 18 Jul 1871     Herbert Taylor Ussher (2nd time)   (s.a.) 
18 Jul 1871 - Feb 1872     Charles Spencer Salmon (1st time)  (b. 1832 - d. 1896)

                             (acting) 
Feb 1872 - 18 May 1872     Herbert Taylor Ussher (3rd time)   (s.a.) 
18 May 1872 - 23 Nov 1872  Charles Spencer Salmon (2nd time)  (s.a.) 

                             (acting)
23 Nov 1872 - 
2 Oct 1873  Robert William Harley              (b. 1829 - d. 1892) 
 2 Oct 1873 -  4 Mar 1874  Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley         (b. 1833 - d. 1913)

 4 Mar 1874 - 30 Mar 1874  James Maxwell (acting)
30 Mar 1874 - 25 Jun 1874  Charles Cameron Lees (1st time)    (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
                             (acting)
25 Jun 1874 - 31 Jul 1874  George Cumine Strahan              (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
Governors and Commanders-in-chief
31 Jul 1874 -  7 Apr 1876  George Cumine Strahan              (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1876 - 26 Dec 1876  Charles Cameron Lees               (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
26 Dec 1876 - 13 May 1878  Sanford Freeling                   (b. 1828 - d. 1894)
                             (acting to 5 Jun 1877)
13 May 1878 - Jun 1879     Charles Cameron Lees               (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting)
Jun 1879 -  1 Dec 1880     Herbert Taylor Ussher (4th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1880 -  4 Mar 1881  William Brandford Griffith         (b. 1821 - d. 1897)
                             (1st time)(acting)
 4 Mar 1881 - 13 May 1882  Sir Samuel Rowe (1st time)         (b. 1835 - d. 1888)
13 May 1882 -  4 Oct 1882  Cornelius Alfred Moloney (acting)  (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
 4 Oct 1882 - 24 Dec 1882  William Brandford Griffith         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
24 Dec 1882 - 29 Apr 1884  Sir Samuel Rowe (2nd time)         (s.a.)
29 Apr 1884 - 24 Apr 1885  William Alexander George Young     (b. c.1827 - d. 1885)
24 Apr 1885 - 11 Apr 1886  William Brandford Griffith         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
11 Apr 1887 - 26 Nov 1887  Frederick Benjamin Price White     (b. 1844? - d. 1909)
                             (acting)

26 Nov 1887 - 30 Jun 1889  Sir William Brandford Griffith     (s.a.)
                             (4th time) 
                             (from 24 May 1887, Sir William Brandford Griffith)
30 Jun 1889 - 18 Feb 1890  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (b. 1851 - d. 1925)
                             (1st time) (acting)
18 Feb 1890 - 12 Jun 1891  Sir William Brandford Griffith     (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
12 Jun 1891 - 24 Nov 1891  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
24 Nov 1891 - 12 Aug 1893  Sir William Brandford Griffith     (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
12 Aug 1893 -  7 Mar 1894  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
 7 Mar 1894 -  7 Apr 1895  Sir William Brandford Griffith     (s.a.)
                             (7th time) 
 7 Apr 1895 - 19 Apr 1896  William Edward Maxwell (1st time)  (b. 1846 - d. 1897)
                             (from 10 Apr 1896, Sir William Edward Maxwell)
19 Apr 1896 - 23 Oct 1896  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (s.a.)
                             (4th time) (acting)
23 Oct 1896 -  6 Dec 1897  Sir William Edward Maxwell         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 6 Dec 1897 - 27 Dec 1898  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (s.a.)
                             (5th time)(acting to 29 May 1898)
27 Dec 1898 - 13 Jul 1899  William Low (1st time)(acting)
13 Jul 1899 - 29 Aug 1900  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
29 Aug 1900 - 17 Dec 1900  William Low (2nd time)(acting)

17 Dec 1900 -  9 Feb 1904  Sir Matthew Nathan (1st time)      (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
30 Jul 1902 – 20 Dec 1902  Leonard Robert Sunkersett Arthur   (b. 1864 - d. 1903)
                             (acting)
30 Dec 1902 -  9 Feb 1904
  Sir Matthew Nathan (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 
9 Feb 1904 -  3 Mar 1904  Herbert Bryan (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1865 - d. 1950)

 3 Mar 1904 -  1 Sep 1910  John Pickersgill Rodger (1st time) (b. 1851 - d. 1910)
10 May 1905 - 12 Nov 1905  Herbert Bryan (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
12 Nov 1905 -  2 Apr 1906  John Pickersgill Rodger (2nd time) (s.a.)
 
2 Apr 1906 -  2 Sep 1906  Herbert Bryan
(3rd time)(acting)   (s.a.)  
 2 Sep 1906 -  9 Oct 1907  John Pickersgill Rodger (3rd time) (s.a.)
 
9 Oct 1907 - 28 Mar 1908  Herbert Bryan
(4th time)(acting)   (s.a.)
28 Mar 1908 - 30 Mar 1909  John Pickersgill Rodger (4th time) (s.a.)
30 Mar 1909 - 29 Aug 1909  Herbert Bryan
(5th time)(acting)   (s.a.)
29 Aug 1909 -  1 Sep 1910  John Pickersgill Rodger (5th time) (s.a.)
 
1 Sep 1910 - 20 Nov 1910  Herbert Bryan (6th time)(acting)   (s.a.)

21 Nov 1910 - 29 Jun 1912  James Jamieson Thorburn (1st time) (b. 1864 - d. 1929)
 
5 Feb 1911 - 16 Jun 1911  Herbert Bryan (7th time) (acting)  (s.a.)
16 Jun 1911 - 29 Jun 1912  James Jamieson Thorburn (2nd time) (s.a.)
29 Jun 1912 - 26 Dec 1912  Herbert Bryan (8th time) (acting)  (s.a.)

26 Dec 1912 -  1 May 1914  Sir Hugh Charles Clifford          (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
                             (1st time)

 
1 May 1914 - 27 Aug 1914  William Charles Fleming Robertson  (b. 1867 - d. 1937)
                             (acting)
27 Aug 19145 May 1915  Sir Hugh Charles Clifford          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

 
5 May 1915 - 16 Nov 1915  Alexander Ransford Slater          (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
                             (1st time)(acting)
16 Nov 1915 - 18 Nov 1916  Sir Hugh Charles Clifford          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

18 Nov 1916 - 23 Apr 1917  Alexander Ransford Slater          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
23 Apr 1917 -  1 Apr 1919  Sir Hugh Charles Clifford          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)

 
1 Apr 1919 -  8 Oct 1919  Alexander Ransford Slater          (s.a.)

                             (3rd time) (acting)
 9 Oct 1919 -  2 Jun 1920  Frederick Gordon Guggisberg        (b. 1869 - d. 1930)
                             (1st time)

 2 Jun 1920 -  6 Oct 1920  Alexander Ransford Slater          (s.a.)
                             (4th time) (acting)

 
6 Oct 1920 - 11 Jul 1921  Frederick Gordon Guggisberg        (s.a.)
                             (from 1 Jan 1922, Sir Frederick Gordon Guggisberg)
                            
(2nd time)
11 Jul 1921 - 12 Dec 1921  Reginald Warren Hale Wilkinson     (b. 1882 - d. 1973)
                             (acting)
12 Dec 1921 - 17 Aug 1923  Sir Frederick Gordon Guggisberg    (s.a.)
                            
