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Mali
[Flag of
                                    France]
            6 Sep 1880 - 24 Nov 1958
 
[Sudanese Republic (French
                                    Soudan) Flag 1958-1959]
           24 Nov 1958 - 4 Apr 1959
 
[Mali
                                    Federation 1959 flag]
             4 Apr 1959 - 1 Mar 1961
 
[Mali 1961
                                    flag]
                 Adopted 1 Mar 1961
 
Map of Mali
Hear National Anthem
"Le Mali" (Mali)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 9 Aug 1962
Constitution
(12 Jan 1992; suspended
22 Mar - 1 Apr 2012)
Capital: Bamako
(Kayès 1880-1908;
Mali Fed.- Dakar 1959-1960)
Currency: Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XOF); 1962-1984
Mali Franc (MLF)
National Holiday: 22 Sep (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 15,968,882 (2013)
GDP: $18.9 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.57 billion (2013)
Imports: $2.89 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Bambara 30.6%, Senufo 10.5%,
Fula Macina (Niafunke) 9.6%, Soninke 7.4%, Tuareg 7%,
Malinke 6.6%, Songhai 6.3%, Dogon 4.3%, Bobo 3.5%,
other 14.2% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 7,350 (2010)
French Forces: 2,500 (2013)
UN MINUSMA Force: 9,218 (
2014)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%,
 none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, CCM, CEMAC, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT (signatory), OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Mali Index
Chronology

 6 Sep 1880                French territory of Haut-Sénégal (Upper Senegal)
                             created (subordinated to Senegal).
18 Aug 1890                Renamed territory of French Sudan (Soudan Français)
27 Aug 1892                Made a separate colony.
16 Jun 1895                Part of French West Africa (see Senegal).
17 Oct 1899                French Sudan broken up; part becomes territory
                             of Haut-Sénégal-Niger (Upper Senegal and Niger).
10 Oct 1902                Becomes colony of Senegambia and Niger
                             (subject to Senegal).
18 Oct 1904                Renamed Haut-Sénégal-Niger (Upper Senegal and
                             Niger).
 4 Dec 1920                Renamed French Sudan.
16 Jun 1940 - Nov 1942     Administration loyal to Vichy France 
                             (from Nov 1942, Free French).
27 Oct 1946                French Sudan overseas territory of France.
24 Nov 1958                Autonomy (Sudanese Republic)
 4 Apr 1959                Sudanese Republic and Senegal form Mali Federation.
20 Jun 1960                Independence of the Mali Federation from France.
20 Aug 1960                Senegal withdraws from Mali Federation.
22 Sep 1960                Sudanese Republic renamed Republic of Mali.
24 Dec 1960 - 1962         Part of Union of Independent African States 
                             federation (Ghana, Guinea and Mali).
 1 Apr 2012 - 12 Jul 2012 
Tuareg secessionists occupy Kidal, Gao, Timbuktu
                             on 6 Apr 2012 declare
the independence of Azawad.
27 Jun 2012 - 26 Jan 2013 
Islamist rebels occupy Kidal, Gao, Timbuktu.

