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Roman Empire
 

[Rome
                          Traditional Flag - SPQR]
       Rome Traditional Flag

 
[Western Roman
                          Empire flag]
        Western Roman Empire flag  
 

Maps of the Roman Empire
Capital: Rome (Roma)
(Gallic Empire - Colonia Agrippina 260-261, Augusta Treverorum  261-674;
Western - Constantinople
  [Constantinopolis] 303-395,
Rome 395-303, Ravenna 402-473,
 Mediolanum
286-402;
Eastern - Nicomedia 286-330,
Constantinople [Constantinopolis]
 395-1453)

Currency: Aureus and
Denarius
Population: 223 million
(2nd Cent. AD)

56,800,000 (25 BC est.)
Roman
Empire
Chronology

508 BC                     Roman Republic (Res Publica Romana), overthrow of
                             King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (d. 495 BC).

 
2 Aug 216 BC              Battle of Cannae, Carthaginians defeat the Romans.
Spring 146 BC              Battle of Carthage, Rome finally defeats C
arthage.
15 Mar 44 BC               Assassination of Julius Caesar.
10 Jan 49 BC               Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon River (the frontier
                             boundary of Italy) with a single legion, the Legio
                             XIII Gemina, and ignites civil war.
 2 Sep 31                  Octavian defeats the combined forces of Marc Antony and
                             Cleopatra VII at the Battle of Actium.
17 Jan 27 BC               Roman Empire (Imperium Romanum), Octavian is granted
                             titles augustus, majestic, and princeps, by the Senate

Sep 9 AD                   Battle of the Teutoburg Forest an alliance of Germanic
                             tribes decisively destroys three Roman legions.
18 Jul 64 AD               Great Fire of Rome, which Nero blames on Christians.
24 Aug 79 AD               Eruption of Mount Vesuvius destroys Pompeii.
Sep 260 - Feb/Mar 274      "Gallic Empire" (Imperium Galliarum) in territories of
                             Germania, Gaul, Britannia, and (for a time) Hispania.
269 - Aug 272              Palmyrene Empire under Zenobia (f) occupies Syria
                             Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, Egypt, and parts of
                             Asia Minor.
 1 Mar 293 - Jul/Aug 313   Period of the tetrarchy.
28 Oct 312                 Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Emperor Constantine I
                             defeats
Emperor Maxentius.
Feb 313                    Emperor Constantine I decrees
official toleration of
                            
Christianity and other religions by the Edict of Milan
                             (Edictum Mediolanense).
20 May 325                 First Council of Nicaea ecumenical council called by
                            
Emperor Constantine.
11 May 330                 Emperor Constantine moves the capital of the Roman
                             Empire to Constantinople (Constantinopolis/
                             Konstantinoúpolis), formerly named Byzantium (Byzántion),
                             officially called New Rome (Nova Roma [Néa Rómi]).
337 - 340                  Empire divided into three parts by Emperor Constantine's
                             sons following his death.
376                        Fleeing the Hunns, the Goths crossed the Danube and
                             entered the eastern Empire as political refugees. In
                             382 the Goths are made foederati of the Empire.
27 Feb 380                 Christianity adopted as the state religion by Emperors
                             Theodosius I, Gratian, and Valentinian II in the Edict
                             of Thessalonica.
17 Jan 395                 Roman Empire is divided de jure into the Eastern Roman
                             (Byzantine) Empire, at Constantinople, and Western
                             Roman Empire, at Rome.

402                        Capital of the Western Roman Empire is moved to Ravenna.
24-27 Aug 410              V
isigoths led by Alareiks (Alaric I) sack Rome.
 2-16 Jun 455              Vandals and Alani led by
Genseric (Gaiseric) sack Rome.
28 Feb 456 - 18 Aug 472    Flavius Ricimer (b. 405 - d. 472), a Romanized Germanic
                             general, effectively rules the remaining territory of
                             the Western Roman Empire as magister militum.
28 Aug 475 - 28 Aug 476    Orestes (d. 479) magister militum takes control of
                             Ravenna and appoints his son,
Romulus Augustus, as
                             Emperor 31 Oct 475.
 
