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Monaco
 
[Historical flag of Monaco,
                                    17th - 18th cent.]
             17th cent. - 14 Feb 1793
 

[France]
           14 Feb 1793 - 30 May 1814

[Monaco
                                    flag 1814-1881]
            30 May 1814 - 4 Apr 1881
[Monaco]
           Adopted 4 Apr 1881
 
Map of Monaco Hear National Anthem
"A Marcia de Muneghu"
(The March of Monaco
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1867 (Lyrics 1931)
Constitution
 (17 Dec 1962; in French)
Capital: Monaco Currency: Euro (EUR);
to 17 Feb 2002 French Franc (FRF); 1960-17 Feb 2002 Monaco
Nouveau Franc
National Holiday: 19 Nov (1857)
National Day
(Saint Rainier's Day)
Population: 30,500 (2013)
GDP: $5.74 billion (2011)
Exports: $802.4 million (2011)
Imports: $786.9 million (2011)
(full customs union with France)
Ethnic groups: French 45.8%, Monegasque 16.9%,
Italian (Ligurian) 17.2%, British 4.5%, Jewish 1.7%,
other 13.9% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: palace guard 82; police 500 (2012)
Defense is the Responsibility of France
Merchant marine: 64 ships (2010) 
Religions: Christian 93.2% (of which Roman Catholic 89.3%,
Protestant 3%), Jewish 1.7%, Muslim 0.45%,
nonreligious and other 4.65% (2000) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ANT, APM, BTWC, CCM, CE, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ITSO, ITU, KP, LU, NPT, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Monaco Index
Chronology

 6 Aug 1174                Sold to Genoa by Raimond VI Count of Toulouse
                             (claimant to county of Provence). 

30 May 1191                Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich VI grants suzerainty
                             over the area to the Genoa
(effective 2 Jul 1191,
                             confirmed
4 Oct 1220).
10 Jun 1215                First stone of the fortress is laid. 
22 Jul 1262                Genoese possession confirmed by count of Provence. 
 8 Jan 1297               
Francesco and Raniero Grimaldi seize the fortress.
 
4 May 1301 - 20 Sep 1331  Genoese rule.
19 Nov 1346                Grimaldi acquire Mentone (Menton).
 2 Jan 1355                Grimaldi acquire Roccabruna (Roquebrune). 
15 Aug 1357 - 11 May 1397  Genoese rule.
19 Dec 1395                Failed attempt to regain Monaco by Boglio (Beuil)
                             branch of the Grimaldi dynasty.
 5 Nov 1402 - May? 1419    Genoese rule.

 
6 Oct 1428 - 18 Mar 1436  Duchy of Milan rule.
14 Jan 1498 -  7 Jun 1524  Protectorate of France (confirmed 11 Jun 1507).
10 Dec 1506 - 22 Mar 1507  Under siege by Genoa.
20 Feb 1512                France recognizes sovereignty of Monaco, French
                             protectorate remains.

 7 Jun 1524 - 17 Nov 1641  Protectorate of Spain (ratified 5 Nov 1524; 
                             definitive from 10 Apr 1525).
14 Sep 1641                Principality of Monaco (sovereign 8 Jun 1688);
                             protectorate of France by Treaty of Péronne.
31 Dec 1688                Monaco recognized as prince étranger by France.
19 Jan 1793                National Convention declares the
Grimaldi dynasty
                             deposed;
République de Monaco.
14 Feb 1793 - 30 May 1814  Annexed to France; from 24 Feb 1793 part of
                             département Alpes-Maritimes (see Italian states).
22 Sep 1793                Monaco renamed Fort-Hercule.
12 May 1800 - 31 May 1800  Austro-Sardinian occupation.
17 Apr 1814                Provisional government established by revolt.
17 May 1814 - 17 Jun 1814  Austrian occupation.