Traditional
states
Azawad
(2012)
Historical Maps
of Mali
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Commandants-superior
27 Feb 1880 - 29 Jul 1880  Charles Émile Boilève (1st time)   (b. 1837 - d. 1899)
 6 Sep 1880 -  3 Sep 1883  Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes          (b. 1839 - d. 1900)
 3 Sep 1883 - 18 Jun 1884  Charles Émile Boilève (2nd time)   (s.a.)
18 Jun 1884 - Sep 1885     Antoine Vincent Auguste Combes     (b. 1849 - d. 1913)
                             (acting to 4 Sep 1884)
Sep 1885 - Aug 1886        Henri Nicolas Frey                 (b. 1847 - d. 1932)
Aug 1886 - 10 Sep 1888     Joseph Simon Galliéni              (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
10 Sep 1888 - 1891         Louis Archinard (1st time)         (b. 1850 - d. 1932)
1891 - 27 Aug 1892         Pierre Marie Gustave Humbert       (b. 1849 - d. ....)
27 Aug 1892 -  2 Aug 1893  Louis Archinard (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1893 - 26 Dec 1893  François Xavier Louis Henri        (b. 1857 - d. 1944)
                             Gaëtan Bonnier (acting)
Governors
26 Dec 1893 - 16 Jun 1895  Louis Alphonse Grodet              (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
16 Jun 1895 - 17 Oct 1899  Louis Edgard de Trentinian         (b. 1851 - d. 1942)
 1 Jan 1898 - 19 Nov 1899  Marie Michel Alexandre René        (b. 1854 - d. 1909)
                             Audéoud (acting for Trentinian)
Delegate
17 Oct 1899 - 20 Oct 1904  William Merlaud-Ponty              (b. 1866 - d. 1915)
Lieutenant-governors
20 Oct 1904 - 18 Feb 1908  William Merlaud-Ponty              (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1906 -  1 Jan 1907  Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne         (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
                             (acting for Merlaud-Ponty)
28 Aug 1907 - 12 Jan 1908  Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Merlaud-Ponty)
18 Feb 1908 - 16 Jun 1915  Marie François Joseph Clozel       (b. 1860 - d. 1918)
17 Dec 1909 - 17 Aug 1910  Henri Alphonse Lejeune             (b. 1866 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Clozel)

13 Jan 1912 - Aug 1912     Philippe Marius Henry
                             (acting for Clozel)
12 Dec 1912 - Aug 1913     Philippe Marius Henry

                             (acting for Clozel)
16 Jun 1915 -  1 Jul 1915  Philippe Marius Henry (acting)

 1 Jul 1915 - 28 Jul 1916  Louis Thiébaud Digue (acting)
28 Jul 1916 - 20 Apr 1917  Raphaël Valentin Antonetti (acting)(b. 1872 - d. 1938)
20 Apr 1917 - 21 May 1917  Albert Nebout (acting)             (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
21 May 1917 - 20 Feb 1918  Louis Eugène Periquet (acting)     (b. 1874 - d. 1929)
20 Feb 1918 - 16 May 1919  Auguste Brunet                     (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
16 May 1919 - 20 Aug 1921  Marcel Achille Olivier             (b. 1879 - d. 1945)
10 Aug 1920 - Jan 1920     Camille Théodore Daniel Maillet    (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
                             (acting for Olivier)

Governors
20 Aug 1921 - 31 Dec 1930  Jean Henri Terrasson de Fougères   (b. 1881 - d. 1930)
                             (acting to 26 Feb 1924)
23 Apr 1924 - May 1924     Jean Joseph Henri Carreau          (b. 1865 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Terrasson)
May 1924 - Feb 1925        Albéric Auguste Fournier           (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Terrasson)
Apr 1926 - Nov 1926        Gabriel Omar Descemet              (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
                             (acting for Terrasson)
22 Jun 1928 - 28 Jan 1929  Gabriel Omar Descemet              (s.a.)
                             (acting for Terrasson)
31 Dec 1930 -  4 Apr 1931  Joseph Urbain Court (acting)       (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
 4 Apr 1931 - 21 May 1931  Gabriel Omar Descemet (acting)     (s.a.)
21 May 1931 - 19 Feb 1935  Louis Jacques Eugène Fousset       (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
31 Mar 1933 - 22 May 1933  René Desjardins 
                             (acting for Fousset)
22 May 1933 - 30 Nov 1933  Léon Solomiac                      (b. 1873 - d. 1960) 
                             (acting for Fousset)
19 Feb 1935 - 20 Nov 1935  Félix Sylvestre Adolphe Éboué      (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
                             (acting)
20 Nov 1935 -  9 Nov 1936  Matteo Mathieu Maurice Alfassa     (b. 1876 - d. 1942)
 9 Nov 1936 - 28 Mar 1938  Ferdinand Jacques Louis Rougier    (b. 1880 - d. 1940)
                             (acting to 4 Dec 1936)
28 Mar 1938 - 22 Dec 1940  Jean Desanti                       (b. 1899 - d. 1944)
                             (acting to 15 Nov 1940)
22 Dec 1940 - 17 Apr 1942  Jean Alexandre Léon Rapenne        (b. 1901 - d. 1952)
                             (acting)
17 Apr 1942 -  5 Apr 1946  Auguste Marie Léon Calvel          (b. 1892 - d. 1981)