(3rd time)
17 Aug 1923
- 17 Aug 1923  James Crawford Maxwell (1st time)  (b. 1869 - d. 1932)
                             (acting)
17 Aug 1923 - 31 Mar 1924  Sir Frederick Gordon Guggisberg    (s.a.)
                            
(4th time)
31 Mar 1924 -  1 Sep 1924  James Crawford Maxwell (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)  
 1 Sep 19246 Jul 1925  Sir Frederick Gordon Guggisberg    (s.a.)
                            
(5th time)
 6 Jul 1925 - 10 Nov 1925  Sir James Crawford Maxwell         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)
10 Nov 1925 - 11 Apr 1926  Sir Frederick Gordon Guggisberg    (s.a.)
                            
(6th time)
11 Apr 1926 - 27 Sep 1926  Sir James Crawford Maxwell         (s.a.)
                             (5th time)(acting)  
27 Sep 1926 - 24 Apr 1927  Sir Frederick Gordon Guggisberg    (s.a.)

                            
(7th time)
24 Apr 1927 -  5 Jun 1927  Sir James Crawford Maxwell         (s.a.)
                             (5th time)(acting)
 5 Jun 1927 - 19 Jul 1927  John C. Maxwell (acting)           (b. 1875 - d. 1946)
19 Jul 1927 - 18 Apr 1930  Sir Alexander Ransford Slater      (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
18 Apr 1930 - 22 Sep 1930  George Cornibert du Boulay         (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
                             (1st time) (acting)
22 Sep 1930 -  8 Dec 1931 
Sir Alexander Ransford Slater      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 8 Dec 1931 - 14 Dec 1931  George Cornibert du Boulay         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
14 Dec 1931 -  5 Apr 1932  Sir Alexander Ransford Slater      (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
 5 Apr 1932 - 29 Nov 1932  Geoffrey Alexander Stafford        (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
                             Northcote (1st time) (acting)
30 Nov 1932 - 13 May 1934  Sir Shenton Whitelegge Thomas      (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
13 May 1934 - 23 Oct 1934  Geoffrey Alexander Stafford        (s.a.)
                             Northcote (2nd time)(acting)
24 Oct 1934 - 24 Oct 1941  Sir Arnold Wienholt Hodson         (b. 1881 - d. 1944)
24 Oct 1941 - 29 Jun 1942  George Ernest London (1st time)    (b. 1889 - d. 1957)
                             (acting)
29 Jun 1942 -  2 Aug 1947  Sir Alan Cuthbert Maxwell Burns    (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
 2 Aug 1947 - 12 Jan 1948  George Ernest London (2nd time)    (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
12 Jan 1948 - 15 Feb 1949  Sir Gerald Hallen Creasy           (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
15 Feb 1949 - 28 Mar 1949  Sir Robert Scott (1st time)        (b. 1903 - d. 1968)
                             (acting)
28 Mar 1949 - 11 Jun 1949  Thorleif Rattray Orde Mangin       (b. 1896 - d. 1950)
                             (acting)
11 Jun 1949 - 11 Aug 1949  Sir Robert Scott (2nd time)        (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
11 Aug 1949 -  6 Mar 1957  Sir Charles Noble Arden Arden-     (b. 1898 - d. 1962)
                             Clarke
                            (Charles Nobel Arden Clarke
to 6 Jul 1949)    
Queen¹
 6 Mar 1957 -  1 Jul 1960  the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 6 Mar 1957 - 15 May 1957  Sir Charles Noble Arden Arden-     (s.a.)
                             Clarke
15 May 1957 - 13 Nov 1957  Sir Kobina Arku Korsah (acting)    (b. 1894 - d. 1967)
13 Nov 1957 - 30 Jun 1960  William Francis Hare, Earl of      (b. 1906 - d. 1997)
                             Listowel, Viscount Ennismore and Listowel,
                             in the county of Kerry, Baron Ennismore,
                             in the county of Kerry, Baron Hare,
                             of Connamore, in the county of Cork
Presidents
 1 Jul 1960 - 24 Feb 1966  Kwame Nkrumah                      (b. 1909 - d. 1972)  CPP
                             (= Francis Nwia-Kofi Ngonloma)
24 Feb 1966 -  2 Apr 1969  Joseph Arthur Ankrah               (b. 1915 - d. 1992)  Mil
                             (chairman of National Liberation Council)
 2 Apr 1969 -  7 Aug 1970  Okatakyie Akwasi Amankwaa Afrifa   (b. 1936 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             (chairman of National Liberation Council to 3 Sep 1969,
                             then chairman of Presidential Commission)
 7 Aug 1970 - 31 Aug 1970  Raphael Nii Amaa Ollennu (acting)  (b. 1906 - d. 1986)  Non-party
31 Aug 1970 - 13 Jan 1972  Edward A. Akufo-Addo               (b. 1906 - d. 1979)  Non-party
13 Jan 1972 -  5 Jul 1978  Ignatius Kutu Kwasi Acheampong     (b. 1931 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             (chairman National Redemption Council to 19 Apr 1972;
                             19 Apr 1972 - 9 Oct 1975 Head of State and Chairman
                             of National Redemption Council; from 9 Oct 1975,
                             Head of State and Chairman of Supreme Military Council)
 5 Jul 1978 -  4 Jun 1979  Frederick "Fred" William Kwasi     (b. 1937 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             Akuffo 
                             (Head of State and Chairman of Supreme Military Council)
 4 Jun 1979 - 24 Sep 1979  Jerry John Kwasi Rawlings          (b. 1947)            Mil
                             (= Jeremiah Rawlings John)
                             (chairman of Armed Forces Revolutionary Council)
                             (1st time)
24 Sep 1979 - 31 Dec 1981  Hilla Limann (= Hilla Babini)      (b. 1934 - d. 1998)  PNP
31 Dec 1981 -  7 Jan 2001  Jerry John Kwasi Rawlings          (s.a.)              Mil;1993 NDC
                             (chairman of Provisional National Defence
                              Council to 7 Jan 1993)
                             (2nd time) 
 7 Jan 2001 -  7 Jan 2009  John Kofi Agyekum Kufuor           (b. 1938)            NPP
 7 Jan 2009 - 24 Jul 2012  John Evans Atta Mills              (b. 1944 - d. 2012)  NDC
24 Jul 2012 -  7 Jan 2017  John Dramani Mahama                (b. 1958)            NDC
 7 Jan 2017 -              Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo        (b. 1944)            NPP

Leader of Government Business
28 Feb
1951 - 21 Mar 1952  Kwame Nkrumah                      (s.a.)               CPP
Prime ministers

21 Mar 1952 - 30 Jun 1960  Kwame Nkrumah                      (s.a.)               CPP
 1 Jul 1960 -  3 Sep 1969  Post abolished
 3 Sep 1969 - 13 Jan 1972  Kofi Abrefa Busia                  (b. 1913 - d. 1978)  PP
13 Jan 1972                Post abolished

  ¹Full style:
(a) 6 Mar 1957 - 27 Jul 1957: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) 27 Jul 1957 - 30 Jun 1960: "Queen of Ghana and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Disputes: Disputed maritime border between Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.

