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International Organizations A - L

Contents: African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) - African Development Bank (AfDB) - African Union  (AU) - Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) - Andean Community - Antarctic Treaty - Arab League - Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) - Arctic Council - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Association of Caribbean States (ACS) - Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) - Bank for International Settlements (BIS)Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) - Caribbean Community (CARICOM) - Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) - Central American Integration System (SICA) - Central American Parliament (Parlacen) - Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) - Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) - Colombo Plan - Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) - The Commonwealth - Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) - Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD)Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CRLP) - Council of the Baltic States (CBSS) - Council of Europe (CE) - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON/CMEA) - Danube Commission - Dutch Language Union (Taalunie) (DLU) - East African Community (EAC)Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) - Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) - Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) - European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) - European Free Trade Association (EFTA) - European Union (EU) - Food and Agriculture Organizations (FAO) - Group of 8 (G-8) - Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) - Ibero-American Cooperation Secretariat (SECIB) - Indian Ocean Commission (COI) - Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) - Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) - Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) - International Court of Justice (ICJ) - International Criminal Court (ICCt) - International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) - International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) - International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) - International Labour Organization (ILO) - International Maritime Organization (IMO) - International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO) - International Monetary Fund (IMF) - International Organization of Francophonie (OIF) - International Olympic Committee (IOC) International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) - International Organization for Migration (IOM) - International Organization for Standardization (ISO) - International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) - International Seabed Authority (ISA) - International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO) - Islamic Development Bank (IDB) - Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) - Latin American Parliament (Parlatino) - Latin Union (LU) - League of Nations -

African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States  (ACP)

[Former flag the
                          African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
                          ]
                    to 17 Jun 2013
[African,Caribbean and Pacific Group of
                          States (ACP) fla]
               Adopted 17 Jun 2013
ACP Website
Lomé and Cotonou
Agreements
Headquarters: Brussels
(Belgium)

28 Feb 1975                European Communities and ACP States sign First Lomé Convention
                             granting financial, technical assistance and trade concessions.

 6 Jun 1975                Georgetown Agreement formally creating the ACP Group signed.
23 Jun 2000                Cotonou Agreement signed (effective 1 Apr 2003).

Secretaries-general 
1976 - 1979                Tieoulé Konaté (Mali)              (b. 1933 - d. 1995)
1979 - 1984                Tom Okelo-Odongo (Kenya)           (b. 1927)
1984 - 1989                Edwin W. Carrington                (b. 1938)
                             (Trinidad and Tobago)
1989 - 1994                Ghebray Berhane (Ethiopia)         (b. 1938)
1994 - 1996                Carl B. Greenidge (Guyana)(interim)(b. 1949)
16 Jul 1996 - 29 Feb 2000  Ng'andu Peter Magande (Zambia)     (b. 1947)
 1 Mar 2000 - 28 Feb 2005  Jean-Robert Goulongana (Gabon)     (b. 1953)
 1 Mar 2005 - 28 Feb 2010  Sir John Kaputin                   (b. 1941)
                             (Papua New Guinea)
 1 Mar 2010 - 31 Mar 2013  Mohamed Ibn Chambas (Ghana)        (b. 1950)
 1 Apr 2013 -              Alhaji Muhammad Mumuni (Ghana)     (b. 1949)

ACP  membership (79)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 6 Jun 1975 The Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey1, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Ivory Coast2, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, The Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Upper Volta3, Western Samoa4, Zaire5, Zambia
 8 Dec 1984 Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Cape Verde6, Comoros, Djibouti, Dominica, Kiribati, Liberia, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Suriname, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Zimbabwe
 4 Nov 1995 Angola, Dominican Republic, Haiti
23 Jun 2000 Cook Islands, Eritrea, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Namibia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, South Africa
14 Dec 2000 Cuba
16 May 2003 East Timor 
1from 1975 Benin. 2from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 3from 1984 Burkina Faso. 4from 1997 Samoa. 5from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa). 6from 2013 Cabo Verde.



African Development Bank (AfDB)


 [African Development Bank
              flag]

AfDB website
Headquarters: Tunis (Tunisia)
(Abidjan, Cote d' Ivoire
1964 - Feb 2003) 

 4 Aug 1963                African Development Bank agreement signed.
10 Sep 1964                African Development Bank (AfDB) founded.
29 Nov 1972                African Development Fund, the concessional window
                             of the AfDB Group, created (operational 1974).

Presidents
Nov 1964 - Feb 1970        Mamoun Beheiry (The Sudan)         (b. 1925 - d. 2002)
Feb 1970 - May 1976        Abdelwahab Labidi (Tunisia)        (b. 1929 - d. ....)
                             (interim to Aug 1970)
May 1976 - 23 Jul 1979     Kwame Donkor Fordwor
(Ghana)       (b. 1933)
Jul 1979 - 1980            Goodall Gondwe (Malawi) (interim)  (b. 1936)
 
1 Sep 1980 - May 1985     Wila D. Mung'omba (Zambia)         (b. 1939)
May 1985 - 31 Aug 1995     Babacar Ndiaye (Senegal)           (b. 1936)
 1 Sep 1995 -  1 Sep 2005  Omar Kabbaj (Morocco)              (b. 1942)
 1 Sep 2005 -              Donald Kaberuka (Rwanda)           (b. 1951)

AfDB membership (79)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
10 Sep 1964 Algeria, Cameroon, Congo (Léopoldville)1, Dahomey2, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast3, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, The Sudan, Tanzania4, Togo, Uganda
11 Sep 1964 Senegal
14 Sep 1964 Egypt
22 Sep 1964  Upper Volta5
22 Oct 1964 Somalia
29 Oct 1964 Tunisia
18 Jan 1965 Rwanda
10 Feb 1965 Congo (Brazzaville)
25 Jul 1966 Malawi
 1 Sep 1966 Zambia
 2 Jan 1968 Burundi
26 Aug 1968 Chad
26 Aug 1970 Central African Republic
26 Jul 1971 Swaziland
31 Mar 1972 Botswana
21 Jul 1972 Libya
31 Dec 1972 Gabon
 2 Jul 1973 The Gambia, Lesotho
 1 Jan 1974 Mauritius
 5 May 1975 Guinea-Bissau
30 Jun 1975 Equatorial Guinea
14 Apr 1976 São Tomé and Príncipe
15 Apr 1976 Cape Verde6
 3 May 1976 Comoros, Madagascar
 4 Jun 1976 Mozambique
20 Sep 1977 Seychelles
12 Jul 1978 Djibouti
10 Apr 1979
United Arab Emirates7
 5 Sep 1980 Zimbabwe
 9 Jan 1981 Angola
15 Dec 1982 Portugal
30 Dec 1982 Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Kuwait, Norway, South Korea, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Yugoslavia8
31 Dec 1982 Italy
28 Jan 1983 The Netherlands
 3 Feb 1983 Japan
 8 Feb 1983 United States
18 Feb 1983 Federal Republic of Germany
15 Mar 1983 Belgium
30 Mar 1983 Austria
29 Apr 1983 United Kingdom
14 Jul 1983 Brazil
 6 Dec 1983 India
15 Dec 1983 Portugal, Saudi Arabia
20 Mar 1984 Spain
10 May 1985 China
 2 Jul 1985 Argentina
10 Apr 1994 Namibia
13 May 1994 Eritrea
13 Dec 1995 South Africa
Sep 2013
South Sudan
 9 Sep 2013
Turkey
29 May 2014
Luxembourg
11966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 2from 1975 Benin. 3from 1985 Côte
d'Ivoire. 4United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 5from 1984 Burkina Faso. 6from 2013 Cabo Verde. 7member of the African Development Fund (ADF) only. 8expelled 31 Dec 1992.



African Union  (AU)

 
[OAU Flag, 1970]
                  1970 - 31 Jan 2010
 
[AU Official
                          Variant from 8 Jul 2004 - 2010]
    Official Variant 8 Jul 2004 - 31 Jan 2010
 
[African Union
                          flag]
                 Adopted 31 Jan 2010
African Union website
Hear African Union Anthem
(former OAU anthem)
Text of AU Anthem
Headquarters:
Addis Ababa

(Ethiopia)
(Pan-African Parliament Midrand, South Africa)
AU Day:  25 May (1963)
Africa Day

25 May 1963                Organization of African Unity (OAU).
 9 Jul 2002                African Union (AU).
18 Mar 2004                Pan-African Parliament established.

Secretaries-general
25 May 1963 - 21 Jul 1964  Kifle Wodajo (Ethiopia) (acting)   (b. 1936 - d. 2004)
21 Jul 1964 - 15 Jun 1972  Diallo Telli (Guinea)              (b. 1925 - d. 1977)
15 Jun 1972 - 16 Jun 1974  Nzo Ekangaki (Cameroon)            (b. 1934 - d. 2005)
16 Jun 1974 - 21 Jul 1978  William Eteki (Cameroon)           (b. 1933)
21 Jul 1978 - 12 Jun 1983  Edem Kodjo (Togo)                  (b. 1938)
12 Jun 1983 - 20 Jul 1985  Peter Onu (Nigeria) (acting)       (b. 1931 - d. 1997)
20 Jul 1985 - 19 Sep 1989  Ide Oumarou (Niger)                (b. 1937 - d. 2002)
19 Sep 1989 - 17 Sep 2001  Salim Ahmed Salim (Tanzania)       (b. 1942)
17 Sep 2001 -  9 Jul 2002  Amara Essy (Côte d'Ivoire)         (b. 1944)
Chairmen of the Commission
 9 Jul 2002 - 16 Sep 2003  Amara Essy (Côte d'Ivoire)         (s.a.)
                             (interim)
16 Sep 2003 - 28 Apr 2008  Alpha Oumar Konaré (Mali)          (b. 1946)
28 Apr 2008 - 15 Oct 2012  Jean Ping (Gabon)                  (b. 1942)
15 Oct 2012 -              Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma (f)         (b. 1949)
                             (South Africa) 

Chairmen
25 May 1963 - 17 Jul 1964  Haile Selassie (Ethiopia)          (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
                             (1st time) 
17 Jul 1964 - 21 Oct 1965  Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)         (b. 1918 - d. 1970)
21 Oct 1965 - 24 Feb 1966  Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana)              (b. 1909 - d. 1972)
24 Feb 1966 -  5 Nov 1966  Joseph Arthur Ankrah (Ghana)       (b. 1915 - d. 1992)
 5 Nov 1966 - 11 Sep 1967  Haile Selassie (Ethiopia)          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
11 Sep 1967 - 13 Sep 1968  Joseph-Désiré Mobutu (Congo [K.])  (b. 1930 - d. 1997)
13 Sep 1968 -  6 Sep 1969  Houari Boumedienne (Algeria)       (b. 1932? - d. 1978)
 6 Sep 1969 -  1 Sep 1970  Ahmadou Ahidjo (Cameroon)          (b. 1924 - d. 1989)
 1 Sep 1970 - 21 Jun 1971  Kenneth Kaunda (Zambia) (1st time) (b. 1924)
21 Jun 1971 - 12 Jun 1972  Moktar Ould Daddah (Mauritania)    (b. 1924 - d. 2003)
12 Jun 1972 - 27 May 1973  Hassan II (Morocco)                (b. 1929 - d. 1999)
27 May 1973 - 12 Jun 1974  Yakubu Gowon (Nigeria)             (b. 1934)
12 Jun 1974 - 28 Jul 1975  Muhammad Siad Barre (Somalia)      (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
28 Jul 1975 -  2 Jul 1976  Idi Amin (Uganda)                  (b. 1925? - d. 2003)
 2 Jul 1976 -  2 Jul 1977  Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam          (b. 1900 - d. 1985)
                             (Mauritius) 
 2 Jul 1977 - 18 Jul 1978  Omar Bongo (Gabon)                 (b. 1935 - d. 2009)
18 Jul 1978 - 12 Jul 1979  Gaafar Nimeiry (The Sudan)         (b. 1930 - d. 2009)
12 Jul 1979 - 12 Apr 1980  William R. Tolbert, Jr. (Liberia)  (b. 1913 - d. 1980)
28 Apr 1980 -  1 Jul 1980  Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal)    (b. 1906 - d. 2001)
                             (acting)
 1 Jul 1980 - 24 Jun 1981  Siaka Stevens (Sierra Leone)       (b. 1905 - d. 1988)
24 Jun 1981 -  6 Jun 1983  Daniel arap Moi (Kenya)            (b. 1924)
 6 Jun 1983 - 12 Nov 1984  Mengistu Haile Mariam (Ethiopia)   (b. 1937)
12 Nov 1984 - 18 Jul 1985  Julius Nyerere (Tanzania)          (b. 1922 - d. 1999)
18 Jul 1985 - 28 Jul 1986  Abdou Diouf (Senegal) (1st time)   (b. 1935)
28 Jul 1986 - 27 Jul 1987  Denis Sassou-Nguesso (Congo)       (b. 1943)
                             (1st time) 
27 Jul 1987 - 25 May 1988  Kenneth Kaunda (Zambia) (2nd time) (s.a.)
25 May 1988 - 24 Jul 1989  Moussa Traoré (Mali)               (b. 1936)
24 Jul 1989 -  9 Jul 1990  Hosni Mubarak (Egypt) (1st time)   (b. 1928)
 9 Jul 1990 -  3 Jun 1991  Yoweri Museveni (Uganda)           (b. 1944)
 3 Jun 1991 - 29 Jun 1992  Ibrahim Babangida (Nigeria)        (b. 1941)
29 Jun 1992 - 28 Jun 1993  Abdou Diouf (Senegal) (2nd time)   (s.a.)
28 Jun 1993 - 13 Jun 1994  Hosni Mubarak (Egypt) (2nd time)   (s.a.)
13 Jun 1994 - 26 Jun 1995  Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (Tunisia)  (b. 1936)
26 Jun 1995 -  8 Jul 1996  Meles Zenawi (Ethiopia)            (b. 1955 - d. 2012)
 8 Jul 1996 -  2 Jun 1997  Paul Biya (Cameroon)               (b. 1933)
 2 Jun 1997 -  8 Jun 1998  Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe)           (b. 1924)
 8 Jun 1998 - 12 Jul 1999  Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso)     (b. 1951)
12 Jul 1999 - 10 Jul 2000  Abdelaziz Bouteflika (Algeria)     (b. 1937)
10 Jul 2000 -  9 Jul 2001  Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo)          (b. 1937 - d. 2005)
 9 Jul 2001 -  2 Jan 2002  Frederick Chiluba (Zambia)         (b. 1943 - d. 2011)
 2 Jan 2002 -  9 Jul 2002  Levy Mwanawasa (Zambia)            (b. 1948 - d. 2008)
 9 Jul 2002 - 10 Jul 2003  Thabo Mbeki (South Africa)         (b. 1942)
10 Jul 2003 -  6 Jul 2004  Joaquim Chissano (Mozambique)      (b. 1939)
 6 Jul 2004 - 24 Jan 2006  Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria)        (b. 1937)
24 Jan 2006 - 29 Jan 2007  Denis Sassou-Nguesso (Congo [B.])  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
29 Jan 2007 - 31 Jan 2008  John Kufuor (Ghana)                (b. 1938)
31 Jan 2008 -  2 Feb 2009  Jakaya Kikwete (Tanzania)          (b. 1950)
 2 Feb 2009 - 31 Jan 2010  
Muammar al-Qaddafi (Libya)         (b. 1942 - d. 2011)
31 Jan 2010 - 30 Jan 2011  Bingu wa Mutharika (Malawi)        (b. 1934 - d. 2012)
30 Jan 2011 - 29 Jan 2012  Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
      (b. 1942)
                             (Equatorial Guinea) 
29 Jan 2012 - 27 Jan 2013  Thomas Yayi Boni (Benin)           (b. 1952)      
27 Jan 2013 - 30 Jan 2014  Hailemariam Desalegn (Ethiopia)    (b. 1965)
30 Jan 2014 -              Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz            (b. 1956)
                             (Mauritania)


[Pan-African Parliament
                flag]

Presidents of the Pan-African Parliament
18 Mar 2004 - 29 May 2009  Gertrude Ibengwe Mongella (f)      (b. 1955)
                             (Tanzania)
29 May 2009 - 28 May 2012  Idriss Ndélé Moussa (Chad)         (b. 1959 - d. 2013)
28 May 2012 -              Bethel Nnaemeka Amadi (Nigeria)    (b. 1964)

AU membership (54)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
25 May 1963 Algeria, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic1, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Léopoldville)2, Dahomey3, Egypt4, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea5, Ivory Coast6, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar7, Mali8, Mauritania9, Morocco10, Niger11, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, The Sudan, Tanganyika12, Togo13, Tunisia, Uganda, Upper Volta14, Zanzibar12
13 Dec 1963 Kenya
13 Jul 1964 Malawi
16 Dec 1964 Zambia
Oct 1965 The Gambia
31 Oct 1966 Botswana, Lesotho
Aug 1968 Mauritius
24 Sep 1968 Swaziland
12 Oct 1968 Equatorial Guinea
19 Nov 1973 Guinea-Bissau15
11 Feb 1975 Angola
18 Jul 1975 Cape Verde16, Comoros, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe
29 Jun 1976 Seychelles
27 Jun 1977 Djibouti
Jun 1980 Zimbabwe
22 Feb 1982 Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic
Jun 1990 Namibia
24 May 1993 Eritrea
 6 Jun 1994 South Africa
29 Jul 2011
South Sudan
1suspended from 25 Mar 2013. 2Congo (Kinshasa) 1966-71 and from 1997; 1971-97 Zaire; suspended its participation 12 Nov 1984 - 1986. 3from 1975 Benin. 4suspended 5 Jul 2013 - 17 Jun 2014. 5suspended 29 Dec 2008 - 9 Dec 2010. 6from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire; suspended 9 Dec 2010 - 21 Apr 2011. 7Malagasy Republic to 30 Dec 1975; suspended Dec 2001 - 10 Jul 2003 and 20 Mar 2009 - 27 Jan 2014. 8suspended 23 Mar - 24 Oct 2012. 9suspended 4 Aug 2005 - 10 Apr 2007 and 9 Aug 2008 - 1 Jul 2009. 10withdrew 12 Nov 1984. 11suspended 19 Feb 2010 - 16 Mar 2011. 12Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged 26 Apr 1964 to form United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 13suspended 25 Feb - 27 May 2005. 14from 1984 Burkina Faso. 15suspended 17 Apr 2012 - 17 Jun 2014. 16from 2013 Cabo Verde.



Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO)

[Amazon Cooperation Treaty
              Organization (ACTO) flag]                

ACTO website
Headquarters: Brasilia
(Brazil)

 
 3 Jul 1978                Amazon Cooperation Treaty (ACT).
25 Feb 1995                Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO)
                             (Organización del Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica [OTCA]).
13 Dec 2002                Permanent secretariat inaugurated.

Secretaries-general
2002 - 2004                Sergio Hugo Sánchez Ballivián
                             
(Bolivia)(interim)
 5 May 2004 - 2007         Rosalía Arteaga Serrano (f)        (b. 1956)
                             (Ecuador)
 2 Jul 2007 - Jul 2009     Francisco José Rui
z Marmolejo      (b. 1959)
                            
(Colombia)(acting)
Jul 2009 -  1 Mar 2011     Manuel Ernesto Picasso Botto
                             (Peru)
 1 Mar 2011 -  1 Jul 2012  Alejandro Alfredo Gordillo
                             Ferná
ndez (Peru)
 2 Jul 2012 -              Robby Dewnarain R
amlakhan
                             (Suriname)

 
ACTO membership (8)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 3 Jul 1978
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana,
Peru, Suriname, Venezuela



Andean Community

Comunidad Andina (Andean
                Community)                
              Adopted 12  Jul 2004
 

Community website
Headquarters: Lima
(Peru) Andean Parliament: Bogota (Colombia)
CAN Day: 24 Jul (1783)
Día de la Integración Andina
(Simon Bolivar's birthday)

26 May 1969                Andean Pact (Andean Group) established.
25 Oct 1979                Andean Parliament (Parlandio) established.
10 Mar 1996                Renamed Andean Community of Nations (CAN).
 1 Aug 1997                Secretariat established.

Secretaries-general
 1 Aug 1997 -  7 Aug 2002  Sebastián Alegrett Ruiz (Venezuela)(b. 1942 - d. 2002)
19 Sep 2002 - 15 Jan 2004  Guillermo Fernández de Soto        (b. 1953)
                             (Colombia) 
15 Jan 2004 - 28 Jul 2006  Edward Allan Wagner Tizón (Peru)   (b. 1942)
28 Jul 2006 -  1 Feb 2007  Alfredo Luis Fuentes Hernández
                             (Colombia) (acting)
 1 Feb 2007 -  7 May 2010  Federico "Freddy" Ehlers Zurita    (b. 1945)
                             (Ecuador)   
 7 May 2010 – 18 Feb 2013  Adalid Contreras Baspineiro
                             (Bolivia) (interim)
18 Feb 2013 -  1 Mar 2013  Ana María Tenenbaum de Reátegui (f)
                             (Peru) (acting)
 1 Mar 2013 - 17 Jun 2013  Santiago Cembrano Cabrejas
                             (Colombia) (interim)
17 Jun 2013 -              Pablo Guzmán Laugier (Bolivia)


[Parlamento Andino]

Presidents of the Andean Parliament

Aug 1980 - Dec 1981        H
éctor Echeverri Correa (Colombia) (b. 1937 - d. 2012)
Dec 1981 - Mar 1983        Raúl Oswaldo Baca Carbo (Ecuador)  (b. 1931)
Mar 1983 - May 1984        Godofredo
González González        (b. 1920 - d. 1990)
                             (Venezuela)    
May 1984 - Dec 1984        Ricardo Monteagudo (Peru)          (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
28 Jul 1985 - 11 Dec 1985  Jorge Tadeo Lozano Osorio          (b. 1936)
                             (Colombia)
Dec 1985 - Mar 1987        Julio Garrett Ayllón (Bolivia)     (b. 1925)
Mar 1987 - Mar 1989        Humberto Pelaez Gutiérrez
                             (Colombia)
Mar 1989 - 1990            Wilfrido Lucero Bolaños (Ecuador)  (b. 1935)
1990 - Sep 1992            Romualdo Gustavo Biaggi Rodríguez
  (b. 1923 - d. 2011)
                             (Peru)
Sep 1992 - Sep 1994        Paciano José Padrón Valladares
                            
(Venezuela)
Sep 1994 - Dec 1995        Victor Hugo C
árdenas Conde         (b. 1951)
                             (Bolivia)
Dec 1995 - Dec 1997        Julio César Turbay Quintero        (b. 1950)
                             (Colombia)
Dec 1997 - Dec 1999        Heinz Rodolfo Moeller Freile
      (b. 1937)
                             (Ecuador)
Dec 1999 - May 2001        Oscar Andrés Reggiardo Sayán
      (b. 1941)
                             (Peru)
May 2001 - Nov 2001        Lu
ís Juan Alva Castro (Peru)       (b. 1942)
Nov 2001 - Nov 2003        Jhannett María Madriz Sotillo (f)  (b. 1964)
                             (Venezuela)
Nov 2003 - Nov 2005        
Víctor Enrique Urquidi Hodgkinson
                             (
Bolivia)
Nov 2005 - Nov 2007        
Luis Fernando Duque García         (b. 1952)
                             (Colombia)              

26 Nov 2007 - Aug 2009     Ivonne Juez de Abdel Baki
(f)      (b. 1952)
                             (Ecuador)
Aug 2009 - 23 Nov 2009     Fausto Rodrigo Lupera Mart
ínez
                             (Ecuador)
23 Nov 2009 - 21 Jul 2010  Rosa Marina León Flores (f)(Peru)  (b. 1959)
 
21 Jul 2010 -  5 Aug 2011  Wilbert Bendezú
Carpio (Peru)      (b. 1954)
 5 Aug 2011 - 25 Jul 2012  Rebeca Elvira
Delgado Burgoa (f)   (b. 1966)
                             (Bolivia)
25 Jul 2012 - 24 Jul 2013  H
éctor Helí Rojas Jimenez          (b. 1954)
                             (Colombia)
24 Jul 2013 -              Pedro de la Cruz (Ecuador)

Andean Community membership (4)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
26 May 1969 Bolivia, Chile1, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru2
13 Feb 1973 Venezuela3
 1withdrew 30 Oct 1976. 2suspended Apr 1992 to 1997.
  3withdrew 22 Apr 2006.

Date of
Admission
Associate Members of CAN
 7 Jul 2005
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
20 Sep 2006
Chile



Antarctic Treaty
[Antarctic Treaty Secretariat
                  flag]
                  Adopted 20 Sep 2002
Treaty Secretariat website
Antarctic Treaty
 (23 Jun 1961)
Headquarters: Buenos Aires
(Argentina)

 1 Dec 1959                Antarctic Treaty signed.
23 Jun 1961                Antarctic Treaty comes into effect.
 1 Sep 2004                Secretariat inaugurated.

Executive Secretaries
 1 Sep 2004 -  1 Sep 2009  Johannes "Jan" Huber (Netherlands) (b. 1947)
 1 Sep 2009 -              Manfred Reinke (Germany)           (b. 1952)

Antarctic Treaty membership (50) 
Dates of 
Membership
Member Nations
23 Jun 1961 Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand,
Norway, Poland, South Africa, Soviet Union
1, United Kingdom, United
States
14 Jun 1962 Czechoslovakia2
20 May 1965 Denmark
30 Mar 1967 The Netherlands
15 Sep 1971 Romania
19 Nov 1974 East Germany3
16 May 1975 Brazil
11 Sep 1978 Bulgaria
 5 Feb 1979 West Germany3
11 Jan 1980 Uruguay
16 Mar 1981 Papua New Guinea4
18 Mar 1981 Italy
10 Apr 1981 Peru
31 Mar 1982 Spain
 8 Jun 1983 China
19 Aug 1983 India
27 Jan 1984 Hungary
24 Apr 1984 Sweden
15 May 1984 Finland
16 Aug 1984 Cuba
28 Nov 1986 South Korea
 8 Jan 1987 Greece
21 Jan 1987 North Korea
25 Aug 1987 Austria
15 Sep 1987 Ecuador
 4 May 1988 Canada
31 Jan 1989 Colombia
15 Nov 1990 Switzerland
31 Jul 1991 Guatemala
28 Oct 1992 Ukraine
 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic, Slovakia
24 Jan 1996 Turkey
24 Mar 1999 Venezuela
17 May 2001 Estonia
27 Dec 2006
Belarus
30 May 2008
Monaco
29 Jan 2010
Portugal
31 Oct 2011
Malaysia
 1 Mar 2012
Pakistan
1Dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 2Dissolved 31 Dec 1992, from 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia. 3East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 4Date of deposit of notification of succession by Papua New Guinea; effective 16 Sep 1975, the date of its independence.



Arab League

[flag of the League of Arab
                States]
                           Adopted 1945
 
Arab League website
Headquarters: Cairo
(Egypt)
(Tunis, Tunisia 1979-1990)
AL Day: 22 Mar (1945)
Arab League Day

22 Mar 1945                League of Arab States (Arab League) founded.

Secretaries-general
22 Mar 1945 - Sep 1952     Abdel Rahman Azzam (Egypt)       (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
                             (from 27 Dec 1945, Abdel Rahman Azzam Pasha)
Sep 1952 -  1 Jun 1972     Abdel Khaliq Hassuna (Egypt)     (b. 1898 - d. 1992)
 1 Jun 1972 - Mar 1979     Mahmoud Riad (Egypt)             (b. 1917 - d. 1992)
Mar 1979 - Sep 1990        Chedli Klebi (Tunisia)           (b. 1925)
Sep 1990 - 15 May 1991     Assad al-Assad (Lebanon) (acting)(b. 1920)
15 May 1991 - 15 May 2001  Esmat Abdel Meguid (Egypt)       (b. 1923 - d. 2013)
15 May 2001 -  1 Jul 2011  Amr Moussa (Egypt)               (b. 1936)
 1 Jul 2011 -              Nabil el-Arabi (Egypt)           (b. 1935)

Arab League membership (22)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
22 Mar 1945  Egypt1, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria2, Transjordan3,
Yemen (Sana)4
28 Mar 1953 Libya5
19 Jan 1956 The Sudan
 1 Jan 1958 Tunisia
 1 Oct 1958 Morocco
20 Jul 1961 Kuwait
16 Aug 1962  Algeria
12 Dec 1967 Yemen (Aden)4
11 Sep 1971 Bahrain, Qatar
29 Sep 1971 Oman
 6 Dec 1971 United Arab Emirates
26 Nov 1973 Mauritania
14 Feb 1974 Somalia
 9 Sep 1976 Palestine Liberation Organization 
 4 Sep 1977 Djibouti
20 Nov 1993 Comoros
1suspended 26 Mar 1979 - 23 May 1989. 2merged with Egypt to form United Arab Republic 22 Feb 1958; seceded from U.A.R. 28 Sep 1961 and rejoined Arab League 28 Oct 1961; suspended from 16 Nov 2011. 3from 1949 Jordan. 4Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united in 1990 as Yemen. 5Libya announced its withdrawal 24 Oct 2002; this would be effective one year later; Libya canceled (16 Jan 2003), reaffirmed (3 Apr 2003), and again canceled (25 May 2003) the decision to withdraw; suspended 22 Feb 2011 - 25 Aug 2011.