30 May 1814                Principality of Monaco (restored) (effective
                             on 17 Jun 1814).

13 Mar 1815 - 20 Nov 1815  Anglo-Sardinian occupation.
20 Nov 1815 - 18 Jul 1860  Protectorate of Sardinia-Piedmont.
10 Nov 1849                Menton and Roquebrune annexed by Sardinia-Piedmont,
                             then by France 14 Jun 1860.

18 Jul 1860 - 24 Oct 2002  Protectorate of France (confirmed 17 Jul 1918).
16 Nov 1942 -  9 Sep 1943  Occupied by Italy.
 
9 Sep 1943 -  3 Sep 1944  Occupied by Germany.

Menton and
Roquebrune

(1848)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Lords¹
 8 Jan 1297 -  4 May 1301  Raniero Grimaldi (= Rainier I)     (b. c.1267 - d. 1314) 
 4 May 1301 - 20 Sep 1331  Genoese rule
20 Sep 1331 - Aug 1357     Carlo Grimaldi (= Charles I)       (b. 129. - d. 1357)
                           - jointly with the following -
20 Sep 1331 - 27 May 1357  Antonio (= Antoine)                (b. 129. - d. 1357)
Aug 1357 - 15 Aug 1357     Raniero II (= Rainier II)          (b. 132. - d. 1407)
15 Aug 1357 -
11 May 1397  Genoese rule
11 May 1397 -  5 Nov 1402  Giovanni (= Jean)                  (b. c.1350 - d. 1445)
                           - jointly with the following -
11 May 1397 -  5 Nov 1402  Luigi (= Louis)                    (
b. c.1360 - d. 1435)
 5 Nov 1402 - May? 1419    Genoese rule
May? 1419 - 13 May 1427    Ambrogio (= Ambroise)              (b. 137. - d. 1433)
                           - jointly with following - 
May? 1419 - 13 May 1427    Antonio (= Antoine)                (b. c.1380 - d. 1435)
May? 1419 -  6 Oct 1428    Giovanni I (= Jean I)(1st time)    (b. 1382 - d. 1454)
 
6 Oct 1428 - 18 Mar 1436  Milanese rule
18 Mar 1436 -  8 May 1454  Giovanni I (= Jean I)(2nd time)    (s.a.)
                            
(prisoner of Savoy Jan 1438-Sep/Oct 1440)
Jan 1438 - Sep/Oct 1440    Pomellina Fregoso (f) -Regent      (b. 1387/88 - d. 1462)
                             (1st time)
 8 May 1454 -  1 Jul 1457  Catalano (= Catalan)               (b. 1422 - d. 1457)

