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Madagascar 
 
[Imerina kingdom flag
                                    c.1817-c.1881 (Madagascar)]
c.1817 - c.1881
 
[Imerina - Madagascar kingdom,
                                    c.1881-1896]
c.1881 - 27 Sep 1896
 
[French
                                    Flag]
27 Sep 1896 - 21 Oct 1958
 
[Madagascar]
Adopted 21 Oct 1958
 
Map of Madagascar Hear National Anthem
 "Ry Tanindraza nay
malala ô" (Oh, Our Beloved
Fatherland)
Adopted 27 Apr 1959
Former National Anthem
(Imerina to 1896)
Constitution
(11 Dec 2010; in French)
----------------------------------
1992 Constitution

 (19 Aug 1992 - 11 Dec 2010) 
Capital: Antananarivo
(Tananarive 1817-30 Dec 1975)
Currency: Ariary (MGA);
1963-31 Dec 2004
Malagasy
 Franc (MGF)
; 1925-1945
 Madagascar Franc (MGG);
 1945-1963 Madagascar-
Comores CFA Franc (XMCF)
National Holiday: 26 Jun (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 25,683,610 (2018)
GDP: $39.85 billion (2017)
Exports: $2.29 billion (2017)
Imports: $2.74 billion (2017) 
Ethnic groups: Malagasay 95.9% ([Malayo-Indonesian]
Merina 26.6%, and related Betsileo 11.3%, Cotiers [mixed African,
Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry] - Betsimisaraka 13.4%,
Tsimihety 7%, Antaisaka, Sakalava 5.9%, Makua 1.1%), French 0.6%, Comorian 0.5%, Reunionese 0.4%, other 1.5% (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 13,500 (20)
Merchant marine: 28 ships (2018)
Religions: Christian 53.8% (of which Protestant 27.8%,
Roman Catholic 21.7%, Pentecostal 1.9%, Anglican 1.1%,
other Christian 1.3%), traditional beliefs 39.1%, 
Muslim
(mainly Sunni) 2.1%, other and none 0.7%,
unknown 4.3% (2015)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, AIIB, APM, AU, BTWC, CD, CCM, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, EITI (candidate), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIF, OPCW, OST, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Madagascar
Index
Chronology

10 Aug 1500                First sighted by Portuguese Capt. Diogo Dias
                             on Saint Laurence Day, and is later named named
                             by the Portuguese as Ilha de São Lourenço.

24 Sep 1642 - 27 Aug 1674  French Fort-Dauphin (at Tôlanaro) on the southeast
                             coast of Madagascar which French name Ȋle Dauphin.

23 Oct 1817                Radama I,
King of Imerina, having conquered 
                             large parts of the island, enters into a
                             treaty of friendship and peace with the U.K. in
                             which he is recognized as king of Madagascar.
17 Dec 1885                France declares Madagascar a protectorate (not
                             effected).
 1 Mar 1895                French military invasion begins (Antananarivo
                             occupied 30 Sep 1895).
 
1 Oct 1895                Government of the Queen of Madagascar accepts
                             French protectorate
by treaty.
27 Sep 1896                Madagascar and Dependencies proclaimed a colony of
                             France (law of 6 Aug 1896, gazetted 8 Aug 1896).

28 Jan 1897                France abolishes the kingship in Imerina.
16 Jun 1940 - 14 Dec 1942  Administration loyal to Vichy France

                             (from 14 Dec 1942, Free French).  
 8 May 1942 - Sep 1944     British occupation (until 10 Sep 1942 in
Diego
                             Suarez and Antisarana); under Free French civil
                             administration from 1 Jan 1943 (Diego Suarez from
                             Sep 1944).

27 Oct 1946                Madagascar overseas territory of France.
29 Mar 1947 - Nov 1948     Malagasy uprising.
14 Oct 1958                Autonomy (Malagasy Republic)(Repoblika Malagasy =
                             République Malgache; from 1965 République Malagasy)

14 Oct 1958 - 26 Jun 1960  Member state of the Communauté (French Community).
26 Jun 1960                Independence from France.