                             (acting to 29 Dec 1942)
15 May 1946 - Apr 1952     Edmond Jean Louveau                (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
23 Feb 1949 - Feb 1950     Lucien Eugène Geay                 (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
                            
(acting for Louveau)
Apr 1952 - 10 Jul 1952     Camille Victor Bailly              (b. 1907 - d. 1984)

10 Jul 1952 - 23 Feb 1953  Salvador Jean Etchéber (acting)    (b. 1901 - d. 1967)
23 Feb 1953 -  2 Dec 1953  Albert Jean Mouragues              (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
 2 Dec 1953 -  3 Nov 1956  Lucien Eugène Geay                 (s.a.)
                             (acting to 10 Feb 1954)
High Commissioners
 3 Nov 1956 - 24 Nov 1958  Henri Victor Gipoulon              (b. 1913 - d. 1989)
24 Nov 1958 - 20 Jun 1960  Jean Charles Sicurani              (b. 1915 - d. 1977)
Chief of State
20 Jun 1960 - 1965         Modibo Keita                       (b. 1915 - d. 1977)  US-RDA
                            (also President of Mali Federation 4 Apr 1959 - 20 Aug 1960)
President
1965 - 19 Nov 1968         Modibo Keita                       (s.a.)               US-RDA
Chairman of the Military National Liberation Committee
19 Nov 1968 - 19 Sep 1969  Moussa Traoré                      (b. 1936)            Mil
President
19 Sep 1969 - 26 Mar 1991  Moussa Traoré                      (s.a.)             Mil;1976 UDPM
                            (Head of State to 19 Jun 1979)
Chairman of the Transitional Committee for the Salvation of the People
26 Mar 1991 -  8 Jun 1992  Amadou Toumani Touré (1st time)    (b. 1948)            Mil
                            (chairman National Reconciliation Council 
                             to 31 Mar 1991)
Presidents
 8 Jun 1992 -  8 Jun 2002  Alpha Oumar Konaré                 (b. 1946)            ADEMA
 8 Jun 2002 - 22 Mar 2012  Amadou Toumani Touré (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Non-party
Chairman of the National Committee for the Re-establishment
of Democracy
and
the Restoration of the State
22 Mar 2012 - 12 Apr 2012  Amadou Haya Sanogo                 (b. 1972?)           Mil
Presidents
12 Apr 2012 -  4 Sep 2013  Dioncounda Traoré (interim)        (b. 1942)            ADEMA
 4 Sep 2013 -              Ibrahim Boubacar Keita             (b. 1945)            RPM