Party abbreviations: NDC = National Democratic Congress (social-democratic, center-left, est.28 Jul 1992); NPP = New Patriotic Party (liberal conservative, center-right, est.1992); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CPP = Convention People's Party (socialist, Nkrumaist, pan-African, Feb 1964-Feb 1966 only legal party, 12 Jun 1949-Feb 1966); PNP = People's National Party (socialist, Nkrumaist, pan-African, 1979-31 Dec 1981); PP = Progress Party (1969-1972)


Ashanti Colony: see Ashanti under Ghana Traditional States


Northern Territories of the Gold Coast

[Flag of the United Kingdom]
 
Capital: Tamale
(Gambaga 1897-1907)
Population: 866,503 (1948)

15 Oct 1897               Northern Territories Military Protectorate (areas north
                            of Ashanti proper) organized as a dependency of Gold Coast.
26 Sep 1901               Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (subordinated to the
                            governors of the Gold Coast).
29 Mar 1946               Chief commissioner is made a member of the Gold Cost Legislative
                            Council
, and in 1951 Northern members enter legislative assembly.
1953
                      Northern Territories Region
 6 Mar 1957               Integrated into independent Ghana.

Chief Commissioners
Oct 1897 - 1899           Henry Ponting Northcott             (b. 1856 - d. 1899)
                            (commissioner and commandant)
1899                      Sir Edwin Arney Speed               (b. 1869 - d. 1941)

                            (district officer) 
1899 - 1904               Sir Arthur Henry Morris             (b. 1861 - d. 1939)

1904 - 1910               Alan Edward Garrard Watherston      (b. 1867 - d. 1910)
1910 - 1920               Cecil Hamilton Armitage             (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
1920 - 1924               Arthur James Philbrick              (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
1924 - 1929               Arthur Henry Chamberlain Walker-    (b. 1871 - d. 19..)
                            Leigh
Dec 1929 - Jan 1930       Angus Colin Duncan Johnstone        (b. 1889 - d. 19..)
                            (acting)
1930 - 1933               Francis Walter Fillon Jackson       (b. 1881 - d. 1936)
1933 - 1942               William John Andrew Jones           (b. 1889 - d. 1971)
1942 - 1946               George Edward Gibbs
1946 - 1948               William Harold Ingrams              (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
1948 - 1950               Edward Norton Jones                 (b. 1902 - d. 1983)
1950 - 1953               Geoffrey Noel Burden                (b. 1898 - d. 1990)
Chief Regional Officers

1953 - 1954               Arthur John Loveridge               (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
1954 -  6 Mar 1957        Sydney MacDonald-Smith              (b. 1908 - d. ....)


Gold Coast Colony Region

[Flag of the United Kingdom]
 
Capital: Accra
Population: 1,860,150 (1948)

1945                      Gold Coast Colony Region (that part of Gold Coast south of
                           
Ashanti along the coast; from 1948 subdivided into Eastern and
                            Western regions)
created as separate region within Gold Coast.
1953                      Separate unit dissolved.

Chief Commissioners
1945 - 1950               Thorleif Rattray Orde Mangin        (b. 1896 - d. 1950)
1950 - 1953               Arthur John Loveridge               (b. 1912 - d. 1994)



Danish Gold Coast (Danish Guinea)

[Denmark]
 
Capital: Fort Christiansborg
(Fort Fredriksborg 1658-1685,
1693-1694)

Population: N/A

1658                       Danish Gold Coast Settlements (Danske Guldkyst) established
                             on the eastern Gold Coast
(Ft. Friedensborg [Ningo:
                             1734-Mar 1850], Ft. Christiansborg [Accra/
Osu: 1658-Apr 1659,
                             1661-2 Dec 1680, Feb 1683-1693, May 1694-1850],
Ft. Augustaborg
                             [Tshe: 1787-Mar 1850], Ft. Prinzenstein [Keta:
1780-12 Mar 1850],
                             Ft. Konigenstein [Ada: 1784-Mar 1850],
Ft. Carlsborg [Cape Castle:
                             Feb 1658-16 Apr 1659
], Cong Heights [Cong: 1659-24 Apr 1661],
                             Ft. Fredriksborg
[Amanful or Amanfro: 1659-16 Apr 1685]), also
                             called
Danish Guinea (Dansk Guinea).
Mar 1659 - 11 Mar 1671     Under Danish Africa Company administration.
20 Apr 1663                Danes seize last of Sweden's Gold Coast settlements 
                             (Ft. Christiansborg and Carlsborg [Cape Castle]).
11 Mar 1671 - 1754         Under Danish West India–Guinea Company (Det Vestindisk-Guineisk
                             Kompagni) administration.
 
2 Dec 1680 - 29 Aug 1682  Portuguese occupy Ft. Christiansborg.
1684 - 1688                English occupy Ft. Fredriksborg.                         
1693 - May 1694            Native occupy Ft. Christiansborg.
1754 - 18 Mar 1765         Danish crown colony.

18 Mar 1765 - Aug 1775     Under The Guinean Company (Det Guineiske Kompagni) administration
                             (company formally dissolved 22 Nov 1776).
Aug 1775
                  Danish crown colony.
1782 - 1785                British occupation.

 
1 Jan 1803                Denmark outlaws the Atlantic slave trade (royal decree 16 Mar 1792).
 5 Jun 1849                Denmark agrees to sell all settlements to U.K.

30 Mar 1850                Danish Gold Coast Settlements sold to U.K. and 
                             incorporated into the Gold Coast.

Opperhoveds (Station Chiefs)
28 Jan 1658 - 1658         Heinrich Karloff (Henrik Carloff)  (b. 1621/22 - d. c.1694)
1658 - 16 Apr 1659         Samuel Schmidt (
Smidt) (acting)
17 Apr 1659 -  6 Jun 1662  Jost Cramer                        (d. 1662)
 7 Jun 1662 - Jun 1668     Henning Albrecht (Henri Halbreckhe)
                             (acting to 10 Sep 1664)
Jun 1668 - 23 Jan 1674     Bartholomaeus von Gronstein        (d. 1674)
                             (von Grünenstein) -Governor
                             (acting to 20 Jan 1670) 
24 Jan 1674 - 1677         Conrad Crull -Governor             (d. c.1679)
1677 -  2 Feb 1681         Peter With (acting)
Dec 1680 - 29 Aug 1682     Julian de Campo Bareto
                             (Portuguese Captain-major at Ft. Christiansborg)
 2 Feb 1681 - 21 Apr 1681  Magnus Pranger (Prang) -Governor   (d. 1681)
22 Apr 1681 -  2 May 1681  Conrad Busch (acting)
 2 May 1681 - 19 Sep 1687  Hans Lykke (Lücke)                 (d. 1687)
19 Sep 1687 - 1688         Peter Hofman
1688 -  5 Jan 1691         Nicolai Fensman (1st time)