30 Dec 1975                Democratic Republic of Madagascar (Repoblika
                            
Demokratika Malagasy).

18 Sep 1992                Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara)

Provinces
(from 2001)
Traditional
States
  Diégo Suarez
(1886-1896)
  Fort-Dauphin
(1642-1674)
  Nossi-Bé
(1841-1896)
Sainte-Marie de
Madagascar

(1750-1896)
 
 

King¹
23 Oct 1817 - 27 Jul 1828  Radama I (Radamamanjaka I)           (b. 1792 - d. 1828)
Queen¹
 3 Aug 1828 - 16 Aug 1861  Ranavalona I (= Ramavo)              (b. c.1785 - d. 1861)

                            (
Rabodoandrianampoinimerina Ranavalomanjaka I)
King¹
16 Aug 1861 - 12 May 1863  Radama II (
Rakotosehenondradama)     (b. 1829 - d. 1863)
Queens¹
13 May 1863 -  1 Apr 1868  Rasoherina (Rasoherinamanjaka)       (b. 1814 - d. 1868)
 2 Apr 1868 - 13 Jul 1883  Ranavalona II (Ranavalomanjaka II)   (b. 1829 - d. 1883)
                             (
= Ramoma)        
13 Jul 1883 -
27 Sep 1896  Ranavalona III (Ranavalomanjaka III) (b. 1861 - d. 1917)
                             (= Razafindrahety)(continues in Imerina to 27 Feb 1897)
French Military Commanders
 1 Mar 1895 -  6 May 1895  Léon Frédéric Hubert Metzinger       (b. 1842 - d. 1914)
                             (acting)
 
6 May 1895 -  1 Jan 1896  Jacques Charles René Achille Duchesne(b. 1837 - d. 1918)
                             (g
eneral commander-in-chief corps expéditionnaire de Madagascar)
 1 Jan 1896 - 30 Sep 1896 
Émile Jean François Régis Voyron     (b. 1838 - d. 1921)
                            
(general commander-in-chief corps d'occupation à Madagascar)
30 Sep 1896 - 31 Jul 1897  Joseph Simon Gallieni                (b. 1849 - d. 1916)

                             (general commander-in-chief corps d'occupation à Madagascar)
Governors-general

31 Jul 1897 - 11 May 1905  Joseph Simon Gallieni                (s.a.)
11 May 1905 -  1 Jan 1906  Charles Louis Lépreux (acting)       (b. 1856 - d. 1930)
 1 Jan 1906 - 13 Dec 1909  Victor Augagneur                     (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
13 Dec 1909 - 16 Jan 1910  Hubert Auguste Garbit (1st time)     (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
                             (acting)
16 Jan 1910 - 31 Oct 1910  Henri François Charles Cor (acting)  (b. 1864 - d. 1932)
31 Oct 1910 -  5 Aug 1914  Albert Jean George Marie Louis       (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
                             Picquié
 5 Aug 1914 - 24 Jul 1917  Hubert Auguste Garbit (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting to 14 Oct 1914)
24 Jul 1917 -  1 Aug 1918  Martial Henri Merlin                 (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
 1 Aug 1918 - 12 Jul 1919  Abraham Schrameck                    (b. 1867 - d. 1948)
12 Jul 1919 - 22 Jun 1920  Marie Casimir Joseph Guyon (acting)  (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
22 Jun 1920 - 13 Mar 1923  Hubert Auguste Garbit (3rd time)     (s.a.)
13 Mar 1923 - 20 Feb 1924  Auguste Charles Désiré Emmanuel      (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
                             Brunet (acting)
20 Feb 1924 - 30 Jan 1929  Marcel Achille Olivier               (b. 1879 - d. 1945)
30 Jan 1929 -  1 May 1930  Hugues Jean Berthier (acting)        (b. 1868 - d. 1958)
 1 May 1930 - 22 Apr 1939  Léon Henri Charles Cayla (1st time)  (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
22 Apr 1939 - 10 Jun 1939  Léon Maurice Valentin Réallon        (b. 1882 - d. 1960)
                             (acting)
10 Jun 1939 - 30 Jul 1940  Jules Marcel de Coppet               (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
30 Jul 1940 - 11 Apr 1941  Léon Henri Charles Cayla (2nd time)  (s.a.)
11 Apr 1941 - 30 Sep 1942  Armand Léon Annet                    (b. 1888 - d. 1982)
 8 May 1942 - 11 Oct 1942  Robert Grice Sturges                 (b. 1891 - d. 1970)
                            (general officer commanding British Forces on Madagascar)
1942                       Maurice Stanley Lush                 (b. 1896 - d. 1990)
                            (military administrator of Madagascar
)

