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Monaco
 
[Historical flag of Monaco,
                                    17th - 18th cent.]
17th cent. - 14 Feb 1793

[France]
14 Feb 1793 - 30 May 1814

[Monaco
                                    flag 1814-1881]
30 May 1814 - 4 Apr 1881
[Monaco]
Adopted 4 Apr 1881
Map of Monaco Hear National Anthem
"A Marcia de Muneghu"/
"Hymne Monegasque"

(The March of Monaco/
Monegasque Anthem
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1867 (Lyrics 1931)
Constitution
 (17 Dec 1962; in French)
Capital: Monaco Currency: Euro (EUR);
1837-17 Feb 2002 French Franc (FRF); 1960-17 Feb 2002 Monaco
Nouveau Franc (MCF); 1837-1960
Monaco Franc (MCG); 1505-1837
Monaco Scudo (MCS)
National Holiday: 19 Nov (1857)
La Fête du Prince
(The Sovereign Prince's Day)
Population: 30,645 (2017)
GDP: $6.5 billion (2016)
Exports: $964.6 million (2017)
Imports: $1.37 billion (2017)
(full customs union with France)
Ethnic groups: Monegasque 32.1%, French 19.9%,
Italian 15.3%, British 5%, Belgian 2.3%, Swiss 2%,
German 1.9%, Russian 1.8%, American 1.1%, Dutch 1.1%,
Moroccan 1%, other 16.6% (2016)
Total Active Armed Forces: palace guard 82; police 500 (2012)
Defense is the Responsibility of France
Merchant marine: 338 ships (2017) 
Religions: Roman Catholic 89.3%, Protestant 3.9%,
 Jewish 1.7%, Muslim 0.45%,
non-religious
and other 4.65% (2000) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ANT, APM, BTWC, CCM, CD, CE, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ITSO, ITU, LU, NPT, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Monaco Index
Chronology

237 BC - 476 AD            Part of Roman Empire.
476 - 493                  Part of the kingdom of Odovacar (see Italy).
493 - 553                  Ostrogothic rule (see Italy).
553 - 568                  Part of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
568 - c.760                Lombard (Langobard) rule (see Italy).
c.760 - Aug 843            Part of Frankish kingdom.
Aug 843 - 879              Part of Lotharingia.
879 - 933                  Part of Burgundy (with county of Provence).
933 -  6 Sep 1032          Part of the Burgundian Kingdom (Arelat).
 6 Sep 1032               
Burgundy (and Monaco with it) inherited by the
                             Emperor of Germany (Holy Roman Empire).

16 Aug 1174                Sold to Genoa by
Raimond VI Count of Toulouse
                             (claimant to County of Provence). 

30 May 1191                Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich VI grants suzerainty
                             over the area to Genoa
(repeating and expanding
                             on 9 Jun 1162 grant of coast; effective 2 Jul 1191,
                             confirmed
4 Oct 1220).
10 Jun 1215                First stone of the fortress is laid. 
22 Jul 1262                Genoese possession confirmed by count of Provence. 
 8 Jan 1297               
Francesco and Raniero Grimaldi seize the fortress
                             (occupied by Guelphs during war).

 
4 May 1301 - 20 Sep 1331  Genoese rule (by convention of 10 Apr 1301).
19 Nov 1346                Grimaldi acquire Mentone (Menton).
 2 Jan 1355                Grimaldi acquire Roccabruna (Roquebrune). 
15 Aug 1357 - 11 May 1397  Genoese rule.
19 Dec 1395                Failed attempt to regain Monaco by Boglio (Beuil)
                             branch of the Grimaldi dynasty.
 5 Nov 1402 - May? 1419    Genoese rule.

 
6 Oct 1428 - 18 Mar 1436  Duchy of Milan rule.
14 Jan 1498 -  7 Jun 1524  Protectorate of France (confirmed 11 Jun 1507; under
                             French suzerainty 6 Mar 1509 - 20 Feb 1512).

10 Dec 1506 - 22 Mar 1507  Under siege by Genoa.
20 Feb 1512                France recognizes sovereignty of Monaco, French
                             protectorate remains.