 5 Jan 1691 - Jul 1692     Jörgen Meyer
Jul 1692 -  8 Sep 1692     Nicolai Fensman (2nd time)(acting)
 8 Sep 1692 - 1693         Harding Petersen
1693 - May 1694            Assamaeni
                             (in rebellion, in Christiansborg)
May 1694 - 1698            Thomas Jacobsen

1698                       Erik Tylleman                      (d. 1698)
1698
 - 23 Dec 1698         Erik Olsen Lygaard (1st time)      (b. 16.. - d. 1711) 
                             (acting)
23 Dec 1698 - 31 Aug 1703  Johan Tranne (John Trawne)         (b. 16.. - d. 1703)
11 Sep 1703 - 23 Apr 1704  Hartvig Meyer                      (b. 16.. - d. 1704)
23 Apr 1704 -  5 May 1705  Peter Sverdrup (acting)            (b. 16.. - d. 1705)
 5 May 1705 - 25 May 1705  Peder Pedersen Todbjerg (acting)   (b. 16.. - d. 1709)
25 May 1705 - 17 Aug 1711  Erik Olsen Lygaard (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
17 Aug 1711 - 25 Nov 1717  Franz Boye                         (b. 16.. - d. 1717)
25 Nov 1717 -  6 Aug 1720  Knud Røst                          (b. 16.. - d. 1720)
 6 Aug 1720 - 24 Jan 1722  Peter Østrup                       (d. 1722)
25 Jan 1722 - 22 Jan 1723  Niels Jensen Østrup                (d. 1724)
22 Jan 1723 - 27 Apr 1724  Christian Andreas Syndermann       (d. 1727)
27 Apr 1724 -  1 Mar 1727  Hendrik von Suhm                   (d. 1727)
 4 Mar 1727 - 18 Sep 1727  Fred Pahl                          (d. 1727)
18 Sep 1727 - 24 Dec 1728  Andreas Willumsen                  (d. 1728)
24 Dec 1728 - 12 Aug 1735  Anders Pedersen Waerøe
12 Aug 1735 - 14 Jun 1736  Severin Schilderup                 (d. 1736)
14 Jun 1736 - 20 Jun 1740  Enevold Nielson Boris              (d. 1740)
20 Jun 1740 - 26 May 1743  Peter Nikolaj Jørgensen            (d. 1743)
26 May 1743 -  3 Feb 1744  Christian Glob Dorph               (d. 1744)
 3 Feb 1744 - 11 Mar 1745  Jørgen Billsen                     (d. 1745)
11 Mar 1745 - 23 Mar 1745  Thomas Brock                       (d. 1745)
23 Mar 1745 - 23 Apr 1745  Johan Wilder                       (d. 1745)
23 Apr 1745 - 21 Jun 1746  August Frederik Hackenberg (acting)
21 Jun 1746 -  6 Mar 1751  Joost Platfusz
 6 Mar 1751 -  8 Mar 1751  Magnus Christopher Lützow          (d. 1751)
 8 Mar 1751 - 21 Jul 1752  Magnus Hacksen (acting)            (d. 1752)
21 Jul 1752 - 11 Mar 1757  Carl Engman
11 Mar 1757 - 14 Feb 1762  Christian Jessen                   (d. 1768)
14 Feb 1762 - 20 Oct 1766  Carl Gottlieb Resch                (d. 1768)
Governors
20 Oct 1766 - 11 Jan 1768  Christian Tychsen                  (d. 1768)
11 Jan 1768 -  2 Jul 1769  Frantz Joachim Kühberg             (d. 1769)
 2 Jul 1769 - 11 Jun 1770  Joachim Christian Otto (acting)    (d. 1770)
11 Jun 1770 - 15 Jun 1772  Johan Daniel Frøhlich (acting)     (d. 1772)
15 Jun 1772 - 24 Jun 1777  Niels Urban Aarestrup (acting)     (b. 1735 - d. 1805)
24 Jun 1777 -  2 Dec 1780  Johan Conrad von Hemsen            (d. 1780)
 2 Dec 1780 - 21 Apr 1788  Jens Adolf Kiøge (acting)          (b. 1746 - d. 1789)
21 Apr 1788 - 23 Oct 1789  Johan Friedrich Kipnasse (acting)  (d. 1796)
23 Oct 1789 - Jul 1792     Andreas Rieselsen Bjørn            (b. 1748 - d. 1821)
Jul 1792 - 30 Jun 1793     Andreas Hammer                     (b. 1753 - d. ....)
                             (acting to 25 Jan 1793)
30 Jun 1793 -  3 Aug 1793  Bendt Olrik                        (b. 1749 - d. 1793)
 3 Aug 1793 - 17 Aug 1795  Christian Friedrich baron von      (b. 1754 - d. 1795)
                             Hager (acting) 
Oct 1795 - 31 Dec 1799     Johan Peter David Wrisberg         (b. 1771 - d. 1819)
                             (1st time) 
31 Dec 1799 -  3 Dec 1802  Johan David Ahnholm (acting)       (b. 1756 - d. 1806)
 3 Dec 1802 - 15 Apr 1807  Johan Peter David Wrisberg         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
15 Apr 1807 -  1 Mar 1817  Christian Schiønning               (b. 1764 - d. 1817)
 3 Mar 1817 -  5 Oct 1817  Johan Emanuel Rechter              (d. 1817)
 5 Oct 1817 -  6 May 1819  Jens Nicolai Cornelius Reiersen    (d. 1819)
                             (acting)
 6 May 1819 -  1 Jan 1821  Christian Svanekjaer (acting)      (b. 1788 - d. 1843)
 1 Jan 1821 -  5 Sep 1821  Peter Ferderik Svane Steffens      (b. 1777 - d. 1821)
 5 Sep 1821 - 23 Dec 1823  Matthias Thonning (acting)         (d. 1824)
23 Dec 1823 -  7 May 1825  Johan Christopher von Richelieu    (b. 1789 - d. 1858)
 7 May 1825 - 30 Sep 1827  Niels Brøch (1st time) (acting)    (b. c.1802 - d. 1836)
30 Sep 1827 -  1 Aug 1828  Jens Peter Flindt                  (b. 1788 - d. 1842)
 1 Aug 1828 - 20 Jan 1831  Heinrich Gerhard Lindt (Lind)      (b. 1797 - d. 1833)
                             (1st time) (acting)
29 Jan 1831 - 21 Oct 1831  Ludwig Vincent von Hein            (b. 1799 - d. 1831)
21 Oct 1831 -  4 Dec 1831  Helmut von Ahrenstorff             (b. 1807 - d. 1832)
 4 Dec 1831 -  1 Mar 1833  Niels Brøch (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1833 - 21 Jul 1833  Heinrich Gerhard Lindt             (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
21 Jul 1833 - 26 Dec 1834  Edvard von Gandil (acting)         (b. 1804 - d. 1834)
26 Dec 1834 - 18 Mar 1839  Ferderik Segfried Mørch            (b. 1800 - d. 1839)
                             (acting to 19 Aug 1837) 
19 Mar 1839 -  1 Aug 1839  Hans Angel Gjede (acting)          (d. 1839)
 