Sep 1942 - Apr 1943        Francis James Rennell Rodd, Baron    (b. 1895 - d. 1978)
                             Rennell (chief political officer, East Africa Command)
30 Sep 1942 -  7 Jan 1943  Victor Marius Bech (acting)          (b. 1891 - d. 1979)
11 Oct 1942 - Sep 1944     Gerald Russell Smallwood             (b. 1889 – d. 1977)

                            (British general officer commanding Madagascar [Islands Area])
 1 Jan 1943 -  3 May 1943  Paul Louis Victor Marie              (b. 1884 - d. 1975)
                             Legentilhomme
                            (high commissioner of French Possessions in the Indian Ocean)
 3 May 1943 - 27 Mar 1946  Pierre de Saint-Mart                 (b. 1885 - d. 1965)
27 Mar 1946 - 19 May 1946  Robert Boudry (acting)               (b. 1893 - d. 1973) 
High Commissioners
19 May 1946 - 23 Dec 1947  Jules Marcel de Coppet               (s.a.)
Feb 1948 -  3 Feb 1950     Pierre Gabriel de Chevigné           (b. 1909 - d. 2004)
 3 Feb 1950 - Oct 1954     Robert Isaac Bargues                 (b. 1900 - d. 1989)
Oct 1954 -  1 May 1959     Jean Louis Marie André Soucadaux     (b. 1904 - d. 2001)
President

 1 May 1959 - 11 Oct 1972  Philibert Tsiranana                  (b. 1912 - d. 1978)  PSD
Jan 1970 -  25 May 1970    Triumvirate (acting for Tsiranana)
                           - André Resampa                      (b. 1934 - d. 1993)  PSD
                           - Jacques Rabemananjara              (b. 1913 - d. 2005)  PSD
                           - Calvin Tsiebo                      (b. 1902 - d. 2008)  PSD
Heads of the Government
11 Oct 1972 -  5 Feb 1975  Gabriel Ramanantsoa                  (b. 1906 - d. 1979)  Mil

 5 Feb 1975 - 11 Feb 1975  Richard Ratsimandrava                (b. 1931 - d. 1975)  Mil
President of the Military Directory
12 Feb 1975 - 15 Jun 1975  Gilles Andriamahazo                  (b. 1919 - d. 1989)  Mil

President of the Supreme Revolutionary Council, Head of State and Government
15 Jun 1975 -  4 Jan 1976  Didier Ignace Ratsiraka              (b. 1936)            AREMA+FNDR
Presidents
 4 Jan 1976 - 27 Mar 1993  Didier Ignace Ratsiraka (1st time)   (s.a.)               AREMA+FNDR

27 Mar 1993 -  4 Sep 1996  Albert Zafy                          (b. 1927 - d. 2017)  UNDD
 4 Sep 1996 -  9 Feb 1997  Norbert Lala Ratsirahonana           (b. 1938)            AVI
                             (prime minister, Head of State and Government)
 9 Feb 1997 -  6 May 2002  Didier Ignace Ratsiraka (2nd time)   (s.a.)               AREMA

                             (in dissidence, in Toamasina to 5 Jul 2002)
22 Feb 2002 - 17 Mar 2009  Marc Ravalomanana                    (b. 1949)            TIM
                             (in dissidence to 6 May 2002)
President of the Military Directory
17 Mar 2009                Hippolyte Raharison Ramaroson
       (b. 1951)            Mil
President of the High Transitional Authority
17 Mar 2009 - 24 Jan 2014  Andry Nirina Rajoelina (1st time)    (b. 1974)            TGV