4 Sep 476                 Last Emperor in the West, Romulus Augustus, is forced
                             to abdicate by Odovacar (see under Italy).
25 Apr 480                
Julius Nepos, the last Emperor pretender in the West, is
                             assassinated in Dalmatia.




 
 

 
 
 
 
 


Emperors¹ (title Princeps Senatus to 275 AD, then Imperator Caesar)
17 Jan 27 BC-19 Aug 14 AD  Avgvstvs (Augustus)                    (b. 63 BC - d. 14 AD)
                             (= Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus)  
                             (Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius)
18 Sep 14 - 16 Mar 37      Tiberivs (Tiberius)                    (b. 42 BC - d. 37 AD)
                             (= Tiberius Claudius Nero)
                             (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti Filius Avgustus)
18 Mar 37 - 24 Jan 41      Caligvla (Caligula)                    (b. 12 - d. 41)
                             (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus)
25 Jan 41 - 13 Oct 54      Clavdivs (Claudius)                    (b. 10 BC - d. 54 AD)
                             (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus)
13 Oct 54 -  9 Jun 68      Nero                                   (b. 37 - d. 68)
                             (Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus)
 8 Jun 68 - 15 Jan 69      Galba                                  (b. 3 BC - d. 69 AD)
                             (Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus)
15 Jan 69 - 16 Apr 69      Otho                                   (b. 32 - d. 69)
                             (Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus)
17 Apr 69 - 20 Dec 69      Vitellius                              (b. 15 - d. 69)
                             (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus)
21 Dec 69 - 23 Jun 79      Vespasian                              (b. 9 - d. 79)
                             (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus)
23 Jun 79 - 13 Sep 81      Titus                                  (b. 39 - d. 81)
                             (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus)
14 Sep 81 - 18 Sep 96      Domitian                               (b. 51 - d. 96)
                             (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus)
18 Sep 96 - 27 Jan 98      Nerva (Marcus Cocceius Nerva)          (b. 30 - d. 98)
                             (Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus)
28 Jan 98 -  8 Aug 117     Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Traianus)        (b. 53 - d. 117)
                             (Caesar Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus Augustus)
10 Aug 117 - 10 Jul 138    Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus)     (b. 76 - d. 138)
                             (Caesar Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus)
10 Jul 138 -  7 Mar 161    Antoninus Pius                         (b. 86 - d. 161)
                             (Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius)
 7 Mar 161 - Mar 169       Lucius Verus -Co-ruler                 (b. 130 - d. 169)
                             (Caesar Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus)
 7 Mar 169 - 17 Mar 180    Marcus Aurelius                        (b. 121 - d. 180)
                             (= Marcus Catilius Severus Annius Verus)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus)
27 Nov 176 - 31 Dec 192    Commodus (co-ruler to 17 Mar 180)      (b. 161 - d. 192)
                             (= Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus)
 1 Jan 193 - 28 Mar 193    Pertinax                               (b. 125 - d. 193)
                             (Caesar Publius Helvius Pertinax Augustus)
28 Mar 193 -  1 Jun 193    Didius Julianus                        (b. 133/37 - d. 193)
                             (Caesar Marcus Didius Severus Julianus Augustus)
 9 Apr 193 -  4 Feb 211    Septimius Severus                      (b. 145 - d. 211)
                             (Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus)
198 -  8 Apr 217           Caracalla (co-ruler to 4 Feb 211)      (b. 188 - d. 217)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Pius Augustus)
210 - 26 Dec 211           Geta -Co-ruler                         (b. 189 - d. 211)
                             (Caesar Publius Septimius Geta Augustus)
11 Apr 217 -  8 Jun 218    Marcrinus                              (b. c.165 - d. 218)
                             (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus Pius Felix)
May 217 - 218              Diadumenian -Co-ruler                  (b. 208 - d. 218)
                             (Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus Augustus)
 8 Jun 218 - 11 Mar 222    Elagabalus (Heliogabalus)              (b. c.201 - d. 211)
                             (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus)
11 Mar 222 - 19 Mar 235    Severus Alexander                      (b. 208 - d. 235)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus)
20 Mar 235 - Jun 238       Maximinus I "Thrax"                    (b. c.137 - d. 235)
                             (Caesar Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus)
22 Mar 238 - 12 Apr 238    Gordian I -Co-ruler                    (b. c.159 - d. 238)
                             (Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Africanus Augustus)
22 Mar 238 - 12 Apr 238    Gordian II -Co-ruler                   (b. c.192 - d. 238)
                             (Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus)
22 Apr 238 - 29 Jul 238    Pupienus Maximus  -Co-ruler            (b. c.165 - d. 238)
                             (Caesar Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Augustus)
22 Apr 238 - 29 Jul 238    Balbinus -Co-ruler                     (b. c.178 - d. 238)
                             (Caesar Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Pius Augustus)
22 Apr 238 - 11 Feb 244    Gordian III  (co-ruler to 219 Jul 238) (b. 225 - d. 244)
                             (Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Augustus)
Feb 244 - Sep/Oct 249      Marcus Julius Philippus                (b. c.204 - d. 249)
                             "Philippus Arabus"
                             (Caesar Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus)
Sep/Oct 249 - Jun 251      Trajan Decius                          (b. c.201 - d. 249)
                             (Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus)
251 - Jun 251              Herennius Etruscus -Co-ruler           (b. c.227 - d. 521)
                             (Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius Augustus)
Jun 251 - late 251         Hostilian                              (b. 230? - d. 521)
                             (Caesar Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus Augustus)
Jun 251 - Aug 253          Trebonianus Gallus (co-ruler to 251)   (b. 206 - d. 253)
                             (Caesar Gaius Vibius Afinius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus)
251 - Aug 253              Volusianus (Volusian) -Co-ruler        (d. 253)
                             (Gaius Vibius Volusianus Augustus)
Aug 253 - Oct 253          Aemilianus (Aemilian)                  (b. 207/13 - d. 253)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus Augustus)
Oct 253 - 260              Valerian  (Valerianus)                 (b. c.193 - d. 260/64)
                             (Caesar Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus)
Oct 253 - Sep 268          Gallienus (Gallien) (co-ruler to 260)  (b. c.218 - d. 268)
                             (Caesar Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus)
260                        Saloninus -Co-ruler                    (b. c.242 - d. 260)
                             (Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus)
Sep 260 - 269              Postumus (in rebellion, in Gaul)       (d. 269)
                             (Caesar Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus Pius
                             Felix Augustus Germanicus Maximus)
Sep 268 - Jan 270          Claudius II (Claudius "Gothicus")      (b. 213 - d. 270)