1 Aug 1839 - 24 May 1842  Lucas Dall (acting)                (b. 1806 - d. 1855) 
24 May 1842 - 26 Aug 1842  Bernhard Johan Christian Wilkens   (b. 1810 - d. 1842)
                             (acting)
26 Aug 1842 - 15 Mar 1844  Edvard James Arnold Carstensen     (b. 1815 - d. 1848)
                             (1st time) (acting)
18 Mar 1844 -  5 Jul 1844  Thomas Edvard Julius Eriksen       (d. 1844)
                             (acting)

 5 Jul 1844 -  9 Oct 1844  George Lutterodt (acting)
 9 Aug 1844 - 10 Apr 1847  Edvard James Arnold Carstensen     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
10 Apr 1847 - 20 Feb 1850  Rasmus Emil Schmidt (acting)       (b. 1818 - d. 1889)
20 Feb 1850 - 30 Mar 1850  Edvard James Arnold Carstensen     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(nominally to 17 Aug 1850)



Dutch Gold Coast (Dutch Guinea)

[National flag of the
                Netherlands]
 
Capital: Fort Elmina
(Fort Nassau 1598-1637)
Population: 15,000 (1831)

1595                       First Dutch trading expedition to Gold Coast under Bernard Ericks.
1598                       Dutch Gold Coast Settlements (Nederlandse Goudkust)(Ft. Sint Anthony
                             [Axim Feb 1642-1664, 1665-1671]; Ft. Dorothea [Akwida: 1687-1698,
                             1711-1712, 1732-1804]; Ft. Elmina [also called Ft. Conraadsburg,
                             St. Jago, Ft. de Veer, Ft. Java, Ft. Scomarus, and Ft. Naglas 29
                             Aug 1637 - 6 Apr 1872]; Ft. Hollandia [1725-1815]; Ft. Batenstein
                             [Butri: 1656-1665, 1666-1871]; Ft. Apolloni (1868 Ft. Willem III)
                             [Benyin: 16..-16.., 1868-1871]; Ft. Oranje [Sekondi: 1640-1871];
                             Ft. San Sebastian [Shama: 1637-1664,1664-1871]; Ft. Vredenburgh
                             [Komenda: 1688-1782]; Ft. Carlsborg [Cape Castle: 16 Apr 1659-1660,
                             2 May 1663-3 May 1664]; Ft. Nassau [Mouri: 1598/1612-1664,
                             1665-1782, 1785-1867]; Ft. Amsterdam [Kormantin: 29 Jan 1665-1782,
                             1785-1867]; Ft. Leydsaemheyt [Apam: 1697-1782, 1785-1868]; Ft.
                             Goede Hoop [Senya Beraku: 1667/1705-1782, 1785-1868]; Ft.
                             Crêvecoeur [Accra: 1649-1782, 1785-1867/8]; Ft. Metaal Kruis
                             [Dixcove: 1868-1871]; Ft. Ruychaver [Abacqua: 1654-1659], Ft.
                             Singelenburgh (Keta: 1734-1737]; Ft. Witsen [Takoradi: 1660-9 Apr
                             1664, 15 Jan 1665-1665]; Anomabu [1640-1652]; Egya [1647-16..,
                             1663-1664]; Kpone [1697-1700, 1706-17..] in modern Ghana; Petit
                             Popo [Aneho: 1731-1760] in Togo; and Great Popo [1680-...]; Ouidah
                             [1670-1687, 1702- 1724/26], Ft. Zelandia [Godomey: 1726-1734],
                             Offra [1675-1691], and Appa [1732-1736] in modern Benin; Kumase
                             depot [Kumasi 18 Mar 1837-Feb 1842, 1848-Mar 1853, 1859-Feb 1869])
                             also called the Dutch Possessions on the Coast of Guinea
                             (Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea).
Mar 1629 - 1674            Under Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische
                            
Compagnie) administration.
29 Aug 1637                Dutch take Elmina from the Portuguese.
 3 May 1664                English take Cabo Corso (Cape Castle) from the Dutch.
29 Jan 1665                Dutch take Kormantin from the English (renamed Ft. Amsterdam).
1675 -  1 Jan 1792         Under (New) West India Company (West-Indische Compagnie)
                             administration.
1721                       Prussia sells Gross-Friedrichsburg to the Dutch, which is renamed 

                             Ft. Hollandia.
1782 - 1785                British occupy Ft. Vredenburgh, Ft. Amsterdam, Ft. Nassau, 
                             Ft. Goede Hoop, Ft. Crêvecoeur (to 1786) and Ft. Leydsaemheyt.
 1 Jan 1792 - 1871         Dutch state possession.
Jun 1814                   Dutch abolish the slave trade (by royal decree).
 5 Mar 1867               
Convention between Great Britain and the Netherlands for an
                             Interchange of Territory on the Gold Coast of Africa signed:
                             all Dutch forts to the east of Elmina (Ft. Nassau, Ft. Crêvecoeur,
                             Ft. Amsterdam, Ft. Goede Hoop, and Fort Lijdzaamheid) handed over
                             to the U.K., while British forts west of Elmina are handed over to
                             the Netherlands (Ft. Apollonia, Ft. Dixcove, Ft. Komenda, and Ft.
                             Sekondi), effective 1 Jan 1868.
21 Feb 1871                Dutch Gold Coast Settlements sold to U.K. and incorporated into 
                             British Gold Coast (ratified 17 Feb 1872), effected 6 Apr 1872.

Generals of the Gold Coast 
1612 - 1614                Jacob Adriaenszoon Clantius
                             (1st time)

1614 - 1617?               Adriaen Jacobszoon Roest
1617 - 1620?               Jacob Adriaenszoon Clantius
                             (2nd time)

1620? - 1621               Anthonie van Liedekercke
1621? - 1624?              Geert Reck
Directors-general
1624 - 1629                Adriaen Jacobszoon van Amersfoort
                             (at Ft. Nassau)
1629 - 18 Jul 1639         Nikolaes van Ypren (Iperen)
                             (at Elmina from 1637)
18 Jul 1639 -  6 Jan 1641  Arend Jacobszoon Montfort
 6 Jan 1641 - 18 Dec 1645  Jacob Ruychaver (Ruijghaver)       (d. 1656)
                             (1st time)
18 Dec 1645 -  9 Apr 1650  Jacob van der Well
 9 Apr 1650 - 11 Jun 1650  Hendrik Doedens
Governor
11 Jun 1650 - 15 Mar 1651  Arent Cocq
Directors-general
15 Mar 1651 - 24 Jan 1656  Jacob Ruychaver (2nd time)         (s.a.)
24 Jan 1656 - 27 Apr 1659  Johannes van Valkenburgh (1st time)(b. 1623 - d. 1667)
27 Apr 1659 -  7 Apr 1662  Casper van Heussen (Houssen)
 7 Apr 1662 - 23 Dec 1662  Dirck Wilré (1st time)             (b. 1636 - d. 1674)
23 Dec 1662 -  2 Jun 1667  Johannes van Valkenburgh (2nd time)(s.a.)
Governor
 2 Jun 1667 - 12 Dec 1668  Huijbrecht van Gageldonk
Directors-general
12 Dec 1668 - 12 Jun 1675  Dirck Wilré (2nd time)             (s.a.)
12 Jun 1675 - 13 Sep 1676  Joan Root
13 Sep 1676 - 26 Mar 1680  Heerman Abramsen
26 Mar 1680 -  1 Aug 1683  Daniel Verhoutert (Verhouten)
 1 Aug 1683 - 15 Jul 1685  Thomas Ernsthuis (Ernsthuijsen)
15 Jul 1685 - 29 Jan 1690  Nikolaas de Sweerts
29 Jan 1690 - 25 Mar 1694  Joel Smits (Schmits)
25 Mar 1694 -  9 Jun 1696  Jan Staphorst
 9 Jun 1696 - 16 May 1702  Jan van Sevenhuijsen (Sevenhuysen) (d. 1731)
16 May 1702 - 17 Oct 1705  Willem de la Palma                 (d. 1705)
23 Oct 1705 - 26 Sep 1708  Pieter Nuyts (Nuijts)              (d. 1708)
President
26 Sep 1708 - 13 Jul 1709  Henrikus (Henrico) van Wesel
Directors-general
13 Jul 1709 - 16 Mar 1711  Adriaan Schoonheijd (Schoonheidt)  (d. 1711)
16 Mar 1711 - 12 May 1716  Hieronimus Haring (Haringh)
                            