                             (in opposition from 7 Feb 2009)
Presidents
24 Jan 2014 - 
7 Sep 2018  Hery Martial Rajaonarimampianina     (b. 1958)            HVM
                             Rakotoarimanana
 7 Sep 2018 - 19 Jan 2019  Rivo Rakotovao (acting)              (b. 1960)            HVM
19 Jan 2019 -              Andry Nirina Rajoelina (2nd time)    (s.a.)               TGV

Prime ministers
1828                       Ralala
1828 - 1829                Andrianamba

1829 - 1830                Rainimahay
1830                       Andriamihaja                         (d. 1833)

1830 - 18 Oct 1852         Rainiharo                            (b. 17.. - d. 1852)  Mil
Oct 1852 - 14 Jul 1864     Rainivoninahitriniony                (b. 1821 - d. 1869)
14 Jul 1864 - 14 Oct 1895  Rainilaiarivony                      (b. 1828 - d. 1896)
15 Oct 1895 - 11 Oct 1896  Rainitsimbazafy                      (b. 1835? - d. 1905)
Oct 1896 - 28 Feb 1897     Ombalahivelo Rasanjy (acting)        (b. 1851 - d. 1918)  Non-party

                             (secretary general)
Vice President of Executive Council

27 May 1957 - 14 Oct 1958  Philibert Tsiranana                  (s.a.)               PSD
President of the Provisional Government

14 Oct 1958 -  1 May 1959  Philibert Tsiranana                  (s.a.)               PSD
Prime ministers
 1 May 1959 - 18 May 1972  Post abolished

18 May 1972 - 11 Oct 1972  Gabriel R
amanantsoa                  (s.a.)               Mil
                            
(head of provisional government)
11 Oct 1972 - 11 Jan 1976  Vacant
11 Jan 1976 - 30 Jul 1976  Joel Rakotomalala                    (b. 1929 - d. 1976) AREMA+FNDR
12 Aug 1976 -  1 Aug 1977  Justin Rakotoniaina                  (b. 1933 - d. 2001) AREMA+FNDR
 
1 Aug 1977 - 12 Feb 1988  Désiré Rakotoarijaona                (b. 1934)           AREMA+FNDR
12 Feb 1988 -  8 Aug 1991  Victor Ramahatra                     (b. 1945)           AREMA+FNDR
 8 Aug 1991 -  9 Aug 1993  Guy Razanamasy                       (b. 1928 - d. 2011)  Non-party
 
9 Aug 1993 - 30 Oct 1995  Francisque Ravony                    (b. 1942 - d. 2003)  CSDDM
30 Oct 1995 - 28 May 1996  Emmanuel Rakotovahiny                (b. 1938)            UNDD
28 May 1996 - 21 Feb 1997  Norbert Ratsirahonana                (s.a.)               AVI
21 Feb 1997 - 23 Jul 1998  Pascal Rakotomavo                    (b. 1934 - d. 2010)  AREMA
23 Jul 1998 - 31 May 2002  Tantely Andrianarivo                 (b. 1954)            AREMA
                             (under house arrest by Ravalomanana from 27 May 2002)
26 Feb 2002 - 20 Jan 2007  Jacques Sylla                        (b. 1946 - d. 2009)  Non-party
                             (appointed by Ravalomanana) 
31 May 2002 -  5 Jul 2002  Jean-Jacques Rasolondraibe           (b. 1947)            AREMA
                             (interim; appointed by Ratsiraka)
20 Jan 2007 - 17 Mar 2009  Charles Rabemananjara                (b. 1947)            TIM
17 Mar 2009 - 10 Oct 2009  Monja Roindefo                       (b. 1965)            TGV
                            
(appointed by Rajoelina on 7 Feb 2009;
                             continues in opposition to 13 Nov 2009)
10 Oct 2009 - 20 Dec 2009  Eugène Régis Mangalaza               (b. 1950)            Non-party
22 Oct 2009 - 13 Nov 2009  Cécile Marie Ange Dominique                         
                            