Arab Maghreb Union  (AMU)

[former Union
                          of Arab Maghreb flag]
                      1990 - ....
[Union of Arab
                          Maghreb flag]
                      Current Flag

AMU website
Headquarters: Rabat
(Morocco)

17 Feb 1989                Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) formed.

Secretaries-general
23 Oct 1991 - 26 Feb 2002  Mohamed Amamou (Tunisia)           (b. 1933 - d. 2014)
26 Feb 2002 -  1 Feb 2006  Habib Boularès (Tunisia)           (b. 1933 - d. 2014)
 1 Feb 2006 -              Habib Ben Yahia (Tunisia)          (b. 1938)

AMU membership (5)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
17 Feb 1989 Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia



Arctic Council

[ Arctic Council flag]

Arctic Council  website
Headquarters: Tromsø
(Norway)

19 Sep 1996                Arctic Council formed.
17 Sep 1998                Inauguration of the council.
 1 Feb 2013                Permanent secretariat inaugurated.

Director
 1 Feb 2013 -              Magnús Jóhannesson (Iceland)        (b. 1942)
 

Arctic Council membership (8)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
19 Sep 1996 Canada, Denmark (incl. Greenland and Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, United States



Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

[former APEC
                          flag, 1991-2007]
                      1991 - 2007
[Asia-Pacific
                          Economic Cooperation (APEC) flag]
                   Adopted Jul 2007

APEC website
Headquarters: Singapore
(Singapore)

 6 Nov 1989                Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) founded.
12 Feb 1993                Secretariat inaugurated.

Executive Directors
12 Feb 1993 - 1994         William Bodde, Jr. (United States)  (b. 1931)
1994 - 1995                Rusli Noor (Indonesia)              (b. 1927)
1995 - 1996                Shojiro Imanishi (Japan)            (b. 1940) 
1996 - 1997                Armando Q. Madamba (Philippines)    (b. 1938)
1997 - 1998                Jack Alexander Whittleton (Canada)  (b. 1940?)
1998 -  4 Jan 1999         Dato' Noor Adlan (Malaysia)         (b. 1939)
 4 Jan 1999 -  4 Jan 2000  Timothy James Hannah (New Zealand)  (b. 1939)
 4 Jan 2000 -  1 Jan 2001  Serbini Ali (Brunei Darussalam)     (b. 1955)
 1 Jan 2001 -  1 Jan 2002  Zhang Yan (China)                   (b. 1950)
 1 Jan 2002 -  1 Jan 2003  Alejandro de la Peña Navarrete      (b. 1951)
                             (Mexico)
 1 Jan 2003 -  1 Jan 2004  Piamsak Milintachinda (Thailand)    (b. 1950)
 1 Jan 2004 -  1 Jan 2005  Mario Hernán Artaza Rouxel (Chile)  (b. 1937)
 1 Jan 2005 -  1 Jan 2006  Choi Seok Young (South Korea)       (b. 1955)
 1 Jan 2006 -  1 Jan 2007  Tran Trong Toan (Vietnam)           (b. 1952)
 1 Jan 2007 -  1 Jan 2008  Colin S. Heseltine (Australia)      (b. 1947)
 1 Jan 2008 -  1 Jan 2009  Juan Carlos Capuñay Chávez
(Peru)   (b. 1949)
 1 Jan 2009 -  1 Jan 2010  Michael Tay (Singapore)             (b. 1959)
 
 1 Jan 2010 -  1 Jan 2013  Dato Muhamad Noor Yacob (Malaysia)  (b. 1951)
 1 Jan 2013 -              Alan Bollard (
New Zealand)          (b. 1951)

APEC membership (21)
Date of 
Admission
Member Economies
 6 Nov 1989 Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United States
12 Nov 1991 China, Hong Kong, Chinese Taipei (Taiwan)
17 Nov 1993 Mexico, Papua New Guinea
11 Nov 1994  Chile
14 Nov 1998 Peru, Russia, Vietnam


Asian Development Bank (ADB)

[former
                          Asian Development Bank flag]
                      Former Flag
 
[Asian
                          Development Bank (ADB)]
                     Current Flag

ADB website
Headquarters: Manila (Philippines)

22 Aug 1966                Asian Development Bank (ADB) established.
19 Dec 1966                Operations begin.

Presidents (all from Japan)
24 Nov 1966 - 24 Nov 1972  Takeshi Watanabe                   (b. 1906 - d. 2010)
25 Nov 1972 - 23 Nov 1976  Shiro Inoue                        (b. 1915 - d. 2010)
24 Nov 1976 - 23 Nov 1981  Taroichi Yoshida                   (b. 1919)
24 Nov 1981 - 23 Nov 1989  Masao Fujioka                      (b. 1924)
24 Nov 1989 - 23 Nov 1993  Kimimasa Tarumizu                  (b. 1930 - d. 2009)
24 Nov 1993 - 15 Jan 1999  Mitsuo Sato                        (b. 1933 - d. 2002)
16 Jan 1999 - 31 Jan 2005  Tadao Chino                        (b. 1934 - d. 2008)
 1 Feb 2005 - 18 Mar 2013  Haruhiko Kuroda                    (b. 1944)
18 Mar 2013 - 28 Apr 2013  Bindu N. Lohani (Nepal) (acting)   (b. 1948)
2
8 Apr 2013 -              Takehiko Nakao                     (b. 1956)

ADB membership (67)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
22 Aug 1966 Afghanistan, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Thailand, United States, Western Samoa1
29 Aug 1966
The Netherlands
30 Aug 1966
Federal Republic of Germany, Laos
21 Sep 1966
Singapore
22 Sep 1966
Vietnam2, Taiwan3
26 Sep 1966
United Kingdom
29 Sep 1966
Ceylon4, Sweden
29 Sep 1966
Austria, New Zealand
30 Sep 1966
Cambodia, Italy
24 Nov 1966
Indonesia
19 Dec 1966
Australia
31 Dec 1967 Switzerland
27 Mar 1969 Hong Kong
 2 Apr 1970 Fiji
27 Jul 1970
France
 8 Apr 1971
Papua New Guinea
29 Mar 1972 Tonga
14 Mar 1973
Bangladesh
26 Apr 1973
Burma5
30 Apr 1973
Solomon Islands
28 May 1974 Gilbert and Ellice Islands6
20 Apr 1976 Cook Islands
14 Feb 1978 Maldives
15 Apr 1982 Bhutan, Vanuatu
14 Feb 1986 Spain
10 Mar 1986
China
 4 Apr 1990
Marshall Islands
26 Apr 1990 Federated States of Micronesia
15 Apr 1991 Turkey
17 Sep 1991
Nauru
22 Feb 1991
Mongolia
 3 May 1993 Tuvalu
19 Jan 1994 Kazakhstan
13 Apr 1994
Kyrgyzstan
31 Aug 1995 Uzbekistan
20 Apr 1998 Tajikistan
22 Dec 1999 Azerbaijan
31 Aug 2000 Turkmenistan
 2 Apr 2002 Portugal
23 Jul 2002 East Timor
25 Sep 2003 Luxembourg
29 Dec 2003 Palau
20 Sep 2005 Armenia
27 Apr 2006 Brunei Darussalam
24 Jul 2006 Ireland
 2 Feb 2007
Georgia
1from 1997 Samoa. 2Republic of Vietnam to 30 Apr 1975, then Republic of South Vietnam, from 2 Jul 1976 Socialist Republic of Vietnam; succession recognized by ADB on 23 Sep 1976, retroactive to 2 Jul 1976. 3upon the admission of the People's Republic of China on 10 Mar 1986, the Republic of China (Taiwan) is re-designated "Taipei, China" and continues its membership under that designation. 4from 1972 Sri Lanka. 5from 1989 Myanmar. 6in 1975 Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu) separated from the Gilbert Islands which alone remained a member of the Bank; from 1979 Gilbert Islands named Kiribati.



Association of Caribbean States (ACS)

[Association of Caribbean States
              (ACS) flag]

ACS website
Headquarters: Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago)

24 Jul 1994                Treaty of Association of Caribbean States signed.                
 4 Aug 1995                Association of Caribbean States (ACS)

Secretaries-general

1995 - 2000                Germán Simón Molina Duarte         (b. c.1934 - d. 2012)

                             (Venezuela)
2000 - 2004                Norman Girvan (Jamaica)            (b. 1941 - d. 2014)

Mar 2004 - Mar 2008        Rubén Arturo Silié Valdez          (b. 1946)

                             (Dominican Republic)
Mar 2008 - 12 Apr 2012     Luis Fernando Andrade Falla
       (b. 1963)
                             (Guatemala)
12 Apr 2012 -              Alfonso Múnera Cavadía (Colombia)  (b. 1954)

ACS membership (25)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 4 Aug 1995
Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela
16 Jan 1996
Dominican Republic
18 Apr 1996
Panama
24 May 1996
Guatemala
28 May 1996
El Salvador
 2 Oct 1996
Colombia
 7 Dec 1998
Haiti
25 Jan 1999
Nicaragua
17 Feb 1999
Costa Rica

Date of 
Admission
Associate Members of ACS
18 Feb 1998
France1
25 Sep 2001
Aruba, Netherlands Antilles2
20 Feb 2013
Curaçao
14 Feb 2014
Guadeloupe, Martinique, Sint Maarten, The Netherlands3
1on behalf of French Guiana, (from 21 Feb 2007) Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin, (and to 14 Feb 2014 for Guadeloupe and Martinique). 2dissolved 10 Oct 2010. 3on behalf of Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius.



 Association of Southeast Asian Nations  (ASEAN)
 
[Old flag of
                          ASEAN]
                 1971 - 23 Jul 1994
 
              23 Jul 1994 - 31 May 1997
 
[Flag of
                          ASEAN]
              Adopted 31 May 1997
 
ASEAN website
Hear Anthem
"ASEAN Song of Unity"
Headquarters: Jakarta
(Indonesia)
ASEAN Day:
8 Aug (1967)
ASEAN Day

 8 Aug 1967                Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) created.
24 Feb 1976                Secretariat established.

Secretaries-general
 7 Jun 1976 - 18 Feb 1978  Hartono R. Dharsono (Indonesia)    (b. 1925 - d. 1996)
19 Feb 1978 -  1 Jul 1978  Umarjadi Njotowijono (Indonesia)   (b. 1910)
10 Jul 1978 -  1 Jul 1980  Datuk Ali bin Abdullah (Malaysia)  (b. 1922)
 1 Jul 1980 -  1 Jul 1982  Narciso G. Reyes (Philippines)     (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
18 Jul 1982 - 16 Jul 1984  Chan Kai Yau (Singapore)           (b. 1930)
16 Jul 1984 - 16 Jul 1986  Phan Wannamethee (Thailand)        (b. 1923)
16 Jul 1986 - 16 Jul 1989  Roderick Yong (Brunei)             (b. 1933?)
17 Jul 1989 -  1 Jan 1993  Rusli Noor (Indonesia)             (b. 1927)
 1 Jan 1993 -  5 Jan 1998  Datuk Ajit Singh (Malaysia)        (b. 1938)
 5 Jan 1998 -  6 Jan 2003  Rodolfo C. Severino (Philippines)  (b. 1936)
 6 Jan 2003 -  7 Jan 2008  Ong Keng Yong (Singapore)          (b. 1954)
 7 Jan 2008 -  9 Jan 2013  Surin Pitsuwan (Thailand)          (b. 1949)
 9 Jan 2013 -              Le Luong Minh (Vietnam)            (b. 1952)

ASEAN membership (10)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 8 Aug 1967 Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand
 7 Jan 1984 Brunei Darussalam
28 Jul 1995 Vietnam
23 Jul 1997 Laos, Myanmar
30 Apr 1999 Cambodia



Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
 
BIS website
Headquarters: Basel
(Switzerland)
(20 May - 7 Oct 1940,
Chateau-d'Oex, Switzerland)

20 Jan 1930                Convention Respecting the Bank for International
                             Settlements signed.
26 Feb 1930                Bank for International Settlements (BIS) founded.
20 May 1930                Founding banks subscribe first share issue.
10 Jul 1939 -  9 Dec 1946  Board of directors suspends operations.
 1 Sep 1939 - 15 Aug 1945  Bank agrees "to undertake only such operations as are
                             irreproachable from point of view both the belligerent
                             and of other countries."

Presidents

22 Apr 1930 -  8 May 1933  Gates W. McGarrah (U.S.)           (b. 1863 - d. 1940)
 8 May 1933 - 13 May 1935  Leon Fraser (U.S.)                 (b. 1889 - d. 1945)
13 May 1935 -  3 May 1937  Leonardus J.A. Trip (Netherlands)  (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
 3 May 1937 - 31 Dec 1939  J. Willem Beyen (Netherlands)      (b. 1897 - d. 1976)
 1 Jan 1940 - 30 Jun 1946  Thomas H. McKittrick (U.S.)        (b. 1889 - d. 1970)
30 Jun 1946 -  1 Jul 1958  Maurice Frère (Belgium)            (b. 1890 - d. 1970) 
                             (acting to 14 Jun 1948)
 1 Jul 1958 - Jun 1967     Marius W. Holtrop (Netherlands)    (b. 1902 - d. 1988)
Jul 1967 - Dec 1981        Jelle Zijlstra (Netherlands)       (b. 1918 - d. 2001)
Jan 1982 - Dec 1984        Fritz Leutwiler (Switzerland)      (b. 1924 - d. 1997)
Jan 1985 - Dec 1987        Jean Godeaux (Belgium)             (b. 1922 - d. 2009)
Jan 1988 - Dec 1990        Willem "Wim" Frederik Duisenberg   (b. 1935 - d. 2005)
                             (Netherlands) (1st time)
Jan 1991 - Dec 1993        Bengt Dennis (Sweden)              (b. 1930) 
Jan 1994 - Jun 1997        Willem "Wim" Frederik Duisenberg   (s.a.)
                             (Netherlands) (2nd time)
Jul 1997 - Feb 1999        Alfons Verplaetse (Belgium)        (b. 1930) 
Mar 1999 - Feb 2002        Urban Bäckström (Sweden)           (b. 1954)
Mar 2002 - 27 Jun 2005     Arnout "Nout" Henricus Elisabeth   (b. 1943)
                             Maria Wellink (Netherlands)
27 Jun 2005                Post abolished 

General managers

23 Apr 1930 -  8 Sep 1937  Pierre Quesnay (France)            (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
 8 Sep 1937 - 31 Dec 1937  Paul Hechler (Germany) (acting)    (b. 1885 – d. 1945)
 1 Jan 1938 - 30 Sep 1958  Roger Auboin (France)              (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
 1 Oct 1958 - 30 Apr 1963  Guillaume Guindey (France)         (b. 1909 - d. 1989)
 1 May 1963 - 23 Dec 1970  Gabriel Ferras (France)            (b. 1913 - d. 1970)
 1 May 1971 - 28 Feb 1981  René Larre (France)                (b. 1915 - d. 1999)
 1 Mar 1981 - 30 Apr 1985  Günther Schleiminger (W. Germany)  (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
 1 May 1985 - 31 Dec 1993  Alexandre Lamfalussy (Belgium)     (b. 1929)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Mar 2003  Andrew D. Crockett (U.K.)          (b. 1943 - d. 2012)
 1 Apr 2003 - 30 Sep 2008  Malcolm D. Knight (Canada)         (b. 1944)
 1 Oct 2008 - 31 Mar 2009  Hervé Hannoun (France) (acting)    (b. 1950)
 1 Apr 2009 -              Jaime Caruana (Spain)              (b. 1952)

BIS membership (60)
Date of 
Admission
Member Central Banks and Monetary Authorities
20 May 1930
Belgium, France, Germany1, Italy, Japan2, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States3
25 Jun 1930
Austria4, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia5, Danzig Free City6, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania
31 Oct 1930
Estonia7
30 Dec 1930
Latvia7
31 Mar 1931
Lithuania7
30 Apr 1931
Albania8
30 May 1931
Norway
28 Jun 1931
Yugoslavia9
28 Nov 1950
Iceland
 5 Dec 1950
Ireland
10 Jan 1951
Portugal
24 May 1951
Turkey
28 Dec 1960
Spain
 2 Jan 1970
Canada
31 Dec 1970
Australia
30 Jun 1971
South Africa
14 Jun 1993
Czech Republic, Slovakia
 1 Nov 1996
China, Hong Kong, India, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore
14 Jun 1997
South Korea
25 May 1997
Brazil
30 May 1997
Croatia, Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of),
Slovenia
31 Dec 1997
Bosnia-Hercegovina
 9 Jan 1999
European Central Bank
24 Dec 1999
Malaysia
 1 Mar 2000
Thailand
28 Mar 2000
Argentina
10 Jun 2001
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia10
28 Jul 2003
Algeria
15 Aug 2003
New Zealand
18 Sep 2003
Philippines
26 Sep 2003
Chile
29 Sep 2003
Indonesia
30 Sep 2003
Israel
26 Jun 2011
Luxembourg, Peru, United Arab Emirates
22 Dec 2011
Colombia
1suspended 9 Dec 1946 - 3 Apr 1950; from 3 Apr 1950, Federal Republic of Germany. 2suspended from 9 Dec 1946, withdrew 26 Dec 1952; rejoined 2 Jan 1970. 3did not take seat on board of directors until 13 Sep 1994. 4annexed to Germany 14 Mar 1938 - 27 Apr 1945. 5voting rights suspended May 1939-1945; dissolved 31 Dec 1992, succeeded by Czech Republic and Slovakia. 6annexed to Germany 1 Sep 1939 - 2 Apr 1945, then annexed to Poland; on 11 Jun 1979 Danzig issue of shares are cancelled. 7shareholdership and membership deactivated Jul 1940 - 30 Jun 1992. 8withdrew 1977; 1,000 shares of the Albanian issue suspended and held in treasury. 9on 11 Jun 2001 original Yugoslavia shares canceled and issues new shares issued for central banks of Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. 10suspended 1992 - 10 Jun 2001; readmitted 10 Jun 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia.



Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)

[Former flag of
                          the Black Sea Economic Cooperation]
               1994 - 1999 Unofficial
 
[Organization of
                          the Black Sea Economic Cooperation]
                    Adopted 1999

BSEC website
Headquarters: Istanbul
(Turkey)

25 Jun 1992                Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) founded.
 1 May 1999                Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).

Directors
1992 - 1997                Yevgeny Georgyevich Kutovoy        (b. 1932)
                             (Russia)
1997 -  1 May 1999
        Vasil Ivanov Baychev (Bulgaria)    (b. 1948)
Secretaries-general

 1 May 1999 -  1 May 2000  Vasil Ivanov Baychev
(Bulgaria)    (s.a.)
 1 May 2000 - Nov 2004     Valeri Chechelashvili (Georgia)    (b. 1961)
Nov 2004 - 30 Apr 2005     Tedo Japaridze (Georgia)           (b. 1946)
 1 May 2006 - 30 Jun 2012  Leonidas Chrysanthopoulos (Greece) (b. 1946)
 1 Jul 2012 -              Victor Tvircun (Moldova)           (b. 1955)

BSEC membership (12)

Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
25 Jun 1992
Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine
14 Apr 2004
Serbia and Montenegro1
 1succeeded by Serbia on 5 Jun 2006.



Caribbean Community  (CARICOM)

[Flag of CARICOM]
               Adopted 4 Jul 1984
 
CARICOM website
Headquarters: Georgetown (Guyana)
CARICOM Day:
1st Monday in July
CARICOM Day

15 Dec 1965                Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) formed.
 1 Aug 1973                Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) inaugurated.

Secretaries-general
1973 - 1974                William Demas                      (b. 1929 - d. 1998)
                             (Trinidad and Tobago) 
1974 - Aug 1977            Sir Alister McIntyre (Grenada)     (b. 1932)
Aug 1977 - Nov 1978        Joseph A. Tyndall (Guyana)(acting) (b. 1927)
 1 Nov 1978 - Sep 1983     Kurleigh King (Barbados)           (b. 1933 - d. 1998)
Sep 1983 - 31 Jul 1992     Roderick Rainford (Jamaica)        (b. 1940)
 1 Aug 1992 - 31 Dec 2011  Edwin W. Carrington                (b. 1938)
                             (Trinidad and Tobago)
 1 Jan 2011 - 
15 Aug 2011  Lolita Janet Applewhaite (f)
                             
(Barbados) (acting)
15 Aug 2011 -              Irwin LaRocque (Dominica)          (b. 1955?)

CARICOM membership (15)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 1 Aug 1973 Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago
 1 May 1974 Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 4 Jul 1974 Antigua1
26 Jul 1974  Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla2
 4 Jul 1983 The Bahamas3
 4 Jul 1995 Suriname
 5 Jul 2002 Haiti4
 1from 1981 Antigua and Barbuda. 2from 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis. 3member of the community but not the common market. 4admitted on 4 Jul 1997 but did not deposit instrument of accession until 5 Jul 2002; suspended 29 Feb 2004 - 7 Jun 2006.

Date of 
Admission
Associate Members of Caricom
 2 Jul 1991
British Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos
 4 Jul 1999
Anguilla
15 May 2002
Cayman Islands
 2 Jul 2003
Bermuda


CARIFTA 1965-1973  membership (12)
Date of
Admission
Members of CARIFTA
18 Dec 1965
Antigua, Barbados, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago
 1 Jul 1968
Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 1 Aug 1968
Jamaica, Montserrat
 1 May 1971
British Honduras1
 1from 1973 Belize.


Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)


[former
                      Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) flag]                          to 2007
[Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) flag]                      Adopted 2007

CDB website
Headquarters: Bridgetown
(Barbados)

26 Jan 1970                Caribbean Development Bank (signed 18 Oct 1969).

Presidents

31 Jan 1970 - 1973         Sir Arthur Lewis (Saint Lucia)     (b. 1915 - d. 1991)
1974 - 1987                William Demas (Trinidad and Tobago)(b. 1929 - d. 1998)
1988 - 30 Apr 2001         Sir Neville Vernon Nicholls        (b. 1933)
                             (Barbados)
 1 May 2001 - 30 Apr 2011  Compton D. Bourne (Guyana)         (b. 1943)
 1 May 2011 -              
William Warren Smith (Jamaica)     (b. 1952?)

CDB membership (27)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
26 Jan 1970
Barbados, British Honduras1, Canada, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla2, Saint  Lucia, Saint Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos, United Kingdom
28 Jan 1970
The Bahamas, Montserrat
30 Jan 1970
Antigua3British Virgin Islands
25 Apr 1973
Venezuela
22 Nov 1974
Colombia
 4 May 1982
Anguilla
 7 May 1982
Mexico
11 May 1984
France4
 2 Nov 1988
Italy
27 Oct 1989
Germany
20 Jan 1998
China
19 Jan 2007
Haiti
27 Sep 2013
Suriname
1from 1973 Belize. 2from 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis; Anguilla ceased to apply the Agreement as part of St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla on 19 Dec 1980 and became a member in its own right 4 May 1982. 3from 1981 Antigua and Barbuda. 4withdrew Oct 2000.



Central American Integration System  (SICA)


[Sistema
                      de la Integración Centroamericana (SICA)
                      1993-2006]                    27 Oct 1993 - 2006
[Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana
                      (SICA)]                        Adopted 2006

SICA website
Headquarters:
San Salvador

(El Salvador)
Hear SICA Anthem
"La Granadera"
Adopted 27 Oct 1993
SICA Day: 14 Oct (1951)
Día de la Integración
 Centroamericana

 
13 Dec 1991                 Central American Integration System (SICA)
                              (Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana) founded.
 1 Feb 1993                 Secretariat inaugurated.
                       
 
Secretaries-general
 1 Feb 1993 - 15 Jan 1997  Hector Roberto Herrera Cáceres     (b. 1943)
                             (Honduras)
15 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1999  Ernesto José Leal Sánchez          (b. 1945 - d. 2005)
                             (Nicaragua)  
 1 Jan 2000 - 30 Jun 2000  Mauricio Ramón Herdocia Sacasa     (b. 1958)
                             (Nicaragua)(interim)
 1 Jul 2000 - 31 Dec 2004  Óscar Alfredo Santamaría Jaimes    (b. 1942)
                             (El Salvador)
 1 Jan 2005 - 15 Jan 2009  Aníbal Enrique Quiñónez Abarca     (b. 1950)
                             (Honduras)
15 Jan 2009 - 30 Jun 2013  Juan Daniel Alemán Gurdián         (b. 1956)
                             (Nicaragua)
 1 Jul 2013 -              Hugo Martínez Bonilla (El Salvador)(b. 1968)

SICA membership (8)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 1 Feb 1993
Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
 1 Dec 2000
Belize
27 Jun 2013
Dominican Republic1
 1associate member 19 Dec 2003 - 27 Jun 2013.


Central American Parliament (Parlacen)

[Central
                      American Parliament (Parlacen) flag 1999-2006]                   1999 - 30 Oct 2006
[Central American Parliament (Parlacen)
                      flag]                   Adopted 30 Oct 2006


Parlacen website
Headquarters: Guatemala City
(Guatemala)

28 Oct 1991                Parlacen established as the parliamentary assembly
                             of Central American Integration System (SICA).

Presidents
28 Oct 1991 - 28 Oct 1992  Roberto Vicente Carpio Nicolle
                            
(Guatemala)
28 Oct 1992 - 28 Oct 1993  Ilsa Díaz Zelaya (f) (Honduras)    (b. 1942)
28 Oct 1993 - 28 Oct 1994  José Francisco Guerrero Munguía    (b. 1937 - d. 1994)
                             (El Salvador) 
28 Oct 1994 - 28 Oct 1995  Victor Augusto Vela Mena (Guatemala)
                             (1st time)
28 Oct 1995 -  2 Dec 1995  Roland Valenzuela Oyuela (Honduras)(d. 1995)
 6 Dec 1995 – 28 Oct 1996  Raúl Zaldívar Guzmán (Honduras)    (b. 1931)  
28 Oct 1996 - 28 Oct 1997  Ernesto Lima Mena (El Salvador)
28 Oct 1997 - 28 Oct 1998  Marco Antonio Solares Pérez        (b. 1956)
                             (Guatemala)
28 Oct 1998 - 28 Oct 1999  Carlos Roberto Reina (Honduras)    (b. 1926 - d. 2003)
28 Oct 1999 - 28 Oct 2000  José Ernesto Somarriba Sosa        (b. 1920 - d. 2009)
                             (Nicaragua)
28 Oct 2000 - 28 Oct 2001  Hugo Heberto Guiraud Gargano
                            
(Panama)
28 Oct 2001 - 28 Oct 2002  José Rodrigo Samayoa Rivas
                             (El Salvador)
28 Oct 2002 - 28 Oct 2003  Victor Augusto Vela Mena (Guatemala)
                             (2nd time)
28 Oct 2003 - 28 Oct 2004  Mario Facussé Handal (Honduras)    (b. 1946)
28 Oct 2004 - 28 Oct 2005  Fabio Gadea Mantilla (Nicaragua)   (b. 1931)
28 Oct 2005 - 28 Oct 2006  Julio Enrique Palacios Sambrano
                             (Panama)
28 Oct 2006 - 26 Oct 2007  Ciro Cruz Cepeda Peña (El Salvador)(b. 1946)
26 Oct 2007 - 28 Oct 2008  Julio Guillermo González Gamarra
                             (Guatemala)
28 Oct 2008 - 28 Oct 2009  Glori
a Guadalupe Oquelí Solórzano  (b. 1941)
                             de Macoto
(f)(Honduras)
28 Oct 2009 - 28 Oct 2010  Jacinto José Suárez Espinoza       (b. 1947)
                             
(Nicaragua)
28 Oct 2010 - 31 Oct 2011  Dorindo Jayán Cort
éz Marciaga
                            
(Panama)
31 Oct 2011 - 
28 Oct 2012  Manuel "Manolo" de Jesus Pichardo
                             Ar
ías (Dominican Rep.)
28 Oct 2012 - 25 Oct 2013  Leonel Vásquez Búcaro (El Salvador)
25 Oct 2013 -              Paula Rodríguez (f) (Guatemala)

PARLACEN membership (6)
Date of 
Admission
Member Parliaments
28 Oct 1991 El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras
21 Jan 1997 Nicaragua
 1 Sep 1999 Panama1
30 Oct 2006 Dominican Republic
1withdrew 24 Nov 2010; opposition Panamanians
(including Dorindo Cortez) remained in the
parliament
; rejoined 28 Jan 2013.



Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)

[Central Treaty
                Organization]
 
Text of the Baghdad Pact
(4 Feb 1955)
Headquarters: Ankara (Turkey)
(Baghdad, Iraq 1955-1958)

 4 Feb 1955                Pact of Mutual Cooperation "Baghdad Pact" signed.
15 Apr 1955                Middle East Treaty Organization (MENTO).
19 Aug 1959                Central Treaty Organization (CENTO).
26 Sep 1979                CENTO dissolved.

Secretaries-general
1955 - 31 Dec 1958         Awni Khalidy (Iraq)                (b. bf.1911)
 1 Jan 1959 - 31 Dec 1961  Mirza Osman Ali Baig (Pakistan)    (b. 1904 - d. ....)
Jan 1962 - Jan 1968        Abbas Ali Khalatbari (Iran)        (b. 1912 - d. 1979)
Jan 1968 -  1 Feb 1972     Turgut Menemencioglu (Turkey)      (b. 1914)
 1 Feb 1972 - Jan 1975     Nasir Assar (Iran)                 (b. 1926)
Jan 1975 -  1 Aug 1977     Haluk Bayülken (Turkey)            (b. 1921 - d. 2007)
Aug 1977 - Mar 1978        Sidar Hasan Mahmud (Pakistan) 
                             (acting)
31 Mar 1978 - 1979         Kamuran Gürün (Turkey)             (b. 1924 - d. 2004)

CENTO membership 
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
15 Apr 1955 Iraq1, Turkey2, United Kingdom
23 Sep 1955 Pakistan3
23 Oct 1955 Iran4
1withdrew 24 Mar 1959. 2withdrew 15 Mar 1979. 3withdrew 12 Mar 1979. 4withdrew 13 Mar 1979. note: the United States was an observer from
5 Mar 1959. 



Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
 
[Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)]
               Adopted 15 May 1992

 
CSTO website
Headquarters: Moscow (Russia)

15 May 1992                Commonwealth of Independent States Collective Security
                             Treaty (CST) signed (enters into force
20 Apr 1994).
 7 Oct 2002                Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)

Secretary-general
28 Apr 2003 -              Nikolay Nikolayevich Bordyuzha     (b. 1949)
                             (Russia)


CSTO membership (6)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 7 Oct 2002
Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan
16 Aug 2006
Uzbekistan1
1membership suspended at its own request from 19 Dec 2012.
 


Colombo Plan

[Colombo
                          Plan]
                 Colombo Plan Flag
[Colombo Plan
                          flag (Variant)]
                      Variant Flag

Colombo Plan website
Headquarters: Colombo
(Sri Lanka)

28 Nov 1950                Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development
                             in South and South-East
Asia
 1 Jul 1951                Plan operations commence
Dec 1977                   Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic and Social 
                             Development in Asia and the Pacific (CESDAP). 
Nov 1980                   Duration of the plan extended indefinitely.

Directors
Aug 1951 - Sep 1953        Geoffrey M. Wilson (U.K.)         (b. 1910 - d. 2004)
Sep 1953 - Feb 1956        Pearce William Edward Curtin      (b. 1907 - d. 1997)
                             (Australia)
Apr 1956 - Aug 1957        Nathan Keyfitz (Canada)           (b. 1913 - d. 2010)
Aug 1957 - Jul 1959        Robert Hunter Wade (New Zealand)  (b. 1916 - d. 2011)
Jul 1959 - Dec 1961        John Kenneth Thompson (U.K.)      (b. 1913)
Dec 1961 - Jan 1964        Sashichiro Matsui (Japan)         (b. 1912 - d. ....)
Jan 1964 - Mar 1966        James Lawrence Allen (Australia)  (b. 1913 - d. 1990)
Mar 1966 - Jun 1969        D. Alan Strachan (U.S.)           (b. 1903 - d. ....)
Jun 1969 - Aug 1973        Alan Burton Connelly (Canada)     (b. 1908 - d. ....)
Aug 1973 - Dec 1975        I.K. McGregor (New Zealand)
Jan 1976 - Feb 1979        Leonore E.T. Storar (f) (U.K.)    (b. 1920 - d. 1997)
Feb 1979 - Feb 1982        Noboru Yabata (Japan)
Feb 1982 - Feb 1985        Eriks Ingevics (Australia)        (b. 1929)
Feb 1985 - Jan 1986        Donald R. Toussaint (U.S.)        (b. 1927 - d. 1986)
Jul 1986 - Jul 1991        Gilbert H. Sheinbaum (U.S.)
Jul 1991 - Dec 1994        John Ryan (New Zealand)
Secretaries-general
Jan 1995 - Mar 1999        Hak-Su Kim (South Korea)          (b. 1938)
Apr 1999 - Jun 2003        U. Sarat Chandran (India)         (b. 1953)
Jun 2003 - Aug 2007        Kittipan Kanjanapipatkul
                             (Thailand)
Aug 2007 - Aug 2011        Patricia Yoon-Moi Chia (f)        (b. 1952)
                             (from Feb 2009, 
Dato' Patricia
                             Yoon-Moi Chia
)(Malaysia)
15 Aug 2011 - 28 Nov 2013  Adam Naseer Maniku (Maldives)
28 Nov 2013 -  2 May 2014  Tay Bian How (Malaysia)(acting)
 2 May 2014 -              Kinley Dorji (Bhutan)

Colombo Plan membership (27)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
28 Nov 1950 Australia, Canada1, Ceylon2, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, United Kingdom3
1951 Cambodia4, Laos, South Vietnam5, United States
Mar 1952 Burma6, Nepal
Feb 1953  Indonesia
 5 Oct 1954 Japan, Philippines, Thailand
 7 Oct 1957 Malaya7
1959 Singapore
Nov 1962 Bhutan, South Korea
12 Nov 1963 Afghanistan, Maldives
1966 Iran
1972 Bangladesh, Fiji
1973 Papua New Guinea
15 Jun 2004
Mongolia8, Vietnam9
20 Nov 2008
Brunei Darussalam10
25 Apr 2012
Saudi Arabia
1withdrew 1992. 2from 1972 Sri Lanka. 3withdrew 1991. 4withdrew 15 Jun 2004. 5from 2 Jul 1976 succeeded by Socialist Republic of Vietnam which withdrew 1978. 6from 1989 Myanmar. 7from 1963 Malaysia. 8provisional member May 1998 - 15 Jun 2004. 9provisional member 5 Nov 2001 - 15 Jun 2004. 10provisional member.



Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)

[former COMESA
                          flag]
                      Former Flag
[COMESA
                          flag]
                      Current Flag

COMESA website
Headquarters: Lusaka
(Zambia)
COMESA Day:  8 Dec (1994)
COMESA Day

21 Dec 1981                Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa 
                             (PTA).
 8 Dec 1994                Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).

Secretaries-general of the Preferential Trade Area
Jan 1983 - 1984            Simeon Moses Kiingi (Uganda)
                             (interim)

1984 - 1990                Bax Dale Nomvete (South Africa)    (b. 1922 - d. 2000)
1990 -  8 Dec 1994         Bingu wa Mutharika (Malawi)        (b. 1934 - d. 2012)
Secretaries-general of COMESA 

 8 Dec 1994 - 17 Apr 1997  Bingu wa Mutharika (Malawi)        (s.a.)
17 Apr 1997 - Jun 1998     Sindiso Ndema Ngwenya (Zimbabwe)   (b. 1951)
                             (1st time)(acting)
Jun 1998 - Feb 2008        Erastus Joel O. Mwencha (Kenya)    (b. 1947) 
May 2008 -                 Sindiso Ndema Ngwenya (Zimbabwe)   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting to 30 Jun 2008)

COMESA membership (19)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
21 Dec 1981 Angola1, Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Lesotho
2, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique3, Rwanda, The Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania4, Uganda, Zambia, Zaire5, Zimbabwe
1991 Namibia6
1994 Eritrea
 6 Jan 1999 Egypt
 1 Jun 2001 Seychelles 
 3 Jun 2005 Libya
1withdrew 2007. 2withdrew 1997. 3withdrew Dec 1997. 4withdrew 2 Sep 2000. 5from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa). 6withdrew 15 May 2004



The Commonwealth
 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
                    31 Dec 1931 - 26 Mar 1976
 
[Flag of the
                          Commonwealth of Nations 1976-2013]
                    26 Mar 1976 - Oct 2013
 
[Flag of the
                          Commonwealth of Nations]
                         Adopted Oct 2013
Commonwealth website
Statute of Westminster
  (11 Dec 1931)
Headquarters: London
(United Kingdom)
Comm. Day: 2nd Monday
 in March
Commonwealth Day
(24 May [1819]
Empire Day to 1958)

31 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster creates the British 
                             Commonwealth of Nations.
27 Apr 1949                Renamed The Commonwealth.
Jul 1965                   Commonwealth secretariat created.

Secretaries-general
Jun 1965 - 30 Jun 1975     Arnold Smith (Canada)              (b. 1915 - d. 1994)
 1 Jul 1975 - 30 Jun 1990  Sir Shridath Ramphal (Guyana)      (b. 1928)
 1 Jul 1990 -  3 Apr 2000  Emeka Anyaoku (Nigeria)            (b. 1933)
 3 Apr 2000 -  1 Apr 2008  Don McKinnon (New Zealand)         (b. 1939)
 1 Apr 2008 -              Kamalesh Sharma (India)            (b. 1941)

Commonwealth membership (53)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
11 Dec 1931 Australia, Canada, Ireland1, New Zealand, Newfoundland2, South Africa3
United Kingdom
15 Oct 1947 India, Pakistan4
 4 Feb 1948 Ceylon5
 6 Mar 1957 Ghana
31 Aug 1957 Malaya6
 1 Oct 1960 Nigeria7
13 Mar 1961 Cyprus
27 Apr 1961 Sierra Leone8
 9 Dec 1961 Tanganyika9
 6 Aug 1962 Jamaica
31 Aug 1962 Trinidad and Tobago
 9 Oct 1962 Uganda
12 Dec 1963 Kenya
 6 Jul 1964 Malawi
21 Sep 1964 Malta
24 Oct 1964 Zambia
18 Feb 1965 The Gambia10
15 Oct 1965 Singapore
26 May 1966 Guyana
30 Sep 1966 Botswana
 4 Oct 1966 Lesotho
30 Nov 1966 Barbados
12 Mar 1968 Mauritius
 6 Sep 1968 Swaziland
29 Nov 1968 Nauru11
 4 Jun 1970 Tonga
28 Aug 1970 Western Samoa12
10 Oct 1970 Fiji13
18 Apr 1972 Bangladesh
10 Jul 1973 The Bahamas
 7 Feb 1974 Grenada
16 Sep 1975 Papua New Guinea
28 Jun 1976 Seychelles
 7 Jul 1978 Solomon Islands
 1 Oct 1978 Tuvalu14
 3 Nov 1978 Dominica
22 Feb 1979 Saint Lucia
12 Jul 1979 Kiribati
27 Oct 1979 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines15
18 Apr 1980 Zimbabwe16
30 Jul 1980 Vanuatu
21 Sep 1981 Belize
 1 Nov 1981 Antigua and Barbuda
 9 Jul 1982 Maldives17
19 Sep 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 1 Jan 1984 Brunei Darussalam
21 Mar 1990 Namibia
 1 Nov 1995 Cameroon
12 Nov 1995 Mozambique
28 Nov 2009
Rwanda
1withdrew 18 Apr 1949. 2became a colony in 1934. 3withdrew 31 May 1961, rejoined 1 Jun 1994. 4withdrew 30 Jan 1972, rejoined 1 Oct 1989; suspended from councils 18 Oct 1999 - 22 May 2004 and 22 Nov 2007 - 12 May 2008. 5from 1972 Sri Lanka. 6from 1963 Malaysia. 7suspended 11 Nov 1995 - 29 May 1999. 8suspended from councils 11 Jul 1997 - 10 Mar 1998. 9from 1964 Tanzania. 10withdrew 2 Oct 2013. 11special member to 1 May 1999 and 9 Jan 2006 - Jun 2011; "member in arrears" Nov 2007 - Jun 2011. 12from 1997 Samoa. 13withdrew 15 Oct 1987, rejoined 30 Sep 1997; suspended from councils 6 Jun 2000 - 20 Dec 2001 and from 8 Dec 2006; fully suspended 1 Sep 2009. 14special member to 1 Sep 2000. 15special member to 1 Jun 1985. 16suspended from councils 19 Mar 2002, withdrew 7 Dec 2003. 17special member to 20 Jul 1985.

Date of
Admission
Associate Members of Commonwealth
 4 Aug 1965
Cook Islands
19 Oct 1974
Niue



Commonwealth of Independent States  (CIS)
 
[CIS temporary flag]
               Jun 1992 - 15 Apr 1994 (unofficial)
  
[CIS flag]
            15 Apr 1994 - 19 Jan 1996  (unofficial);
                     Adopted 19 Jan 1996
 
CIS website
Headquarters: Minsk
(Belarus)

 8 Dec 1991                Commonwealth of Slavic States (Belarus, Russia and Ukraine).
21 Dec 1991                Commonwealth of Independent States.

Coordinator of the Working Group for Organization
16 Jan 1992 - May 1993     Ivan Mikhailovich Korotchenya       (b. 1948)
                             (Belarus)
Executive Secretaries
May 1993 - 29 Apr 1998     Ivan Mikhailovich Korotchenya       (s.a.) 
                             (1st time)(Belarus)
29 Apr 1998 -  4 Mar 1999  Boris Abramovich Berezovsky         (b. 1946 - d. 2013)
                             (Russia)
 4 Mar 1999 -  2 Apr 1999  Ivan Mikhailovich Korotchenya       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting) (Belarus)
 2 Apr 1999 - 14 Jun 2004  Yury Fyodorovich Yarov (Russia)     (b. 1942)
14 Jun 2004 -  5 Oct 2007  Vladimir Borisovich Rushailo        (b. 1953) 
                             (Russia)
 5 Oct 2007 -              Sergey Nikolayevich
Lebedev (Russia)(b. 1948)

CIS membership (10)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
21 Dec 1991  Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Tukmenistan1, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
 9 Dec 1993 Georgia2
 1withdrew 26 Aug 2005; continued to participate as "associate member." 2withdrew 18 Aug 2009.

Date of 
Admission
Associate Member of CIS
26 Aug 2005
Turkmenistan



Communist International

[International Socailist [Red]
                Flag]
 
Comintern Constitution
(4 Mar 1919)
Headquarters: Moscow
(Soviet Union)
(Belgrade, Yugoslavia)
1947-1948; Bucharest,
Romania 1948-1956)

 4 Mar 1919                Communist International ("Comintern").
15 May 1943                Comintern dissolved.
22 Sep 1947 - 17 Apr 1956  Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties

                             (Communist Information Bureau)("Cominform").

Chairmen of the Executive Committee
 6 Mar 1919 - 1926         Grigory Yevseyevich Zinoviev    (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
                             (Soviet Union)
1926 - 1929                Nikolay Ivanovich Bukharin      (b. 1888 - d. 1938)
                             (Soviet Union)
1929 - 1934                Secretaries
                           ([de facto] acting)
                           - Dmitry Zakharovych Manuilskiy (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
                             (Soviet Union)(from 1931)
                           - Otto Ville Kuusinen (Finland) (b. 1881 - d. 1964) 
                             (to 1931)
                           - Georgi Mikhailov Dimitrov     (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
                             (Bulgaria)
1934 - 15 May 1943         Georgi Mikhailov Dimitrov       (s.a.)
                             (Bulgaria)
Chief Redactors

(only permanent structure formed was the redaction committee of
Cominform publications)
1947 - 1950                Pavel Fyodorovich Yudin         (b. 1899 - d. 1968)
                            
(Soviet Union)
1950 - 1953                Mark Borisovitch Mitin          (b. 1901 - d. 1987)
                             (Gershkovich)(So
viet Union)



Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)

[Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries,
                      1996         17 Jul 1996 - 1 Aug 2002

Community
                      of Portuguese Language Countries           Adopted 1 Aug 2002

CPLP Website
Headquarters: Lisbon
(Portugal)

17 Jul 1996                Community of Portuguese Language Countries
                             (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa) constituted.

Executive Secretaries
17 Jul 1996 - Jul 2000     Marcolino José Carlos Moco (Angola) (b. 1953)
Jul 2000 -  1 Aug 2002     Dulce Maria Pereira (f) (Brazil)    (b. 1954)
 1 Aug 2002 - 14 Apr 2004  João Augusto de Médicis (Brazil)    (b. 1936 - d. 2004)
15 Apr 2004 - 27 Jul 2004  Zeferino A. Martins (interim)       (b. 1955)
                             (Mozambique)
27 Jul 2004 - 25 Jul 2008  Luís de Matos Monteiro da Fonseca   (b. 1944)
                             (Cape Verde)
25 Jul 2008 - 18 Sep 2012  Domingos Simões Pereira             (b. 1963)
                             (Guinea-Bissau)
18 Sep 2012 -              Murade Isaac Miguigy Murargy        (b. 1946)
                             (Mozambique)

Directors-general
 1 Feb 2008 - Jan 2014     Hélder Jorge Vaz Gomes Lopes        (b. 1959)
                             (Guinea-Bissau)
 3 Feb 2014 -              Georgina Benrós de Mello (f)        (b. 1953)
                             (Cabo Verde)
 
CPLP membership (8)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
17 Jul 1996 Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde1, Guinea-Bissau2, Mozambique,
Portugal, São Tomé e Principe
 1 Aug 2002 Timor-Leste (East Timor)
 1from 2013 Cabo Verde. 2suspended Oct? 2012 - 23 Jun 2014.

Date of 
Admission
Associate Observers of CPLP
16 Jul 2006
Equatorial Guinea, Mauritius
25 Jul 2008
Senegal


Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD)

[Community of Sahel-Saharan
              States (CEN-SAD)]

CEN-SAD  website
Headquarters: Tripoli
(Libya)
 
 4 Feb 1998                Community of Sahel-Saharan States established
                            (Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens)(CEN-SAD).
16 Feb 2013                New community treaty signed.


Secretaries-general

1999 - 2012                Mohamed al-Madani al-Azhari (Libya)
2012 -                     Ibrahim Sani Abani (Niger)
                             (acting to 18 Feb 2013, then interim)
 
CEN-SAD membership (28)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 4 Feb 1998
Burkina Faso, Chad, Libya, Mali, Niger, The Sudan
Apr 1999
Central African Republic, Eritrea
Feb 2000
Djibouti, The Gambia, Senegal
Feb 2001
Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria, Somalia, Tunisia
Mar 2002
Benin, Togo
May 2004
Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia
Jun 2005
Ghana, Sierra Leone
Jun 2007
Comoros, Guinea
Jun 2008
Kenya, Mauritania, São Tomé and Príncipe



Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

CTBTO  website
Headquarters: Vienna
(Austria)
CTBT Treaty
(10 Sep 1996)


10 Sep 1996                Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) signed (it will be
                             ratified 180 days after ratification by 44 Annex 2
                             countries).
19 Nov 1996                Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban
                             Organization (CTBTO) established.
17 Mar 1997                Provisional secretariat inaugurated.

Executive Secretaries
17 Mar 1997 -  1 Aug 2005  Wolfgang Hoffmann (Germany)         (b. 1937)
 1 Aug 2005 -  1 Aug 2013  Tibor Tóth (Hungary)                (b. 1954)
 1 Aug 2013 -              Lassina Zerbo (Burkina Faso)        (b. 1963)

CTBT Ratifications and CTBTO membership  (162)
Date of
Ratification
Ratifying Nations
10 Oct 1996
Fiji
 3 Mar 1997
Qatar
29 May 1997
Uzbekistan
 8 Jul 1997
Japan
25 Jul 1997
Federated States of Micronesia
 8 Aug 1997
Mongolia
11 Sep 1997
Czech Republic
12 Nov 1997
Peru
20 Feb 1998
Turkmenistan
 3 Mar 1998
Slovakia
13 Mar 1998
Austria
 6 Apr 1998
France, United Kingdom
10 Jun 1998
Tajikistan
 9 Jul 1998
Australia
24 Jul 1998
Brazil
31 Jul 1998
Spain
19 Aug 1998
Grenada
20 Aug 1998
Germany
25 Aug 1998
Jordan
11 Sep 1998
El Salvador
 2 Dec 1998
Sweden
 4 Dec 1998
Argentina
18 Dec 1998
Canada, Monaco
21 Dec 1998
Denmark
15 Jan 1999
Finland
 1 Feb 1999
Italy
 2 Feb 1999
Azerbaijan
19 Mar 1999
New Zealand
23 Mar 1999
The Netherlands, Panama
30 Mar 1999
South Africa
21 Apr 1999
Greece
25 May 1999
Poland
26 May 1999
Luxembourg
 9 Jun 1999
Senegal
29 Jun 1999
Belgium
13 Jul 1999
Hungary
15 Jul 1999
Ireland, Norway
 4 Aug 1999
Mali
13 Aug 1999
Estonia
31 Aug 1999
Slovenia
14 Sep 1999
Lesotho
24 Sep 1999
South Korea
29 Sep 1999
Bulgaria
 1 Oct 1999
Switzerland
 4 Oct 1999
Bolivia
 5 Oct 1999
Mexico, Romania
 7 Feb 2000
Lithuania
16 Feb 2000
Turkey
 8 Mar 2000
Bangladesh
14 Mar 2000
Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
17 Apr 2000
Morocco
26 Jun 2000
Iceland, Portugal
30 Jun 2000
Russia
12 Jul 2000
Chile
 7 Sep 2000
Kiribati, Maldives
13 Sep 2000
Belarus
18 Sep 2000
United Arab Emirates
20 Sep 2000
Gabon
 5 Oct 2000
Laos
10 Nov 2000
Cambodia
30 Nov 2000
Kenya
 5 Dec 2000
Nicaragua
23 Feb 2001
Philippines, Ukraine
 2 Mar 2001
Croatia
 6 Mar 2001
Benin
 7 Mar 2001
Guyana
14 Mar 2001
Uganda
 5 Apr 2001
Saint Lucia
29 Jun 2001
Namibia
18 Jul 2001
Holy See
23 Jul 2001
Malta
17 Sep 2001
Sierra Leone
21 Sep 2001
Uruguay
25 Sep 2001
Costa Rica
27 Sep 2001
Nigeria
 4 Oct 2001
Paraguay
10 Nov 2001
Singapore
12 Nov 2001
Ecuador, Nauru
13 Nov 2001
Jamaica
20 Nov 2001
Latvia
12 Mar 2002
San Marino
17 Apr 2002
Burkina Faso
13 May 2002
Venezuela
14 May 2002
Kazakhstan
 9 Sep 2002
Niger
27 Sep 2002
Georgia, Samoa
28 Oct 2002
Botswana
11 Mar 2003
Côte d'Ivoire
23 Apr 2003
Albania
30 Apr 2003
Mauritania
 6 May 2003
Kuwait
13 Jun 2003
Oman
11 Jul 2003
Algeria
18 Jul 2003
Cyprus
24 Sep 2003
Afghanistan
 2 Oct 2003
Kyrgyzstan
30 Oct 2003
Honduras
11 Nov 2003
Eritrea
 6 Jan 2004
Libya
26 Mar 2004
Belize
12 Apr 2004
Bahrain
13 Apr 2004
Seychelles
19 May 2004
Serbia
10 Jun 2004
The Sudan
 2 Jul 2004
Togo
21 Sep 2004
Liechtenstein
23 Sep 2004
Tunisia
28 Sep 2008
Congo (Kinshasa)
30 Sep 2004
Tanzania
30 Nov 2004
Rwanda
27 Apr 2005
Saint Kitts and Nevis
15 Jul 2005
Djibouti
 6 Sep 2005
Cook Islands
15 Sep 2005
Madagascar
16 Sep 2005
Vanuatu
 1 Dec 2005
Haiti
11 Jan 2006
Antigua and Barbuda
 6 Feb 2006
Cameroon
 7 Feb 2006
Suriname
23 Feb 2006
Zambia
 1 Mar 2006
Cape Verde
10 Mar 2006
Vietnam
12 Jul 2006
Andorra, Armenia
 8 Aug 2006
Ethiopia
23 Oct 2006
Montenegro
26 Oct 2006
Bosnia and Hercegovina
16 Jan 2007
Moldova
 7 Aug 2007
Palau
 4 Sep 2007
Dominican Republic
30 Nov 2007
The Bahamas
14 Jan 2008
Barbados
17 Jan 2008
Malaysia
29 Jan 2008
Colombia
24 Sep 2008
Burundi
 4 Nov 2008
Mozambique
21 Nov 2008
Lebanon, Malawi
17 Aug 2009
Liberia
23 Sep 2009
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
28 Oct 2009
Marshall Islands
26 May 2010
Central Africa Republic, Trindad and Tobago
14 Jun 2011
Ghana
22 Sep 2011
Guinea
12 Jan 2012
Guatemala
 6 Feb 2012
Indonesia
10 Jan 2013
Brunei Darussalam
 8 Feb 2013
Chad
24 Sep 2013
Guinea-Bissau
27 Sep 2013
Iraq
 4 Mar 2014
Niue
 
Annex 2 states that have not ratified the CTBT
China, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, United States


Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS)

[Council of the Baltic Sea
              States flag]

CBSS Website
Headquarters: Stockholm
(Sweden) 

 5 Mar 1992                Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) created.
29 Jan 1998                Secretariat established.