 7 Jun 1524 - 17 Nov 1641  Protectorate of Spain (ratified by Spain 5 Nov 1524; 
                             ratified by Monaco 10 Apr 1525).
11 Nov 1605 - 17 Nov 1641  Spanish forces station in Monaco.
14 Sep 1641                Principality of Monaco (sovereign 8 Jun 1688);
under
                             protectorate of France by Treaty of Péronne.
17 Nov 1641                Spanish forces evicted (replaced by French forces
                             24 Nov 1641).
1641                       Monaco effectively ceases to be part of the Holy
                             Roman Empire.
20 Jul 1642                Italian grants confiscated (in consequence of
                             termination of Spanish protectorate).
23 Dec 1678                First constitution promulgated.
31 Dec 1688                Monaco recognized as prince étranger by France.
19 Jan 1793                National Convention declares the
Grimaldi dynasty
                             deposed;
République de Monaco.
24 Feb 1793 -  1 Mar 1793  Occupied by France.
24 Feb 1793 - 30 May 1814  Annexed to
France (by 14 Feb 1793 decree), part of
                             département Alpes-Maritimes (see Italian states).
15 Oct 1793                Monaco renamed Fort d'Hercule (Fort-Hercule).

12 May 1800 - 31 May 1800  Austro-Sardinian occupation.
17 Apr 1814                Provisional government established (by revolt).
17 May 1814 - 17 Jun 1814  Austrian occupation.

30 May 1814                Principality of Monaco (restored)(by U.K., Austria,
                             Russia, Prussia, France by peace treaty of Paris,
                             ratified 31 May 1814; effective on 17 Jun 1814).

13 Mar 1815 - 20 Nov 1815  Anglo-Sardinian occupation.
20 Nov 1815                French protectorate transferred to
Sardinia-Piedmont.
 8 Nov 1817 - 18 Jul 1860  Protectorate of Sardinia-Piedmont.
10 Nov 1849                Menton and Roquebrune
annexed by Sardinia-Piedmont.
18 Jul 1860 - 24 Oct 2002  Protectorate of France (confirmed 17 Jul 1918).
16 Nov 1942 -  9 Sep 1943  Occupied by Italy.
 
9 Sep 1943 -  3 Sep 1944  Occupied by Germany.

Menton and
Roquebrune

(1848-1849)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Lords¹
 8 Jan 1297 -  4 May 1301  Raniero Grimaldi (= Rainier I)     (b. c.1267 - d. 1314) 
                             (pretender)
 
4 May 1301 - 20 Sep 1331  Genoese rule
20 Sep 1331 - Aug 1357     Carlo Grimaldi (= Charles I)       (b. 129. - d. 1357)
                           - jointly with the following -
20 Sep 1331 - 27 May 1357  Antonio (= Antoine)                (b. 129. - d. 1357)
Aug 1357 - 15 Aug 1357     Raniero II (= Rainier II)          (b. 132. - d. 1407)
15 Aug 1357 -
11 May 1397  Genoese rule
11 May 1397 -  5 Nov 1402  Giovanni (= Jean)                  (b. c.1350 - d. 1445)
                           - jointly with the following -
11 May 1397 -  5 Nov 1402  Luigi (= Louis)                    (
b. c.1360 - d. 1435)
 5 Nov 1402 - May? 1419    Genoese rule
May? 1419 - 13 May 1427    Ambrogio (= Ambroise)              (b. 137. - d. 1433)
                           - jointly with following - 
May? 1419 - 13 May 1427    Antonio (= Antoine)                (b. c.1380 - d. 1435)
May? 1419 -  6 Oct 1428    Giovanni I (= Jean I)(1st time)    (b. 1382 - d. 1454)
 
6 Oct 1428 - 18 Mar 1436  Milanese rule
18 Mar 1436 -  8 May 1454  Giovanni I (= Jean I)(2nd time)    (s.a.)
                            
(prisoner of Savoy Jan 1438-Sep/Oct 1440)
Jan 1438 - Sep/Oct 1440    Pomellina Fregoso (f) -Regent      (b. 1387/88 - d. 1462)
                             (1st time)
 8 May 1454 -  1 Jul 1457  Catalano (= Catalan)               (b. 1422 - d. 1457)

