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Roman Empire
 

[Rome
                          Traditional Flag - SPQR]
       Rome Traditional Flag

 
[Western Roman
                          Empire flag]
        Western Roman Empire flag  
 

Maps of the Roman Empire
Capital: Rome (Roma)
(Gallic Empire - Colonia Agrippina 260-261, Augusta Treverorum  261-674;
Western - Constantinople
  [Constantinopolis] 303-395,
Rome 395-303, Ravenna 402-473,
 Mediolanum
286-402;
Eastern - Nicomedia 286-330,
Constantinople [Constantinopolis]
 395-1453)

Currency (from 50 BC):
Aureus and
Denarius
Population: 223 million
(2nd Cent. AD)

56,800,000 (25 BC est.)
Roman
Empire
Chronology

753 BC                     Roman Kingdom (Regnum Romanum) founded.
508 BC                     Roman Republic (Res Publica Romana); overthrow of the last
                             King (Rex Romae) Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (d. 495 BC).

18 Jul 390 BC              Sack of Rome by the Senone Gauls.
290 BC                     The last Samnite resistance crushed.
264 BC                     Etruscan lands annexed by Rome.
238 BC                     Sardinia and Corsica annexed by Rome.
241 BC                     Sicilia (Sicily) annexed to Rome.
 
2 Aug 216 BC              Battle of Cannae, the Carthaginians under Hannibal,
                             decisively defeat a larger army of the Rome under the
                             Consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius
                             Varro.

197 BC                     Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior (Iberia) provinces
                             organized by Rome.
146 BC                     Macedonia, Epirus, and Achaia annexed to Rome.
Spring 146 BC              Battle of Carthage, Rome finally defeats C
arthage.
133 BC                     Pergamon annexed to Rome as the province of Asia.
121 BC                     Gallia Narbonensis (Southern Gaul) annexed to Rome.
74 BC                      Bithynia annexed by Rome.
71 BC                      Third Servile War - slaves in rebellion are decisively
                             defeated by Roman forces near Petelia. Their leader
                             Spartacus (Spártakos) is killed.
64 BC                      Syria annexed by Rome.
58 BC                      Cyprus annexed by Rome.
10 Jan 49 BC               Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon River (the frontier
                             boundary of Italy) with a single legion, the Legio
                             XIII Gemina, igniting a civil war, which he wins
                             becoming Dictator in Oct 49 BC and in 1 Jan 44 BC Consul.
46 BC                      Odrysia incorporated into Rome as province of Thracia.
15 Mar 44 BC               Assassination of Gaius Julius Caesar (b. 100 BC - d 44 BC).
 2 Sep 31                  Octavian defeats the combined forces of Marc Antony and
                             Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt at the Battle of Actium.
30 BC                      Egypt is annexed by Rome as province of Aegyptus.
29 BC                      Moesia annexed by Rome.
17 Jan 27 BC               Roman Empire (Imperium Romanum), Octavian is granted the
                             titles augustus
, majestic, and princeps, by the Senate.
c.Sep 9 AD                 At Battle of the Teutoburg Forest an alliance of Germanic
                             tribes decisively destroys three Roman legions.
18 AD                      Cappadocia (client kingdom 95 BC - 18 AD) annexed by Rome.
40 AD                      Mauretania (client kingdom 33 BC - 40 AD) annexed by Rome.
43 AD                      Britain (south of Firth of Forth)
invaded annexed by Rome.
44 AD                      Judea (client kingdom 63 BC - 44 AD) annexed by Rome.
62 AD                      Pontus annexed by Rome.
18 Jul 64 AD               Great Fire of Rome, which Nero blames on the Christians.
24 Aug 79 AD               Eruption of Mount Vesuvius destroys Pompeii.
80 AD                      Rome is partially destroyed by fire.
22 Mar 106 AD              Nabatea annexed by Rome as province of Arabia Petraea.
107 AD                     Dacia organized as province of Rome.
115 AD - 117 AD            Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia annexed by Rome.         
Sep 260 - Feb/Mar 274      "Gallic Empire" (Imperium Galliarum) in territories of
                             Germania, Gaul, Britannia, and (for a time) Hispania.
269 - Aug 272              Palmyrene Empire under Zenobia (f) occupies Syria
                             Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, Egypt, and parts of
                             Asia Minor.
 1 Mar 293 - Jul/Aug 313   Period of the tetrarchy.
28 Oct 312                 Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Emperor Constantine I
                             defeats
Emperor Maxentius.
Feb 313                    Emperor Constantine I decrees
official toleration of
                            