(president and director-general)
12 May 1716 - 11 Mar 1718  Abraham Engelgraaf-Robbertzoon
                             (Robberts Abraham Engelgraef)
12 Mar 1718 - 25 Sep 1722  Willem Butler (William Bullier)
                             (president and director-general)
25 Sep 1722 - 17 May 1723  Abraham Houtman                    (d. 1723)

President
17 May 1723 - 14 Dec 1723  Mattheus de Kraane (Crane)
Directors-general
14 Dec 1723 - 11 Mar 1727  Pieter Valckenier (Valkenier)      (b. 1691 - d. 1738)
11 Mar 1727 -  6 Mar 1730  Robbert Norre (Norri)
 
6 Mar 1730 - 13 Mar 1734  Jan Pranger                        (b. 1700 - d. 1773)
13 Mar 1734 -  2 Apr 1736  Anthony van Overbeke (Overbeek)    (d. 1736)
 7 Apr 1736 - 16 Mar 1740  Martinus François des Bordes       (d. 1740)
                             (president to 2 Feb 1737)
President

17 Mar 1740 -  7 Mar 1741  François Barovius (Barbrius)       (d. 1741)
Directors-general
 8 Mar 1741 - 11 Apr 1747  Jacob Baron de Petersen
11 Apr 1747 - 14 Jul 1754  Jan van Voorst
14 Jul 1754 - 24 Oct 1755  Nicolas Mattheus van der Nood      (d. 1755)
                             de Gietere (Nikolaas van der Noot de Gieter)
President
24 Oct 1755 - 15 Jan 1758  Roelof Ulsen (Ulzen)               (d. 1758)
Director-general
15 Jan 1758 - 12 Mar 1758  Lambert Jacob van Tets             (b. 1718 - d. 1758)
President
22 Mar 1758 -  5 Oct 1760  Jan Pieter Theodor Huydecooper     (b. 1728 - d. 1767)

                             (1st time) 
Director-general
 
5 Oct 1760 - 19 Jul 1763  David Pieter Erasmie (Erasmus)     (d. 1763)
Governor
19 Jul 1763 - 10 Sep 1764  Henrick Walmbeck                   (d. 1764)
                             (Hendrik Walmbeek)
Directors-general
10 Sep 1764 - 11 Jul 1767  Jan Pieter Theodor Huydecooper     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
11 Jul 1767 - 27 Aug 1767  Willem Sulyard van Leefdael
                           + Cornelis Klok
                           (acting)
27 Aug 1767 - 14 Apr 1780  Pieter Woortman                    (b. 1700 - d. 1780)
                            
(governor-general to 1769)
14 Apr 1780 - 10 May 1780  .... (acting)

President
10 May 1780 - 30 Dec 1780  Jacobus van der Puije (Puye)       (d. 1780)
Director-general
30 Dec 1780 - 12 Mar 1784  Pieter Volkmar                     (d. 1784)
President
15 Mar 1784 - 14 Feb 1785  Gilles Servaas Gallé (Galie)       (d. 1787)
                             (1st time)
Director-general
14 Feb 1785 - 26 May 1786  Adolphus Thierens                  (b. 1738 - d. 1786)
Governor-general
 2 Jun 1786 - 24 Aug 1787  Gilles Servaas Gallé (Galie)       (s.a.)  
                             (2nd time)
President
 8 Sep 1788 - 19 Mar 1790  Lieve van Bergen van der Grijp     (d. 1795)
                             (Gryp)(1st time)
Director-general
19 Mar 1790 -  5 May 1794  Jacobus Adriaan de Veer            (b. 1749 - d. 1794)
President
 5 May 1794 - 10 Jan 1795  Lieve van Bergen van der Grijp     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Governor
10 Jan 1795 -  2 Jun 1796  Otto Arnoldus Duim                 (d. 1796)
Directors-general
 2 Jun 1796 - 10 Aug 1796  Lieve van Bergen van der Grijp     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
10 Aug 1796 -  1 May 1798  Gerhardus Hubertus van Hamel       (d. 1798)
 8 May 1798 - 12 Aug 1801  Cornelius Ludwich Bartels          (b. 17.. - d. 1804)
Governor-general
12 Aug 1801 - 28 Apr 1804  Cornelius Ludwich Bartels          (s.a.)

President
28 Apr 1804 - 15 Jun 1805  Izaak de Roever 
Governor-general
16 Jun 1805 - 21 Jul 1807  Pieter Linthorst                   (b. 1757 - d. 1807)
President
22 Jul 1807 - 11 Aug 1808  Johannes Petrus Hoogenboom         (b. 17.. - d. 1808)
Director-general
12 Aug 1808 - 23 Feb 1810  Jan Frederik Koning
Commandant-general
23 Feb 1810 -  1 Mar 1816  Abraham de Veer                    (b. 1767 - d. 1838)
Governors-general
 1 Mar 1816 - 22 Apr 1818  Herman Willem Daenels              (b. 1762 - d. 1818)
22 Apr 1818 - 10 Jan 1820  Frans Christiaan Eberhard          (d. 1820/21) 
                             Oldenburg (acting)
Commanders
10 Jan 1820 - 27 Jul 1821  Johannes Oosthout
27 Jul 1821 - 11 Jan 1823  Frederick Frans Ludewich Ulrich    (b. 1768 - d. 1833)
                             Last (1st time)(acting)
11 Jan 1823 -  6 May 1823  Librecht Jan Temmink (acting)      (b. c.1773 - d. 18..)
 6 May 1823 - 14 May 1824  Willem Poolman                     (b. 1809 - d. 1873)
14 May 1824 - 25 Dec 1824  Hendrik Adriaan Mouwe, Jr. (acting)
25 Dec 1824 -  2 Jan 1825  Johan David Carel Pagenstecher
                             (acting)
 2 Jan 1825 - 12 Nov 1826  Frederick Frans Ludewich Ulrich    (s.a.)
                             Last (2nd time)(acting)
12 Nov 1826 -  4 Oct 1828  Jacobus Cornelis van der Breggen   (b. 1797 - d. 1830)
                             Paauw (acting)
 4 Oct 1828 - 17 Apr 1833  Frederick Frans Ludewich Ulrich    (s.a.)
                             Last (3rd time)
17 Apr 1833 - 17 May 1833  Jan Thieleman Jacobus Cremer
                             (acting)
17 May 1833 -  2 Feb 1834  Eduard Daniel Leopold van Ingen
                             (acting)
 2 Feb 1834 - 16 Mar 1834  Marthinus Swarte (acting)
16 Mar 1834 -  2 Dec 1836  Christiaan Ernst Lans              (b. 1789 - d. 1843)
 2 Dec 1836 - 28 Oct 1837  Hendrikus Jacobus Tonneboeijer     (b. 1814 - d. 1837)
                             (Tonneboeyer) (acting) 
29 Oct 1837 -  5 Aug 1838  Anthony van der Eb (1st time)      (b. 1813 - d. 1852)
                             (acting)
Governors