 
1 Jul 1457 - 16 Mar 1458  Claudina (= Claudine)(f) -Lady     (b. 1451 - d. 1515)
 
1 Jul 1457 - 16 Mar 1458  Pomellina Fregoso (f) -Regent      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
20 Oct 1457 - 16 Mar 1458  Lamberto Grimaldi -Regent          (b. 1414 - d. 1494)   
16 Mar 1458 - 15 Mar 1494  Lamberto (= Lambert)               (s.a.)
15 Mar 1494 - 11 Oct 1505  Giovanni II (= Jean II)            (b. 1468 - d. 1505)
11 Oct 1505 - 22 Aug 1523  Luciano (= Lucien)                 (b. 1481 - d. 1523)
22 Aug 1523 -  7 Oct 1581  Onorato I (= Honoré I)             (b. 1522 - d. 1581)
22 Aug 1523 - 14 Apr 1532  Agostino Grimaldi, vescovo         (b. 1479 - d. 1532)  
                             de Grasse -Regent        
14 Apr 1532 - Jun 1532     Bianca Grimaldi, baronessa         (b. 148. - d. 1540)
                             di Tourettes (f) -Regent 
Jun 1532 -  6 Dec 1540     Stefano Grimaldi, barone           (d. 1561)
                             di Bueil -Regent    
 7 Oct 1581 - 17 May 1589  Carlo II (= Charles II)            (b. 1555 - d. 1589)
17 May 1589 - 21 Nov 1604  Ercole (= Hercule)                 (b. 1562 - d. 1604)
21 Nov 1604 - 14 Sep 1641  Onorato II (= Honoré II)           (b. 1597 - d. 1662)
21 Nov 1604 - c.Feb 1616   Federico, principe Landi           (d. 1633)
                             di Valditaro
-Regent
Princes
¹
14 Sep 1641 - 10 Jan 1662  Onorato II (= Honoré II)           (s.a.)
10 Jan 1662 -  3 Jan 1701  Luigi (= Louis I)                  (b. 1642 - d. 1701)
 3 Jan 1701 - 20 Feb 1731  Antonio (= Antoine I)              (b. 1661 - d. 1731)
21 Feb 1731 - 29 Dec 1731  Luigia Ippolita -Princess          (b. 1697 - d. 1731)
                             (= Louise-Hippolyte)       
21 Feb 1731 -  8 Nov 1733  Giacomo I (= Jacques I)            (b. 1689 - d. 1751)
                             (regent to 29 Dec 1731) 
 8 Nov 1733 - 19 Jan 1793  Onorato III (= Honoré III)         (b. 1720 - d. 1795)
President of the National Convention
19 Jan 1793 -  4 Mar 1793  Joseph Barrière aîné               (b. 1741 - d. 18..)
                             (Joseph Augustin Marie Barriera)
                             (=
Giuseppe Agostino Maria Barriera
Commander-in-chief of the Army of the French Republic in Italy
24 Feb 1793 -  1 Mar 1793  Armand Louis de Gontaut, duc       (b. 1747 - d. 1793)
                             de Lauzun
Commissioners of the French National Convention
 1 Mar 1793 -  4 Mar 1793  Baptiste-Henry Grégoire            (b. 1750 - d. 1831)
                           + Grégoire Marie Jagot             (b. 1750 - d. 1838)
President of Provisional Administration
 4 Mar 1793 - May 1793    
Paul Imberti (= Paolo Imberti)
Austrian and Sardinian Commanders
12 May 1800 - 31 May 1800  cavaliere Fulchieri (Sardinian commander)
                           + Hungher (Austrian commissioner)
Allied Military Commander
17 May 1814 - 1814         Ritter von Baur (Austria)

President of the Provisional Government
17 Apr 1814 - 17 Jun 1814  Pierre Antoine Marie Louis         (b. 1755 - d. 1828)
                             Gonzague de Millo Terrazzani