Christianity and other religions by the Edict of Milan
                             (Edictum Mediolanense).

11 May 330                 Emperor Constantine moves the capital of the Roman
                             Empire to Constantinople (Constantinopolis/
                             Konstantinoúpolis), formerly named Byzantium (Byzántion),
                             officially called New Rome (Nova Roma [Néa Rómi]).
337 - 340                  Empire divided into three parts by Emperor Constantine's
                             sons following his death.
376                        Fleeing the Huns, the Goths crossed the Danube River and
                             enter the Eastern Empire as political refugees. In
                             382 the Goths are made foederati of the Empire.
27 Feb 380                 Christianity is adopted as the state religion by Emperors
                             Theodosius I, Gratian, and Valentinian II in the Edict
                             of Thessalonica.
17 Jan 395                 Roman Empire is divided de jure into the Eastern Roman
                             (Byzantine) Empire, at Constantinople, and Western
                             Roman Empire, at Rome.

402                        Capital of the Western Roman Empire is moved to Ravenna.
24-27 Aug 410              V
isigoths, led by Alareiks (Alaric I), sack Rome.
410                        The last Roman forces left Britain.
 2-16 Jun 455              Vandals and Alani, led by
Genseric (Gaiseric), sack Rome.
28 Feb 456 - 18 Aug 472    Flavius Ricimer (b. 405 - d. 472), a Romanized Germanic
                             general, effectively rules the remaining territory of
                             the Western Roman Empire as magister militum.
28 Aug 475 - 28 Aug 476    Orestes (d. 479) magister militum takes control of
                             Ravenna and appoints his son,
Romulus Augustus, as
                             Emperor 31 Oct 475.
 
4 Sep 476                 Last Emperor in the West, Romulus Augustus, is forced
                             to abdicate by Odovacar (see under Italy). The Senate
                             sends Eastern Emper Zeno the imperial regalia of the
                             Western Roman Empire.
25 Apr 480                
Julius Nepos, the last Emperor pretender in the West, is
                             assassinated in Dalmatia.




 
 

 
 
 
 
 