Directors-general
15 Aug 1998 - 15 Sep 2002  Jacek Starościak (Poland)          (b. 1947)
15 Sep 2002 -  1 Sep 2005  Hannu Halinen (Finland)            (b. 1947)
 1 Sep 2005 -  1 Sep 2010  Gabriele Kötschau (f)(Germany)     (b. 1950)
 1 Sep 2010 -              Jan Lundin (Sweden)


CBSS membership (12)
 Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 5 Mar 1992
Denmark, Estonia, European Commission, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden
18 May 1995
Iceland



Council of Europe (CE)
[EU 12 stars flag]
                Adopted 9 Dec 1955
CE website
Headquarters: Strasbourg
(France)
Hear CE Anthem
"Ode to Joy"
Adopted 5 May 1972
CE Day: 5 May (1949)
Europe Day

 5 May 1949                Council of Europe

Secretaries-general
11 Aug 1949 - 17 Sep 1953  Jacques Camille Paris (France)     (b. 1902 - d. 1953)
21 Sep 1953 - 24 Sep 1956  Léon Marchal (France)              (b. 1900 - d. 1956)
15 Sep 1957 - 15 Mar 1964  Lodovico Benvenuti (Italy)         (b. 1899 - d. 1966)
16 Mar 1964 - 15 Sep 1969  Peter Smithers (U.K.)              (b. 1913 - d. 2006)
16 Sep 1969 - 16 Sep 1974  Lujo Tončić-Sorinj (Austria)       (b. 1915 - d. 2005)
17 Sep 1974 - 17 Sep 1979  Georg Kahn-Ackermann (W.Ger.)      (b. 1918 - d. 2008)
 1 Oct 1979 -  1 Oct 1984  Franz Karasek (Austria)            (b. 1924 - d. 1986)
 1 Oct 1984 -  1 Jun 1989  Marcelino Oreja Aguirre (Spain)    (b. 1935)
 1 Jun 1989 - 31 May 1994  Catherine Lalumière (f) (France)   (b. 1935)
20 Jun 1994 -  1 Sep 1999  Daniel Tarschys (Sweden)           (b. 1943)
 1 Sep 1999 -  1 Sep 2004  Walter Schwimmer (Austria)         (b. 1942)
 1 Sep 2004 -  1 Sep 2009  Terry Davis (U.K.)                 (b. 1938)
 1 Sep 2009 -  1 Oct 2009  Maud de Boer-Buquicchio (f)        (b. 1944)
                             (Netherlands)(acting)
 1 Oct 2009 -              Thorbjørn Jagland
(Norway)         (b. 1950)

Presidents of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
10 Aug 1949                Édouard Herriot (France) (interim) (b. 1872 - d. 1957)  Lib
10 Aug 1949 - 1951         Paul-Henri Spaak (Belgium)         (b. 1899 - d. 1972)  Soc
1952 - 1954                François de Menthon (France)       (b. 1900 - d. 1984)  CD
1954 - 1956                Guy Mollet (France)                (b. 1905 - d. 1975)  Soc
1956 - 1959                Fernand Dehousse (Belgium)         (b. 1906 - d. 1976)  Soc
1959 - 23 Nov 1959         John Edwards (U.K.)                (b. 1904 - d. 1959)  Soc
1960 - 1963                Per Federspiel (Denmark)           (b. 1905 - d. 1994)  Lib
1963 - 1966                Pierre Pflimlin (France)           (b. 1907 - d. 2000)  CD
1966 - 1969                Sir Geoffrey de Freitas (U.K.)     (b. 1913 - d. 1982)  Soc
1969 - 1972                Olivier Reverdin (Switzerland)     (b. 1913 - d. 2000)  Lib
1972 - 1975                Giuseppe Vedovato (Italy)          (b. 1912 - d. 2012)  CD
1975 - 1978                Karl Czernetz (Austria)            (b. 1910 - d. 1978)  Soc
1978 - 1981                Henri J. de Koster (Netherlands)   (b. 1914 - d. 1992)  Lib
1981 - 1982                José Mar
ía de Areilza (Spain)      (b. 1909 - d. 1988)  Dem
1983 - 1986                Karl Ahrens (Germany)              (b. 1924)            Soc
1986 - 1989                Louis Jung (France)                (b. 1917)            CD
1989 - 1992                Anders Björck (Sweden)             (b. 1944)            Lib
1992                       Geoffrey Finsberg (U.K.)           (b. 1926 - d. 1996)  EDG/Con
1992 - 1995                Miguel 
Ángel Martínez Martínez     (b. 1940)            Soc
                             (Spain)
1996 - 1999                Leni Fischer (f)(Germany)          (b. 1935)            CD
1999 - 20 Jan 2002         Russell Johnston, Baron            (b. 1932 - d. 2008)  Lib
                             Russell-Johnston
(U.K.)
21 Jan 2002 - 23 Jan 2005  Peter Schieder (Austria)           (b. 1941)            Soc
24 Jan 2005 - 20 Jan 2008  René van der Linden (Netherlands)  (b. 1943)            CD
21 Jan 2008 - 25 Jan 2010  Lluís María de Puig (Spain)        (b. 1945)            Soc
25 Jan 2010 - 23 Jan 2012  Mevlüt Çavusoglu
(Turkey)          (b. 1968)            Con
23 Jan 2012 - 27 Jan 2014  Jean-Claude Mignon (France)        (b. 1950)            EPP/CD
27 Jan 2014 -              Anne Brasseur (f) (Luxembourg)     (b. 1950)            ALDE

Commissioners for Human Rights
15 Oct 1999 - 31 Mar 2006  Álvaro Gil-Robles (Spain)          (b. 1944)
 1 Apr 2006 - 31 Mar 2012  Thomas Hammarberg (Sweden)         (b. 1942)
 1 Apr 2012 -              Nils Muižnieks (Latvia)            (b. 1964)

Presidents of the European Court of Human Rights
21 Jan 1959 -  3 May 1965  Arnold Duncan McNair, Baron McNair
(b. 1885 - d. 1975)
                             (U.K.)                          
20 May 1965 - 15 Jun 1968  René Cassin (France)               (b. 1887 - d. 1976)
27 Sep 1968 -  5 May 1971  Henri Rolin (Belgium)              (b. 1891 - d. 1973)
 5 May 1971 - 21 Jan 1974  Sir Humphrey Waldock (U.K.)        (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
 8 May 1974 -  9 Dec 1980  Giorgio Balladore Pallieri (Italy) (b. 1905 - d. 1980)
30 Jan 1981 - 30 May 1985  Gérard J. Wiarda (Netherlands)     (b. 1906 - d. 1988)
30 May 1985 - 18 Feb 1998  Rolv Ryssdal (Norway)              (b. 1914 - d. 1998)
24 Mar 1998 - 31 Oct 1998  Rudolf Bernhardt (Germany)         (b. 1925)
 1 Nov 1998 - 18 Jan 2007  Luzius Wildhaber (Switzerland)     (b. 1937)
19 Jan 2007 -  3 Nov 2011  Jean-Paul Costa (France)           (b. 1941)
 4 Nov 2011 - 31 Oct 2012  Sir Nicolas Bratza (U.K.)          (b. 1945)
 1 Nov 2012 -              Dean Spielmann (Luxembourg)        (b. 1962)

CE membership (47) 
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 5 May 1949 Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
 9 Aug 1949 Greece1
 3 Mar 1950  Iceland
13 Apr 1950 Turkey
13 Jul 1950 Federal Republic of Germany2
16 Apr 1956 Austria
24 May 1961 Cyprus
 6 May 1963  Switzerland
29 Apr 1965 Malta
22 Sep 1976 Portugal
24 Nov 1977 Spain
23 Nov 1978 Liechtenstein
16 Nov 1988 San Marino
 5 May 1989  Finland
 6 Nov 1990 Hungary
29 Nov 1991 Poland
 7 May 1992 Bulgaria
14 May 1993 Estonia, Lithuania, Slovenia
30 Jun 1993 Czech Republic, Slovakia
 7 Oct 1993 Romania
10 Oct 1994  Andorra
10 Feb 1995 Latvia
13 Jul 1995  Albania, Moldova
 9 Nov 1995 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of), Ukraine
28 Feb 1996 Russia
 6 Nov 1996 Croatia
27 Apr 1999 Georgia
25 Jan 2001 Armenia, Azerbaijan
24 Apr 2002 Bosnia and Hercegovina
 3 Apr 2003 Serbia and Montenegro3
 5 Oct 2004 Monaco
11 May 2007
Montenegro
1withdrew 12 Dec 1969, rejoined 28 Nov 1974. 2associate member to 2 May 1951. 3from 5 Jun 2006, Serbia.

Date of
Admission
Associate Member of CE
13 Jul 1950
Saarland4
4associate member; withdrew 31 Dec 1956, united with Federal Republic of Germany on 1 Jan 1957.

Party abbreviations: ALDE = Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (liberal, est.1974); Con = Conservative; Soc = Socialist Group; EPP/CD = Group of European People's Party/Christian Democrats (christian democratic, est.1976); EDG = European Democrat Group (conservative, to 1980 named Group of Independent Representatives, est.1970); UEL = Group of the Unified European Left (leftist, est.2004);
- Former groupings: CD = Christian Democrat Group; Cen = Centrist; Dem = Democrat; Lib = Liberal; SD = Social Democrat

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON/CMEA)

[COMECON]
                       Adopted 25 Jan 1949
 
Headquarters: Moscow
(Soviet Union)
CMEA Charter
(1959)

25 Jan 1949                Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA or COMECON)
                             established by Soviet Union and other communist nations.
28 Jun 1991                COMECON dissolved.

Secretaries (all from Soviet Union)
1949 - May 1958            Aleksandr Pavlov 
May 1958 - Oct 1983        Nikolay Vasilyevich Fadeyev        (b. 1911)
                             (or Faddeev
Oct 1983 - 28 Jun 1991     Vyacheslav Vladimirovich Sychev    (b. 1933)

COMECON membership 
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
25 Jan 1949 Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Soviet
Union 
21 Feb 1949 Albania1
29 Sep 1950 East Germany2
 7 Jun 1962 Mongolia
11 Jul 1972 Cuba
29 Jun 1978 Vietnam
1inactive since Dec 1961, but did not formally withdraw. 2withdrew 2 Oct 1990.

Date of
Admission
Associate Member of Comecon
17 Sep 1964
Yugoslavia


Customs Cooperation Council (CCC): see World Customs Organization (WCO)


Danube Commission 
 
[Danube Commission
                          Official flag, obverse]
                Adopted 14 Dec 1950 
 
[Danube
                          Commission Official flag, reverse]
                          Reverse
 
DC website
Headquarters: Budapest (Hungary)(Galatz, Romania
 1948-1954)

1856 - 1938                (First) Danube Commission formed.
18 Aug 1948                Danube Commission created by Belgrade Convention
                             (enters into force 11 May 1949). 

Directors-general
1949 – 1953                Grigory Nikolayevich Morozov  
                             (Soviet Union)
1953 – 1960                Kiril Halachev (Bulgaria)

1960 – 1963                Martin Rusu (Romania)
1963 – 1966                Nae Androne (Romania)
1966 – 1972                Luka Yakovlevich Kapikrayan        (b. 1913 - d. 1988)
                             (Soviet Union)
1972 – 1978                György Fekete (Hungary)
1978 – 1984                L'udovít
Kincel (Czechoslovakia)
1984 – 1990                Đorđe (Djordje) Lalošević          (b. 1928 - d. 1996)
                             (Yugoslavia)  

1990 - 2000                Hellmuth Strasser (Austria)        (b. 1934)

 1 Jul 2000 - 2007         Danail Nedialkov
(Bulgaria)        (b. 1954)
2007 - 2013                István Valkár (Hungary)            (b. 1950)
 1 Jul 2013 -              Petar Margić (Croatia)

Presidents
1949 - 1950                Teodor Rudenco (Romania)
1950 – 1954                Grigore Preoteasa (Romania)        (b. 1915 - d. 1957)
1954 – 1957                Endre Sik (Hungary)                (b. 1891 - d. 1978)
1957 – 1960                Karel Stekl (Czechoslovakia)
1960 – 1961                Slavoljub Petrović (Yugoslavia)    (b. 1920 - d. 19..)
1961 - 1963                Mustafa Vilović (Yugoslavia)       (b. 1917 - d. 19..)
1963 – 1965                Georgy Apollinaryevich Denisov     (b. 1909 - d. 1996) 
                             (Soviet Union)
1965 - 1966                Fyodor Yegorovich Titov            (b. 1910 - d. 1989) 
                             (Soviet Union)
1966 – 1969                Vassil Bogdanov (Bulgaria)
1969 - 1972                Kurt Enderl (Austria)              (b. 1913 - d. 1985)
1972 – 1975                Ioan Cotot (Romania)
1975 – 1978                Václav Moravec (Czechoslovakia)
1978 – 1981                István Roska (Hungary)             (b. 1926 - d. 2008)
1981 – 1984                Radovan Urošev (Yugoslavia)
1984 - 1985                Vladimir Nikolayevich Bazovsky     (b. 1917 - d. 1993)
                             (Soviet Union)          
1985 - 1987                Boris Ivanovich Stukalin
          (b. 1923 - d. 2004)
                             (Soviet Union)  

1987 – 1989                Venelin Todorov Kotsev
(Bulgaria)  (b. 1926 - d. 2002)
1989 – 1990                Veselin Filev
(Bulgaria)
1990 – 1991                Simion Pop (Romania)               (b. 1930 - d. 2008)
1991 – 1993                Ion Diaconu (Romania)              (b. 1938)
1993 – 1996                Gy
örgy Misur (Hungary)             (b. 1932)
1996 – 1999                Eva Mitrov
á (f)(Slovakia)          (b. 1937)
1999 - 2000                Július Hauser
(Slovakia)
2000 – 2002                Hellmuth Strasser (Austria)        (s.a.)
2002 – 2005                Stanko Nick (Croatia)              (b. 1935)
May 2005 - 2008            Milovan Božinović (Serbia)         (b. 1947)
2008 - 2009                Igor Sergeyevich Savolsky          (b. 1943)

                             (Russia)
28 Dec 2009 - 4 Jun 2011   Aleksander Aleksandrovich Tolkach  (b. 1948)

                             (Russia)
 4 Jun 2011 - 30 May 2012  Dimitar Ikonomov (Bulgaria)
30 May 2012 -  3 Jun 2014  Biserka Benisheva (f) (Bulgaria)   (b. 1953)
 3 Jun 2014 -              Rade Drobac (Serbia)               (b. 1950)

Danube Commission membership (11)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
11 May 1949 Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia1, Hungary, Romania,
Soviet Union2, Ukrainian S.S.R.3, Yugoslavia4
 7 Jan 1960
Austria
 1 Jan 1993
Slovakia
26 Mar 1998
Croatia, Germany, Moldova
 4 Feb 2003
Serbia4
1dissolved 31 Dec 1992succeeded by Slovakia. 2dissolved 25 Dec 1992, succeeded by Russia. 3from 1991 Ukraine. 4from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia.



Dutch Language Union (Taalunie)(DLU)

[Dutch Language Union
              (Nederlandse Taalunie) uses the Benelux flag]

DLU website
Headquarters: The Hague
 (The Netherlands)

 9 Sep 1980                Treaty on the Dutch Language Union signed.
 1 Apr 1984                Dutch Language Union (
Nederlandse Taalunie).

Secretaries-general
1984 - 1992                Oscar de Wandel (Belgium)          (b. 1947)
1992 - 31 Dec 1997         Greetje van den Bergh (f)          (b. 1947)

                             (Netherlands)
Jan 1998 -  1 Apr 1998     Joep Baartmans-van den Boogaart (f)(b. 1939)
                             (Netharlands)(acting)
 1 Apr 1998 - 2004         Koen Jaspaert (Belgium)            (b. 1957)
 1 Nov 2004 - 24 Apr 2012  Linde van den Bosch (f)            (b. 1963)

                             (Netherlands)
24 Apr 2012 -  1 Jan 2013  Marc le Clerq 
(Netherlands)
                           + Michel
Penders (Netherlands)
                           (acting)
 1 Jan 2013 -              Geert Joris (Belgium)              (b. 1960)

 
DLU  membership (3)
Date of 
Admission
Members
 1 Apr 1984
Belgium (Flemish Community), The Netherlands
12 Dec 2003
Suriname1
1associate member.



East African Community (EAC)
 
[former East
                          African Community flag 1967-77]
                     1967 - 1977
 
[East African
                          Community]
                      Adopted 1997
 
EAC website Headquarters: Arusha
(Tanzania)
ECA Day: 30 Nov (1993)
East African
Community  Day

 9 Dec 1961                East African Common Services Organization (EACSO).
 6 Jun 1967                East African Community (EAC) established.
 1 Jul 1977                Dissolved
30 Nov 1993                Agreement establishing the Permanent Commission for
                             East African Co-operation signed.
14 Mar 1996                East African Cooperation secretariat inaugurated.
15 Jan 2001                East African Community re-established.
28 Nov 2001
               East African Legislative Assembly established.

Secretaries-general
1962 - Jun 1964            Amishadai Larson Adu (Tanganyika)  (b. 1914 - d. 1977)
Jun 1964 - 1968            Dunstan Alfred Omari (
Tanzania)    (b. 1922 - d. 1993) 
1968 - Mar 1971            Zerubaberi H.K. Bigirwenkya        (b. 1927)
                             (Uganda)
Jun 1971 - Apr 1974        Charles Gatere Maina (Kenya)       (b. 1931) 
25 Apr 1974 - Feb 1977     Edwin Isaac Mbiliewi Mtei          (b. 1932)
                             (Tanzania)         
14 Mar 1996 - 24 Apr 2001  Francis Muthaura (Kenya)           (b. 1946) 
24 Apr 2001 - 24 Apr 2006  Nuwe Amanya Mushega (Uganda)       (b. 1946) 
25 Apr 2006 - 24 Apr 2011  Juma Volter Mwapachu (Tanzania)    (b. 1942)
25 Apr 2011 -              Richard Sezibera (Rwanda)          (b. 1964)

Speakers of the East African Legislative Assembly
29 Nov 2001 -  5 Jun 2007  Abdulrahman O. Kinana (Tanzania)   (b. 1951)
 5 Jun 2007 -  5 Jun 2012  Abdirahin Haithar Abdi (Kenya)     (b. 1967?)
 5 Jun 2012 -              Margaret N. Zziwa (f) (Uganda)     (b. 1963)

EAC membership (5)
 Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 6 Jun 1967 Kenya, Tanzania1, Uganda
 1 Jul 2007
Burundi, Rwanda
1named Tanganyika 1961-1964.



Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)  

[Economic Community of Central
              African States flag]

ECCAS website
Headquarters: Libreville
 (Gabon)

18 Dec 1984                Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)
                             (Communauté Économique des Etats d'Afrique Centrale [CEEAC])
                             established by Customs and Economic Union of Central
                             Africa (UDEAC).

1992 - 1999                Inactive.

Secretaries-general
1984 - 1990                Paul Lunda Bululu (Zaire)          (b. 1942)
1990 - 1998                Kasasa Cinyanta Mutati (Zaire)
1998 - 28 Feb 2012         Louis Sylvain-Goma                 (b. 1941)
                             (Congo [Brazzaville])
28 Feb 2012 -  5 Aug 2013  Nassour Guelendouksia Ouaïdo       (b. 1947)
                             (Chad)
 5 Aug 2013 -              Ahmad Allam-Mi (Chad)              (b. 1948)

ECCAS membership (10)
 Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
18 Dec 1984
Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, São Tomé and Principe, Zaire1
21 Jan 1999
Angola, Rwanda2
1from 1997, Congo (Kinshasa). 2withdrew 2007.



Economic Community of West African States  (ECOWAS)

[ECOWAS flag]
 
ECOWAS website Headquarters: Abuja
(Nigeria)
(Lagos, Nigeria 1975-1991)
ECOWAS Day:
week of 28 May (1975)
ECOWAS Day

28 May 1975                Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)(Communauté
                             
Économique des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest [CEDEAO])
                             established.
20 Jun 1975                ECOWAS treaty enters into force.
14 Mar 2002                ECOWAS parliament established.

Executive secretaries
Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1984     Aboubakar Diaby Ouattara           (b. 1938)
                             (Ivory Coast)
 
1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1988  Momodu Munu (Sierra Leone)         (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Jan 1993  Abass Bundu (Sierra Leone)         (b. 1948)
 1 Feb 1993 - 30 Sep 1997  Edouard Benjamin (Guinea)          (b. 1941)
 1 Oct 1997 -  6 Feb 2002  Lansana Kouyaté (Guinea)           (b. 1950)
 6 Feb 2002 - 16 Feb 2010  Mohamed Ibn Chambas (Ghana)        (b. 1950)

16 Feb 2002 -  1 Jan 2007  Mohamed Ibn Chambas (Ghana)        (b. 1950)
Presidents of the Commission
 1 Jan 2007 - 16 Feb 2010  Mohamed Ibn Chambas (Ghana)        (s.a.)
16 Feb 2010 -
 1 Mar 2012  James Victor Gbeho (Ghana)         (b. 1935)
 1 Mar 2012 -              Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo
             (b. 1953)
                             (Burkina Faso)      

Chairmen
1977 - 1978                Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo)          (b. 1937 - d. 2005)
                             (1st time) 
1978 - 1979                Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria)        (b. 1937)
1979 - 1980                Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal)    (b. 1906 - d. 2001)
1980 - 1981                Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo)          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1981 - 1982                Siaka Stevens (Sierra Leone)       (b. 1905 - d. 1988)
1982 - 1983                Mathieu Kérékou (Benin)            (b. 1933)
1983 - 1984                Ahmed Sékou Touré (Guinea)         (b. 1922 - d. 1984)
1984 - 1985                Lansana Conté (Guinea)             (b. 1934 - d. 2008)
1985 - 27 Aug 1985         Mohammadu Buhari (Nigeria)         (b. 1942)
27 Aug 1985 - 1989         Ibrahim Babangida (Nigeria)        (b. 1941)
1989 - 1990                Sir Dawda Jawara (The Gambia)      (b. 1924)
                             (1st time)
1990 - 1991                Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso)     (b. 1951)
                             (1st time)
1991 - 1992                Sir Dawda Jawara (The Gambia)      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1992 - 1993                Abdou Diouf (Senegal)              (b. 1935)
1993 - 1994                Nicéphore Soglo (Benin)            (b. 1934)
1994 - 27 Jul 1996         Jerry John Rawlings (Ghana)        (b. 1947)
27 Jul 1996 -  8 Jun 1998  Sani Abacha (Nigeria)              (b. 1943 - d. 1998)
 9 Jun 1998 - 1999         Abdulsalami Abubakar (Nigeria)     (b. 1942)
1999                       Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo)          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
1999 - 21 Dec 2001         Alpha Oumar Konaré (Mali)          (b. 1946)
21 Dec 2001 - 31 Jan 2003  Abdoulaye Wade (Senegal)           (b. 1926)
31 Jan 2003 - 19 Jan 2005  John Agyekum Kufuor (Ghana)        (b. 1938)
19 Jan 2005 - 19 Jan 2007  Mamadou Tandja (Niger)             (b. 1938)
19 Jan 2007 - 19 Dec 2008  Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso)     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
19 Dec 2008 - 16 Feb 2010  Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (Nigeria)      (b. 1951 - d. 2010)
16 Feb 2010 - 17 Feb 2012 
Goodluck Jonathan (Nigeria)        (b. 1957)
17 Feb 2012 - 28 Mar 2014  Alassane Ouattara (Côte d'Ivoire)  (b. 1942)
28 Mar 2014 -              John Dramani Mahama (Ghana)        (b. 1958)

Speakers of the ECOWAS Community Parliament
May 2002 - 14 Nov 2006     Ali Nouhoum Diallo (Mali)
14 Nov 2006 - 11 Aug
2011  Mahamane Ousmane (Niger)           (b. 1950)
11 Aug 2011 -              Ike Ekweremadu (Nigeria)           (b. 1962)

ECOWAS membership (15)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
28 May 1975 Benin, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea1, Guinea-Bissau2, Ivory Coast3,
Liberia, Mali
4, Mauritania5, Niger6, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo7, Upper Volta8
1977 Cape Verde9
1suspended 10 Jan 2009 - 24 Mar 2011. 2suspended 17 Apr - 29 Jul 2012 3from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire; suspended 7 Dec 2010 - Apr 2011. 4suspended 27 Mar - 24 Oct 2012. 5withdrew 26 Dec 1999 (effective 31 Dec 2000). 6suspended 20 Oct 2009 - 24 Mar 2011. 7suspended 19-26 Feb 2005. 8from 1984 Burkina Faso. 9from 2013 Cabo Verde.


 
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)

Economic Cooperation
              Organization (ECO) flag

ECO website
HeadquartersTehran
(Iran
) (also 1965-1979)
ECA Day: 28 Nov (1992)
ECO Day

 
21 Jul 1964                Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) formed.
1979                       RCD dissolved.
27 Jan 1985                Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) formed.
1988                       ECO secretariat inaugurated.

Secretaries-general of Regional Cooperation for Development
Mar 1965 - Mar 1968        Fuad Rouhani (Iran)               (b. 1907 - d. 2004)
Mar 1968 - 197.            Masarrat Hussain Zuberi (Pakistan)(b. 1911 - d. 1987)
1976 - 1979                Mukhtar Masood (Pakistan)
1979 - 1988                Post abolished
Secretaries-general of Economic Cooperation Organization
1988 - 1992                Alireza Salari (Iran)
1992 - 1996                Shamshad Ahmad (Pakistan)
1996 - 2000                Onder Ozar (Turkey)
Aug 2000 - Jul 2002        Abdolrahim Gavahi (Iran)
Jul 2002 - Aug 2003        Seyed Mojtaba Arastou (Iran)
Aug 2003 - Jan 2004        Bekzhasar Naribayevich Narbayev   (b. 1943)
                             (Kazakhstan)
Jan 2004 - Aug 2006        Askhat Tuthishbayevich Orazbay    (b. 1960)
                             (Kazakhstan)
Aug 2006 - Aug 2009        Khurshid Anwar (Pakistan)
Sep 2009 - 13 Aug 2012     Mohammad Yahya Maroofi            (b. 1939)
                             (Afghanistan)
13 Aug 2012 -              Shamil A. Aleskerov (Azerbaijan)  (b. 1946)

ECO  membership (10)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
27 Jan 19851
Iran, Pakistan, Turkey
28 Nov 1992
Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

Date of
Admission
Associate Member of ECO
16 Feb 1992
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
1members of the RCD 21 Jul 1964 - 1979.



Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC)

[Eurasian Economic Community
                flag]  
                Adopted 13 May 2002
 
EAEC website
Headquarters: Alma Ata
(Kazakhstan) and

Moscow (Russia)

31 May 2001                Eurasian Economic Community ("Eurasec")(EAEC)
 1 Jan 2010                Customs union for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia.

Secretaries-general
29 Oct 2001 -  6 Oct 2007  Grigory Alekseyevich Rapota (Russia)(b. 1944)
 6 Oct 2007 -              Tair Aymukhametovich Mansurov       (b. 1948)
                             (Kazakhstan)

Chairmen of the Interstate Council
May 2002 - 21 Jun 2005     Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev       (b. 1940)
                             (Kazakhstan)(1st time) 
22 Jun 2005 - 23 Jun 2006 
Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko   (b. 1954)  
                             (Belarus)(1st time)
23 Jun 2006 - Oct 2007    
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin        (b. 1952)
                             (Russia)(1st time)
Oct 2007 - Oct 2008        
Imomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov       (b. 1952)
                             (Tajikistan)
 
Oct 2008 -
2010            Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko   (s.a.)  
                             (Belarus)(2nd time)
2010 - 2011
                Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev       (s.a.)
                             (Kazakhstan)(2nd time)
2011 -  7 May 2012        
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev        (b. 1965)
                             (Russia) 
 7 May 2012 - 
            Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin        (s.a.)
                             (Russia)(2nd time)

EAEC  membership (6)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
31 May 2001 Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan
25 Jan 2006 Uzbekistan2
2membership suspended at its own request from 12 Dec 2008.



European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

[European Bank for
                Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) flag]
 
EBRD website
Headquarters: London
(United Kingdom)

29 May 1990                European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
                             (EBRD) founded.
15 Apr 1991                Inauguration of the EBRD.

Presidents
15 Apr 1991 - 16 Jul 1993  Jacques Attali (France)            (b. 1943)
16 Jul 1993 - 27 Sep 1993  Ron Freeman (U.S.) (acting)        (b. 1939)
27 Sep 1993 - 31 Jan 1998  Jacques de Larosière (France)      (b. 1929)
31 Jan 1998 -  1 Sep 1998  Charles Frank (U.S.) (1st time)    (b. 1937)
                             (acting)
 1 Sep 1998 - 18 Apr 2000  Horst Köhler (Germany)             (b. 1943)
18 Apr 2000 -  3 Jul 2000  Charles Frank (U.S.) (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 3 Jul 2000 -  3 Jul 2008  Jean Lemierre (France)             (b. 1950)
 3 Jul 2008 -  3 Jul 2012  Thomas Mirow (Germany)             (b. 1953)
 3 Jul 2012 -
             Sir Suma Chakrabarti (U.K.)        (b. 1959)

EBRD membership (67)
Date of
Admission
Shareholders
29 May 1990 Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia1, Denmark, Egypt, European Community2, European Investment Bank, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Morocco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Soviet Union3, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia4
18 Dec 1991 Albania
28 Feb 1992 Estonia
 5 Mar 1992 Lithuania
18 Mar 1992 Latvia
 9 Apr 1992 Russia
30 Apr 1992 Uzbekistan
 5 May 1992 Moldova
 1 Jun 1992 Turkmenistan
 5 Jun 1992 Kyrgyzstan
10 Jun 1992 Belarus
27 Jul 1992 Kazakhstan
13 Aug 1992 Ukraine
 4 Sep 1992 Georgia
25 Sep 1992 Azerbaijan
16 Oct 1992 Tajikistan
 7 Dec 1992 Armenia
23 Dec 1992 Slovenia
 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia
15 Apr 1993 Croatia
21 Apr 1993 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
17 Jun 1996 Bosnia and Hercegovina
 9 Oct 2000 Mongolia
19 Jan 2001 Serbia and Montenegro4
25 Oct 2006 Montenegro
29 Dec 2011
Jordan, Tunisia
17 Dec 2012
Kosovo
 1dissolved 31 Dec 1992, from 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia. 2from 1 Nov 1993, European Union. 3dissolved 25 Dec 1991. 4broke up in 1992, from Jul 1994 the EBRD did not recognize the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as its successor and ruled that it had to apply anew for membership; the smaller Yugoslavia joined anew 31 Oct 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia.