Manorohanta (f)(acting for Mangalaza)
20 Dec 2009 -
 2 Nov 2011  Albert Camille Vital                 (b. 1952)            Mil
 2 Nov 2011 -
16 Apr 2014  Omer Beriziky                        (b. 1950)            Non-party
16 Apr 2014 - 17 Jan 2015  Roger Kolo                           (b. 1943)            HVM
17 Jan 2015 - 13 Apr 2016  Jean Ravelonarivo                    (b. 1959)            HVM
13 Apr 2016 - 
6 Jun 2018  Solonandrasana Olivier Mahafaly      (b. 1964)            HVM
 6 Jun 2018 -
             Christian Louis Ntsay                (b. 1961)            Non-party


French Residents-general

14 May 1886 - 17 Nov 1888  Charles Marie Le Myre de Vilers      (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
                             (1st time)(chargé d'affaires)
14 Mar 1888 - 17 Nov 1888  Paul Augustin Jean Larrouy (1st time)(b. 1847 - d. 1906)
                             (acting for Le Myre)
17 Nov 1888 - 11 Oct 1891  Louis Maurice Bompard                (b. 1854 - d. 1935)
                            
(acting to 12 Dec 1889)
11 Oct 1891 - 19 Aug 1892  Jean Aurélien Lacoste (acting)       (b. 1837 - d. 1904)

                             (delegate of the resident)
19 Aug 1892 - 19 Sep 1894  Paul Augustin Jean Larrouy (2nd time)(s.a.)

19 Sep 1894 - 15 Oct 1894  Albert François Ildefonse            (b. 1861 - d. 1944)

                             d'Anthouard (acting)
                            
(Anthoüard de Wasservas)

15 Oct 1894 - 26 Dec 1894  Charles Marie Le Myre de Vilers      (s.a.)
                             (plenipotentiary) (2nd time)
Sep 1894 - 21 Feb 1895     Achille Ranchot                      (b. 1860 - d. 1897)
                             (acting [for de Vilers to 26 Dec 1894])
21 Feb 1895 -  1 Dec 1895  Robert Édouard Alphonse Chaloin      (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
                             (acting)

16 Jan 1896 - 30 Sep 1896  Hippolyte Laroche                    (b. 1848 - d. 1914)
30 Sep 1896 - 31 Jul 1897  Joseph Simon Gallieni                (s.a.)

  ¹Rulers style:
(a) c.1817 - 27 Sep 1896: Mpanjakany Madagascar (also Mpanjaka ny Madagascar); in relation with foreigners: Roi/Reine de Madagascar ("King/Queen of Madagascar"), often with commendatory additions.

Territorial Disputes: Claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de
Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands).

Party abbreviations: AREMA = Andry sy Riana Enti-Manavotra an'i Madagasikara/Association pour la Renouveau de Madagascar (Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar, socialist, part of FNDR 1976-90, formerly 1976-29 Nov 1997 named Antoky ny Revolisiona Malagasy/Avant-garde pour la Révolution Malgache [Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution], est.14 May 1976); AVI = Asa Vita no Ifampitsarana (People Judged by Their Work, centrist, mainly highlands based, est.1993); HVM = Hery Vaovao ho an'i Madagasikara (New Forces for Madagascar, est.2013); TGV = Tanora malaGasy Vonona (Young Malagasies Determined, reformist, Rajoelina personalist, est.2007); TIM = Tiako'i Madagasikara/J'aime Madagascar (I Love Madagascar Party, reformist, Ravalomanana personalist, est.3 Jul 2002); UNDD = Union Nationale pour la Développement et le Démocratie (National Union for Development and Democracy, Zafy personalist, ecological, anti-AREMA, est.1989); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CSDDM = Comité de Soutien à la Démocratie et au Développement à Madagascar (Support Committee for Democracy Development in Madagascar, anti-Ratsiraka, Dec 1992-1996); FNDR = Front National pour la Défense de la Révolution (National Front for the Defense of the Revolution, socialist, only legal political organization 1976-1990, included AREMA, 29 Dec 1976-Mar 1990); PSD = Parti Social Démocre (Social Democratic Party, socialist, 1956-Mar 1974, merged into Parti Socialist Malgache [Malagasy Socialist Party])