                           
(= Pietro Antonio Maria Luigi Gonzaga)
Princes
¹
17 Jun 1814 - 16 Feb 1819  Honoré IV                          (b. 1758 - d. 1819)
17 Jun 1814 -  3 Mar 1815  Joseph Marie Jerôme Honoré         (b. 1763 - d. 1816)
                             Grimaldi -Regent 
                             (administrator-general)
 3 Mar 1815 - 16 Feb 1819 
Honoré Grimaldi, duc de            (b. 1778 - d. 1841)
                             Valentinois -Regent
                             (administrator-general)
13 Mar 1815 - Jun 1815     Francis Burke -
British commander
16 Feb 1819 -  2 Oct 1841  Honoré V (= Honoré Grimaldi)       (s.a.)
 2 Oct 1841 - 20 Jun 1856  Florestan I                        (b. 1785 - d. 1856)
23 Mar 1848 - 20 Jun 1856  Charles Honoré Grimaldi -Regent    (b. 1818 - d. 1889)
                             (administrator-general)
20 Jun 1856 - 10 Sep 1889  Charles III                        (s.a.)

                             (=
Charles Honoré Grimaldi)
10 Sep 1889 - 26 Jun 1922  Albert I                           (b. 1848 - d. 1922)

26 Jun 1922 -  9 May 1949  Louis II                           (b. 1870 - d. 1949)
 9 May 1949 -  6 Apr 2005  Rainier III                        (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
31 Mar 2005 -  6 Apr 2005  Prince Albert -Regent              (b. 1958)
 6 Apr 2005 -              Albert II                          (s.a.)


Governors-general

20 May 1732 - 28 Nov 1784  Antoine Charles, chevalier de      (b. 1697 - d. 1784)
                             Grimaldi
28 Nov 1784 - 24 May 1785  Pierre Antoine Alexandre d'Adhémar (b. 1730 - d. 1785)
                            
de Lantagnac (acting)
1785 - 1786                Jean Pierre de Meyronnet, baron    (b. 1745 - d. 1817)
                             de Saint-Marc

1786 - 1787                Gaston François de Brueys,         (b. 1743 - d. 1806)
                             baron d'Aigalliers
1787 - 1789                Honoré Jérôme de Monléon           (b. 1730 - d. 1809)
1789 - 24 Feb 1793         Horace Michel-Ange Nicolas Marie   (b. 1751 - d. 1839)
                            
Pretti de Saint-Ambroise
                             (1st time) 
Maires (mayors) of Fort d'Hercule
24 Feb 1793 - 31 Mar 1793  Jean Michel Alexandre de
Millo     (b. 1719 - d. 1794)
                             (1st time)
31 Mar 1793 -  8 Apr 1793  Jean Louis Lanciarès (Lanciarez)   (b. 1738 - d. 1807)
                            
(1st time) (acting)
 8 Apr 1793 - May 1793    
Jean Michel Alexandre de Millo     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 3 May 1793 - Jan 1795     Louis Lanciarès (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Jan 1795 - 1796?           ... Rey
1796 - 1799                Joseph Barrière aîné (1st time)    (s.a.)

1800 - 1802                Epiphane François Bellando         (b. 1758 - d. 1827)
1802 - Feb 1804            Joseph Barrière aîné (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Feb 1804 - May 1814        Charles Antoine Louis Philippe    
(b. 1748 - d. 18..)
                             de Sigaldi 
Governors-general
and Presidents of the Council of State
17 Jun 1814 - 22 Dec 1828  Pierre Antoine Marie Louis         (s.a.)
                             Gonzague de Millo Terrazzani   

22 Dec 1828 - 1829         .... (acting)
1829 - 16 Jan 1839         Horace Michel-Ange Nicolas Marie   (s.a.)
                             Pretti de Saint-Ambroise
                             (2nd time)