 
1 Jul 1457 - 16 Mar 1458  Claudina (= Claudine)(f) -Lady     (b. 1451 - d. 1515)
 
1 Jul 1457 - 16 Mar 1458  Pomellina Fregoso (f) -Regent      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
20 Oct 1457 - 16 Mar 1458  Lamberto Grimaldi -Regent          (b. 1414 - d. 1494)   
16 Mar 1458 - 15 Mar 1494  Lamberto (= Lambert)               (s.a.)
15 Mar 1494 - 11 Oct 1505  Giovanni II (= Jean II)            (b. 1468 - d. 1505)
11 Oct 1505 - 22 Aug 1523  Luciano (= Lucien)                 (b. 1481 - d. 1523)
22 Aug 1523 -  7 Oct 1581  Onorato I (= Honoré I)             (b. 1522 - d. 1581)
22 Aug 1523 - 14 Apr 1532  Agostino Grimaldi, vescovo         (b. 1479 - d. 1532)  
                             de Grasse -Regent        
14 Apr 1532 - Jun 1532     Bianca Grimaldi, baronessa         (b. 148. - d. 1540)
                             di Tourettes (f) -Regent 
Jun 1532 -  6 Dec 1540     Stefano Grimaldi, barone           (d. 1561)
                             di Bueil -Regent    
 7 Oct 1581 - 17 May 1589  Carlo II (= Charles II)            (b. 1555 - d. 1589)
17 May 1589 - 21 Nov 1604  Ercole (= Hercule)                 (b. 1562 - d. 1604)
21 Nov 1604 - 14 Sep 1641  Onorato II (= Honoré II)           (b. 1597 - d. 1662)
21 Nov 1604 - c.Feb 1616   Federico, principe Landi           (d. 1633)
                             di Valditaro
-Regent
Princes
¹
14 Sep 1641 - 10 Jan 1662  Onorato II (= Honoré II)           (s.a.)
10 Jan 1662 -  3 Jan 1701  Luigi (= Louis I)                  (b. 1642 - d. 1701)
 3 Jan 1701 - 20 Feb 1731  Antonio (= Antoine I)              (b. 1661 - d. 1731)
21 Feb 1731 - 29 Dec 1731  Luigia Ippolita -Princess          (b. 1697 - d. 1731)
                             (= Louise-Hippolyte)       
21 Feb 1731 -  8 Nov 1733  Giacomo I (= Jacques I)            (b. 1689 - d. 1751)
                             (regent to 29 Dec 1731) 
 8 Nov 1733 - 19 Jan 1793  Onorato III (= Honoré III)         (b. 1720 - d. 1795)
President of the National Convention
19 Jan 1793 - 24 Feb 1793  Joseph Barriera aîné
French Commandant
24 Feb 1793 -  1 Mar 1793  Armand Louis de Gontaut,           (b. 1747 - d. 1793)
                             duc de Lauzun
Commissioners of the French National Convention
 1 Mar 1793                Baptiste-Henri Grégoire            (b. 1750 - d. 1831)
                           + Grégoire Marie Jagot             (b. 1750 - d. 1838)
Provisional Administration
 4 Mar 1793 - May 1793     Paul Imberti
Austrian and Sardinian Commanders

12 May 1800 - 31 May 1800  cavaliere Fulchieri (commander)
                           + Hungher (commissioner)
President of the Provisional Government

17 Apr 1814 - 17 Jun 1814  Louis de Millo-Terrazzani   
Princes
¹
30 May 1814 - 16 Feb 1819  Honoré IV                          (b. 1758 - d. 1819)
17 Jun 1814 -  3 Mar 1815  Joseph Marie Jerôme Honoré         (b. 1763 - d. 1816)
                             Grimaldi -Regent 
 3 Mar 1815 - 16 Feb 1819  Honoré Grimaldi, duc de            (b. 1778 - d. 1841)
                             Valentinois -Regent
13 Mar 1815 - Jun 1815     Francis Burke -British commander
16 Feb 1819 -  2 Oct 1841  Honoré V                           (s.a.)
 2 Oct 1841 - 20 Jun 1856  Florestan I                        (b. 1785 - d. 1856)
20 Jun 1856 - 10 Sep 1889  Charles III                        (b. 1818 - d. 1889)
10 Sep 1889 - 26 Jun 1922  Albert I                           (b. 1848 - d. 1922)
26 Jun 1922 -  9 May 1949  Louis II                           (b. 1870 - d. 1949)
 9 May 1949 -  6 Apr 2005  Rainier III                        (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
31 Mar 2005 -  6 Apr 2005  Prince Albert -Regent              (b. 1958)
 6 Apr 2005 -              Albert II                          (s.a.)


Governors-general

20 May 1732 - 28 Nov 1784  Antoine, chevalier de Grimaldi     (b. 1697 - d. 1784)
1784 - 1785                Alexandre d'Adhémar de Lantagnac   (b. 1730 - d. 1785)
1785 - 178.                de Meyronnet de Saint-Marc
178. - 17..                Gaston-François de Brueys          (b. 1743 - d. 1806)
                             d'Aigalliers
178. - 17..                Honoré de Monléon
17.. - 1793                Horace Pretti de Saint-Ambroise    (b. 1751 - d. 1839)
Maires (mayors) of Fort-Hercule
24 Feb 1793 - 31 Mar 1793  L
ouis de Millo-Terrazzani          (b. 1719 - d. 1794)
                             (1st time)
31 Mar 1793 -  8 Apr 1793  Louis Lanciarès (Lanciarez)
                            