European Free Trade Association  (EFTA)
 
[EFTA flag
                          1973-1986]
                         1973 - 1986 
[EFTA flag
                          1986-1991]
                         1986 - 1991 
 
[Flag of EFTA]
                       Adopted 1995
EFTA website
Headquarters: Geneva
(Switzerland)

 3 May 1960                European Free Trade Association (EFTA) established.

Secretaries-general
 1 Sep 1960 - 31 Oct 1965  Frank Edward Figgures (U.K.)       (b. 1910 - d. 1990)
 1 Nov 1965 -  5 May 1972  Sir John Coulson (U.K.)            (b. 1909 - d. 1997)
 6 May 1972 - 30 Nov 1975  Bengt Rabaeus (Sweden)             (b. 1917)
 1 Dec 1975 - 31 Dec 1975  Cornelio Sommaruga (Switzerland)   (b. 1932)
                             (interim)
 1 Jan 1976 - 30 Sep 1981  Charles Müller (Switzerland)       (b. 1922)
 1 Oct 1981 - 30 Nov 1981  Magnus Vahlquist (Sweden)          (b. 1938)
                             (interim)
 1 Dec 1981 - 15 Apr 1988  Per Kleppe (Norway)                (b. 1923)
16 Apr 1988 - 31 Aug 1994  Georg Reisch (Austria)             (b. 1930)
 1 Sep 1994 - 31 Aug 2000  Kjartan Jóhannsson (Iceland)       (b. 1939)
 1 Sep 2000 - 31 Aug 2006  William Rossier (Switzerland)      (b. 1942)
 1 Sep 2006 - 31 Aug 2012  Kåre Bryn (Norway)                 (b. 1944)
 1 Sep 2012 -              Kristinn F. Árnason (Iceland)      (b. 1954)

EFTA membership (4)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 3 May 1960 Austria1, Denmark2, Norway, Portugal3, Sweden1, Switzerland, United Kingdom2
 1 Mar 1970 Iceland
 1 Jan 1986 Finland1
 1 Sep 1991 Liechtenstein
1withdrew 1 Jan 1995. 2withdrew 1 Jan 1973. Denmark's membership included Greenland from 1 Jul 1961 and Faeroe Islands from 1 Jan 1968. 3withdrew 1 Jan 1986.



European Union (EU)
 
[1st Flag of
                          the European Coal and Steel Community,
                          1958-1973]
    17 Apr 1958 - 1 Jan 1973 ECSC flag 
 
[Last Flag of
                          the European Coal and Steel Community,
                          1986-2002]
     1 Jan 1986 - 23 Jul 2002 ECSC flag 
[EU 12 stars flag]
               Adopted 26 May 1986
 
Map of European Union European Union website
-----------------------------------
European Parliament website
---------------------------------
European Central Bank website
Hear EU Anthem
"Ode to Joy"
Adopted 19 Jan 1972
and 28 Jun 1985
Lisbon Treaty
(1 Dec 2009)
Treaty of Paris
 (18 Apr 1951)
Treaty of Rome
 (1 Jan 1958)
Treaty of Maastricht
 (1 Nov 1993)
Treaty of Nice
 (26 Feb 2001)
Capital: Brussels
(Belgium)
note: the Council of the 
European Union meets in 
Brussels; European Parliament
in Strasbourg, France; Court 
of Justice in Luxembourg 
Currency from 1 Jan 2002:
Euro (EUR)
EU Holiday: 9 May (1950)
Europe Day
Population: 509,365,627 (2013)
GDP: $15.83 trillion (2012)
Exports: $2.17 trillion (2011)
note: external exports,
excluding intra-EU trade
Imports: $2.31 trillion (2011)
note: external imports,
excluding intra-EU trade
International Organizations/Treaties:
European Union: ARF (dialogue member), ASEAN (dialogue member), G-8, G-20, IDA, IGAD (partners),  K
P, IOM (observer), IRENA, ISA, ISO (cooperating organization), LAES (observer), LAIA (observer), OAS (observer), PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), UN (observer), UNCLOS, UNFCC, WIPO (observer)
European Council: AfDB (partner), AG, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CERN (observer), EBRD, FAO, G-10, IEA, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), NSG (observer), OECD, UNRWA (observer), WCO, WTO, ZC (observer);
European Central Bank: BIS;
European Investment Bank: EBRD, WADB (nonregional);
European Parliament: IPU (associate), PAM (observer)

18 Apr 1951                European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) founded.
10 Sep 1952                European Parliamentary Assembly (from Mar 1962, European
                             Parliament) opens.
 1 Jan 1958                European Economic Community (EEC) founded.
 1 Jul 1967                EEC joined with European Coal and Steel Community and European
                             Atomic Community to form the European Communities (from
                             the 1980's usually known as European Community [EC]).
 1 Nov 1993                European Union (EU)
 1 Jan 1999                European monetary union, conversion to the Euro begins
                             (introduced into circulation 1 Jan 2002).

Presidency of the European Council
 1 Jul 1987 - 31 Dec 1987  Denmark
 1 Jan 1988 - 30 Jun 1988  West Germany
 1 Jul 1988 - 31 Dec 1988  Greece
 1 Jan 1989 - 30 Jun 1989  Spain
 1 Jul 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  France
 1 Jan 1990 - 30 Jun 1990  Ireland
 1 Jul 1990 - 31 Dec 1990  Italy
 1 Jan 1991 - 30 Jun 1991  Luxembourg
 1 Jul 1991 - 31 Dec 1991  Netherlands
 1 Jan 1992 - 30 Jun 1992  Portugal
 1 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  United Kingdom
 1 Jan 1993 - 30 Jun 1993  Denmark
 1 Jul 1993 - 31 Dec 1993  Belgium
 1 Jan 1994 - 30 Jun 1994  Greece
 1 Jul 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Germany
 1 Jan 1995 - 30 Jun 1995  France
 1 Jul 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  Spain
 1 Jan 1996 - 30 Jun 1996  Italy
 1 Jul 1996 - 31 Dec 1996  Ireland
 1 Jan 1997 - 30 Jun 1997  Netherlands
 1 Jul 1997 - 31 Dec 1997  Luxembourg
 1 Jan 1998 - 30 Jun 1998  United Kingdom
 1 Jul 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Austria
 1 Jan 1999 - 30 Jun 1999  Germany
 1 Jul 1999 - 31 Dec 1999  Finland
 1 Jan 2000 - 30 Jun 2000  Portugal
 1 Jul 2000 - 31 Dec 2000  France
 1 Jan 2001 - 30 Jun 2001  Sweden
 1 Jul 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Belgium
 1 Jan 2002 - 30 Jun 2002  Spain
 1 Jul 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Denmark
 1 Jan 2003 - 30 Jun 2003  Greece
 1 Jul 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Italy
 1 Jan 2004 - 30 Jun 2004  Ireland
 1 Jul 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Netherlands
 1 Jan 2005 - 30 Jun 2005  Luxembourg
 1 Jul 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  United Kingdom
 1 Jan 2006 - 30 Jun 2006  Austria
 1 Jul 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Finland
 1 Jan 2007 -  1 Jul 2007  Germany
 1 Jul 2007 - 31 Dec 2006  Portugal
 1 Jan 2008 - 30 Jun 2008  Slovenia
 1 Jul 2008 - 31 Dec 2008  France
 1 Jan 2009 - 30 Jun 2009  Czech Republic
 1 Jul 2009 - 31 Dec 2009  Sweden
 1 Jan 2010 - 30 Jun 2010  Spain
 1 Jul 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  Belgium
 1 Jan 2011 - 30 Jun 2011  Hungary
 1 Jul 2011 - 31 Dec 2011  Poland
 1 Jan 2012 - 30 Jun 2012  Denmark
 1 Jul 2012 - 31 Dec 2012  Cyprus
 1 Jan 2013 - 30 Jun 2013  Ireland
 1 Jul 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  Lithuania
 1 Jan 2014 - 30 Jun 2014  Greece
 1 Jul 2014 -              Italy
President of the European Council

 1 Dec 2009 -              Herman Van Rompuy (Belgium)        (b. 1947)

Presidents of the European Commission
31 Jan 1958 - 30 Jun 1967  Walter Hallstein (West Germany)    (b. 1901 - d. 1982)
 1 Jul 1967 -  1 Jul 1970  Jean Max Georges Rey (Belgium)     (b. 1902 - d. 1983)
 2 Jul 1970 - 22 Mar 1972  Franco Maria Malfatti (Italy)      (b. 1927 - d. 1991)
22 Mar 1972 -  5 Jan 1973  Sicco Leendert Mansholt            (b. 1908 - d. 1995)
                             (Netherlands) 
 9 Jan 1973 -  5 Jan 1977  François-Xavier Ortoli (France)    (b. 1925 - d. 2007)
11 Jan 1977 -  5 Jan 1981  Roy Harris Jenkins (U.K.)          (b. 1920 - d. 2003)
12 Jan 1981 -  5 Jan 1985  Gaston Thorn (Luxembourg)          (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
 5 Jan 1985 -  5 Jan 1995  Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (France)(b. 1925)
24 Jan 1995 - 14 Jul 1999  Jacques Santer (Luxembourg)        (b. 1937)
14 Jul 1999 - 15 Sep 1999  Manuel Marín (Spain) (acting)      (b. 1949)
15 Sep 1999 - 22 Nov 2004  Romano Prodi (Italy)               (b. 1939)
22 Nov 2004 -              José Manuel Durão Barroso          (b. 1956)
                             (Portugal)

Presidents of the Parliamentary Assembly
19 Mar 1958 - 28 Mar 1960  Robert Schuman (France)            (b. 1886 - d. 1963)  CD
28 Mar 1960 - 27 Mar 1962  Hans Furler (West Germany)         (b. 1904 - d. 1975)  CD
27 Mar 1962 - 30 Mar 1962  Gaetano Martino (Italy)            (b. 1900 - d. 1967)  Lib
Presidents of the European Parliament

30 Mar 1962 - 21 Mar 1964  Gaetano Martino (Italy)            (s.a.)               Lib
21 Mar 1964 - 24 Sep 1965  Jean Pierre Duvieusart (Belgium)   (b. 1900 - d. 1977)  CD
24 Sep 1965 -  7 Mar 1966  Victor Leemans (Netherlands)       (b. 1901 - d. 1971)  CD
 7 Mar 1966 - 11 Mar 1969  Alain Émile Louis Poher (France)   (b. 1909 - d. 1996)  CD
11 Mar 1969 -  9 Mar 1971  Mario Scelba (Italy)               (b. 1901 - d. 1991)  CD
 9 Mar 1971 - 13 Mar 1973  Walter Behrendt (West Germany)     (b. 1914 - d. 1997)  CD
13 Mar 1973 - 11 Mar 1975  Cornelis Berkhouwer (Netherlands)  (b. 1919 - d. 1992)  Lib
11 Mar 1975 -  8 Mar 1977  Georges Spénale (France)           (b. 1913 - d. 1983)  Soc
 8 Mar 1977 - 17 Jul 1979  Emilio Colombo (Italy)             (b. 1920 - d. 2013)  CD
17 Jul 1979 - 19 Jan 1982  Simone Veil (f) (France)           (b. 1927)            ELDR
19 Jan 1982 - 24 Jul 1984  Piet Dankert (Netherlands)         (b. 1934 - d. 2003)  PES
24 Jul 1984 - 20 Jan 1987  Pierre Pflimlin (France)           (b. 1907 - d. 2000)  EPP
20 Jan 1987 - 25 Jul 1989  Henry Plumb, Baron Plumb (U.K.)    (b. 1925)            ED
25 Jul 1989 - 14 Jan 1992  Enrique Barón Crespo (Spain)       (b. 1944)            PES
14 Jan 1992 - 19 Jul 1994  Egon Klepsch (Germany)             (b. 1930 - d. 2010)  EPP
19 Jul 1994 - 14 Jan 1997  Klaus Hänsch (Germany)             (b. 1938)            PES
14 Jan 1997 - 20 Jul 1999  José María Gil-Robles Delgada      (b. 1935)            PPE
                             (Spain) 
20 Jul 1999 - 15 Jan 2002  Nicole Fontaine (f) (France)       (b. 1942)            EPP-ED
15 Jan 2002 - 20 Jul 2004  Pat Cox (Ireland)                  (b. 1952)            EDLR
20 Jul 2004 - 16 Jan 2007  Josep Borrell Fontelles (Spain)    (b. 1947)            PES
16 Jan 2007 - 14 Jul 2009  Hans-Gert Pöttering (Germany)      (b. 1945)            EPP-ED
14 Jul 2009 - 17 Jan 2012  Jerzy Buzek (Poland)               (b. 1940)            EPP 
17 Jan 2012 - 18 Jun 2014  Martin Schulz (Germany)(1st time)  (b. 1955)            S&D
18 Jun 2014 -  1 Jul 2014  Gianni Pittella (Italy) (acting)   (b. 1958)            S&D
 1 Jul 2014 -              Martin Schulz (Germany)(2nd time)  (s.a.)               S&D


Presidents of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community
10 Aug 1952 -  1 Jun 1955  Jean Monnet (France)               (b. 1888 - d. 1979)
 1 Jun 1955 -  7 Jan 1958  René Mayer (France)                (b. 1895 - d. 1972)
 7 Jan 1958 - 11 Sep 1959  Paul Finet (Belgium)               (b. 1897 - d. 1965)
11 Sep 1959 -  5 Nov 1963  Piero Malvestiti (Italy)           (b. 1899 - d. 1964)
 5 Nov 1963 -  1 Mar 1967  Dino Del Bo (Italy)                (b. 1916 - d. 1991)
 1 Mar 1967 - 30 Jun 1967  Albert Coppé (Belgium) (acting)    (b. 1911 - d. 1999)

Presidents of the Common Assembly of European Coal and Steel Community
1952 – 1954                Paul-Henri Spaak (Belgium)         (b. 1899 - d. 1972)  Soc
1954 - 19 Aug 1954         Alcide De Gasperi (Italy)          (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  CD
1954 – 1956                Giuseppe Pella (Italy)             (b. 1902 - d. 1981)  CD   
1956 – 19 Mar 1958         Hans Furler (West Germany
)         (s.a.)               CD

Presidents of the Commission of the European Atomic Community
 7 Jan 1958 -  2 Feb 1959  Louis Armand (France)              (b. 1905 - d. 1971)
 2 Feb 1959 - 10 Jan 1962  Étienne Hirsch (France)            (b. 1901 - d. 1994)
10 Jan 1962 - 30 Jun 1967  Pierre Chatenet (France)           (b. 1917 - d. 1997)

High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy 
18 Oct 1999 -  1 Dec 2009  Javier Solana Madariaga (Spain)    (b. 1942)
High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
 1 Dec 2009 -              Catherine Ashton, Baroness Ashton  (b. 1956)
                             of Upholland (f)(United Kingdom)
 

Presidents of the European Monetary Institute
 1 Jan 1994 - 30 Jun 1997  Alexandre Lamfalussy (Belgium)     (b. 1929)
 1 Jul 1997 - 31 May 1998  Wim Duisenberg (Netherlands)       (b. 1935 - d. 2005)
Presidents of the European Central Bank
 1 Jun 1998 - 31 Oct 2003  Wim Duisenberg (Netherlands)       (s.a.)
 1 Nov 2003 - 31 Oct 2011  Jean-Claude Trichet (France)       (b. 1942)
 1 Nov 2011 -              Mario Draghi (Italy)               (b. 1947)

Presidents of the European Investment Bank
Feb 1958 - May 1959        Pietro Campilli (Italy)            (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
Jun 1959 - Sep 1970        Paride Formentini (Italy)          (b. 1899 - d. 1976)
Sep 1970 - Jul 1984        Yves Le Portz (France)             (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
Aug 1984 - Mar 1993        Ernst-Günther Bröder (Germany)     (b. 1927 - d. 2013)
Apr 1993 - 31 Dec 1999     Sir Brian Unwin (U.K.)             (b. 1935)
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Dec 2011  Philippe Maystadt (Belgium)        (b. 1948)
 1 Jan 2012 -              Werner Hoyer (Germany)             (b. 1951)


Presidents of the Court of Justice of the European Communities
10 Dec 1952 -  7 Oct 1958  Massimo Pilotti (Italy)            (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
 7 Oct 1958 -  8 Oct 1964  Andreas Matthias Donner
            (b. 1918 - d. 1992)
                             (Netherlands)
 8 Oct 1964 -  7 Oct 1967  Charles L
éon Hammes (Luxembourg)   (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
 7 Oct 1967 -  7 Oct 1976  Robert Lecourt (France)            (b. 1908 - d. 2004) 
 7 Oct 1976 - 30 Oct 1980  Hans Kutscher (West Germany)       (b. 1911 - d. 1993)
30 Oct 1980 - 10 Apr 1984  Josse Mertens de Wilmars (Belgium) (b. 1912 - d. 2002) 
10 Apr 1984 -  7 Oct 1988  Alexander John Mackenzie-Stuart    (b. 1924 - d. 2000)
                             (United Kingdom)
 7 Oct 1988 -  7 Oct 1994  Ole Due (Denmark)                  (b. 1931 - d. 2005)
 7 Oct 1994 -  7 Oct 2003  Gil Carlos Rodríguez Iglesias      (b. 1946)
                             (Spain)
 7 Oct 2003 -  1 Dec 2009  Vassilios Skouris (Greece)         (b. 1948)
President of the Court of Justice
 1 Dec 2009 -              Vassilios Skouris (Greece)         (s.a.)

EU membership (28)
Date of 
Accession
Member Nations
 1 Jan 1958 Belgium, France¹, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg,
The Netherlands
 1 Jan 1973 Denmark2, Ireland, United Kingdom
 1 Jan 1981 Greece
 1 Jan 1986 Portugal, Spain
 1 Jan 1995 Austria, Finland, Sweden
 1 May 2004 Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,
Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia
 1 Jan 2007 Bulgaria, Romania
 1 Jul 2013 Croatia
¹Saint-Barthélemy, which was an outermost region as part France's Guadeloupe département, and was never recognized as a separate member, withdrew 1 Jan 2012. 2Greenland, which joined as part of Denmark and was never recognized as a separate member, withdrew 1 Feb 1985.

Party abbreviations: ELDR = European Liberal, Democrat and Reform Party (liberal and centrist, est.1976, as a party from 2004); EPP = Group of the European People's Party (christian-democratic and conservative, [1999-2009 as EPP-ED], est.1979); S&D = Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in Europe (social-democratic and socialist, former PES, es20092009);
- Former groupings: CD = Christian Democratic Group (1953-1979, then EPP); ED = European Democratic Group (conservative, 1979-1992, joined with EPP 1999-2009, then as European Conservatives and Reformists); Lib = Liberal (1953-1976, then ELDR); PES = Party of European Socialists (social-democratic and socialist, official party from 1992, 1952-2009, renamed S&D); Soc = Socialist (1953-1993, from 1993 PES)

Outermost Regions part of the EU: Azores, Canary Islands, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Madeira, Martinique, Mayotte, Réunion and Saint-Martin.

Protocol territories part of the EU (with exemptions): Aland Islands, Ceuta, Gibraltar, Heligoland (excluded from customs union and VAT area), Melilla and Mount Athos.

Overseas Countries and Territories not part of the EU: Faroe Islands (Danish locals are not EU citizens), Greenland (locals are EU citizens, can be granted the right to vote at EU elections); French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Clipperton Island, New Caledonia, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna (EURATOM Treaty does apply, locals are EU citizens, and do vote at EU elections); Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten (Dutch locals are EU citizens, and do vote at EU elections); Anguilla, Bermuda (has never applied the association regime), British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena and Dependencies, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands (locals are EU citizens); Channel Islands and the Isle of Man (EURATOM Treaty does apply, locals are EU citizens), U.K. Sovereign Bases Areas in Cyprus (U.K. locals are not EU citizens); Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (locals are EU citizens, but do not vote at EU elections, EU law is applied only in southern Cyprus). 

Status Unclear: United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus (European Council determines what provisions of EU law apply).

Territorial Disputes: As a political union, the EU has no border disputes with neighboring countries, but Estonia has no land boundary agreements with Russia, Slovenia disputes its land and maritime boundaries with Croatia, and Spain has territorial and maritime disputes with Morocco and with the U.K. over Gibraltar; the EU has set up a Schengen area - consisting of 22 EU member states that have signed the convention implementing the Schengen agreements or "acquis" (1985 and 1990) on the free movement of persons and the harmonization of border controls in Europe; these agreements became incorporated into EU law with the implementation of the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam on 1 May 1999; in addition, non-EU states Iceland and Norway (as part of the Nordic Union) have been included in the Schengen area since 1996 (full members in 2001), Switzerland since 2008, and Liechtenstein since 2011 bringing the total current membership to 26; the U.K. (since 2000) and Ireland (since 2002) take part in only some aspects of the Schengen area, especially with respect to police and criminal matters; nine of the 12 new member states that joined the EU since 2004 joined Schengen on 21 Dec 2007; of the three remaining EU states, Romania and Bulgaria may join in 2014, while Cyprus' entry is held up by the ongoing Cyprus dispute.



Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

[Flag of United
                          Nations]
                   Adopted 16 Oct 1945
[Logo of
                      UN Food and Agriculture Org.(does not have a
                      flag]                           FAO Logo

FAO website
Headquarters: Rome
(Italy)(Washington , DC
1946-1951)
FAO Day: 16 Oct (1945)
World Food Day

16 Oct 1945                FAO established as a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Directors-general
Oct 1945 - 14 Apr 1948     Sir John Boyd Orr (U.K.)           (b. 1880 - d. 1971)
14 Apr 1948 - 31 Dec 1953  Norris Edward Dodd (U.S.)          (b. 1879 - d. 1968)
 1 Jan 1954 - Apr 1956     Philip Vincent Cardon (U.S.)       (b. 1889 - d. 1965)
Apr 1956 - Nov 1956        Sir Herbert Broadley (U.K.)        (b. 1892 - d. 1983)
                             (acting)
Nov 1956 - 31 Dec 1967     Binay Ranjan Sen (India)           (b. 1898 - d. 1993)
 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1975  Addeke Hendrik Boerma (Netherlands)(b. 1912 - d. 1992)
 1 Jan 1976 - 31 Dec 1993  Édouard Saouma (Lebanon)           (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 2011  Jacques Diouf (Senegal)            (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 2012 -              José Graziano da Silva (Brazil)    (b. 1949)

FAO membership (195)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
16 Oct 1945
Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China1, Czechoslovakia2, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iraq, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Philippines, Poland3, South Africa4, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela, Yugoslavia5
17 Oct 1945
Colombia
19 Oct 1945
Cuba
27 Oct 1945
Lebanon, Syria6
30 Oct 1945
Paraguay
30 Nov 1945
Uruguay
17 May 1946
Chile
 3 Sep 1946
Ireland
11 Sep 1946
Portugal, Switzerland
12 Sep 1946
Italy
30 Dec 1946
Hungary7
19  Aug 1947
El Salvador
27 Aug 1947
Austria, Finland, Thailand
 7 Sep 1947
Pakistan
11 Sep 1947
Burma8
 1 Jan 1948
Ethiopia
 6 Apr 1948
Turkey
 7 Apr 1948
Costa Rica
21 May 1948
Ceylon9
23 Nov 1948
Israel, Saudi Arabia
25 Nov 1949
South Korea
28 Nov 1949
Indonesia
 1 Dec 1949
Afghanistan
13 Feb 1950
Sweden
11 Nov 1950
Cambodia, Vietnam10
27 Nov 1950
Federal Republic of Germany
23 Jan 1951
Jordan
 5 Apr 1951
Spain
21 Nov 1951
Japan, Laos
27 Nov 1951
Argentina, Nepal
17 Jun 1952
Peru
24 Nov 1953
Libya
 1 Dec 1953
Iran
 9 Dec 1953
Yemen (Sana)11
25 Nov 1955
Tunisia
13 Sep 1956
Morocco, The Sudan
 9 Nov 1957
Ghana, Malaya12
 5 Nov 1959
Guinea
22 Mar 1960
Cameroon
23 May 1960
Togo
14 Sep 1960
Cyprus
11 Oct 1960
Nigeria
17 Nov 1960
Somalia
 9 Nov 1961
Central African Republic, Chad, Dahomey13, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Kinshasa)14, Gabon, Ivory Coast15, Kuwait, Madagascar16, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Romania, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Upper Volta17
 8 Feb 1962
Tanganyika18
13 Mar 1963
Jamaica
19 Nov 1963
Algeria, Burundi, Rwanda, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda
27 Jan 1964
Kenya
 5 Oct 1964
Malta
22 Nov 1965
The Gambia, Malawi, Zambia
22 Aug 1966
Guyana
 1 Nov 1966
Botswana
 7 Nov 1968
Lesotho
 6 Nov 1967
Barbados, Bulgaria
12 Mar 1968
Mauritius
10 Nov 1969
Yemen (Aden)11
 8 Nov 1971
Bahrain, Fiji, Maldvies, Oman, Qatar, Swaziland
12 Nov 1973
Albania, Bangladesh, Mongolia, United Arab Emirates
26 Nov 1973
Guinea-Bissau
 8 Nov 1975
The Bahamas, Cape Verde19, Grenada, Papua New Guinea
26 Nov 1975
Suriname
14 Nov 1977
Angola, Comoros, Djibouti, Mozambique, Namibia20, North Korea, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles
12 Nov 1979
Dominica, Western Samoa21
26 Nov 1979
Saint Lucia
 7 Nov 1981
Bhutan, Equatorical Guinea, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tonga, Zimbabwe
 7 Nov 1983
Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Vanuatu
11 Nov 1985
Cook Islands, Solomon Islands
11 Nov 1991
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
26 Nov 1991
European Community22
 8 Nov 1993
Armenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Eritrea, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of), Slovakia, Slovenia
20 Oct 1995
Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
 7 Nov 1997
Kazakhstan
12 Nov 1999
Marshall Islands, Niue, Palau, San Marino
15 Nov 1999
Kiribati
 2 Nov 2001
Monaco, Nauru, Serbia and Montenegro5, Uzbekistan
29 Nov 2003
East Timor, Federated States of Micronesia, Tuvalu, Ukraine
19 Nov 2005
Belarus
11 Apr 2006
Russia
17 Nov 2007
Andorra, Montenegro
15 Jun 2013
Brunei Darussalam, Singapore, South Sudan
1the Republic of China (Taiwan) withdrew 21 Jul 1952; China (People's Republic) rejoined on 1 Apr 1973. 2withdrew 27 Dec 1950, rejoined 10 Nov 1969; dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 3withdrew 25 Apr 1951, rejoined 9 Nov 1957. 4South Africa withdrew 18 Dec 1964, rejoined 9 Nov 1993. 5on 20 Nov 1992 the FAO ruled that Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) could not continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and that it had to apply anew for membership, which it did and was readmitted 2 Nov 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 61958-1961 part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria. Syria left FAO on 11 Apr 1958; On 28 Sep 1961 Syria seceded from the U.A.R. and resumed its separate membership on 4 Nov 1961. 7withdrew 26 Jan 1952, rejoined 6 Nov 1967. 8from 1989 Myanmar. 9from 1972, Sri Lanka. 10Republic of Vietnam to 30 Apr 1975, then Republic of South Vietnam, from 2 Jul 1976 Socialist Republic of Vietnam; succession recognized by FAO council on 2 Dec 1976.  11Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) merged 22 May 1990 as Yemen. 12from 1963, Malaysia. 13from 1975 Benin. 14Congo (Léopoldville) to 1966; 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 15from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 16to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 17from 1984 Burkina Faso. 18Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar 26 Apr 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 19from 2013 Cabo Verde. 20to 21 Mar 1990 as United Nations Council for Namibia. 21from 1997 Samoa. 22member organization; from 1 Nov 1993 European Union.

Date of 
Admission
Associate Members of FAO
 5 Nov 1959
Chad1, Cyprus2, Gabon1, Madagascar1, Mali1, Nigeria3, Rhodesia and Nyasaland4, Senegal1, Somaliland Trust Territory5
19 Nov 1963
Zanzibar6
 9 Nov 1961
British Guiana7, Jamaica8, Mauritius9, Tanganyika6
19 Nov 1963
Kenya10, Malta11
22 Nov 1965
Basutoland12, Bechuanaland13
 6 Nov 1967
Bahrain14, Qatar14
11 Nov 1991
Puerto Rico15
17 Nov 2007
Faroe Islands
25 Jun 2011
Tokelau
1member from 9 Nov 1961. 2member from 14 Sep 1960. 3member from 11 Oct 1960. 4dissolved 31 Dec 1963. 5member from 17 Nov 1960 as Somalia. 6Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar 26 Apr 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 7from 22 Aug 1966 member as Guiana. 8member from 13 Mar 1963. 9member from 12 Mar 1968. 10member from 27 Jan 1964. 11member from 5 Oct 1964. 12member from 7 Nov 1966 as Lesotho. 13member from 1 Nov 1966 as Botswana. 14member from 8 Nov 1971. 15withdrew 21 Dec 1996.



"Group of Eight" (G-8)

15 Nov 1975                "Group of 6" (G-6) industrialized nations
                             formed.
27 Jun 1976                Renamed "Group of 7" (G-7).
20 Jul 2001                Renamed "Group of 8" (G-8).