16 Jan 1839 - 1839         .... (acting)
1839 - 18 Dec 1847         Charles-Athanase Rey, c
hevalier    (b. 1780 - d. 1871)  Mil
                             de Villarey
18 Dec 1847 - 26 Dec 1847  Adrien Marie Telespore Médecin    
(b. 1778 - d. 1847)  Mil
                             (acting)
27 Dec 1847 - 1855         Antoine Alexandre Bellando         (b. 1786 - d. 1877)  Mil
                             (interim)
1855 - May 1857            .... (acting)
May 1857 - 1862            Jean André Gustave Malmazet,       (b. 1800 - d. 1880)
                             comte de Saint-Andéol
21 May 1862 - 20 Jul 1874  Édouard, baron Imberty             (b. 1806 - d. 1874)
                             (acting to ... 1862)
20 Jul 1874 - 27 Feb 1875  Léonce Joseph
de Coye, chevalier   (b. 1804 - d. 1881)
                             de Castellet
(acting)
27 Feb 1875
- 14 Jan 1884  Charles Victor Émile de Boyer,     (b. 1825 - d. 1884)
                             baron de Sainte-Suzanne        
14 Jan 1884 -  7 Apr 1884  Marie Henri Louis Durand-Auzias    (b. 1834 - d. 1894)
                             (acting)
 7 Apr 1884 - 13 Jan 1887  François Flavien Alfred, baron     (b. 1829 - d. c.1906)
                             de Saint-Priest

13 Jan 1887 - 18 Feb 1895  Louis Marie Anatole de Véron,      (b. 1827 - d. 1904)
                             baron de Farincourt
18 Feb 1895 - 30 Jun 1906  Georges Marie Olivier Ritt         (b. 1830 - d. 1911)
 
1 Jul 1906 - Jan 1909     Pierre Silvain Edmond Henri Roger  (b. 1856 - d. 1939)
15 Dec 1908 - 30 Jun 1909  François Roussel-Despierres        (b. 1854 - d. 1940)
                             (acting [for Roger to Jan 1909])
 
1 Jul 1909 -  4 Feb 1911  Marc Gilbert Paul Hautefeuille     (b. 1852 - d. 1923)  
15 Oct 1910 -  8 Feb 1911  Cirgues Antoine Georges Jaloustre  (b. 1875 - d. 1922) 
                             (acting [for
Hautefeuille to 4 Feb 1911])    
Ministers of State

 8
Feb 1911 - 31 Dec 1917  Émile Flach                        (b. 1860 - d. 1959)  Non-party
 1 Jan 1918 - 22 Mar 1919  Cirgues Antoine Georges Jaloustre  (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting)
22 Mar 1919 - 30 Sep 1923  Raymond Joseph Marie Le Bourdon    (b. 1861 - d. 1937)  Non-party
 
1 Oct 1923 - 15 Jan 1932  Louis Eugène Maurice Piette        (b. 1871 - d. 1953)  Non-party
15 Jan 1932 - 13 Jun 1932  Honoré "Henry" Louis César Mauran  (b. 1876 - d. 1946)  Non-party
                            
(1st time) (acting)
14
Jun 1932 - 31 May 1937  Maurice Bouilloux-Lafont           (b. 1875 - d. 1937) 
Non-party
 
1 Jun 1937 - 31 Jul 1937  Honoré "Henry" Louis César Mauran  (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 
1 Aug 1937 - 20 Nov 1944  Émile Henri Roblot                 (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
 Non-party
                            
(absent from 29 Sep 1944)
 3 Sep 1944 - Oct 1944     Alfred Müller (in dissidence)                           FTP

                             (president of the Committee of Liberation)
29 Sep 1944 - 20 Nov 1944  Pierre Blanchy (acting for Roblot)                      Non-party
20 Nov 1944 - 31 Dec 1948  Pierre Charles Octave de Witasse   (b. 1878 - d. 1956)  Non-party
 
1 Jan 1949 - 11 Jul 1949  Pierre Blanchy (1st time) (acting)                      Non-party
12 Jul 1949 - 23 Jul 1950  Jacques Léon Rueff                 (b. 1896 - d. 1978)  Non-party
24 Jul 1950 -  8 Oct 1953  Pierre Jean Paul Voizard           (b. 1896 - d. 1982)  Non-party
17 Sep 1953 - 16 Nov 1953  Pierre Blanchy (2nd time)                               Non-party
                             (acting [for Voizard to 8 Oct 1953])
17 Nov 1953 - 31 Dec 1958  Henry Soum                         (b. 1899 - d. 1983
)  Non-party
 1 Jan 1959 - 31 Jan 1959
  Pierre Blanchy (3rd time) (acting)                      Non-party
 