(1st time)(acting)
 8 Apr 1793 - May 1793     Louis de Millo-Terrazzani          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 3 May 1793 - Jan 1795     Louis Lanciarès (2nd time)
Jan 1796 - 1796?           ... Rey
1796 - 1799?               Joseph Barriera aîné (1st time)
Feb 1800 - 180.            Epiphane Bellando (agent municipal)
c.1802 - Feb 1804          Joseph Barriera aîné (2nd time)
Feb 1804 - May 1814        Antoine Sigaldi                    (b. 1783 - d. 1850)
President of the Provisional Government

17 Apr 1814 - 17 Jun 1814  Louis de Millo-Terrazzani   
Governors-general
17 Jun 1814 -  4 Mar 1819  Louis de Millo-Terrazzani   
1819 - 1828                ....
1828 - 1839                Horace Pretti de Saint-Ambroise    (s.a.)

1839 - 18 Dec 1847         Charles-Athanase Rey de Villarey   (b. 1780 - d. 1871)
18 Dec 1847 - 27 Dec 1847  Adrien Médecin (acting)
27 Dec 1847 - 23 Mar 1848  Antoine Bellando                   (b. 1786 - d. 18..)
Administrator-general
23 Mar 1848 - 20 Jun 1856  Charles Honoré Grimaldi            (s.a.)
                             (= Charles III)
Governors-general

1857 - 1863                Jean-André-Gustave Malmazet de     (b. 1800 - d. 18..)
                             Saint-Andéol
1863 - 20 Jul 1874         Édouard, baron Imberty             (b. 1806 - d. 1874)
20 Jul 1874 - 27 Feb 1875  chevalier de Castellet (acting)
27 Feb 1875 - 14 Jan 1884  Charles Victor Émile, baron de     (b. 1825 - d. 1884)
                             Boyer de Saint-Suzanne        
1884 - 1887                baron de Saint-Priest (acting)
1887 - 1895                Louis Marie Anatole de Véron,      (b. 1827 - d. 1904)
                             baron de Farincourt
1895 - 1906                Georges Marie Olivier Ritt         (b. 1830 - d. 1911)
1906 - 1909                Pierre Silvain Edmond Henri Roger  (b. 1856 - d. 1909)
Jul 1909 -  1 Feb 1911     Marc Gilbert Paul Hautefeuille     (b. 1852 - d. 1923)   
 1 Feb 1911 -  5 Feb 1911  Émile Flach                        (b. 1860 - d. 1959)
Ministers of state