Emperors¹ (title Princeps Senatus to 275 AD, then Imperator Caesar)
17 Jan 27 BC-19 Aug 14 AD  Augustus (= Octavian)                  (b. 63 BC - d. 14 AD)
18 Sep 14 - 16 Mar 37      Tiberius                               (b. 42 BC - d. 37 AD)
18 Mar 37 - 24 Jan 41      Caligula                               (b. 12 - d. 41)
25 Jan 41 - 13 Oct 54      Claudius                               (b. 10 BC - d. 54 AD)
13 Oct 54 -  9 Jun 68      Nero                                   (b. 37 - d. 68)
 8 Jun 68 - 15 Jan 69      Galba                                  (b. 3 BC - d. 69 AD)
15 Jan 69 - 16 Apr 69      Otho                                   (b. 32 - d. 69)
17 Apr 69 - 20 Dec 69      Vitellius                              (b. 15 - d. 69)
21 Dec 69 - 23 Jun 79      Vespasian                              (b. 9 - d. 79)
23 Jun 79 - 13 Sep 81      Titus                                  (b. 39 - d. 81)
14 Sep 81 - 18 Sep 96      Domitian                               (b. 51 - d. 96)
18 Sep 96 - 27 Jan 98      Nerva                                  (b. 30 - d. 98)
28 Jan 98 -  8 Aug 117     Trajan                                 (b. 53 - d. 117)
10 Aug 117 - 10 Jul 138    Hadrian                                (b. 76 - d. 138)
10 Jul 138 -  7 Mar 161    Antoninus Pius                         (b. 86 - d. 161)
 7 Mar 161 - Mar 169       Lucius Verus -Co-ruler                 (b. 130 - d. 169)
 7 Mar 169 - 17 Mar 180    Marcus Aurelius                        (b. 121 - d. 180)
27 Nov 176 - 31 Dec 192    Commodus (co-ruler to 17 Mar 180)      (b. 161 - d. 192)
 1 Jan 193 - 28 Mar 193    Pertinax                               (b. 125 - d. 193)
28 Mar 193 -  1 Jun 193    Didius Julianus                        (b. 133/37 - d. 193)
 9 Apr 193 -  4 Feb 211    Septimius Severus                      (b. 145 - d. 211)
198 -  8 Apr 217           Caracalla (co-ruler to 4 Feb 211)      (b. 188 - d. 217)
210 - 26 Dec 211           Geta -Co-ruler                         (b. 189 - d. 211)
11 Apr 217 -  8 Jun 218    Marcrinus                              (b. c.165 - d. 218)
May 217 - 218              Diadumenian -Co-ruler                  (b. 208 - d. 218)
 8 Jun 218 - 11 Mar 222    Elagabalus (Heliogabalus)              (b. c.201 - d. 211)
11 Mar 222 - 19 Mar 235    Severus Alexander                      (b. 208 - d. 235)
20 Mar 235 - Jun 238       Maximinus I "Thrax"                    (b. c.137 - d. 235)
22 Mar 238 - 12 Apr 238    Gordian I -Co-ruler                    (b. c.159 - d. 238)
22 Mar 238 - 12 Apr 238    Gordian II -Co-ruler                   (b. c.192 - d. 238)
22 Apr 238 - 29 Jul 238    Pupienus Maximus  -Co-ruler            (b. c.165 - d. 238)
22 Apr 238 - 29 Jul 238    Balbinus -Co-ruler                     (b. c.178 - d. 238)
22 Apr 238 - 11 Feb 244    Gordian III  (co-ruler to 219 Jul 238) (b. 225 - d. 244)
Feb 244 - Sep/Oct 249      Marcus Julius Philippus "Arabus"       (b. c.204 - d. 249)
Sep/Oct 249 - Jun 251      Trajan Decius                          (b. c.201 - d. 249)
251 - Jun 251              Herennius Etruscus -Co-ruler           (b. c.227 - d. 521)
Jun 251 - late 251         Hostilian                              (b. 230? - d. 521)
Jun 251 - Aug 253          Trebonianus Gallus (co-ruler to 251)   (b. 206 - d. 253)
251 - Aug 253              Volusianus (Volusian) -Co-ruler        (d. 253)
Aug 253 - Oct 253          Aemilianus (Aemilian)                  (b. 207/13 - d. 253)
Oct 253 - 260              Valerian (Valerianus)                  (b. c.193 - d. 260/64)
Oct 253 - Sep 268          Gallienus (Gallien) (co-ruler to 260)  (b. c.218 - d. 268)
260                        Saloninus -Co-ruler                    (b. c.242 - d. 260)
Sep 260 - 269              Postumus (in rebellion, in Gaul)       (d. 269)
Sep 268 - Jan 270          Claudius II "Gothicus"                 (b. 213 - d. 270)

269                        Marcus Aurelius Marius                 (d. 269)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)
Feb 269 - Jun 269          Laelianus                              (d. 269)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)
269 - 270                  Victorinus                             (d. 271)