1 Feb 1959 - 23 Jan 1962  Émile Amédée Pelletier             (b. 1898 - d. 1975)  Non-party
23 Jan 1962 - 16 Aug 1963  Pierre Blanchy (4th time) (acting)                      Non-party
16 Aug 1963 - 31 Dec 1966  Jean Émile André Reymond           (b. 1912 - d. 1986)  Non-party
 1 Jan 1967 - 31 Mar 1969  Paul Demange                       (b. 1906 - d. 1970)  Non-party
 1 Apr 1969 - 31 May 1972  François Didier Gregh              (b. 1906 - d. 1992)  Non-party
 1 Jun 1972 -  7 Jul 1981  André Saint-Mleux                  (b. 1920 - d. 2012)  Non-party
 
8 Jul 1981 - 15 Sep 1985  Jean Lucien Émile Herly            (b. 1920 - d. 1998)  Non-party
16 Sep 1985 - 17 Feb 1991  Jean Ausseil                       (b. 1925 - d. 2001)  Non-party
18 Feb 1991 -  1 Dec 1994  Jacques Pierre Dupont              (b. 1929 - d. 2002)  Non-party
 2 Dec 1994 -  2 Feb 1997  Paul Charles Louis Dijoud          (b. 1938)            Non-party
 3 Feb 1997 - 31 Dec 1999  Michel Lévêque                     (b. 1933)            Non-party
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 May 2005  Patrick André Leclercq             (b. 1938)            Non-party
 1 Jun 2005 - 28 Mar 2010  Jean-Paul Proust                   (b. 1940 - d. 2010)  Non-party
29 Mar 2010 - 31 Jan 2016  Michel Roger                       (b. 1949)            Non-party
16 Dec 2015 - 31 Jan 2016  Gilles Tonelli                     (b. 1957)            Non-party
                             (acting for Roger)
 1 Feb 2016 -              Serge Telle                        (b. 1955)            Non-party


Italian Consuls in Monaco
1940 - 1941                Antonio Sanfelice                  (b. 1904 - d. 1970)  PNF
1941 - 1943                Stanislao, marchese dei Lepri      (b. 1905 - d. 1980)  PNF
Commander of Italian forces (58th Infantry Division Legnano)
Nov 1942 -  9 Sep 1943     Vincenzo Cesare Dapino             (b. 1891 - d. 1957)
German Consul General

 5 Apr 1943 -  3 Sep 1944  Walter Hellenthal                  (b. 1896 - d. 1969)  NSDAP
Commanders of German forces
- 60th Panzergrenadier division Feldherrnhalle -
 9 Sep 1943 - Oct 1943    
Otto Kohlermann                    (b. 1896 - d. 1984)
- 715th Infantry -
 9 Sep 1943 -  5 Jan 1944  Kurt Hoffmann                      (b. 1890 - d. 1981)
 5 Jan 1944 - Feb 1944     Hans-Georg Hildebrandt             (b. 1896 - d. 1967)

- 148th Reserve division -
Feb 1944 - 20 Mar 1944     Otto Fretter-Pico                  (b. 1893 - d. 1966)
20 Mar 1944 -  3 Sep 1944  Otto Schönherr                     (b. 1888 - d. 1954)

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) 20 Sep 1331 - 14 Sep 1641: (in Latin) Dominus et signoriae de Monaco, (from 1346) Mentone et (from 1355) Roccabruna; (in Italian) Signore di Monaco, (from 1346) Mentone (from 1355) e Roccabruna ("Lord of Monaco, [from 1346] Menton [from 1355] and Roquebrunne");
(b) 14 Sep 1641 - 13 Jan 1793: Principe Sovrano di Monaco, Signore Sovrano di Mentone e Roccabruna ("Sovereign Prince of Monaco, Sovereign Lord of Menton and Roquebrunne");
(c) from
30 May 1814: Par la grâce de Dieu, Prince Souverain de Monaco ("by the grace of God, Sovereign Prince of Monaco").
  The dynastic name has been preserved through several changes in patrilineage: all males marrying female heirs to the principality (as i.e. the father of Rainier III) have changed their family name to Grimaldi. All princes since Jacques I carried the additional title of duc de Valentinois (from 18 Jul 1642), together with a very long list of other (actually extinct) titles: duc de Estouteville (from 23 Apr 1751), duc de Mazarin et de Mayenne (from 13 Dec 1826), prince de Château-Porcien (from 13 Dec 1826), marquis des Baux (from 14 Mar 1643), Chilly et Guiscard (from 13 Dec 1826), comte de Carladès (from 14 Mar 1643), Longjumeau, Thann, Belfort, Rosemont, Ferrette et de Thorigny (from 13 Dec 1826), baron de Calvinet (from 2 May 1642), Buis-les-Baronnies (from 23 Apr 1751), Hambie, Massy, Altkirch, Saint-Lô et de la Luthumière (from 13 Dec 1826), seigneur de Saint Rémy de Provence (from 23 May 1642) et Issenheim (from 13 Dec 1826) et sire di Matignon (from 23 Apr 1751).