 5 Feb 1911 - 31 Dec 1917  Émile Flach                        (s.a.)               Non-party
 1 Jan 1918 - Feb 1919     Georges Jaloustre (acting)         (b. 1875 - d. 1922)  Non-party
19 Feb 1919 - 11 Aug 1923  Raymond Joseph Marie Le Bourdon    (b. 1861 - d. 1937)  Non-party
11 Aug 1923 - Jan 1932     Louis Eugène Maurice Piette        (b. 1871 - d. 1953)  Non-party
Jan 1932 - Jun 1932        Henri Mauran (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1899 - d. 1983)  Non-party
Jun 1932 - Jun 1937        Maurice Bouilloux-Lafont           (b. 1875 - d. 1937)  Non-party
Jun 1937 - 10 Aug 1937     Henri Mauran (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)               Non-party
10 Aug 1937 - 29 Sep 1944  Émile Henri Roblot                 (b. 1886 - d. 1963)  Non-party
 3 Sep 1944 - Oct 1944     Alfred Müller (in dissidence)                           FTP
                             (president of Committee of Liberation)
29 Sep 1944 - 20 Nov 1944  Pierre Blanchy (1st time) (acting)                      Non-party
20 Nov 1944 - 31 Dec 1948  Pierre de Witasse                  (b. 18.. - d. 1956)  Non-party
 1 Jan 1949 - 12 Jul 1949  Pierre Blanchy (2nd time) (acting)                      Non-party
12 Jul 1949 -  1 Aug 1950  Jacques Léon Rueff                 (b. 1896 - d. 1978)  Non-party
 1 Aug 1950 -  2 Sep 1953  Pierre Jean Paul Voizard           (b. 1896 - d. 1982)  Non-party
 2 Sep 1953 - 15 Nov 1953  Pierre Blanchy (3rd time) (acting)   
15 Nov 1953 - 12 Feb 1959  Henry Soum                         (b. 1899 - d. 1983)  Non-party
12 Feb 1959 - 23 Jan 1962  Émile Amédée Pelletier             (b. 1898 - d. 1975)  Non-party
23 Jan 1962 - 16 Aug 1963  Pierre Blanchy (4th time) (acting)                      Non-party
16 Aug 1963 -  1 Jan 1967  Jean Émile André Reymond           (b. 1912 - d. 1986)  Non-party
 1 Jan 1967 -  1 Apr 1969  Paul Demange                       (b. 1906 - d. 1970)  Non-party
 1 Apr 1969 -  1 Jun 1972  François Didier Gregh              (b. 1906 - d. 1992)  Non-party
 1 Jun 1972 -  1 Jul 1981  André Saint-Mleux                  (b. 1920 - d. 2012)  Non-party
 1 Jul 1981 - 15 Sep 1985  Jean Lucien Émile Herly            (b. 1920 - d. 1998)  Non-party
16 Sep 1985 - 16 Feb 1991  Jean Ausseil                       (b. 1925 - d. 2001)  Non-party
16 Feb 1991 -  2 Dec 1994  Jacques Pierre Dupont              (b. 1929 - d. 2002)  Non-party
 2 Dec 1994 -  3 Feb 1997  Paul Charles Louis Dijoud          (b. 1938)            Non-party
 3 Feb 1997 -  1 Jan 2000  Michel Lévêque                     (b. 1933)            Non-party
 1 Jan 2000 -  1 Jun 2005  Patrick André Leclercq             (b. 1938)            Non-party
 1 Jun 2005 - 29 Mar 2010  Jean-Paul Proust                   (b. 1940 - d. 2010)  Non-party
29 Mar 2010 -              Michel Roger                       (b. 1949)            Non-party


Italian Consuls
1940 - 1941                Antonio San Felice
1941 - 1943                Stanislao, marchese Lepri          (b. 1905 - d. 1980)
Commander of the Italian forces (58th Infantry Division Legnano)
Nov 1942 -  9 Sep 1943     Vincenzo Cesare Dapino             (b. 1891 - d. 1957)
German Consul General

 5 Apr 1943 -  3 Sep 1944  Walter Hellenthal                  (b. 1896 - d. 1969)
Commanders of German forces
 
9 Sep 1943 - Oct 1943     Otto Kohlermann                    (b. 1896 - d. 1984)
                           (commander of 60th Panzergrenadier division Feldherrnhalle)
- 715th infantry -
 9 Sep 1943 -  5 Jan 1944  Kurt Hoffmann                      (b. 1890 - d. 1981)
 5 Jan 1944 - Feb 1944     Hans-Georg Hildebrandt             (b. 1896 - d. 1967)

- 148th reserve division -
Feb 1944 - 20 Mar 1944     Otto Fretter-Pico                  (b. 1893 - d. 1966)
20 Mar 1944 -  3 Sep 1944  Otto Schönherr                     (b. 1888 - d. 1954)