                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus)
269                        Marcus Aurelius Marius                 (d. 269)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)
Feb 269 - Jun 269          Laelianus                              (d. 269)
                             (Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)
269 - 270                  Victorinus                             (d. 271)
                             (Marcus Piavonius Victorinus)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)
Jan 270 - Sep? 270         Quintillus                             (b. c.212 - d. 270)

                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Augustus)
Sep? 270 - Sep 275         Aurelian                               (b. 214 - d. 275)
                             (Caesar Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus)
271                        Domitianus II                          (d. c.271)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)
271 - Feb/Mar 274         
Tetricus I (in rebellion, in Gaul)
                            
(Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus)
273 - Feb/Mar 274          Tetricus II
                             (Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus)
                             (co-ruler in rebellion, in Gaul)
25 Sep 275 - Jun 276       Tacitus                                (b. c.200 - d. 276)

                             (Caesar Marcus Claudius Tacitus Augustus)
Jun 276 - Sep? 276         Florianus (Florian)                    (d. 276)
                             (Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Augustus)
Sep? 276 - Sep/Oct 282     Probus                                 (b. 232 - d. 282)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus)
Sep/Oct 282 - Jul/Aug 283  Carus                                  (b. c.230 - d. 283)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustus)
282 - 20 Nov 284           Numerian (co-ruler to Jul/Aug 283)     (d. 284)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus Augustus)
282 - 285                  Carinus (co-ruler to 20 Nov 284)       (d. 285)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Carinus Augustus)
20 Nov 284 -  1 May 305    Diocletian (Diocles)                   (b. 244 - d. 312)
                             (Caesar Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus)
                             (in opposition to Carinus to 285)
 1 Apr 286 -  1 May 305    Maximian -Co-ruler                     (b. c.250 - d. 310)
                             (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus)
 1 May 305 - 25 Jul 306    Constantius I (Constantius "Chlorus")  (b. 250 - d. 306)
                             (Caesar Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus)
 1 May 305 - May 311       Galerius                               (b. c.260 - d. 311)
                             (Caesar Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus)
305 - Mar/Apr 307          Severus II -Co-ruler                   (d. 307)
                             (Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus)
25 Jul 306 - 22 May 337    Constantine I "the Great"              (b. 272 - d. 337)
                             (Konstantínos "ó Mégas")
                             (Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus)
28 Oct 306 - 28 Oct 312    Maxentius (in dissidence)              (b. c.372 - d. 312)
                             (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus)
                             (in competition with Severus, then Galerius then Constantine
                             – jointly with his father Maximian 306-308)
 1 May 311 - Jul/Aug 313   Maximinus II (Maximinus Daia)          (b. c.270 - d. 313)
                             (Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximinus Augustus)
                             (in east, in competition with Licinius)
11 Nov 308 - 18 Sep 324    Licinius I                             (b. c.263 - d. 324)
                             (Caesar Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus)
                             (to 311 in the west, with Galerius in the east;
                             311–313 in the west, with Maximinus in the east;
                             from 313 in the east, with Constantine in the west,
                             in 314 and 324 in competition with him)
316 -  1 Mar 317           Aurelius Valerius Valens               (d. 317)
                             (co-ruler with Licinius)
Jul 324 - 18 Sep 324       Martinian (Sextus Marcius Martinianus) (d. 325)
                             (nominally in the west, with Licinius in the east)
22 May 337 - 340           Constantine II                         (b. 316 - d. 340)
                             (Caesar Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus)
                             (in the west under his father Constantine I;
                             337 – 340 joint emperor with Constantius II and