Chairmen
15 Nov 1975 - 31 Dec 1975  Valery Giscard d'Estaing (France)  (b. 1926) 
 1 Jan 1976 - 31 Dec 1976  Gerald R. Ford (U.S.)              (b. 1913 - d. 2006)
 1 Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1977  James Callaghan (U.K.)             (b. 1912 - d. 2005)
 1 Jan 1978 - 31 Dec 1978  Helmut Schmidt (West Germany)      (b. 1918) 
 1 Jan 1979 - 31 Dec 1979  Masayoshi Ohira (Japan)            (b. 1910 - d. 1980)
 1 Jan 1980 - 18 Oct 1980  Francesco Cossiga (Italy)          (b. 1928 - d. 2010) 
18 Oct 1980 - 31 Dec 1980  Arnaldo Forlani (Italy)            (b. 1925) 
 1 Jan 1981 - 31 Dec 1981  Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Canada)    (b. 1919 - d. 2000)
 1 Jan 1982 - 31 Dec 1982  François Mitterand (1st time)      (b. 1916 - d. 1996)
                             (France)
 1 Jan 1983 - 31 Dec 1983  Ronald Reagan (U.S.)               (b. 1911 - d. 2004)
 1 Jan 1984 - 31 Dec 1984  Margaret Thatcher (f) (U.K.)       (b. 1925 - d. 2013)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1985  Helmut Kohl (1st time)             (b. 1930) 
                             (West Germany)
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Dec 1986  Yasuhiro Nakasone (Japan)          (b. 1918) 
 1 Jan 1987 - 18 Apr 1987  Bettino Craxi (Italy)              (b. 1934 - d. 2000) 
18 Apr 1987 - 31 Dec 1987  Amintore Fanfani (Italy)           (b. 1908 - d. 1999)
 1 Jan 1988 - 31 Dec 1988  Brian Mulroney (Canada)            (b. 1939) 
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  François Mitterand (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (France)
 1 Jan 1990 - 31 Dec 1990  George H. Bush (U.S.)              (b. 1924)
 1 Jan 1991 - 31 Dec 1991  John Major (U.K.)                  (b. 1943)
 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  Helmut Kohl (2nd time) (Germany)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1993 -  9 Aug 1993  Kiichi Miyazawa (Japan)            (b. 1919 - d. 2007)
 9 Aug 1993 - 31 Dec 1993  Morihiro Hosokawa (Japan)          (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 1994 - 11 May 1994  Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (Italy)       (b. 1920) 
11 May 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Silvio Berlusconi (1st time)       (b. 1936)
                             (Italy)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  Jean Chretien (1st time) (Canada)  (b. 1934)
 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1996  Jacques Chirac (1st time)(France)  (b. 1932)
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1997  Bill Clinton (U.S.)                (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Tony Blair (United Kingdom)        (b. 1953)
                            (1st time)
 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 1999  Gerhard Schröder (Germany)         (b. 1944)
 1 Jan 2000 -  5 Apr 2000  Keizo Obuchi (Japan)               (b. 1937 - d. 2000)
 5 Apr 2000 - 31 Dec 2000  Yoshiro Mori (Japan)               (b. 1937)
 1 Jan 2001 - 11 Jun 2001  Giuliano Amato (Italy)             (b. 1938)
11 Jun 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Silvio Berlusconi (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (Italy)
 1 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Jean Chretien (2nd time) (Canada)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Jacques Chirac (2nd time)(France)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  George W. Bush (U.S.)              (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Tony Blair (United Kingdom)        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Vladimir Putin (1st time) (Russia) (b. 1952) 
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007  Angela Merkel (f) (Germany)        (b. 1954)
 1 Jan 2008 -
24 Sep 2008  Yasuo Fukuda (Japan)               (b. 1936)
24 Sep 2008 - 31 Dec 2008  Taro Aso (Japan)                   (b. 1940)
 1 Jan 2009 - 31 Dec 2009 
Silvio Berlusconi (3rd time)       (s.a.)
                             (Italy)
 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  Stephen Harper (Canada)            (b. 1959)
 1 Jan 2011 - 31 Dec 2011 
Nicolas Sarkozy (France)           (b. 1955)
 1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012
  Barack H. Obama (U.S.)             (b. 1961)
 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  David Cameron (United Kingdom)     (b. 1966)
 1 Jan 2014 - 24 Mar 2014 
Vladimir Putin (2nd time) (Russia) (s.a.)


G-8 Membership (8)
Data of
Admission
Member Nations
15 Nov 1975 France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy,
Japan, United Kingdom, United States
27 Jun 1976 Canada
20 Jul 2001 Russia1
1suspended from 24 Mar 2014.



Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

[Gulf Cooperation Council
                  flag]
 
GCC website
Headquarters: Riyadh
(Saudi Arabia)

25 May 1981                Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
                             (Gulf Cooperation Council) founded.
 1 Jan 2008                
Gulf Cooperation Council common market launched.

Secretaries-general
26 May 1981 - Apr 1993     Abdullah Bishara (Kuwait)          (b. 1936)
Apr 1993 - Apr 1996        Fahem ibn Sultan al-Qasimi         (b. 1948)
                             (United Arab Emirates)
Apr 1996 - 31 Mar 2002     Jamil ibn Ibrahim al-Hujailan      (b. c.1925)
                             (Saudi Arabia)
 1 Apr 2002 - 31 Mar 2011  Abdul Rahman ibn Hamad al-Attiyah  (b. 1950)
                             (Qatar)
 1 Apr 2011 -              
Abdul Latif bin Rashid al-Zayani   (b. 1955?)
                             (Bahrain)

GCC membership (6)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
25 May 1981 Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
United Arab Emirates



Ibero-American Cooperation Secretariat (SEGIB)

[OEI flag]
                 OEI Flag

[
                          Ibero-American Cooperation Secretariat
                          (SEGIB)]
                 SEGIB Flag

SEGIB website
Headquarters: Madrid
(Spain)

 1 Dec 1985               Ibero-American States Organization for Education, 
                            Science and Culture (Organización de Estados
                            Iberoamericanos para la Educación la Ciencia y la
                            Cultura)(OEI) created.
 1 Oct 2005               Ibero-American Cooperation Secretariat established
                            (Secretaría de Cooperación Iberoamericana)(SEGIB).

Secretaries-general
 1 Oct 2005 -  1 Apr 2014  Enrique V. Iglesias (Uruguay)      (b. 1930)
 1 Apr 2014 -              Rebeca Grynspan (f)(Costa Rica)    (b. 1955)

SEGIB membership (22)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 1 Oct 2005 Andorra, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa 
Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, 
Spain, Uruguay, Venezuela



Indian Ocean Commission (COI)
  
[fomer
                      Indian Ocean Commission flag 1984-2012]                  c.1984 - Dec 2012 [Indian Ocean Commission (COI) flag]                   Adopted Dec 2012
COI website
Headquarters: Port Louis
(Mauritius)

20 Dec 1982                Indian Ocean Commission (Commission de l'Océan Indien)(COI)
                             created by Port Louis Agreement.
10 Jan 1984
                Victoria Agreement signed.
Jun 1989                   Secretariat inaugurated.

Administrator
Jun 1988 - Jun 1989        Robert Scheiber (Mauritius)
Secretaries-general
Jun 1989 - Jun 1993        Henri Rasolondraibe (Madagascar)    (b. 19.. - d. 2000)
Jul 1993 - Jul 1997        Jérémie
Émile Bonnelame (Seychelles)(b. 1938)
Jul 1997 - Jul 2001        Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed          (b. 1948?)
                             (Comoros)
Jul 2001 -  1 Jul 2004     Wilfrid Bertile (
Réunion/France)    (b. 1945) 
 1 Jul 2004 - 15 Jul 2008  Monique Andreas Esoavelomandroso (f)(b. 1945)
                             (Madagascar)
15 Jul 2008 - 12 Jul 2012  Callixte d'Offay
(Seychelles)       (b. 1950)
12 Jul 2012 -             
Jean-Claude de l'Estrac
(Mauritius) (b. 1948)
 
Indian Ocean Commission membership (5)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
20 Dec 1982 Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles 
10 Jan 1986 Comoros, France1
1on behalf of Réunion



Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

[Inter American
                  Development Bank]
 
IADB website
Headquarters: Washington, DC
(United States)

 8 Apr 1959                Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) established.

Presidents
 5 Feb 1960 - 28 Feb 1971  Luis Felipe Herrera Lane
(Chile)   (b. 1922 - d. 1996)
 1 Mar 1971 - 31 Mar 1988  Antonio Ortiz Mena (Mexico)        (b. 1908 - d. 2007)
 1 Apr 1988 - 30 Sep 2005  Enrique V. Iglesias (Uruguay)      (b. 1930)
 1 Oct 2005 -              Luis Alberto Moreno Mejía
         (b. 1953)
                             (Colombia)             

IADB membership (48)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
30 Dec 1959 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States
12 Feb 1960 Uruguay
13 Feb 1960 Venezuela
10 Jul 1967 Trinidad and Tobago
19 Mar 1969 Barbados
30 Dec 1969 Jamaica
 3 May 1972 Canada
 9 Jul 1976 Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Japan, 
The Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia1
 9 Sep 1976 Spain
16 Nov 1976 Guyana
10 Jan 1977 France
26 May 1977 Italy
30 Jun 1977 Finland
19 Sep 1977 Sweden
15 Dec 1977 The Bahamas
25 Mar 1980 Portugal
12 Dec 1980 Suriname
 7 Jul 1986 Norway
28 Sep 1992 Belize
16 Dec 1993 Croatia, Slovenia
16 Mar 2005 South Korea
12 Jan 2009
China
1ceased to be recognized as a member by resolution of IADB Board of Governors on 21 Apr 1993. note: Cuba signed but did not ratify the 1959 agreement establishing the IADB.



Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

[Inter Governmental
                  Authority for Development]
 
IGAD website
Headquarters: Djibouti
(Djibouti)

15 Jan 1986                Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD)
21 Mar 1996                Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

Executive secretaries
1986 - 1991                Makonnen Kebret (Ethiopia)         (b. 1935)

1991 - 1996                David Stephen
Muduuli (Uganda)
1996 -  8 Apr 2000         Tekeste Ghebray (Eritrea)          (b. 1949)
 8 Apr 2000 - 14 Jun 2008  Attalla Hamad Bashir (The Sudan)   (b. 1946)
14 Jun 2008 -              Mahboub M. Maalim (Kenya)          (b. 1958)

IGAD membership (8)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
15 Jan 1986 Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Somalia, The Sudan, Uganda
Sep 1993 Eritrea1
10 Feb 2012
South Sudan
1membership suspended at its own request 21 Apr 2007 - 25 Jul 2011.



Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
 
[International
                          Parliamentary Union]
                        IPU Flag
 
[International
                          Parliamentary Union variant]
                      Flag Variant
 
IPU website HeadquartersGeneva
(Switzerland)
(Oslo, Norway 1914-1921;
Brussels, Belgium 1911-1914;
Bern, Switzerland 1892-1911)
IPU Day: 15 Sep
International Day
 of Democracy

29-30 Jun 1889             First Inter-Parliamentary Conference held.
1892                       Inter-Parliamentary Bureau for Permanent Arbitration
1922                       Inter-Parliamentary Union

Secretaries-general
1892 - 1909                Charles Albert Gobat (Switzerland) (b. 1843 - d. 1914)
1909 - 1933                Christian Louis Lange (Norway)     (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
1933 - 1953                Léopold Boissier (Switzerland)     (b. 1893 - d. 1968)
1953 - 1970                André de Blonay (Switzerland)      (b. 1905 - d. 1981)
1970 - 1986                Pio-Carlo Terenzio (Italy)         (b. 1921 - d. 2010)
 1 Jan 1989 - 30 Jun 1998  Pierre Cornillon (France)          (b. 1935)
 1 Jul 1998 - 30 Jun 2014  Anders B. Johnsson (Sweden)        (b. 1948)
 1 Jul 2014 -              Martin Chungong (Cameroon)

Presidents
1908 -  6 Oct 1912         Auguste Marie François Beernaert   (b. 1829 - d. 1912)
                             (Belgium) 
Mar 1913 - Aug 1922        Philip James Stanhope, Baron       (b. 1847 - d. 1923)
                             Weardale of Stanhope (U.K.) 
Aug 1922 - Aug 1928        Theodor Adelsw
ärd (Sweden)         (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
Aug 1928 - Sep 1934        Fernand Bouisson (France)          (b. 1874 - d. 1959)
Sep 1934 - Apr 1947        Henri Carton De Wiart (Belgium)    (b. 1869 - d. 1951)
Apr 1947 - Sep 1957        William Wedgwood, Viscount         (b. 1877 - d. 1960)
                             Stansgate (U.K.) 
Sep 1957 - Oct 1962        Giuseppe Codacci-Pisanelli (Italy) (b. 1913 - d. 1988)
Oct 1962 - Feb 1967        Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli (Brazil)  (b. 1910 - d. 1975)
Feb 1967 - Sep 1968        Abderrahman Abdennebi (Tunisia)
                             (interim)
Sep 1968 - Oct 1973        André Chandernagor (France)        (b. 1921)
Oct 1973 - Oct 1976        Gurdial Singh Dhillon (India)      (b. 1915 - d. 1992)
                             (interim to Oct 1974)
Oct 1976 - Sep 1979        Sir Thomas Williams (U.K.)         (b. 1915 - d. 1986)
Sep 1979 - Sep 1982        Rafael Caldera Rodríguez           (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
                             (Venezuela)
Sep 1982 - Mar 1983        Johannes Virolainen (Finland)      (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
Mar 1983 - Oct 1983        É
mile Cuvelier (Belgium)(interim)  (b. 1928 - d. 2009)
Oct 1983 - Aug 1985        Izz El-Din El-Sayed (The Sudan)
Sep 1985                   Sir John Page (U.K.)(interim)      (b. 1919 - d. 2008)
Sep 1985 - Sep 1988        Hans Stercken (West Germany)       (b. 1923 - d. 1999)
Sep 1988 - Sep 1991        Daouda Sow (Senegal)               (b. 1933 - d. 2009)
Oct 1991 - Sep 1994        Sir Michael Marshall (U.K.)        (b. 1930 - d. 2006)
14 Sep 1994 - 16 Sep 1997  Ahmad Fathi Sorour (Egypt)         (b. 1932)
16 Sep 1997 - 15 Jul 1999  Miguel Ángel Martínez (Spain)      (b. 1940)
16 Oct 1999 - 19 Oct 2002  Najma Akbarali Heptulla (f)(India) (b. 1940)
27 Sep 2002 - 19 Oct 2005  Sergio P
áez Verdugo (Chile)        (b. 1933)
19 Oct 2005 - 18 Oct 2008  Pier Ferdinando Casini (Italy)     (b. 1955)
18 Oct 2008 - 19 Oct 2011 
Theo-Ben Gurirab (Namibia)         (b. 1939)
19 Oct 2011 -              Abdelwahad Radi (Morocco)          (b. 1935)

IPU membership (164)
Date of
Affiliation
Member Parliaments
Jun 1889
Belgium, Denmark, France, Hungary1, Italy, Liberia2, Spain, United Kingdom, United States3
1890
Austria, Germany4, Greece5, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden
1891
Portugal6, Romania7, Serbia8, Switzerland
1896
Bulgaria9
1897
Russia10
1900
Canada11
1908
Japan12
1910
Turkey13
1913
Australia14
1920
Finland
1921
Czechoslovakia15, Poland16
1923
Ireland
1924
Egypt17
1925
Cuba18, Mexico19, Panama20
1926
Venezuela21
1927
Peru22, Philippines23
1930
Iran24, Uruguay25
1931
Colombia26, Ecuador27
1936
Luxembourg
1945
Syria28
1947
Iraq29, West Germany4
1948
Burma30, Lebanon, Monaco, Pakistan31
1949
Ceylon32, India
1950
Israel, Thailand33
1951
Iceland
1952
Indonesia34
1954
Argentina35, Brazil, Haiti36
1955
Albania, The Sudan37
1956
Laos38
1957
Tunisia, South Vietnam39
1958
Chile40, Ghana41, Libya42, Paraguay43
1959
New Zealand
1961
Guatemala44, Nigeria45
1962
Central Africa Republic46, El Salvador47, Ethiopia48, Mongolia
1963
Cameroon, Dahomey49, Congo (Kinshasa)50, Senegal, Sierra Leone51, Somalia52
1964
Jordan, Kuwait53, Morocco54, South Korea
1965
Nicaragua55
1966
Mali56, Mauritania57, Niger58
1967
Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore
1968
Ivory Coast59, Malawi60
1971
Costa Rica, Rwanda61
1972
Bangladesh62, East Germany63, Upper Volta64
1973
Gabon, North Korea
Sep 1975
Yemen (Sana)65
1977
Algeria66, Kenya, United Arab Emirates, Zambia
1978
Cyprus, Madagascar67
1979
Bolivia68, Comoros69, Dominican Republic70, Mozambique, Suriname71Vietnam
Sep 1979
Yemen (Aden)65
1981
Congo (Brazzaville), Djibouti72, Guyana73, Togo, Uganda74, Zimbabwe
1982
Cape Verde75
1983
Jamaica76
 2 Apr 1984
China
1984
Equatorial Guinea77, Tanzania
1985
Burundi78, Papua New Guinea
1986
Angola, Honduras79
1988
Malta
1989
San Marino
1990
Namibia
1991
Estonia80, Latvia81, Lithuania82
1992
Botswana, Croatia, Moldova, Uzbekistan83
1993
Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Kazakhstan, Marshall Islands84, Slovakia, Slovenia
Sep 1994
South Africa
1994
Bosnia and Hercegovina, Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
1995
Andorra, Armenia, Belarus85
1996
Guinea86, Kyrgyzstan, Mauritius
1997
Cambodia, Fiji87, Georgia88, Tajikistan
Oct 1999
Ukraine
2000
Guinea-Bissau89
16 Oct 2000
Liechtenstein, Samoa, São Tomé and Príncipe
 7 Apr 2003
Saudi Arabia
Oct 2003
Bahrain
Oct 2005
Maldives
12 May 2006
Qatar
16 Oct 2006
The Gambia, Montenegro, Palau
30 Apr 2007
Afghanistan
14 Apr 2008
East Timor
18 Apr 2008
Lesotho
15 Oct 2008
Oman, Palestine
28 Mar 2010
Seychelles
16 Apr 2011
Federated States of Micronesia, Trinidad and Tobago
19 Oct 2011
Chad
 5 Apr 2012
South Sudan
 7 Oct 2013
Bhutan
17 Mar 2014
Tonga
1Hungary withdrew 1950, rejoined 1954. 2Liberia withdrew 1890, rejoined 1955; withdrew 1980, rejoined 1986; withdrew 1995, rejoined 1999; suspended Oct 2003 - 19 Apr 2004; suspended 19 Oct 2011. 3U.S. suspended Oct 2003. 4Germany withdrew 1913, rejoined 1921; withdrew 1932, rejoined 1951. 5Greece withdrew 1937; West Germany rejoined 1947, withdrew 1967, rejoined 1975; merged with East Germany 1990. 6Portugal withdrew 1927, rejoined 1976. 7Romania withdrew 1950, rejoined 1954. 8from 1 Dec 1918 Yugoslavia; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; from 8 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia.  9Bulgaria withdrew 1950, rejoined 1954. 10Russia withdrew 1914; rejoined 1955 as Soviet Union which dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 11Canada withdrew 1933, rejoined 1960. 12Japan withdrew to 1939, rejoined 1952. 13Turkey withdrew 1980, rejoined 1984. 14Australia withdrew 1930, rejoined 1956. 15Czechoslovakia withdrew 1950, rejoined 1955; dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 16Poland withdrew 1950, rejoined 1955. 17named United Arab Republic 1958-1971; Egypt suspended 7 Oct 2013. 18Cuba withdrew 1933, rejoined 1977. 19Mexico withdrew 1928, rejoined 1973. 20Panama withdrew 1936, rejoined 1958; withdrew 1969, rejoined 1976. 21Venezuela withdrew 1933, rejoined 1959. 21Peru withdrew 1928, rejoined 1956; withdrew 1969, rejoined 1983. 23Philippines withdrew 1938, rejoined 1947; withdrew 1973, rejoined 1979; withdrew 1986, rejoined 1987. 24Iran withdrew 1939, rejoined 1949; withdrew 1979, rejoined 1981. 25Uruguay withdrew 1935, rejoined 1985. 26Colombia withdrew 1935, rejoined 1973; withdrew 1977, rejoined 1979. 27Ecuador withdrew 1933, rejoined 1979. 28Syria withdrew 1953, rejoined 1954; united with Egypt as United Arab Republic 1958-1961; rejoined 1962, withdrew 1963; rejoined 1971. 29Iraq withdrew 1963 rejoined 1980; suspended Oct 2003 - 14 Apr 2008. 30Burma withdrew 1963; from 1989 named Myanmar; rejoined 5 Apr 2012. 31Pakistan withdrew 1969, rejoined 1974; withdrew 1978, rejoined 1985; suspended 1 May 2000 - 17 Apr 2003. 32from 1972 Sri Lanka. 33Thailand withdrew 1972, rejoined 1973; suspended 16 Oct 2006 - 23 Dec 2007. 34member as Netherlands East Indies 1922-1939. 35Argentina withdrew 1965, rejoined 1973; withdrew 1976, rejoined 1984. 36Haiti withdrew 1960; rejoined 1975, withdrew 1986; rejoined 1 Apr 2012. 37Sudan withdrew 1963, rejoined 1966; withdrew 1969, rejoined 1973; withdrew 1985, rejoined 1987; withdrew 1989, rejoined 1992; suspended 1 May 2000 - Sep 2001. 38Laos withdrew 1975, rejoined 1990. 39South Vietnam withdrew 1963, rejoined 1968; withdrew 1975; united with North Vietnam as Socialist Republic of Vietnam which joined 1979. 40Chile withdrew 1973, rejoined 1990. 41Ghana withdrew 1966, rejoined 1970; withdrew 1972, rejoined 1980; withdrew 1982, rejoined 1993. 42Libya withdrew 1969, rejoined 1989. 43Paraguay suspended Oct 2003 - 12 May 2006. 44Guatemala withdrew 1963, rejoined 1979; withdrew 1982, rejoined 1986. 45Nigeria withdrew 1966, rejoined 1980; withdrew 1984, rejoined 1993; withdrew 1994, rejoined Oct 1999. 46Central Africa Republic withdrew 1966, rejoined 1988; withdrew 1993, rejoined 1994; withdrew 1998, rejoined Sep 2002; suspended 7 Apr 2003. 47El Salvador withdrew 1979, rejoined 1986. 48Ethiopia withdrew 1975, rejoined 1989. 49from 1975 Benin; withdrew 1964, rejoined 1981; withdrew 1990, rejoined 1992. 50Congo (Léopoldville) to 1966, 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa), 1971-97 Zaire; withdrew 1964, rejoined 1966; withdrew 1992, rejoined 1994; withdrew 1997, rejoined 19 Apr 2004. 51Sierra Leone withdrew 1967, rejoined 1969; withdrew 1982, rejoined 18 Oct 2008. 52Somalia withdrew 1969, rejoined 1980; withdrew 1991, rejoined 12 May 2006; suspended 31 Dec 2009 - 7 Oct 2013. 53Kuwait withdrew 1976, rejoined 1981; withdrew 1986, rejoined 1992. 54Morocco withdrew 1965, rejoined 1971; withdrew 1973, rejoined 1978. 55Nicaragua withdrew 1979, rejoined 1981. 56Mali withdrew 1969, rejoined 1981; withdrew 1991, rejoined 1992. 57Mauritania withdrew 1978, rejoined 1994; suspended Oct 2005 - 14 Apr 2008. 58Niger withdrew 1974, rejoined 1990; withdrew 1991, rejoined 1993; withdrew 1996, rejoined 1997; suspended Oct 1999 - 2000 and 19 Oct 2009 - 17 Oct 2011. 59from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire; suspended 1 May 2000 - 2001. 60Malawi suspended Oct 2003 - 28 Mar 2010. 61Rwanda withdrew 1973, rejoined 1982; withdrew 1994, rejoined 1995. 62Bangladesh withdrew 1975, rejoined 1986; suspended 18 Apr 2008 - 6 Apr 2009. 63East Germany united 1990 with Federal Republic of Germany. 64from 1984 Burkina Faso; withdrew 1974, rejoined 1979; withdrew 1981, rejoined 1993. 65Yemen (Sana) suspended Apr 1976; Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 1990 as Yemen. 66Algeria withdrew 1991, rejoined 1993. 67Madagascar withdrew 1991, rejoined Oct 2005, suspended from 10 Apr 2009. 68Bolivia withdrew 1980, rejoined 1983. 69Comoros withdrew 1988, rejoined 1994; withdrew 1997, rejoined 18 Oct 2008; suspended 19 Oct 2011. 70Dominican Republic withdrew 1992, rejoined Oct 2005. 71Suriname withdrew 1980, rejoined 1988. 72Djibouti suspended 18 Oct 2006 - 28 Mar 2010. 73Guyana  withdrew 1985. 74Uganda withdrew 1985, rejoined 1991. 75from 2013 Cabo Verde. 76Jamaica withdrew 1997. 77Equatorial Guinea withdrew 1992, rejoined 17 Oct 2011. 78Burundi withdrew 1987, rejoined 1994; withdrew 1996, rejoined 1999. 79Honduras withdrew 1992, rejoined 19 Oct 2011. 80Estonia a former member 1928-1939. 81Latvia a former member 1923-1936. 82Lithuania a former member 1923-1928. 83Uzbekistan suspended 4 May 2007. 84Marshall Islands suspended Oct 2003. 85Belarus suspended Apr 1997 - Sep 1997. 86Guinea suspended from 10 Oct 2007 - 18 Apr 2008, and from 10 Apr 2009. 87Fiji suspended Oct 2000 - Sep 2002, suspended 30 Apr 2007. 88Georgia suspended Oct 2003 - Apr 2005. 89Guinea-Bissau suspended Oct 2003 - 28 Mar 2010.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

[International Atomic
                  Energy Association]
 
IAEA website
Headquarters: Vienna
(Austria)

29 Jul 1957                IAEA established as a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Directors-general
 7 Oct 1957 -  6 Oct 1961  William Sterling Cole (U.S.)       (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
 6 Oct 1961 - 30 Nov 1981  Sigvard Arne
Eklund (Sweden)       (b. 1911 - d. 2000)
 1 Dec 1981 - 30 Nov 1997  Hans Blix (Sweden)                 (b. 1928)
 1 Dec 1997 - 30 Nov 2009  Muhammad al-Baradei (Egypt)        (b. 1942)
 1 Dec 2009 -
             Yukiya Amano (Japan)               (b. 1947)