                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)
Jan 270 - Sep? 270         Quintillus                             (b. c.212 - d. 270)

Sep? 270 - Sep 275         Aurelian                               (b. 214 - d. 275)
271                        Domitianus II                          (d. c.271)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)
271 - Feb/Mar 274         
Tetricus I (in rebellion, in Gaul)
273 - Feb/Mar 274          Tetricus II
                             (co-ruler in rebellion, in Gaul)
25 Sep 275 - Jun 276       Tacitus                                (b. c.200 - d. 276)

Jun 276 - Sep? 276         Florianus (Florian)                    (d. 276)
Sep? 276 - Sep/Oct 282     Probus                                 (b. 232 - d. 282)
Sep/Oct 282 - Jul/Aug 283  Carus                                  (b. c.230 - d. 283)
282 - 20 Nov 284           Numerian (co-ruler to Jul/Aug 283)     (d. 284)
282 - 285                  Carinus (co-ruler to 20 Nov 284)       (d. 285)
20 Nov 284 -  1 May 305    Diocletian (Diocles)                   (b. 244 - d. 312)
                             (in opposition to Carinus to 285)
 1 Apr 286 -  1 May 305    Maximian -Co-ruler                     (b. c.250 - d. 310)
 1 May 305 - 25 Jul 306    Constantius I "Chlorus"                (b. 250 - d. 306)
 1 May 305 - May 311       Galerius                               (b. c.260 - d. 311)
305 - Mar/Apr 307          Severus II -Co-ruler                   (d. 307)
25 Jul 306 - 22 May 337    Constantine I "the Great"              (b. 272 - d. 337)
                             (Konstantínos "ó Mégas")
28 Oct 306 - 28 Oct 312    Maxentius (in dissidence)              (b. c.372 - d. 312)
                             (in competition with Severus, then Galerius then Constantine
                             – jointly with his father Maximian 306-308)
 1 May 311 - Jul/Aug 313   Maximinus II                           (b. c.270 - d. 313)
                             (in east, in competition with Licinius)
11 Nov 308 - 18 Sep 324    Licinius I                             (b. c.263 - d. 324)
                             (to 311 in the west, with Galerius in the east;
                             311–313 in the west, with Maximinus in the east;
                             from 313 in the east, with Constantine in the west,
                             in 314 and 324 in competition with him)
316 -  1 Mar 317           Aurelius Valerius Valens               (d. 317)
                             (co-ruler with Licinius)
Jul 324 - 18 Sep 324       Martinian                              (d. 325)
                             (nominally in the west, with Licinius in the east)
22 May 337 - 340           Constantine II                         (b. 316 - d. 340)
                             (Caesar Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus)
                             (in the west under his father Constantine I;
                             337 – 340 joint emperor with Constantius II and
                             Constans, over Gaul, Hispania, and Britannia; in
                             340 in failed competition with Constans)
22 May 337 -  3 Nov 361    Constantius II                          (b. 317 - d. 361)
                             (Caesar Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus)
                             (13 Nov 324 – 22 May 337 co-ruler under his father, Constantine I
                             337 – 340 co-ruler in Asian provinces & Egypt with Constantine II
                             and Constans; 340 – 350: co-ruler ruled Asian provinces
                             and Egypt with Constans)
22 May 337 - Feb 350       Constans I                              (b. c.323 - d. 350)
                             (337–350, jointly with Constantine II until 340 and Constantius II)
18 Jan 350 - 11 Aug 353    Magnentius (usurper)                    (b. 303 - d. 353)
 1 Mar 350 - 25 Dec 350    Vetranio                                (d. c.356)