 5 Aug 1838 -  7 Mar 1840  Hendrik Bosch                      (b. 1776 - d. af.1840)
 7 Mar 1840 -  9 Jun 1846  Anthony van der Eb (1st time)      (s.a.)
1846 - 1847                Willem George Frederik Derx        (b. 1813 - d. 1890)
                             (1st time)(acting)
10 Jul 1847 - 21 Sep 1852  Anthony van der Eb (2nd time)      (s.a.)
21 Sep 1852 - 25 Sep 1856  Hero Schomerus (interim)           (b. 1816 - d. 1856)
25 Sep 1856 - 1856         Petrus Jacobus Runckel (interim)   (b. 1822 - d. 1860)
1856 - 1857                Willem George Frederik Derx        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(government commissioner)
Apr 1857 - 11 Sep 1857     Jules Felicine Romain Stanislas    (b. 1819 - d. 1882) 
                             van den Bossche
1857 -  7 May 1860         Cornelis Johannes Marius Nagtglas  (b. 1814 - d. 1897)
                             (1st time)
 
7 May 1860 - 21 Jan 1861  Cornelis Meeuwsen (acting)         (b. 1824 - d. 1896)
21 Jan 1861 - 23 Jun 1862  Cornelis Johannes Marius Nagtglas  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
18 Oct 1862 - 14 Mar 1864  Henry Alexander Elias (1st time)   (b. 1829 - d. 1903)

12 Mar 1864 - 13 Jun 1864  Carel Hendrik David van Hien       (b. 1833 - d. 1864)
                            (acting)
13 Jun 1864 -  7 Dec 1864  Hendrik Doyer (acting)
 7 Dec 1864 -  4 May 1865  Henry Alexander Elias (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 
4 May 1865 - 19 Feb 1866  Arent Magnin (acting)              (b. 1825 - d. 1888)
19 Feb 1866 - 1867         Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
1867 - 1869                George Pieter Willem Boers         (b. 1811 - d. 1884)
14 May 1869 -  8 Jun 1871  Cornelis Johannes Marius Nagtglas  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(government commissioner)
 
8 Jun 1871 - 17 Sep 1871  Jan Albert Hendrik Hugenholtz      (b. 1825 - d. 1874)
                             (government commissioner)
17 Sep 1871 -  2 Oct 1871  Johannes Marinus Ludovicus         (b. 1836 - d. 1917)
                            
Adrianus Petrus Wirix (acting)
 
2 Oct 1871 - 15 Nov 1871  Willem Pieter Antonie Le Jeune     (b. 1832 - d. ....)
                             (acting)

15 Nov 1871 -  6 Apr 1872  Jan Helenus Ferguson               (b. 1826 - d. 1908)
                             (lieutenant governor)
17 Apr 1872 - 10 May 1872  Robert Louis de Haes               (b. 1818 - d. 1884)
                            
(king's commissioner on the Coast of Guinea)



Brandenburger/Prussian Gold Coast 
[Brandenburg African
                  Company 1682-1717 (Prussia, Germany)]
                     1682 - 1717
    Brandenburg African Company Flag
Capital: Ft. Gross-
Friedrichsburg

Population: N/A

Jan 1681 - Aug 1681        First Brandenburger trade expedition to West Africa.
27 Dec 1682                Brandenburger Gold Coast Settlements (Gross-Friedrichsburg [Pokesu:
                             1 Jan 1683-1717], Ft. Dorothea [Akwida: Apr 1684-1687, 1698-1711, 
                             Apr 1712-1717], Ft. Louise [Takrama: 1685-....]).
1682 - 1692                Under Electoral Brandenburg-African Company (Kurfürstliche
                             Brandenburgisch-
Afrikanische Compagnie) administration (company
                             founded 7 Mar 1682). 

1687 - 1698                Dutch occupy Ft. Dorothea.

1692 - 1711                Under Brandenburg-African-American Company (Brandenburgisch-
                             Africanischamericanische Compagnie) administration.
15 Jan 1701                Becomes Prussian Gold Coast Settlements (when the Duke-Elector of
                             Brandenburg becomes King of Prussia).

1711 - 1717                Prussia-Brandenburg crown colony.
1711 - Apr 1712            Dutch occupy Ft. Dorothea. 

18 Dec 1717                Settlements sold to the Netherlands (ratified 14 Jan 1718),
                             renamed Hollandia (see Dutch Gold Coast).
1717 - 1724                Johannes Conrad (or Jan Conny) occupies Gross-Friedrichsburg
                             in opposition to Dutch rule.

Commandants 
1682 - 1683                Otto Friedrich von der Gröben      (b. 1657 - d. 1728)
1683 - 1684                Philip Pietersen Blonck
1684                       Nathaniel Dillinger (Dillger)
1684                       J. van Coulster
1684 - 1685                Karl Konstantin von Schnitter
1685 - 1686                Johan Brouw
1686 - 1691                Johann Niemann (Nyman)
c.1691                     Jan ten Hoost (Johann von Hoft)
c.1696                     Jacob ten Hoost (Jacob von Hoft)
1696 - 1697                Gysbrecht van Hoogveldt
1697 - 1698                Jan van Laar                        (d. 1698)
1698 - 1699                Otto Swalme (Swalwe)
1699 - 1700                Jan de Visser (Vister)
1700 - 1704                Adrian Grobbe
1704 - 1706                Johann Münz (Muntz)
1706 - 1709                Heinrich Lamy (Lamey)
1709 - 1710                Harmen Stockhoff (Stockhof)
c.1711                     Frans de Lange
1712 - 1716                Nicholas Dubois (du Bois)
1716 - 1717                Anton Günter van der Menden
1717 - 1724                Johannes Conrad (= Jean Cunny, Jan Conny) 
                             (in rebellion, in Gross-Friedrichsburg)



Portuguese Gold Coast

 
[1667 flag of
                Portugal]
   
Capital: São Jorge da Mina
(1482-
29 Aug 1637)
 (Ft. Santo António 1637-1642;
Ft. São Francisco Xavier
1680-1682)

Population: N/A

1471                       Portuguese led by Juan de Santerem and Pedro d'Escobar discover
                             the trade of Oro de la Mina (Gold of the Mine), somewhere in the
                             neighborhood of Elmina or Shama.
20 Jan 1482                Portuguese Gold Coast (Costa do Ouro)(Ft. São Jorge da Mina de Ouro
                             [Elmina:
21 Jan 1482-29 Aug. 1637], Ft. Santo António de Axim
                             [Axim: 1486-9 Jan 1642], Ft. São Francisco Xavier [Osu: 1640-42,
                             1680-82], Ft. São Sebastião [Shama: 1526-1637], Ft. Duma [Egwira:
                             1623-1636], Ft. de Ogua/Ft. à Cabo Corso [Cape Coast:
                             1610?-1638], Ft. Cará [Accra-Osu: 1583-bf.1645, 1679-1683],
                             and Ft. Dom Pedro [Anashan: 1683-1690]). 