Diégo Suarez

[French Flag]
 
Capital: Diégo Suarez
Population: 6,000 (1885)

1886                       French colony of Diégo Suarez.
 6 Aug 1896                Incorporated into Madagascar.

Commandants
1886 - 1887                Henri Paul Marie Caillet          (b. 1830 - d. 1895)
1887 -  6 Aug 1896         Ernest Emmanuel Froger            (b. 1848 - d. 1926)



Fort-Dauphin

24 Sep 1642                French Fort-Dauphin (at Tôlanaro) on the southeast
                             coast of Madagascar which the French name Ȋle Dauphin.

1667 - 1671                Headquarters of the Compagnie des Indes Orientales.
27 Aug 1674                Abandoned.
1768 - 1771                Attempted resettlement.

Governors
24 Sep 1642 -  4 Dec 1648  Jacques de Pronis (1st time)      (b. 1619 - d. 1655)
 4 Dec 1648 - 12 Feb 1655  Étienne de Flacourt               (b. 1607 - d. 1660)
12 Feb 1655 - 23 May 1655  Jacques de Pronis (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
23 May 1655 - 1655         Jean des Perriers
1655 - 1656                Martin Gueston (acting)
1656 - 29 May 1657         Luc de Champmargou (1st time)
                             (acting)
29 May 1657 -  9 May 1661  Pierre de Rivau
 9 May 1661 -  8 Jul 1665  Luc de Champmargou (2nd time)
 8 Jul 1665 - 14 Dec 1665  Pierre de Beausse
14 Dec 1665 - Sep 1666     Gilles Mountauban
Sep 1666 - 10 Mar 1667     Luc de Champmargou (3rd time)
10 Mar 1667 -  4 Dec 1670  François de Lopès, marquis de     (d. 1688/89) 
                             Montdevergues
 4 Dec 1670 - 26 Jun 1671  Jacob Blanquet de La Haye         (b. 1621 - d. 1677)
26 Jun 1671 -  6 Dec 1672  Luc de Champmargou (4th time)
                            (acting)
 6 Dec 1672 - 27 Aug 1674  Jean de la Bretesche
1768 - 1771                Louis Laurent de Féderbe,         (b. 1725 - d. 1777) 
                             comte de Modave



Nossi-Bé

[French Flag]
 
Capital: Hellville
Population: 11,300 (1885)

14 Jul 1840                Nossi-Bé Island a French colony
                             (subordinated to Île de Bourbon [Réunion]).
25 Mar 1843                Subordinated to Mayotte.
1878                       Nossi-Bé a separate French colony.
 6 Aug 1896                Incorporated into Madagascar.

Governors
 3 Feb 1841 - 1842         François Gouhot                    (b. 1802 - d. 1862)
1842                       Peirre Passot                      (b. 1806 - d. 1854)
1842 - 1845                Charles Auguste Joseph Morel       (b. 1803 - d. 1875)
1845 - 1848                Henri Martin Lamy                  (b. 1802 - d. 18..)
1848 - 1851                Jean Ernest Marchaisse             (b. 1814 - d. 1866)
1851                       Alexandre Louis Berg               (b. 1805 - d. 1874)
1851 - 1852                Jean Théophile Lapeyre-Bellair     (b. 1814 - d. 1852)
1852 - 1853                Thomas Joseph Dupuis (1st time)    (b. 1813 - d. 1991)
1853 - 1854                André Brisset                      (b. 1808 - d. 1876)
1854 - 1855                Louis Antoine-Ernest Arnoux        (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
1855 - 1856                Joseph Méciste Septans             (b. 1812 - d. 1887)
1856 - 1858                Thomas Joseph Dupuis (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1858 - 1860                Paul-Gustave Sachet                (b. 1817 - d. ....)
1860 - 1861                Paul Dupérier
1861 - 1865                Vincent Derussat                   (b. 1806 - d. 1890)
1865 - 1866                Pierre Lucas                       (b. 1825 - d. 189.)
1866 - 1868                Joseph Ferdinand Hayes             (b. 1814 - d. 1897)
1868 -  5 Mar 1869         Louis Jean Chériner                (b. 1828 - d. 1869)
1869 - 1870                Aimé Ernest Justin Champy          (b. 1837 - d. 1899)
1870 - 1871                Patrice Louis Jules Ventre de la   (b. 1813 - d. 1892)
                             Touloubre 
1871 - 1872                Jean-Baptiste Joseph Charles       (b. 1836 - d. 1909)
                            