Vice President of the Government Council
24 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958  Jean-Marie Koné                    (b. 1913 - d. 1988)  US-RDA
President of the Government Council
26 Jul 1958 - 24 Nov 1958  Jean-Marie Koné                    (s.a.)               US-RDA
President of the Provisional Government
24 Nov 1958 -  5 Apr 1959  Jean-Marie Koné                    (s.a.)               US-RDA
Prime ministers
 5 Apr 1959 - 1965         Modibo Keita                       (s.a.)               US-RDA
1965 - 19 Nov 1968         Post abolished
19 Nov 1968 - 18 Sep 1969  Yoro Diakité                       (b. 1932 - d. 1973)  Mil
18 Sep 1969 -  6 Jun 1986  Post abolished
 6 Jun 1986 -  6 Jun 1988  Mamadou Dembelé                    (b. 1936)            UDPM
 6 Jun 1988 -  2 Apr 1991  Post abolished
 2 Apr 1991 -  9 Jun 1992  Soumana Sacko (interim)            (b. 1949)            Non-party
 9 Jun 1992 - 12 Apr 1993  Younoussi Touré                    (b. 1941)            Non-party
12 Apr 1993 -  4 Feb 1994  Abdoulaye Sékou Sow                (b. 1931 - d. 2013)  Non-party
 4 Feb 1994 - 15 Feb 2000  Ibrahim Boubacar Keita             (s.a.)               ADEMA
15 Feb 2000 - 18 Mar 2002  Mandé Sidibé                       (b. 1940 - d. 2009)  ADEMA
18 Mar 2002 -  9 Jun 2002  Modibo Keita                       (b. 1942)            Non-party
 9 Jun 2002 - 30 Apr 2004  Ahmed Mohamed Ag Hamani            (b. 1942)            Non-party
30 Apr 2004 - 28 Sep 2007  Ousmane Issoufi Maïga              (b. 1946)            Non-party
28 Sep 2007 -  3 Apr 2011  Modibo Sidibé                      (b. 1952)            Non-party
 3 Apr 2011 - 22 Mar 2012  Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé (f)    (b. 1948)            Non-party
22 Mar 2012 - 17 Apr 2012  Vacant
17 Apr 2012 - 11 Dec 2012  Cheick Modibo Diarra (interim)     (b. 1952)            Non-party
11 Dec 2012 -  5 Sep 2013  Diango Cissoko (interim)           (b. 1948?)           Non-party
 5 Sep 2013 -  9 Apr 2014  Oumar Tatam Ly                     (b. 1963)            Non-party
 9 Apr 2014 -              Moussa Mara                        (b. 1975)            Non-party

Territorial Disputes: Border demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso.

Party abbreviations: ADEMA = Alliance pour la Démocratie au Mali-Parti Africain pour la Solidarité et la Justice (Alliance for Democracy in Mali - African Party for Solidarity and Justice, pro-democratic, social democratic, est.1990); RPM = Rassemblement pour le Mali (Rally for Mali, socialist, est.2001); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: UDPM = Union Démocratique du Peuple Malien (Democratic Union of the Malian People, democratic centralist, Moussa Traoré personalist, 1979-1990 only legal party, 1976-1991); US-RDA = Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (Sudanese Union-African Democratic Rally, socialist, 1965-1968 sole party, 1945-1968)



Azawad

[flag of National Movement for the
              Liberation of Azawad -MNLA)
                        6 Apr 2012 - 2013

Map of Azawad
Capital: Gao (interim) 
Population: 1,239,449
(2012 est.)

30 Mar/1 Apr 2012          National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA)
                             occupies Kidal, Gao, Timbuktu and part of Mopti
                             regions of northern Mali.
 6 Apr 2012                Independence declared by MNLA (State of Azawad), not recognized.
27 Jun 2012                Islamist Unity Movement for Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO) forces
                             the MNLA from Gao.
27 Jun 2012 - 26 Jan 2013  Islamist rebels occupy Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu.
12 Jul 2012                Islamist group Ansar Dine drives the MNLA from Ansogo.
14 Feb 2013                MNLA renounced their claim of independence for Azawad and asked
                             Malian government to start negotiations on its future status.
26 Jan 2013                Mali and French forces retake Gao, Timbuktu on 28 Jan, and Ansogo
                             on 29 Jan.
28 Jan 2013                MNLA retakes Kidal; French forces arrive on 30 Jan 2013.
 1 Jul 2013                Mali military and UN peacekeeping force deployed.
21 May 2014                MNLA and Tuareg rebels re-occupy Kidal (then take Menaka, Aguelhok,
                             Anderamboukane and Ansongo by 24 May 2014).
 

Chairman of the Transitional Executive Committee
 6 Apr 2012 - 14 Feb 2013  Bilal Ag Acherif                   (b. 1977)            MNLA

Commanders of UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali
(MINUSMA)
 1 Jul 2013 - 12 Dec 2014  Jean Bosco Kazura (Rwanda)         (b. 1963)
12 Dec 2014 -              Omar Bikimo (Chad) (interim)

Party abbreviation: MNLA
= Mouvement National pour la Libération de l'Azawad (National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, Tuareg separatist, merger of MNA [Mouvement National de l'Azawad] and MTNM [Mouvement Touareg du Nord-Mali] est.2011)






© Ben Cahoon