IAEA membership (162)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
29 Jul 1957 Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Byelorussian S.S.R.1, Canada, Czechoslovakia2, Denmark, Dominican Republic, France, Guatemala, Honduras3,
India, Israel, Japan, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Romania, South Africa
4, Soviet Union5, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States
30 Jul 1957 The Netherlands
31 Jul 1957 Poland, Ukrainian S.S.R.6
 6 Aug 1957 Iceland
 7 Aug 1957 Indonesia
 8 Aug 1957 Hungary, South Korea
17 Aug 1957 Bulgaria
19 Aug 1957 Venezuela
20 Aug 1957 Holy See
22 Aug 1957 Ceylon7
23 Aug 1957 Albania
26 Aug 1957 Spain
 4 Sep 1957 Egypt 
10 Sep 1957 Taiwan8
13 Sep 1957 New Zealand
17 Sep 1957 Morocco, Nicaragua9, Yugoslavia10
19 Sep 1957 Monaco
24 Sep 1957 Vietnam11
30 Sep 1957 Ethiopia, Greece, Italy, Paraguay, Peru
 1 Oct 1957 Cuba, West Germany12
 3 Oct 1957 Argentina
 7 Oct 1957 Haiti
14 Oct 1957 Tunisia
15 Oct 1957 Thailand
18 Oct 1957 Burma13
22 Nov 1957 El Salvador
 7 Jan 1958 Finland
29 Jan 1958 Luxembourg
 3 Mar 1958 Ecuador
 7 Apr 1958 Mexico
 6 Feb 1958 Cambodia14
29 Apr 1958 Belgium
17 Jul 1958 The Sudan
 2 Sep 1958 Philippines
16 Sep 1958 Iran
 4 Mar 1959 Iraq
19 Sep 1960 Chile
28 Sep 1960 Ghana
30 Sep 1960 Colombia
 1 Nov 1960 Senegal
29 Jun 1961 Lebanon
10 Aug 1961 Mali
10 Oct 1961 Congo (Léopoldville)15
 5 Oct 1962 Liberia
13 Dec 1962 Saudi Arabia
22 Jan 1963 Uruguay
15 Mar 1963 Bolivia
 6 Jun 1963 Syria
 9 Sep 1963 Libya 
19 Nov 1963 Ivory Coast16
24 Dec 1963 Algeria
21 Jan 1964 Gabon
25 Mar 1964 Nigeria
13 Jul 1964 Cameroon
 1 Dec 1964 Kuwait
22 Mar 1965 Madagascar17
25 Mar 1965 Costa Rica
 7 Jun 1965 Cyprus
12 Jul 1965 Kenya
29 Dec 1965 Jamaica
 2 Mar 1966 Panama
18 Apr 1966 Jordan
 5 Jan 1967 Singapore
 4 Jun 1967 Sierra Leone
30 Aug 1967 Uganda
13 Dec 1968 Liechtenstein
 8 Jan 1969 Zambia
15 Jan 1969 Malaysia
27 Mar 1969 Niger
 6 Jan 1970 Ireland
27 Sep 1972 Bangladesh
18 Sep 1973 East Germany12
20 Sep 1973 Mongolia
16 Sep 1974 North Korea18
31 Dec 1974 Mauritius
 6 Jan 1976 Tanzania
15 Jan 1976 United Arab Emirates
27 Feb 1976 Qatar
17 Feb 1983 Namibia19
 1 Jan 1984 China8
 1 Aug 1986 Zimbabwe
31 Jan 1992 Estonia
21 Sep 1992 Slovenia
12 Feb 1993 Croatia
27 Sep 1993 Armenia, Czech Republic, Slovakia
18 Nov 1993 Lithuania
26 Jan 1994 Marshall Islands, Uzbekistan
14 Feb 1994 Kazakhstan
25 Feb 1994 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
14 Oct 1994 Yemen
19 Sep 1995 Bosnia and Hercegovina
23 Feb 1996 Georgia
10 Apr 1997 Latvia
24 Sep 1997 Moldova
29 Sep 1997 Malta
14 Sep 1998 Burkina Faso
26 May 1999 Benin
 9 Nov 1999 Angola
 5 Jan 2001 Central African Republic 
30 May 2001 Azerbaijan
10 Sep 2001 Tajikistan
31 Oct 2001 Serbia and Montenegro10
20 Mar 2002 Botswana
20 Dec 2002 Eritrea
22 Apr 2003 Seychelles
10 Sep 2003 Kyrgyzstan
23 Nov 2004 Mauritania
 2 Nov 2005 Chad
31 Mar 2006 Belize
18 Sep 2006 Mozambique
 2 Oct 2006 Malawi
30 Oct 2006 Montenegro 
 2 Mar 2007
Palau
 8 Jul 2008
Nepal
 5 Feb 2009
Oman
24 Jun 2009
Bahrain, Burundi
13 Jul 2009
Lesotho
15 Jul 2009
Congo (Brazzaville)
 4 Nov 2011
Laos
17 Feb 2012
Dominica
 4 Apr 2012
Papua New Guinea
 4 Sep 2012
Rwanda
 1 Nov 2012
Togo
 2 Nov 2012
Fiji
 9 Nov 2012
Trinidad and Tobago
15 Feb 2013
Swaziland
25 Nov 2013
San Marino
 7 Jan 2014
The Bahamas
18 Feb 2014
Brunei Darussalam
1from 1991 Belarus. 2dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 3withdrew 19 Jun 1967; rejoined 24 Feb 2003. 4expelled from board of governors 19 Jun 1977, credentials rejected 5 Dec 1979; readmitted 22 Sep 1994; denied participation in general conferences 5 Dec 1979 - 22 Sep 1994. 5dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 6from 1991 Ukraine. 7from 1972 Sri Lanka. 8the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until 9 Dec 1971, when the IAEA voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China, which joined the IAEA 1 Jan 1984. 9withdrew 14 Dec 1970; rejoined 25 Mar 1977. 10from 24 Sep 1992 the IAEA did not recognize the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as its successor and ruled that it had to apply anew for membership, which it did and was readmitted 31 Oct 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 11Republic of Vietnam to 30 Apr 1975, then Republic of South Vietnam, from 2 Jul 1976 Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 12East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 13from 1989 Myanmar. 14withdrew 26 Mar 2003, re-joined 23 Nov 2009. 15Congo (Léopoldville) to 1966; 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 16from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 17to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 18withdrew 13 June 1994. 19as United Nations Council for Namibia to 21 Mar 1990



International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

[Flag of the United
                          Nations]
              20 Oct 1947 - 19 Mar 1993
 
[Flag of
                          International Civil Aviation Organization
                          (ICAO)]
                Adopted 19 Mar 1993

ICAO website
Headquarters: Montreal
(Canada)
ICAO Day: 7 Dec (1944)
International Civil Aviation Day

 7 Dec 1944                Chicago Convention signed to create the ICAO.
15 Aug 1945                Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO)
                             established.
 4 Apr 1947                International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
13 May 1947                ICAO a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Presidents of the Council
15 Aug 1945 - 18 Apr 1957  Edward Warner (U.S.)               (b. 1894 - d. 1958)
18 Apr 1957 - 31 Jul 1976  Walter Binaghi (Argentina)         (b. 1919 - d. 2006)
 1 Aug 1976 - 31 Jul 2006  Assad Kotaite (Lebanon)            (b. 1924 - d. 2014)
 1 Aug 2006 - 31 Dec 2013  Roberto Kobeh G
onzález (Mexico)    (b. 1943)
 1 Jan 2014 -              Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu (Nigeria)    (b. 1960)

Secretaries-general
15 Aug 1945 - 31 Dec 1951  Albert Roper (France)              (b. 1891 - d. 1969)
 1 Jan 1952 - 31 Jul 1959  Carl Ljungberg (Sweden)            (b. 1897 - d. 1982)
 1 Aug 1959 - 31 Jul 1964  Ronald Macdonnell (Canada)         (b. 1909 - d. 1973)
 1 Aug 1964 - 31 Jul 1970  Bernardus Tieleman Twigt           (b. 1912 - d. 1993)
                             (Netherlands)
 1 Aug 1970 - 31 Jul 1976  Assad Kotaite (Lebanon)            (s.a.)

 1 Aug 1976 - 31 Jul 1988  Yves Lambert (France)              (b. 1936)
 1 Aug 1988 - 31 Jul 1991  Shivinder Singh Sidhu (India)      (b. 1929)
 1 Aug 1991 - 31 Jul 1997  Philippe Rochat (Switzerland)      (b. 1942)
 1 Aug 1997 - 31 Jul 2003  Renato Cláudio Costa Pereira       (b. 1936)
                             (Brazil)
 1 Aug 2003 - 31 Jul 2009  Taïeb Chérif (Algeria)             (b. 1941)
 1 Aug 2009 -              Raymond Benjamin (France)          (b. 1945)

ICAO membership (191)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 4 Apr 1947 Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China1, Czechoslovakia2, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, India, Ireland, Liberia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal3, South Africa4, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,  United Kingdom, United States
 6 Apr 1947 New Zealand 
10 Apr 1947 Chile
12 Apr 1947 Egypt, Greece
17 Apr 1947 Transjordan5
20 Apr 1947 Iceland
24 Apr 1947 France
25 Apr 1947 The Netherlands
 1 May 1947 Venezuela
 4 May 1947 Afghanistan, Bolivia, Thailand 
28 May 1947 Guatemala
 4 Jun 1947 Belgium, Norway
 2 Jul 1947 Iraq
11 Jul 1947 El Salvador 
30 Nov 1947 Colombia, Italy
 6 Dec 1947 Pakistan
24 Apr 1948 Haiti
28 May 1948 Luxembourg 
 1 Jul 1948 Ceylon6
 7 Aug 1948 Burma7
26 Sep 1948 Austria
29 Apr 1949 Finland
10 Jun 1949 Cuba
23 Jun 1949 Israel
19 Oct 1949 Lebanon
20 Jan 1950 Syria8
19 May 1950 Iran 
27 May 1950 Indonesia 
 8 Oct 1952 Japan
11 Dec 1952 South Korea 
28 Feb 1953 Libya
 6 Jun 1953 Honduras
13 Feb 1954 Uruguay
19 Sep 1954 Ecuador
18 Nov 1954 South Vietnam9
13 Jul 1955 Laos
15 Feb 1956 Cambodia
 8 Jun 1956 West Germany10
29 Jul 1956 The Sudan
13 Dec 1956 Morocco
 8 Jun 1957 Ghana
18 Dec 1957 Tunisia
 7 May 1958 Malaya11
31 May 1958 Costa Rica
26 Apr 1959 Guinea
14 Feb 1960 Cameroon 
17 Feb 1960 Panama
 8 Apr 1960 Yugoslavia12
17 Jun 1960 Kuwait 
29 Jul 1960 Nepal
30 Nov 1960 Ivory Coast13
 8 Dec 1960 Mali
11 Nov 1960 Senegal
14 Nov 1960 Nigeria
16 Feb 1961 Cyprus 
28 Jun 1961 Dahomey14, Niger
28 Jul 1961 Central African Republic 
26 Aug 1961 Congo (Léopoldville)15
22 Dec 1961 Sierra Leone 
12 Feb 1962 Mauritania
17 Feb 1962 Gabon
21 Mar 1962 Saudi Arabia 
20 Apr 1962 Upper Volta16
14 May 1962 Madagascar17
26 May 1962 Congo (Brazzaville)
 2 Aug 1962 Chad
13 Apr 1963 Trinidad and Tobago 
25 Apr 1963 Jamaica
 6 Jun 1963 Algeria
 4 Mar 1964 Rwanda
 1 Apr 1964 Somalia
17 May 1964 Yemen (Sana)18
26 May 1964 Tanzania
31 May 1964 Kenya
11 Oct 1964 Malawi
29 Nov 1964 Zambia
 4 Feb 1965 Malta
30 May 1965 Romania
17 Jun 1965 Togo
19 Jun 1966 Singapore
 5 Mar 1967 Guyana
20 Apr 1967 Barbados
10 May 1967 Uganda
 8 Jul 1967 Bulgaria
18 Feb 1968 Burundi
30 Oct 1969 Hungary
28 Jan 1970 Yemen (Aden)18
 1 Mar 1970 Mauritius
14 Nov 1970 Soviet Union19
19 Sep 1971 Bahrain
 5 Oct 1971 Qatar 
23 Mar 1972 Equatorial Guinea 
25 May 1972 United Arab Emirates 
21 Jan 1973 Bangladesh
23 Feb 1973 Oman 
16 Mar 1973 Swaziland 
 4 Apr 1973 Fiji
11 Apr 1974 Maldives
18 Jun 1975 Lesotho 
26 Jun 1975 The Bahamas
24 Sep 1975 Nauru
14 Jan 1976 Papua New Guinea 
 4 Apr 1976 Suriname
18 Sep 1976 Cape Verde20
 4 Feb 1977 Mozambique 
30 Mar 1977 São Tomé and Príncipe
10 Apr 1977 Angola
25 May 1977 Seychelles
12 Jun 1977 The Gambia
15 Sep 1977 North Korea
14 Jan 1978 Guinea-Bissau 
30 Jul 1978 Djibouti
27 Jan 1979 Botswana
20 Dec 1979 Saint Lucia 
 3 Feb 1980 Monaco
12 Apr 1980 Vietnam
13 Mar 1981 Zimbabwe
14 May 1981 Kiribati
30 Sep 1981 Grenada
10 Dec 1981 Antigua and Barbuda
16 Sep 1983 Vanuatu
15 Dec 1983 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 
 2 Dec 1984 Tonga
 3 Jan 1985 Brunei Darussalam
14 Feb 1985 Comoros
11 May 1985 Solomon Islands
19 Sep 1986 Cook Islands
17 Apr 1988 Marshall Islands 
12 Jun 1988 San Marino
27 Oct 1988 Federated States of Micronesia
16 Jun 1989 Bhutan
 7 Oct 1989 Mongolia
 2 Apr 1990 East Germany10
 6 Jan 1991 Belize 
27 Apr 1991 Albania
30 May 1991 Namibia
 7 Feb 1992 Lithuania 
23 Feb 1992 Estonia 
 9 May 1992 Croatia
12 Jun 1992 Slovenia
 1 Jul 1992 Moldova
18 Jul 1992 Armenia
12 Aug 1992 Latvia
 9 Sep 1992 Ukraine
20 Sep 1992 Kazakhstan
 8 Nov 1992 Azerbaijan
12 Nov 1992 Uzbekistan
 9 Jan 1993 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
12 Feb 1993 Bosnia Hercegovina
27 Mar 1993 Kyrgyzstan
 3 Apr 1993 Czech Republic
14 Apr 1993 Slovakia, Turkmenistan
 4 Jul 1993 Belarus
 3 Oct 1993 Tajikistan
17 Oct 1993 Eritrea
20 Feb 1994 Georgia
 3 Nov 1995 Palau
21 Dec 1996 Samoa
13 Jan 2001 Serbia and Montenegro12
25 Feb 2001 Andorra
20 Jun 2002 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 3 Sep 2005 East Timor
14 Mar 2007
Montenegro
10 Nov 2011
South Sudan
1withdrew 31 May 1951, rejoined 2 Dec 1953; the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until 19 Nov 1971, when ICAO voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China; on 15 Feb 1974 People's Republic of China confirmed its membership. 2dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 3Portugal suspended 1 Mar 1973 - 20 Dec 1974. 4South Africa was invited from 7 Jul 1971  then suspended 14 Oct 1974 - 10 Jun 1994. 5from 1949 Jordan. 6from 1972 Sri Lanka. 7from 1989 Myanmar.  81958-1961 part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria. Syria left ICAO on 16 Apr 1958; On 28 Sep 1961 Syria seceded from the U.A.R. and resumed its separate membership on 3 Nov 1961. 9South Vietnam merged with North Vietnam on 23 Aug 1976 as Socialist Republic of Vietnam which was then not an ICAO member until 12 Apr 1980. 10East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 11from 1963 Malaysia. 12expelled 25 Sep 1992, readmitted 13 Jan 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 13from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 14from 1975 Benin. 151966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 16from 1984 Burkina Faso. 17to 1975 Malagasy Republic. 18Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united as Yemen 1990. 19dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 20from 2013 Cabo Verde.



International Court of Justice (ICJ)

[Permanent Court of
                Arbitration]
               Adopted 13 Oct 1998
 
World Court website
Headquarters: The Hague
(The Netherlands)

15 Feb 1922                Inaugural session of the Permanent Court of International 
                             Justice (PCIJ).
24 Oct 1945                ICJ ("World Court") established by the United Nations Charter.
31 Jan 1946                Last session of the PCIJ.
18 Apr 1946                Inaugural session of the International Court of Justice (ICJ).

Presidents of the Court
Feb 1922 - 1924            Bernard Cornelis Johannes
Loder    (b. 1849 - d. 1935)
                             (Netherlands) 
1925 - 1927                Max Huber (Switzerland)            (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
1928 - 1930                Dionisio Anzilotti (Italy)         (b. 1876 - d. 1960)
1931 - 1934                Mineichiro Adachi (Japan)          (b. 1869 - d. 1934)
1934 - 1936                Sir Cecil James Barrington
(U.K.)  (b. 1870 - d. 1963)
1936 - 1949                José Gustavo Guerrero              (b. 1876 - d. 1958)
                             (El Salvador)
1949 -  7 May 1952         Jules Basdevant (France)           (b. 1877 - d. 1968)
 7 May 1952 -  9 Feb 1955  Sir Arnold Duncan McNair (U.K.)    (b. 1885 - d. 1975)
 9 Feb 1955 -  5 Feb 1958  Green Haywood
Hackworth (U.S.)     (b. 1883 - d. 1973)
 5 Feb 1958 -  5 Apr 1961  Helge Klaestad (Norway)            (b. 1885 - d. 1965)
 5 Apr 1961 -  9 Mar 1964  Bohdan Winiarski (Poland)          (b. 1884 - d. 1969)
 9 Mar 1964 -  9 Apr 1967  Sir Percy Claude Spender           (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
                             (Australia) 
 9 Apr 1967 - 19 Feb 1970  José Luis Bustamante y Rivero      (b. 1894 - d. 1989)
                             (Peru) 
19 Feb 1970 -  8 Feb 1973  Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan         (b. 1893 - d. 1985)
                             (Pakistan) 
 8 Feb 1973 - 12 Feb 1976  Manfred Lachs (Poland)             (b. 1914 - d. 1993)
12 Feb 1976 - 23 Feb 1979  Eduardo Jiménez de Ar
échaga        (b. 1918 - d. 1994)
                             (Uruguay) 
23 Feb 1979 - 15 Aug 1981  Sir Humphrey Waldock (U.K.)        (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
15 Aug 1981 - 14 Feb 1985  Taslim Olawale Elias (Nigeria)     (b. 1914 - d. 1991)
                             (acting to 25 Feb 1982)
14 Feb 1985 - 24 Feb 1988  Nagendra Singh (India)             (b. 1914 - d. 1988)
24 Feb 1988 -  7 Feb 1991  José María Ruda (Argentina)        (b. 1924 - d. 1994)
 7 Feb 1991 -  7 Feb 1994  Sir Robert Y. Jennings (U.K.)      (b. 1913 - d. 2004)
 7 Feb 1994 -  6 Feb 1997  Mohammed Bedjaoui (Algeria)        (b. 1929)
 6 Feb 1997 -  7 Feb 2000  Stephen M. Schwebel (U.S.)         (b. 1929)
 7 Feb 2000 -  6 Feb 2003  Gilbert Guillaume (France)         (b. 1930)
 6 Feb 2003 -  6 Feb 2006  Shi Jiuyong (China)                (b. 1926)
 6 Feb 2006 -  6 Feb 2009  Dame Rosalyn Higgins (f) (U.K.)    (b. 1937)
 6 Feb 2009 -  6 Feb 2012  Hisashi Owada (Japan)              (b. 1932)
 6 Feb 2012 -              Peter Tomka (Slovakia)             (b. 1956)


ICJ membership (192) 
Date of
Accession
State Parties
24 Oct 1945
all United Nations members are ipso facto state parties of the ICJ

Date of
Accession
State Parties joining before UN admission
28 Jul 1948
Switzerland
29 Mar 1950
Liechtenstein
18 Feb 1954
San Marino
 2 Apr 1954
Japan
29 Jan 1988
Nauru
 
PCIJ membership 1921-1946 (50)
Date of
Accession
State Parties
21 Feb 1921
Sweden
25 Apr 1921
Persia1
12 Jun 1921
Denmark
20 Jun 1921
Italy
13 Jul 1921
Afghanistan
23 Jul 1921
Austria
25 Jul 1921
Switzerland
 4 Aug 1921
Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, United Kingdom
 6 Aug 1921
The Netherlands
 7 Aug 1921
France
 8 Aug 1921
Romania
12 Aug 1921
Bulgaria, Yugoslavia
20 Aug 1921
Norway
26 Aug 1921
Poland
29 Aug 1921
Belgium
30 Aug 1921
Spain
 2 Sep 1921
Czechoslovakia
 7 Sep 1921
Haiti
27 Sep 1921
Uruguay
 3 Oct 1921
Greece
 8 Oct 1921
Portugal
 1 Nov 1921
Brazil
16 Nov 1921
Japan
 2 Dec 1921
Venezuela
12 Jan 1922
Cuba
27 Feb 1922
Siam2
 6 Apr 1922
Finland
13 May 1922
China
16 May 1922
Lithuania
 2 May 1923
Estonia
12 Feb 1924
Latvia
20 Nov 1925
Hungary
16 Jul 1926
Ethiopia
21 Aug 1926
Ireland
11 Mar 1927
Germany
20 Jul 1928
Chile
14 Jun 1929
Panama
29 Aug 1930
El Salvador
15 Sep 1930
Luxembourg
29 Mar 1932
Peru
 4 Feb 1933
Dominican Republic
11 May 1933
Paraguay
 7 Jul 1936
Bolivia
29 Nov 1939
Nicaragua
1from 1935 Iran. 2from 1939 Thailand.


International Criminal Court

[International Criminal Court
                  (ICC) flag]
 

ICC website
Headquarters: The Hague
(Netherlands)
ICCt Day: 17 Jul (1998)
International Justice Day

17 Jul 1998                Rome Statute signed.
 1 Jul 2002                
International Criminal Court (ICC) established

Presidents
11 Mar 2003 - 11 Mar 2009  Philippe Kirsch (Canada)           (b. 1947)
11 Mar 2009 -              
Sang-Hyun Song (South Korea)       (b. 1941)

Presidents of the Bureau of the Assembly of State Parties
 3 Sep 2002 - 28 Nov 2005  Zeid Ra'ad Zeid Al-Hussein (Jordan)(b. 1964)
28 Nov 2005 - 14 Nov 2008  Bruno Stagno Ugarte (Costa Rica)   (b. 1970)
14 Nov 2008 - 12 Dec 2011  Christian Wenaweser (Liechtenstein)(b. 1963)
12 Dec 2011 -              Tiina Intelmann (f)(Estonia)       (b. 1963)

ICCt state parties (122)
Date of
Accession
Member Nations
 1 Jul 2002 Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina
Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Central African Republic, Congo (Kinshasa), Costa Rica,
Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominica, Ecuador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of), Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mongolia, Namibia, Nauru, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia1
 5 Aug 2002 Colombia
20 Aug 2002 Tanzania
 6 Sep 2002 East Timor
 9 Sep 2002 Malawi
16 Sep 2002 Samoa
24 Oct 2002 Spain
 5 Nov 2002 Djibouti
13 Nov 2002 South Korea, Zambia
29 Nov 2002 Malta
 3 Dec 2002 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
10 Dec 2002 Barbados
31 Jan 2003 Albania
10 Feb 2003 Afghanistan
12 May 2003 Lithuania
14 Jul 2003 Guinea
 5 Sep 2003 Georgia
 3 May 2004 Congo (Brazzaville)
21 Sep 2004 Burundi
22 Sep 2004 Liberia
24 Sep 2004 Guyana
15 Mar 2005 Kenya
12 May 2005 Dominican Republic
28 Oct 2005 Mexico
18 Aug 2006 Comoros
22 Aug 2006 Saint Kitts and Nevis
23 Oct 2006 Montenegro
 1 Jan 2007 Chad
 1 Oct 2007
Japan
 1 Jun 2008
Madagascar
 1 Oct 2008
Cook Islands, Suriname
 1 Sep 2009
Chile
 1 Oct 2009
Czech Republic
 1 Jun 2010
Bangladesh
 1 Nov 2010
Saint Lucia, Seychelles
 1 Jan 2011
Moldova
 1 Aug 2011
Grenada
 1 Sep 2011
Tunisia
 1 Nov 2011
The Philippines
 1 Dec 2011
Maldives
 1 Jan 2012
Cape Verde2
 1 Feb 2012
Vanuatu
 1 Jul 2012
Guatemala
 1 May 2013
Côte d'Ivoire
1from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 2from 2013 Cabo Verde.



International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO/Interpol)
 
[Interpol
                          flag]
         Adopted Oct 1949 (modified 1973)
 
[Interpol
                          flag]
                              Variant
 
INTERPOL website
Headquarters: Lyon
(France)
(St.-Cloud, France 1946-1989;
Berlin, Germany 1942-1945;
Vienna, Austria 1923-1942)

14-18 Apr 1914             First International Criminal Police Congress held in Monaco. 
 7 Sep 1923                International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) created.
1938 - 1945                Under regime of Nazi Germany, many countries cease participation
                             in the organization.

May 1945 -  3 Jun 1946     For all practical purposes the ICPC ceases to exist. 
 3 Jun 1946                Organization re-founded, telegraphic address
"Interpol" adopted.
13 Jun 1956                International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO).

Secretary
1923 - 1932                Oskar Dressler (Austria)           (b. 1878 - d. 1960)
Secretaries-general
1932 - 1946                Oskar Dressler                     (s.a.)
                             (Austria [1938-45 Germany])
1946 - 1951                Louis Ducloux (France)             (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
1951 - 1963                Marcel Sicot (France)              (b. 1898 - d. 1981)
1963 - 1978                Jean Népote (France)               (b. 1915 - d. 2000)
1978 - 1985                André Bossard (France)             (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
Oct 1985 -  2 Nov 2000     Raymond E. Kendall (U.K.)          (b. 1933)
 2 Nov 2000 -              Ronald K. Noble (U.S.)             (b. 1956)

Presidents
10 Sep 1923 - 19 Aug 1932  Johann Schober (Austria)           (b. 1874 - d. 1932)
1932 - 1934                Franz Brandl (Austria)             (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
1934 - 1935                Eugen Seydel (Austria)             (b. 1879 - d. 1958)
1935 - 12 Mar 1938         Michael Skubl (Austria)            (b. 1877 - d. 1964)
Apr 1938 - 20 Jun 1940     Otto Steinhäusl (Germany)          (b. 1873 - d. 1940)
Aug 1940 -  4 Jun 1942     Reinhard Heydrich (Germany)        (b. 1904 - d. 1942)
 4 Jun 1942 - 30 Jan 1943  Artur Nebe (Germany)               (b. 1894 - d. 1945)
30 Jan 1943 - May 1945     Ernst Kaltenbrunner (Germany)      (b. 1903 - d. 1946)
1946 - 1956                Florent Louwage (Belgium)          (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
1956 - 1960                Agostinho Lourenço (Portugal)      (b. 1886 - d. 1964)
1960 - 1963                Sir Richard L. Jackson (U.K.)      (b. 1902 - d. 1975)
1963 - 1964                Fjalar Jarva (Finland)             (b. 1910 - d. 1978)
1964 - 1968                Firmin Franssen (Belgium)
1968 - 1972                Paul Dickopf (W. Germany)          (b. 1910 - d. 1973)
1972 - 1976                William Leonard Higgitt (Canada)   (b. 1917 - d. 1989)
1976 - 1980                Carl Johan Gunnar Persson (Sweden) (b. 1919)
1980 - 1984                Jolly R. Bugarin (Philippines)     (b. c.1918)
1984 - 1988                John R. Simpson (U.S.)             (b. 1932)
1988 - 1992                Ivan Barbot (France)               (b. 1937)
1992 - 1994                Norman D. Inkster (Canada)         (b. 1938)
 4 Oct 1994 - 1996         Björn Eriksson (Sweden)            (b. 1945)
1996 - 2000                Toshinori Kanemoto (Japan)         (b. 1946)
 3 Nov 2000 -  8 Oct 2004  Jesús Espigares Mira (Spain)       (b. 1946)
 8 Oct 2004 - 12 Jan 2008  Jackie Selebi (South Africa)       (b. 1950)
12 Jan 2008 - 13 Feb 2008  Vacant
13 Feb 2008 - 10 Oct 2008 
Arturo José Herrera Verdugo (Chile)(b. 1951)
                             (acting)
10 Oct 2008 -  8 Nov 2012  Khoo Boon Hui (Singapore)          (b. 1954)
 8 Nov 2012 -              Mireille Ballestrazzi
(f)(France)  (b. 1954)