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) 20 Sep 1331 - 14 Sep 1641: Signori di Monaco, (from 1346) Mentone (from 1355) e Roccabruna ("Lord of Monaco, [from 1346] Menton [from 1355] and Roquebrunne");
(b) 14 Sep 1641 - 13 Jan 1793: Principe Sovrano di Monaco, Signore Sovrano di Mentone e Roccabruna ("Sovereign Prince of Monaco, Sovereign Lord of Menton and Roquebrunne");
(c) from
30 May 1814: Par la grâce de Dieu, Prince Souverain de Monaco ("by the grace of God, Sovereign Prince of Monaco").
  The dynastic name has been preserved through several changes in patrilineage: all males marrying female heirs to the principality (as i.e. the father of Rainier III) have changed their family name to Grimaldi. All princes since Jacques I carried the additional title of duc de Valentinois, together with a very long list of other (actually extinct) titles (duc de Estouteville, duc de Mazarin et de Mayenne, prince de Château-Porcien, marquis des Baux, Chilly et Guiscard, comte de Carladès, Longjumeau, Thann, Belfort, Rosemont, Ferrette et de Thorigny, baron de Calvinet, Buis-les-Baronnies, Hambie, Massy, Altkirch, Saint-Lô et de la Luthumière, seigneur de Saint Rémy de Provence et Issenheim et sire di Matignon).

Party abbreviations: UM = Union pour Monaco (Union for Monaco, centrist coalition incl. UNAM, est.2002); UNAM = Union Nationale pour l'Avenir de Monaco (National Union for the Future of Monaco, est.2002); UND = Union Nationale Démocratique (National Democratic Union, conservative, govt. majority 1963-1993, 1998-2003);
- Former parties: FTP = Francs-Tireurs et Partisans Français (French Irregular Riflemen and Partisans, communist dominated partisan resistance, 1940-1945)



Menton and Roquebrune 

[Republic of United Cities]
       21 Mar 1848 - 1 May 1849

Map of Menton & Roquebrune
Capital: Menton
Statut Fondamental
(30 Apr 1848)

19 Apr 1346                Lordship of Mentone (Menton) acquired by Monaco
                             (acquisition completed 1491).
 2 Jan 1355                Roccabruna (Roquebrune) castle acquired by Monaco. 
13 Nov 1428                Submission to Milan for Mentone by hommage.
19 Dec 1448                Mentone and Roccabruna made a fief of Savoia.
14 Feb 1793 - 30 May 1814  Annexed to
France along with Monaco.
17 Jun 1814                Restored to the Principality of Monaco.
 4 Nov 1847 - 25 Nov 1847  Public unrest in Menton (put down by requested Sardinia-Piedmont
                            
intervention).

22 Feb 1848                Menton asks Sardinia-Piedmont for protection
 2 Mar 1848                Provisional government established in Menton.
21 Mar 1848                Menton and Roquebrune proclaim themselves free cities
                            (Città Libere di Mentone e Roccabruna/Villes Libres de Menton
                             et Roquebrune
) under Sardinian protection and Grimaldi dynasty
                             is deposed and then banned on 28 May 1848.
 3 Apr 1848                Menton occupied by Piedmont-Sardinia.
18 Sep 1848                Piedmont-Sardinia decrees that the cities temporarily are to be
                             governed according to Sardinian law.
 1 May 1849                Sardinia places Menton and Roquebrune administratively under
                             the intendant general of Nice.
10 Nov 1849                Annexed by Sardinia-Piedmont.
24 Mar 1860                County of Nice (including Menton and Roquebrune) ceded to
                             France by Sardinia-Piedmont (effective 14 Jun 1860).
 2 Feb 1861                Monaco cedes all rights to Menton and Roquebrune to France
                             (effective 12 Feb 1861).

Sardinian Commander
 4 Nov 1847 -  2 Mar 1848  Claudio Gonnet                     (b. 1795 - d. 1866)
President of the Commission

 2 Mar 1848 - 30 Apr 1848  Charles Trenca                     (b. 1801 - d. 1853) 
President of the Government
30 Apr 1848 - 15 Oct 1848  Charles Trenca                     (s.a.)
Sardinian Extraordinary Commissioner
15 Oct 1848 - 1849?        Paolo Onorato Vigliani             (b. 1814 - d. 1900)







©  Ben Cahoon