Barnier
1872 - 1873                Alexandre Marie Le Clos            (b. 1828 - d. 1886)
1873 - 1874                Honoré Henri Léchelle              (b. 1827 - d. 1889)
1874 - 1875                Claude Michel Jacques Louis        (b. 1820 - d. 1904) 
                             François Fontaine
1875 - 1876                Joseph Marie Carle                 (b. 1830 - d. ....)
1876                       Arthur Paul Feutray                (b. 1829 - d. 1881)
1876 - 1878                François Marie Ferriez             (b. 1834 - d. 1890)
1878 - 1883                Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Seignac     (b. 1833 - d. 1902)
1883 - 1886                Alexandre Charles Le Maitre        (b. 1836 - d. 1888)
1886 - 1888                Clément Léon Émile Thomas          (b. 1840 - d. 19..)
1888 - 1889                Furcy Augustin Armanet             (b. 1855 - d. 1911)
1889 -  6 Aug 1896         Joseph François                    (b. 1853 - d. 19..)



Sainte-Marie de Madagascar

[French Flag]
 
Capital: Ambodifototra
(from 1819)
Population: 7,600 (1885)

26 Jul 1750                Île de Sainte-Marie de Madagascar ceded to France by
                            
Ratsimilaho king of Tamatave (Betsimisaraka).
Jul 1754 - 15 Oct 1818     Unoccupied.
15 Oct 1818                Sainte-Marie de Madagascar French territory
                             (subordinated to Île de Bourbon [Réunion]).
 2 Mar 1843                Subordinated to Mayotte.
1853                       Separate colony of Sainte-Marie de Madagascar.
27 Oct 1876                Subordinated to Réunion.
 4 May 1888                Subordinated to Diégo-Suarez.
28 Jan 1896                Incorporated into Madagascar.

Administrator
30 Jul 1750 - Jul 1754     sieur Gosse                        (d. 1754)
Jul 1754 - 1819            None
Commandants
1819 - 15 Apr 1821         Jean-Louis Joseph Carayon          (b. 1794 - d. 1872)
                             (1st time)
15 Apr 1821 -  2 Apr 1823  Jean-Baptiste Sylvain Roux         (b. 1765 - d. 1823)
 2 Apr 1823 - 29 Apr 1823  François Fortuné Albrand           (b. 1795 - d. 1826)
29 Apr 1823 - Oct 1826     Bertrand Hercule Blévec (1st time) (b. 1792 - d. 1866)
Oct 1826 - May 1827        Giraud (acting)
May 1827 - 24 Oct 1830     Bertrand Hercule Blévec (2nd time) (s.a.)
24 Oct 1830 - 1830         Jean-Louis Joseph Carayon          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1830 - 1841                direct rule from Île de Bourbon (Réunion)
1841 - 1849                Raymond Vergès                     (d. 1850)
1849 - 1850                Pierre Balthazar Mermier           (b. 1806 - d. 18..) 
                             (1st time)
1850 - 1851                André Brisset                      (b. 1808 - d. 1876)
1851 - 1853                Pierre Balthazar Mermier           (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1853                       Félix Sylvain Grébert              (b. 1807 - d. ....)
1853 - 1855                Jean Pierre Thomas Durand          (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
1855 - 1858                Anne Jean Baptiste Raffenel        (b. 1809 - d. 1858)
1858 - 1868                Jean-Paul de la Grange             (b. 1827 - d. ....)
1868 - 1874                Louis Justin Ignace Blandinières   (b. 1814 - d. 1905)
1874 - 1878                Charles Honoré Vassal              (b. 1833 - d. 1900)
1878 -  6 Aug 1896         direct rule from Réunion/Diégo-Suarez







© Ben Cahoon