INTERPOL membership (190)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 7 Sep 1923
Austria1, Belgium, Republic of China2, Egypt, France, Germany3, Greece, Hungary4, Italy5, The Netherlands, Poland6, Romania7, Sweden, Switzerland, United States8, Yugoslavia9
1923
Czechoslovakia10, Denmark, Finland, Portugal
1925
Bulgaria11
1928
United Kingdom
1930
Chile, Norway, Turkey
14 May 1937
Luxembourg
28 Feb 1938
Iran
Jun 1947 Argentina
12 Aug 1947
Ireland
 1 Jan 1948
South Africa12
Sep 1948 Australia, Venezuela
1949
Netherlands Antilles13, Suriname
Oct 1949 Canada, Guatemala, India, Israel, Lebanon
Jun 1950
Monaco
18 Jul 1950 Ceylon14
Jun 1951 Spain
Aug 1951
Thailand
1952
Philippines
Apr 1952
Indonesia
May 1952
Pakistan
 6 Jun 1952 Cuba, West Germany3
Jun 1953 Brazil15, Dominican Republic, Japan, Syria16
 1 Jan 1954 Burma17
1954
Colombia, Costa Rica, Libya
1955 Mexico, New Zealand, Uruguay
1956
Saudi Arabia, The Sudan
 1 Apr 1956 Cambodia
Jun 1956
Jordan18, Liberia
17 Jun 1957 Haiti, Laos, Morocco, Tunisia
15 Sep 1958 Ethiopia, Ghana, Panama
 8 Dec 1959 El Salvador19
10 Oct 1960 Liechtenstein, Nigeria, Togo
 4 Sep 1961 Cameroon, Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Guinea, Ivory Coast20, Madagascar21, Malaysia, Senegal, Upper Volta22
19 Sep 1962 Chad, Cyprus, Dahomey23, Ecuador, Mauritania, Peru, Sierra Leone, Tanganyika24
21 Aug 1963 Algeria, Bolivia, Congo (Kinshasa)25, Jamaica
30 Sep 1964 Niger, South Korea, Trinidad and Tobago
16 Jun 1965 Central African Republic, Kuwait, Nicaragua
31 Aug 1966 Malawi, Uganda, Zambia
27 Sep 1967 Iraq, Nepal
 1 Oct 1968 Guyana, Kenya, Singapore
13 Oct 1969 Mali, Mauritius
 5 Oct 1970 Burundi, South Vietnam26
 6 Sep 1971 Fiji, Iceland, Lesotho, Nauru
19 Sep 1972 Bahrain, Malta, Oman
 2 Oct 1973 The Bahamas, United Arab Emirates
19 Sep 1974 Honduras, Qatar, Rwanda
 9 Oct 1975 Somalia, Swaziland
14 Oct 1976 Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea, Yemen (Sana)27
 1 Sep 1977 Paraguay, Seychelles
 4 Sep 1979 Tonga
13 Nov 1980 Botswana, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Zimbabwe
 3 Nov 1981 Barbados, Dominica
 5 Oct 1982 Angola
18 Oct 1983 Saint Lucia
 4 Sep 1984 Brunei Darussalam, China2, Maldives
 1 Oct 1985 Kiribati28, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 6 Oct 1986 Antigua and Barbuda, The Gambia, Grenada
23 Nov 1987 Andorra, Aruba, Belize, Saint Kitts and Nevis
17 Nov 1988 São Tomé and Principe
27 Nov 1989 Cape Verde29, Mozambique
27 Sep 1990 Marshall Islands, Soviet Union30
 4 Nov 1991 Albania, Lithuania, Mongolia, Vietnam
 4 Nov 1992 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Guinea-Bissau, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Namibia, Slovenia, Ukraine
29 Sep 1993 Belarus, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Georgia
 4 Oct 1993
Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
28 Sep 1994 Moldova, Uzbekistan 
23 Oct 1996 Kyrgyzstan
22 Oct 1998 Comoros
 8 Nov 1999 Eritrea
24 Sep 2001
Serbia9
21 Oct 2002 Afghanistan, East Timor
 5 Oct 2004 Tajikistan
19 Sep 2005 Bhutan, Turkmenistan
22 Sep 2006 Montenegro, San Marino
 7 Oct 2008
Vatican City
13 Oct 2009
Samoa
31 Oct 2011
Curaçao, Sint Maarten, South Sudan
1Austria withdrew 1945, rejoined 1 Jan 1948. 2China withdrew 1945, rejoined 4 Sep 1961; The Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until Interpol voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China on 5 Sep 1984. 3withdrew 1945, rejoined 6 Jun 1952 as West Germany; from 3 Oct 1990 united with East Germany as Germany. 4Hungary withdrew 10 Sep 1952, rejoined 3 Nov 1981. 5Italy withdrew 1945, rejoined Jun 1947. 6Poland withdrew 26 Feb 1952, rejoined 27 Sep 1990. 7Romania withdrew 1952, rejoined 2 Oct 1973. 8U.S. ceased formal participation in 1950 but did not formally withdrew, restored participation in 1958. 9in Oct 1993 the Interpol General Assembly, concluded that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia could not automatically continue the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and had to reapply anew which it did and was readmitted on 24 Sep 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 10Czechoslovakia withdrew 22 Dec 1951, rejoined 27 Sep 1990; dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 11Bulgaria withdrew 30 May 1951, rejoined 27 Nov 1989. 12South Africa withdrew 31 Dec 1954, rejoined 29 Sep 1993. 13dissolved on 10 Oct 2010. 14from 1972 Sri Lanka. 15Brazil withdrew Feb 1980, readmitted 6 Oct 1986. 161958-1961 formerly part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria. On 28 Sep 1961 Syria seceded from the U.A.R. and resumed its separate membership on 20 Mar 1962. 17from 1989 Myanmar. 18Jordan withdrew 23 Jun 1958, rejoined 19 Aug 1958, withdrew again 27 May 1959 and rejoined 28 Jul 1959. 19El Salvador withdrew Sep 1984, rejoined 29 Sep 1993. 20from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 21to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 22from 1984 Burkina Faso. 23from 1975 Benin. 24Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar 26 Apr 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 25Congo (Léopoldville) to 1966; 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 26Republic of Vietnam to 30 Apr 1975 then Republic of South Vietnam, withdrew 2 Jul 1976. 27from 1990, Republic of Yemen. 28Kiribati withdrew 1998. 29from 2013 Cabo Verde. 30dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia.



International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

[Flag of International Fund
                for Agricultural Development (IFAD)]
 
IFAD  website
Headquarters: Rome
(Italy)

30 Nov 1977                International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
                             founded as specialized agency of the United Nations.

Presidents
Jan 1978 - Nov 1984        Abdelmushin Al-Sudeary             (b. 1936)
                             (Saudi Arabia)
Nov 1984 - Jan 1993        Idriss Jazairy (Algeria)           (b. 1936)
Feb 1993 - 31 Mar 2001     Fawzi Hamad Al-Sultan (Kuwait)     (b. 1944)
 1 Apr 2001 - 31 Mar 2009  Lennart Båge (Sweden)              (b. 1947)
 1 Apr 2009 -              
Kanayo F. Nwanze (Nigeria)         (b. c.1946)

IFAD membership (173)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
30 Nov 1977
Australia1, Bangladesh, Botswana, Canada, Cameroon, Cape Verde2, Chad, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kuwait, Libya, Mali, Malta, Mexico, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Romania, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela, Zaire3
 5 Dec 1977
Ghana
 6 Dec 1977
Peru
 9 Dec 1977
Belgium, Luxembourg
10 Dec 1977
Italy
12 Dec 1977
Austria, France, Iran, The Sudan, Yugoslavia4
13 Dec 1977
Comoros, The Gambia, Guyana, Honduras, Iraq, Lesotho, Malawi, Niger, Qatar, Senegal, Vietnam, Western Samoa5, Yemen (Aden)6
14 Dec 1977
Djibouti, Turkey, Upper Volta7
16 Dec 1977
Morocco, Uruguay, Zambia
19 Dec 1977
Haiti
20 Dec 1977
Cyprus
28 Dec 1977
Benin, United Arab Emirates
29 Dec 1977
Dominican Republic
30 Dec 1977
Bolivia
10 Jan 1978
Israel
25 Jan 1978
Guinea-Bissau
26 Jan 1978
South Korea
28 Mar 1978
Fiji
11 Apr 1978
Liberia
22 Apr 1978
São Tomé and Príncipe
 5 May 1978
Nepal
11 May 1978
Papua New Guinea
26 May 1978
Algeria
 2 Jun 1978
Chile
 5 Jun 1978
Gabon
20 Jun 1978
Lebanon
27 Jul 1978
Congo (Brazzaville)
11 Sep 1978
Argentina
16 Oct 1978
Mozambique
 2 Nov 1978
Brazil
16 Nov 1978
Costa Rica
27 Nov 1978
Spain
29 Nov 1978
Syria
30 Nov 1978
Greece, Guatemala, Portugal
11 Dec 1978
Central African Republic
13 Dec 1978
Afghanistan, Barbados, Bhutan, Burundi, Laos, Seychelles
12 Jan 1979
Madagascar
29 Jan 1979
Mauritius
 6 Feb 1979
Yemen (Sana)6
15 Feb 1979
Jordan
23 Mar 1979
Paraguay
26 Apr 1979
Togo
26 Jun 1979
Mauritania
16 Jul 1979
Colombia
15 Jan 1980
China, Maldives
29 Jan 1980
Dominica
 9 Oct 1980
Saint Lucia
25 Jul 1980
Grenada
22 Jan 1981
Zimbabwe
13 Mar 1981
Solomon Islands
19 Jan 1982
Ivory Coast8
29 Jul 1981
Equatorial Guinea
12 Apr 1982
Tonga
13 Dec 1982
Belize
15 Feb 1983
Suriname
19 Apr 1983
Oman
24 Apr 1985
Angola
21 Jan 1986
Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Kitts and Nevis
23 Feb 1987
North Korea
24 Mar 1988
Trinidad and Tobago9
23 Jan 1990
Malaysia, Myanmar
 8 Mar 1990
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
25 Aug 1992
Cambodia
16 Oct 1992
Namibia
 3 Nov 1992
Albania
23 Mar 1993
Armenia
25 Mar 1993
Cook Islands
10 Sep 1993
Kyrgyzstan
26 Jan 1994
Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of), Tajikistan
 9 Feb 1994
Mongolia
18 Mar 1994
Bosnia and Hercegovina
31 Mar 1994
Eritrea
11 Apr 1994
Azerbaijan
 1 Feb 1995
Georgia
17 Jan 1996
Moldova
14 Feb 1997
South Africa
24 Mar 1997
Croatia
25 Sep 1998
Kazakhstan
 8 Aug 2001
Iceland
 4 Mar 2003
East Timor
23 Feb 2005
Kiribati
20 Jul 2006
Niue
28 Feb 2008
The Bahamas
18 Feb 2009
Marshall Islands
19 Feb 2011
Uzbekistan
13 Jul 2011
Hungary
22 Feb 2012
South Sudan
 5 Dec 2012
Estonia
13 Feb 2013
Nauru, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
19 Feb 2014
Russia
1on 1 Sep 2004, Australia announced its withdrawal, effective 31 Jul 2007. 2from 2013 Cabo Verde. 3from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa). 4membership in IFAD Governing Bodies suspended by the Executive Board on 4 Dec 1992, membership formally ceased 18 Feb 2009. 5from 1997 Samoa. 6Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) merged 22 May 1990 as Yemen. 7from 1984 Burkina Faso. 8from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 9on 27 Mar 1997 Trinidad and Tobago announced its withdrawal (effective 27 Sep 1997); the decision to withdraw was suspended 26 Sep 1997.



International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)


[International Hydrographic
              Organization]

IHO  website
Headquarters: Monaco
(Monaco)
IHO Day: 21 Jun (1921)
World Hydrography Day


21 Jun 1921                International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB).
21 Jun 1921 - 19 Apr 1946  An
agency of the League of Nations.
22 Sep 1970                International Hydrographic Organization (IHO).


Presidents of the Directing Committee of International Hydrographic Bureau

1921 - 26 Apr 1926         Sir John F. Parry (U.K.)           (b. 1863 - d. 1926)
26 Apr 1926 - 1927         Johan Marie Phaff
(Netherlands)    (b. 1857 - d. 1945)
1927 - 20 Aug 1929         Albert P. Niblack (U.S.)           (b. 1859 - d. 1929)
20 Aug 1929 - 1932         Pierre Marie Joseph de Vanssay     (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
                             de Blavous (France)
1932 - 1952                John Dodd Nares (U.K.)             (b. 1877 - d. 1957)
1952 - 1957                Chester Laroy
Nichols (U.S.)       (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
1957 - 1962                Robert W. Knox (U.S.)              (b. 1897 - d. 1990)
1962 -  7 Jul 1965         Charles Pierce (U.S.)              (b. 1900 - d. 1965)
 7 Jul 1965 - 1967         Alfredo Viglieri (Italy)           (b. 1902 - d. 1979)
1967 - 1972                Guy Chatel (France)                (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
1972 - 1982                George Stephen Ritchie (U.K.)      (b. 1914 - d. 2012)
1982 - 1987                Francis Leslie Fraser (India)      (b. 1925 - d. 1990)
1987 - 1992                Sir David W. Haslam (U.K.)         (b. 1923 - d. 2009)
1992 - 1997                Christian Andreasen (U.S.)         (b. 1939)
1997 - 2002                Giuseppe Angrisano
(Italy)         (b. 1935)
 1 Sep 2002 - 31 Aug 2012  Alexandros D. Maratos (Greece)
 1 Sep 2012 -              Robert Ward (Australia)            (b. 1951)

IHB members 1921-1970
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
21 Jun 1921
Argentina, Belgium1, Brazil, Chile2, China, Denmark, France, Greece3, Japan4, Monaco, The Netherlands5, Norway6, Peru7, Portugal, Siam8, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
21 Sep 1921
Italy9
25 May 1922
Egypt
20 Jun 1922
United States
26 Jul 1926
Poland
19 Oct 1926
Germany10
19 Feb 1934
Ecuador11
11 Feb 1936
Uruguay12
20 Apr 1950
Cuba
 2 Mar 1950
Turkey
 6 Nov 1950
Yugoslavia
24 Aug 1951
South Africa
18 Oct 1951
Indonesia
 1 Oct 1955
Philippines
 1 Apr 1956
Burma13, Canada, India
 1 Jan 1957
Finland, Iceland, Pakistan, South Korea
 1 Jul 1957
Dominican Republic, Guatemala
 1 Jul 1958
Australia
 1 Jan 1959
New Zealand
 1 Jan 1961
Venezuela
 1 Jul 1961
Iran
 1 Jan 1967
Paraguay14
 1 Jul 1969
Colombia15
1withdrew 31 Dec 1924. 2withdrew 31 Dec 1932, rejoined Jul 1935; withdrew again 27 Oct 1940, rejoined 25 Sep 1951. 3withdrew 1 Jan 1936, rejoined 20 Mar 1947. 4Japan withdrew 30 Jan 1940, rejoined 27 Jan 1950. 5withdrew 1 Jan 1934, rejoined 1 Jan 1949. 6withdrew 1 Jul 1938, rejoined 1 Jan 1947. 7withdrew 31 Dec 1932. 8from 23 Jun 1939 Thailand. 9withdrew 1 Jan 1934, rejoined 1 Jan 1949. 10withdrew 21 Nov 1933, Federal Republic of Germany rejoined 1 Jan 1952. 11withdrew 23 Oct 1940, rejoined 5 Oct 1968. 12withdrew 1 Jan 1964. 13did not sign 1967 IHO Convention, suspended from 10 Feb 1977. 14signed the 1967 IHO Convention, but did not ratify it; suspended 1 Jan 1969. 15Colombia was approved for IHB membership and deposited its instrument of accession 1 Jul 1969, this was after the 1967 IHO Convention was approved but before it received ratification. Colombia was requested to ratify the 1967 Convention, but withdrew its membership on 1 Jul 1978.
 

IHO members (82)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
22 Sep 1970
Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Republic of China1, Congo (Kinshasa)2, Cuba, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, West Germany3, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Monaco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia4
26 Jan 1971
Guatemala5
15 Feb 1971
Greece
11 Jun 1971
Chile
 6 Sep 1971
Turkey
11 Oct 1971
Sweden
13 Mar 1972
Thailand
 5 Jul 1972
Singapore
14 Sep 1972
Venezuela
21 Sep 1972
Dominican Republic6, Philippines
22 Sep 1972
Poland
26 Dec 1972
Ecuador
 2 May 1974
Italy
 3 Jul 1975
Malaysia
16 Sep 1975
Syria
31 May 1976
Nigeria7
18 Feb 1977
Soviet Union8
15 May 1979
China1
30 May 1979
Peru
 5 May 1980
Trinidad and Tobago
10 Mar 1981
Belgium
22 Sep 1981
Uruguay
11 Mar 1983
Fiji
11 Jul 1983
Sri Lanka
19 Aug 1985
East Germany3
21 Nov 1985
Suriname9
24 Apr 1987
Papua New Guinea10
 6 Jul 1987
North Korea
31 Jul 1987
Oman
26 Mar 1991
Cyprus
 2 Mar 1992
United Arab Emirates
22 Oct 1992
Bahrain
24 Jan 1995
Tonga
23 Feb 1996
Croatia
 4 Apr 1996
Algeria
19 Feb 1997
Estonia
31 Jul 1997
Tunisia
20 May 1998
Ukraine
22 Jul 1998
Mozambique
11 Dec 1998
Colombia
13 Oct 1999
Morocco
30 Jun 2000
Jamaica
 4 Jul 2001
Bangladesh
 8 Apr 2002
Mexico
15 Apr 2002
Slovenia
 6 Sep 2002
Kuwait
 9 Sep 2003
Myanmar
17 Mar 2005
Latvia
 4 Aug 2005
Mauritius
29 Jan 2007
Romania
27 Feb 2007
Saudi Arabia
 4 Jun 2007
Ireland
 2 May 2007
Qatar
20 Apr 2012
Cameroon
 3 Dec 2013
Montenegro
1the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China to 20 Apr 1977 when IHO voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China, which joined on 15 May 1979. 2named Zaire 1971-1997, suspended from 1 Jul 1983. 3East and West Germany united on 3 Oct 1990. 4from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia; suspended from 1 Jan 2013. 5suspended 1 Jul 1991 - 4 Jun 2002. 6suspended from 1 Jul 1983. 7suspended 1 Jul 1995 - 21 May 1997. 8dissolved 25 Dec 1991 succeeded by Russia. 9suspended 1 Jul 1991 - 26 Dec 2007. 10suspended 1 Jan 1998 - 1 Dec 2001.



International Labour Organization (ILO)

[International Labour
                    Organization]
         From 1969, Adopted Jun 2005
 
ILO website Headquarters: Geneva
(Switzerland)
(Montreal , Canada
 1940-1946;
London, UK  1919-1920)
ILO Day: 1 May
International Labour Day

28 Jun 1919                International Labour Organization (ILO) established as
                             an agency of the League of Nations.

14 Dec 1946                ILO a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Directors
Nov 1919 -  7 May 1932     Albert Thomas (France)             (b. 1878 - d. 1932)
Jul 1932 - Jun 1938        Harold B. Butler (U.K.)            (b. 1883 - d. 1951)
Jul 1939 - Feb 1941        John G. Winant (U.S.)              (b. 1889 - d. 1947)
Directors-general
Feb 1941 - Jun 1948        Edward J. Phelan (Ireland)         (b. 1888 - d. 1967)

                             (acting to 16 Sep 1946)
Jun 1948 - May 1970        David A. Morse (U.S.)              (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
 1 Jun 1970 -  9 Oct 1973  Wilfred Jenks (U.K.)               (b. 1909 - d. 1973)
 9 Oct 1973 - 27 Feb 1989  Francis Blanchard (France)         (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
                             (acting to 26 Feb 1974)
27 Feb 1989 -  4 Mar 1999  Michel Hansenne (Belgium)          (b. 1940)
 4 Mar 1999 -  1 Oct 2012  Juan Somavia Santa Cruz
(Chile)    (b. 1941)
 1 Oct 2012 -              Guy Ryder (U.K.)                   (b. 1956)

ILO membership (185)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
28 Jun 1919
Argentina, Australia, Austria1, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China2, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia3, Denmark, Ecuador, El Salvador4, France, Germany5, Greece, Guatemala6, Haiti, India, Honduras7Italy8Japan9, Liberia, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua10, Norway, Panama, Paraguay11, Persia12, Peru, Poland13, Portugal, Romania14Siam15South Africa16, Spain17, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela18, Yugoslavia19
16 Dec 1920
Bulgaria, Costa Rica20, Finland, Luxembourg
17 Dec 1920
Albania21
18 Sep 1922
Hungary
10 Sep 1923
Ireland
28 Sep 1923
Ethiopia
29 Sep 1924
Dominican Republic
23 Sep 1931
Mexico
18 Jul 1932
Turkey
 3 Oct 1932
Iraq
20 Aug 1934
United States22
18 Sep 1934
Soviet Union23
27 Sep 1934
Afghanistan
28 Sep 1934
Ecuador
26 May 1936
Egypt
19 Oct 1945
Iceland
31 Oct 1947
Pakistan
 4 Dec 1947
Syria24
18 May 1948
Burma25
15 Jun 1948
Philippines
28 Jun 1948
Ceylon26
23 Dec 1948
Lebanon
13 May 1949
Israel
12 Jun 1950
Indonesia27
21 Jun 1950
Vietnam28
25 Jun 1951
Netherlands Antilles29
11 Jun 1952
Libya
12 May 1954
Byelorussian S.S.R.30, Ukrainian S.S.R.31
26 Jan 1956
Jordan
12 Jun 1956
The Sudan, Tunisia
13 Jun 1956
Morocco
20 May 1957
Ghana
11 Nov 1957
Malaya32
21 Jan 1959
Guinea
 7 Jun 1960
Cameroon, Togo
21 Jun 1960
Mali
20 Sep 1960
Congo (Kinshasa)33
23 Sep 1960
Cyprus
14 Oct 1960
Gabon
17 Oct 1960
Nigeria
27 Oct 1960
Central African Republic
 1 Nov 1960
Madagascar34
 4 Nov 1960
Senegal
10 Nov 1960
Chad, Congo (Brazzaville)
18 Nov 1960
Somalia
21 Nov 1960
Ivory Coast35, Upper Volta36
14 Dec 1960
Dahomey37
27 Feb 1961
Niger
13 Jun 1961
Kuwait, Sierra Leone
20 Jun 1961
Mauritania
18 Sep 1962
Rwanda
20 Dec 1962
Jamaica
30 Jan 1962
Tanganyika38
19 Oct 1962
Algeria
25 Mar 1963
Uganda
24 May 1963
Trinidad and Tobago
11 Mar 1963
Burundi
13 Jan 1964
Kenya
23 Jan 1964
Laos
 2 Dec 1964
Zambia
 4 Jan 1965
Malta
22 Mar 1965
Malawi
20 May 1965
Yemen (Sana)39
25 Oct 1965
Singapore
 8 Jun 1966
Guyana
30 Aug 1966
Nepal
31 Oct 1966
Lesotho40
 8 May 1967
Barbados
24 May 1968
Mongolia
24 Feb 1969
Cambodia
14 Apr 1969
Yemen (Aden)39
 5 May 1969
Mauritius
22 Jun 1972
Bangladesh
25 Apr 1972
Qatar, United Arab Emirates
 1 Jan 1974
East Germany41
19 Apr 1974
Fiji
20 May 1975
Swaziland
12 Jan 1976
Saudi Arabia
24 Feb 1976
Suriname
 1 May 1976
Papua New Guinea
25 May 1976
The Bahamas
28 May 1976
Mozambique
 4 Jun 1976
Angola
21 Feb 1977
Guinea-Bissau
25 Apr 1977
Seychelles
18 Apr 1977
Bahrain
 3 May 1978
Djibouti
 3 Oct 1978
Namibia42
23 Oct 1978
Comoros
27 Feb 1978
Botswana
 3 Apr 1979
Cape Verde43
 9 Jul 1979
Grenada
 9 Apr 1980
Saint Lucia
 6 Jun 1980
Zimbabwe
30 Jan 1981
Equatorial Guinea
17 Nov 1981
Belize
16 Feb 1982
Antigua and Barbuda
 1 Jun
1982
São Tomé and Príncipe
17 Jun 1982
Dominica
18 Jun 1982
San Marino
28 May 1984
Solomon Islands
 1 Jan 1986
Aruba
 4 Oct 1991
Lithuania44
 9 Dec 1991
South Korea
31 Dec 1991
Latvia45
13 Jan 1992
Estonia46
31 Mar 1992
Kyrgyzstan
29 May 1992
Slovenia
 8 Jun 1992
Moldova
30 Jun 1992
Croatia
19 May 1992
Azerbaijan
13 Jul 1992
Uzbekistan
26 Nov 1992
Armenia
22 Jan 1993
Slovakia
 5 Feb 1993
Czech Republic
28 May 1993
Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
31 May 1993
Kazakhstan
 2 Jun 1993
Bosnia and Hercegovina
 7 Jun 1993
Eritrea
22 Jun 1993
Georgia
24 Sep 1993
Turkmenistan
26 Nov 1993
Tajikistan
31 Jan 1994
Oman
29 May 1995
The Gambia
31 May 1995
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
19 Jun 1996
Saint Kitts and Nevis
 3 Feb 2000
Kiribati
24 Nov 2000
Serbia and Montenegro19
22 May 2003
Vanuatu
19 Aug 2003
East Timor
 7 Mar 2005
Samoa
14 Jul 2006
Montenegro
17 Jan 2007
Brunei Darussalam
 3 Jul 2007
Marshall Islands
27 May 2008
Tuvalu
15 May 2009
Maldives
10 Oct 2010
Curaçao, Sint Maarten
13 Apr 2012
South Sudan
29 May 2012
Palau
1Austria withdrew 13 Mar 1938, rejoined 24 Jun 1947. 2The Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China to 16 Nov 1971 when ILO voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China. 3Czechoslovakia dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 4El Salvador withdrew 1939, rejoined 21 Jun 1948. 5Gemany withdrew 19 Oct 1935, rejoined 12 Jun 1951; 1945-1990 as West Germany. 6Guatemala withdrew 26 May 1938, rejoined 19 Oct 1945. 7Honduras withdrew 10 Jul 1938, rejoined 1 Jan 1955. 8Italy withdrew 14 Dec 1939, rejoined 19 Oct 1945. 9Japan withdrew 3 Nov 1940, rejoined 26 Nov 1951. 10Nicaragua withdrew 26 Jun 1938, rejoined 9 Apr 1957. 11Paraguay withdrew 23 Feb 1937, rejoined 5 Sep 1956. 12from 1935 Iran. 13Poland announced its withdrawal 17 Nov 1984, this would be effective two years later; extended withdrawal notice (13 Nov 1986) by one year, then canceled (17 Nov 1987) the decision to withdraw. 14Romania withdrew 10 Jul 1942, rejoined 11 May 1956. 15from 1939 Thailand. 16South Africa suspended 30 Jun 1963, ceased participation 14 Mar 1964; withdrew 11 Mar 1966, rejoined 26 May 1994. 17Spain withdrew 8 May 1941, rejoined 28 May 1956. 18Venezuela withdrew 3 May 1957, rejoined 15 Mar 1958. 19Yugoslavia as State of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to 1929; withdrew 16 Jun 1949, rejoined 23 May 1951; on 2 Mar 1993 pursuant to decisions taken by ILO Governing Body on the basis of the relevant U.N. resolutions, no state is recognized as the continuation of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; Federal Republic of Yugoslavia applied and was readmitted on 24 Nov 2000; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 20Costa Rica withdrew 1 Jan 1927, rejoined 21 Apr 1944. 21Albania withdrew 5 Aug 1967, rejoined 22 May 1991. 22U.S. withdrew 6 Nov 1977, rejoined 18 Feb 1980. 23Soviet Union ceased to be a member 5 Feb 1940, rejoined 26 Apr 1954; dissolved 25 Dec 1991 succeeded by Russia. 241958-1961 formerly part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria. On 28 Sep 1961 Syria seceded from the U.A.R. and resumed its separate membership on 5 Oct 1961. 25from 1989 Myanmar. 26from 1971 Sri Lanka. 27Indonesia announced its withdrawal 23 Mar 1965, effective two years later (25 Mar 1967); withdrawal is cancelled 6 Sep 1966. 28Republic of Vietnam to 30 Apr 1975, then Republic of South Vietnam, from 2 Jul 1976 Socialist Republic of Vietnam; withdrew 2 Jul 1976, rejoined 17 Jan 1980; withdrew again 1 Jun 1985, rejoined 20 May 1992. 29Netherlands Antilles dissolved 10 Oct 2010, succeeded by Curaçao and Sint Maarten. 30from 1991 Belarus. 31from 1991 Ukraine. 32from 1963 Malaysia. 331960-1966 Congo (Léopoldville); 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 34to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 35from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 36from 1984 Burkina Faso. 37from 1975 Benin. 38Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar 26 Apr 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 39Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) merged 22 May 1990 as Yemen. 40Lesotho withdrew 15 Jul 1971, rejoined 1980. 41East Germany merged 3 Oct 1990 into Federal Republic of Germany. 42Namibia until 21 Mar 1990 as United Nations Council for Namibia. 43from 2013 Cabo Verde. 44Lithuania a former member 22 Sep 1921 - 21 Jul 1940. 45Latvia a former member 22 Sep 1921 - 21 Jul 1940. 46Estonia a former member 22 Sep 1921 - 21 Jul 1940.



International Maritime Organization (IMO)

[International
                    Maritime Organization]
 
IMO website
Headquarters: London
(United Kingdom)
IMO Day: 22 - 30 Sep
World Maritime Days

 3 Mar 1948                Preparatory Committee of the Inter-Governmental Maritime
                             Consultative Organization.
17 Mar 1958