Party abbreviations: UM = Union pour Monaco (Union for Monaco, centrist coalition incl. UNAM, est.2002); UNAM = Union Nationale pour l'Avenir de Monaco (National Union for the Future of Monaco, est.2002); UND = Union Nationale Démocratique (National Democratic Union, conservative, govt. majority 1963-1993, 1998-2003, renamed Rassemblement et Enjeux [Rally and Issues]); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: FTP = Francs-Tireurs et Partisans Français (French Irregular Riflemen and Partisans, communist dominated partisan resistance, 1940-1945); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi German fascist, xenophobic, 1920-1945); PNF = Partito Nazionale Fascista (National Fascist Party, Italian fascist, nationalist, authoritarian, 1921-27 Jul 1943, successor Partito Fascista Repubblicano)



Menton and Roquebrune 

[Republic of United Cities]
       21 Mar 1848 - 1 May 1849

Map of Menton
and Roquebrune
Capital: Menton
Statut Fondamental
(30 Apr 1848)

19 Apr 1346                Lordship of Mentone (Menton) acquired by Monaco
                             (acquisition completed 1491).
 2 Jan 1355                Roccabruna (Roquebrune) castle acquired by Monaco. 
13 Nov 1428                Submission to Milan for Mentone by hommage.
19 Dec 1448                Mentone and Roccabruna made a fief of Savoia.
14 Feb 1793 - 30 May 1814  Annexed to
France along with Monaco.
17 Jun 1814                Restored to the Principality of Monaco.
 4 Nov 1847 - 25 Nov 1847  Public unrest in Menton (put down by requested Sardinia-Piedmont
                            
intervention).

22 Feb 1848                Menton asks Sardinia-Piedmont for protection
 2 Mar 1848                Provisional government established in Menton.
21 Mar 1848                Menton and Roquebrune proclaim themselves free cities
                            (Città Libere di Mentone e Roccabruna/Villes Libres de Menton
                             et Roquebrune
) under Sardinian protection and Grimaldi dynasty
                             is deposed and then banned on 28 May 1848.
 3 Apr 1848                Menton occupied by Piedmont-Sardinia.
18 Sep 1848                Piedmont-Sardinia decrees that the cities temporarily are to be
                             governed according to Sardinian law.
 1 May 1849                Sardinia places Menton and Roquebrune administratively under
                             the intendant general of Nice.
10 Nov 1849                Annexed by Sardinia-Piedmont.
24 Mar 1860                County of Nice (including Menton and Roquebrune) ceded to
                             France by Sardinia-Piedmont (effective 14 Jun 1860).
 2 Feb 1861                Monaco cedes all rights to Menton and Roquebrune to France
                             (effective 12 Feb 1861).

Sardinian Commander
 4 Nov 1847 -  2 Mar 1848  Claudio Gonnet                     (b. 1795 - d. 1866)
President of the Commission

 2 Mar 1848 - 30 Apr 1848  Charles Trenca                     (b. 1801 - d. 1853) 
President of the Government
30 Apr 1848 - 15 Oct 1848  Charles Trenca                     (s.a.)
Sardinian Extraordinary Commissioner in Menton and Roquebrune
18 Sep 1848 -  1 Jan 1849  Paolo Onorato Vigliani             (b. 1814 - d. 1900)







©  Ben Cahoon