                             Constans, over Gaul, Hispania, and Britannia; in
                             340 in failed competition with Constans)
22 May 337 -  3 Nov 361    Constantius II                          (b. 317 - d. 361)
                             (Caesar Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus)
                             (13 Nov 324 – 22 May 337 co-ruler under his father, Constantine I
                             337 – 340 co-ruler in Asian provinces & Egypt with Constantine II
                             and Constans; 340 – 350: co-ruler ruled Asian provinces
                             and Egypt with Constans)
22 May 337 - Feb 350       Constans I                              (b. c.323 - d. 350)
                             (Caesar Flavius Iulius Constans Augustus)
                             (337–350, jointly with Constantine II until 340 and Constantius II)
18 Jan 350 - 11 Aug 353    Magnentius (usurper)                    (b. 303 - d. 353)
                             (Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus) 
 1 Mar 350 - 25 Dec 350    Vetranio (Flavius Vetranio Augustus)    (d. c.356)
 6 Nov 350 - 26 Jun 363    Julian ("the Apostate")                 (b. 331/32 - d. 363)
                             (Caesar Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus)
26 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364    Jovian                                  (b. 331 - d. 364)
                             (Caesar Flavius Iovianus Augustus)  
26 Feb 364 - 17 Nov 375    Valentinian I ("the Great")             (b. 321 - d. 375)
                             (Flavius Valentinianus Augustus)
28 Mar 364 -  9 Aug 378    Valens                                  (b. 328 – d.  378)
                             (Flavius Julius Valens Augustus)
                             (in the east, with his brother Valentinian I in the west; 
                             from 17 Nov 375 in the east, with his nephews Gratian
                             and Valentinian II as emperors of the west)
24 Aug 367 - 25 Aug 383    Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus)  (b. 359 - d. 383)
                             (to 17 Nov 375 junior in the west under his father;
                             17 Nov 375 – 9 Aug 378 senior in the west, with his
                             brother as junior; 9 Aug 378 – 19 Jan 379 senior of
                             the whole empire, with his brother; from 19 Jan 379
                             senior in the west with his brother)
22 Nov 375 - 15 May 392    Valentinian II (Valentinianus)        (b. 371 - d. 392)
                             (Flavius Valentinianus Invictus Augustus)
                             (co-emperor for the west with Gratian)
 1 Jan 379 - 17 Jan 395    Theodosius I ("the Great")            (b. 347 - d. 395)
                             (Flavius Theodosius Augustus)
                             (emperor in the east to 15 May 392)
Jan 383 -  1 May 408       Arcadius (Arkádios)                   (b. 377 - d. 408)
                             (Flavius Arcadius Augustus)  
                             (co-ruler to 17 Jan 395, from 17 Jan 395 emperor in the east,
                             with his brother Honorius emperor in the west)
383 - 28 Aug 388           Magnus Maximus                        (b. c.355 - d. 388)
                             (Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus)
                             (in rebellion to 384, tehn emperor in Britannia and Gaul)    
384 - 28 Aug 388           Victor (Flavius Victor Augustus)      (d. 388)
                             (co-ruler with his father Magnus Maximus in Britannia and Gaul)
23 Jan 393 - 15 Aug 423    Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus)  (b. 384 - d. 423)
                             (co-ruler to 17 Jan 395)
407 - 18 Sep 411           Constantine III                       (d. 411)
                             (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)
                             (in dissidence to 409, then co-emperor with Honorius and Constans II)
407 - c.18 Sep 411         Constans II -Co-ruler                 (d. 411)
                             (to 409 under Constantine III; from 409 with Constantine III
                             against Honorius)
 8 Feb 421 -  2 Sep 421    Constantius III
-Co-ruler             (d. 421)
                             (Flavius Constantius Augustus)
15 Aug 423 - 20 Nov 423    Vacant
20 Nov 423 -
May 425       Joannes (Iohannes Augustus)           (d. 425)
                             (in rebellion)
23 Oct 424 - 16 Mar 455    Valentinian III                       (b. 419 - d. 455)
                             (Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus)
17 Mar 455 - 31 May 455    Petronius Maximus                     (b. c.396 - d. 455)
                             (Flavius Anicius Petronius Maximus Augustus)
31 May 455 -  9 Jul 455    Vacant
 9 Jul 455 - 17 Oct 456   
Avitus                                (b c.380 - d. 457?)
                            