15 Mar 1486                São Jorge da Mina granted the rights and privileges of a city by
                             the
King of Portugal.
1482 - 1503                Guinea Company (Casa da Guiné e Mina 1482-1483, Casa da Índia e da
                             Guiné in 1499) administration
 7 Jun 1494                Treaty of Tordesillas, signed by Portugal and Spain recognizing
                             Portuguese claims to the coast of West Africa.
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Portuguese Gold Coast along with Portugal a Spanish possession.

1580 - 1583                French set up a factory at Accra which is seized by the Portuguese.
29 Aug 1637                Dutch take Ft. São Jorge da Mina.

Feb 1642                   Dutch take Ft. Santo António de Axim, Portuguese establishments are
                             surrendered to the Dutch (part of
Dutch Gold Coast).
 2 Dec 1680                Portuguese take
Danish Fort Christiansborg (and renamed it 
                             Ft. São Francisco Xavier).
29 Aug 1682                Ft. São Francisco Xavier is abandoned and sold to the Denmark.  

Captains-major
21 Jan 1482 - 1485         Diogo de Azambuja                  (b. 1432 - d. 1518)
1485 - 1486                Álvaro Vaz Pestano
148.                       Alvaro Mascarenhas
c.1487                     João Fogaça
15 Sep 1495 - 30 Jun 1499  Lopo Soares de Albergaria          (b. c.1442 - d. c.1520)
1499? - 1503?              Fernão Lopes Correia
1503? - 1506?              Diogo Lopes de Sequeira            (b. 1465 - d. 1530)
1506? - 1509?              António de Bonadilha
1509? - 1512?              Mabuel de Goes (Góis)
1513                       Affonso Caldeira
c.1513                     Antonio Froes
Sep 1514 - 1516?           Nuno Vaz de Castelbranco
1516? - 1519               Fernão Lopes Correia
 2 Sep 1519 - 10 Jan 1522  Duarte Pacheco Pereira             (b. 1469 - d. 1533)
1522 - 1524                Afonso de Albuquerque
1524 - 1525                João de Barros                     (b. 1496 - d. 1570)
1526 - 1529                João Vaz de Almada
1529 - 1532                Estévão da Gama                    (b. c.1505 - d. 1576)
20 Aug 1536 - 22 Nov 1537  Manuel de Albuquerque
1537 - 1540?               ....
1540 - 1543                António de Miranda de Azevedo
1543 - 1545?               Lopo de Sousa Coutinho
1545                       Diogo Soares de Albergaria (1st time)
1545 - 1548                António de Brito
1548 - 1550                Martim de Castro
1550? - 1552?              Diogo Soares de Albergaria (2nd time)
1552?                      Filipe Lobo
1552? - 1556?              Rui de Melo
1556 - 155.                Afonso Gonçalves de Botafogo
155. - 1559                António de Melo
1559                       Manuel da Fonseca
1559 - 1562                Rui Gomes de Azevedo
1562 - 15..                Manuel de Mesquita Perestrelo       (b. c.1510 - d. c.1580)
c.1562                     João Vaz de Almada Falcão
156.                       Francisco de Barros de Paiva
1564 - 15..                Fernando Cardoso
15.. - 1570                ....
1570 - 1573                António da Sá
c.1573                     Martim Affonso
c.1574 - c.15..            Mendio da Mota
15.. - c.1579              ....
1579 - c.1583              Vasco Fernandes Pimentel
1583 - 1586                João Rodrigues Peçanha (Pessanha)
1586 - 15..                Bernardinho Ribeiro Pacheco
15.. - 1586                ....
1586 - 1594                João Róis Coutinho
c.1595 - c.1596            Duarte Lôbo da Gama
1596 - 1608                Cristóvão da Melo
Jul 1608 - 1610            Duarte de Lima                     (d. 1610)
1610 - 1613                João de Castro
1613 - 1616                Pedro da Silva
1616/17 - 1624             Manuel da Cunha de Teive
1624 - c.1625              Francisco de Souto-Maior
162. - 162.                Luís Tomé de Castro
162. - 1629                João da Sera de Morais
1629 - c.1632              ....
1632 - 27 Jun 1634         Pedro de Mascarenhas               (d. 1634)
Jun 1634 -  1 Oct 1634     Duarte Borges (acting)             (d. 1634)
Oct 1634 - 1642            André da Rocha Magalhães (acting)
1642 - Feb 1642            Francisco de Sotte
Feb 1642 -  2 Dec 1680     Post abolished
 2 Dec 1680 - 29 Aug 1682  Julião de Campos Barreto



Swedish Gold Coast

[Flag of Sweden]
 
Capital: Fort Christiansborg/
Fort Frederiksborg
Population: N/A

1646 - 1647                First Swedish trade expedition to West Africa.
22 Apr 1650                Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten) (Ft. Carolusborg/Karlsborg
                             [Cape Castle: 1652-
Jan/Feb 1658, 10 Dec 1660-22 Apr 1663],
                             Apollonia [Benyin:
1655-1657], Ft. Frederiksborg/Ft. Christiansborg
                             [Osu: 1652-1658],
Ft. Batenstein [Butri: c.1650-1656], Ft. Witsen
                             [Takoradi:
1653-58], and Ft. William [Anomabu 1650-1657).
22 Apr 1650 - 1663         Under Swedish African Company (Svenska Afrikanska Kompaniet)
                             administration (company founded 15 Dec 1649).
27 Jan 1658 - 1659         
Ft. Carlsborg and Ft. Chistiansborg sold to Denmark.
22 Apr 1663 -  9 May 1664  Ft. Carlsborg re-taken the Dutch.
 9 May 1664                Area seized by England.    
21 Jul 1667                By the Treaty of Breda, Sweden formally abandons its Gold Coast
                             claims

Director
22 Apr 1650 - 1656         Heinrich Karloff (Henrik Carloff)  (b. 1621/22 - d. c.1694)
Commandant               
1652 - 165.                Isaak Meville (Isaac Miville)
Governor
1656 - 27 Jan 1658         Johan Filip von Krusenstierna      (b. 1626 - d. 1659)
                             (1st time)(Dutch prisoner to 18 Jun 1658)
1658 - 1659                Danish occupation
1658 - 1659                Johan Filip von Krusenstierna      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(nominal, returned to Sweden)

Commanders
1659 - 1663                ....
16 Apr 1663 - 22 Apr 1663  Anton Voss (Tönnies Voss)







© Ben Cahoon