 6 Nov 350 - 26 Jun 363    Julian "the Apostate"                   (b. 331/32 - d. 363)
26 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364    Jovian                                  (b. 331 - d. 364)
26 Feb 364 - 17 Nov 375    Valentinian I "the Great"               (b. 321 - d. 375)
28 Mar 364 -  9 Aug 378    Valens                                  (b. 328 – d. 378)
                             (in the east, with his brother Valentinian I in the west; 
                             from 17 Nov 375 in the east, with his nephews Gratian
                             and Valentinian II as emperors of the west)
24 Aug 367 - 25 Aug 383    Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus)  (b. 359 - d. 383)
                             (to 17 Nov 375 junior in the west under his father;
                             17 Nov 375 – 9 Aug 378 senior in the west, with his
                             brother as junior; 9 Aug 378 – 19 Jan 379 senior of
                             the whole empire, with his brother; from 19 Jan 379
                             senior in the west with his brother)
22 Nov 375 - 15 May 392    Valentinian II                        (b. 371 - d. 392)
                             (co-emperor for the west with Gratian)
 1 Jan 379 - 17 Jan 395    Theodosius I "the Great"              (b. 347 - d. 395)
                             (emperor in the east to 15 May 392)
Jan 383 -  1 May 408       Arcadius (= Arkádios)                 (b. 377 - d. 408)
                             (co-ruler to 17 Jan 395, from 17 Jan 395 emperor in the east,
                             with his brother Honorius emperor in the west)
383 - 28 Aug 388           Magnus Maximus                        (b. c.355 - d. 388)
                             (in rebellion to 384, then emperor in Britannia and Gaul)    
384 - 28 Aug 388           Victor                                (d. 388)
                             (co-ruler with his father Magnus Maximus in Britannia and Gaul)
23 Jan 393 - 15 Aug 423    Honorius                              (b. 384 - d. 423)
                             (co-ruler to 17 Jan 395)
407 - 18 Sep 411           Constantine III                       (d. 411)
                             (in dissidence to 409, then co-emperor with Honorius and Constans II)
407 - c.18 Sep 411         Constans II -Co-ruler                 (d. 411)
                             (to 409 under Constantine III; from 409 with Constantine III
                             against Honorius)
 8 Feb 421 -  2 Sep 421    Constantius III
-Co-ruler             (d. 421)
15 Aug 423 - 20 Nov 423    Vacant
20 Nov 423 -
May 425       Joannes (in rebellion)                (d. 425)
23 Oct 424 - 16 Mar 455    Valentinian III                       (b. 419 - d. 455)
17 Mar 455 - 31 May 455    Petronius Maximus                     (b. c.396 - d. 455)
31 May 455 -  9 Jul 455    Vacant
 9 Jul 455 - 17 Oct 456   
Avitus                                (b c.380 - d. 457?)
17 Oct 456 -  1 Apr 457    Vacant
 1 Apr 457 -  2 Aug 461    Majorian                              (b. c.420 - d. 461)
 2 Aug 461 - 19 Nov 461    Vacant
19 Nov 461 - 15 Aug 465    Libius Severus                        (b. c.420 - d. 465)
15 Aug 465 - 12 Apr 467    Vacant
12 Apr 467 - 11 Jul 472    Anthemius                             (b. c.420 - d. 472)
11 Jul 472-23 Oct/2Nov 472 Olybrius                              (d. 472)
Oct/Nov 472 -  3 Mar 473   Vacant
 3 Mar 473 - Jun 474       Glycerius                             (b. c.420 - d. af.480)
Jun 474 - 28 Aug 475       Julius Nepos                          (b. c.430 - d. 480)
                             (continues ruling in Gaul and Dalmatia to 25 Apr 480)
28 Aug 475 - 31 Oct 475    Vacant
31 Oct 475 -  4 Sep 476    Romulus Augustus                      (b. c.460 - d. c.480)


 ¹Style of the rulers:
(a) 27 BC - 275 AD: Princeps Senatus ("First [Head] of the Senate");
(b) 275 AD - 4 Sep 475 AD: Imperator Caesar ("Emperor, Caesar")






© Ben Cahoon