(Marcus Maecilius Flavius Eparchius Avitus)
17 Oct 456 -  1 Apr 457    Vacant
 1 Apr 457 -  2 Aug 461    Majorian                              (b. c.420 - d. 461)
                             (Flavius Julius Valerius Majorianus)
 2 Aug 461 - 19 Nov 461    Vacant
19 Nov 461 - 15 Aug 465    Libius Severus                        (b. c.420 - d. 465)
                             (Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius Augustus)
15 Aug 465 - 12 Apr 467    Vacant
12 Apr 467 - 11 Jul 472    Anthemius                             (b. c.420 - d. 472)
                             (Procopius Anthemius Augustus)
11 Jul 472-23 Oct/2Nov 472 Olybrius                              (d. 472)
                             (Anicius Olybrius Augustus)
Oct/Nov 472 -  3 Mar 473   Vacant
 3 Mar 473 - Jun 474       Glycerius                             (b. c.420 - d. af.480)
                             (Flavius Glycerius Augustus)
Jun 474 - 28 Aug 475       Julius Nepos                          (b. c.430 - d. 480)
                             (Flavius Julius Nepos Augustus)
                             (continues ruling in Gaul and Dalmatia to 25 Apr 480)
28 Aug 475 - 31 Oct 475    Vacant
31 Oct 475 -  4 Sep 476    Romulus Augustus (Romulus Augustus)   (b. c.460 - d. c.480)


 ¹Style of the rulers:
(a) 27 BC - 275 AD: Princeps Senatus ("First [Head] of the Senate");
(b) 275 - 4 Sep 475: Imperator Caesar ("Emperor, Caesar")






© Ben Cahoon