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Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
to 1874
[St.
                                    Helena Flag (1874-1985)]
1874 - 4 Oct 1985
[Flag
                                    of St. Helena, 1985-1999]
4 Oct 1985 - 25 Jan 1999
[Flag of
                                    St. Helena]
Adopted 25 Jan 1999


Map of St. Helena
 Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen"
Hear Local Anthem
"My St. Helena Island"
(in use from 1975)
Constitution Order
(1 Sep 2009)
-----------------------------

Former Constitution

(1 Jan 1989-1 Sep 2009)
Capital: Jamestown
(Fort St. John 1659-1665)
Currency: Saint Helena
Pound (SHP) (from 1917);
British Pound (GBP)
National Holiday
2nd Sat. in Jun (1926)

Birthday of Queen Elizabeth II
-----------------------------------------
Local Holiday: 21 May (1502)
Saint Helena Day
Population: 4,534 (2016)
GDP: $31.1 million (FY 2009/10)
Exports: $35.8 million (2015)
Imports: $65.3 million (2015) 
Ethnic groups: African descent 50%, white 50%
Total Active Police Force: 69 (2012)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.K.
Merchant marine: None (2010) 
Religions: Anglican 81.5%, Jehovah’s Witness 4.8%,
Baptist 2.5%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 2.1%, Salvation Army 2%,
Roman Catholic 1.4%,
New Apostolic 1.7%, Bahai 0.3%,
 not stated 1%, other 2.6% (2016)
International Organizations/Treaties: UPU
St. Helena
Index
Chronology
  3 May 1502                Uninhabited St. Helena discovered by Portuguese
                             Capt. João da Nova (b. c.1460 - d. 1509), named
                             Ilha de Santa Helena for St. Helena (True Cross,
                             being already taken; subsequently misinterpreted
                             as and since 1945 officially celebrated on 21 May,
                             Protestant/Anglican St. Helen's Day); used as a
                             way-station en route to India.
c.1513 - c.1516            Fernão Lopez (Fernando Lopez), a Portuguese prisoner
                             is abandoned on the island as a punishment.
c.1584                     Two Japanese ambassadors to Rome are said to
                             have landed on the island (recorded by Guido
                             Gualtieri in 1586).
 8 Jun 1588                Thomas Cavendish (b. 1560 - d. 1592) becomes the
                             first Englishman to visit the island.
1591 - Aug 1593            English ship Royal Merchant leaves John Segar to
                             convalesce on St. Helena.
16 Jun 1603                Sir James Lancaster visits St. Helena.
15 Apr 1633                Claimed by the Dutch, but not settled.
19 Oct 1657                (English) East India Company granted a charter
                             to settle St. Helena by Oliver Cromwell.
 5 May 1659                English settlement of St. Helena.
 3 Apr 1661                "Governour and Company of Merchants trading into
                             the East Indies" given permission to fortify
                             St. Helena (by letters patent).
 1 Jan 1673 - 15 May 1673  Dutch occupation (eylandt Sint Helena).
16 Dec 1673 - 22 Apr 1834  Possession of St. Helena re-granted to "Governour
                             and Company of Merchants trading into the East
                             Indies" as 'absolute Lords and Proprietors of the
                             island' (by letters patent).
11 Apr 1816                Communication with St. Helena prohibited while
                             Deposed French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte is in
                             custody there, 15 Oct 1815 - 5 May 1821.
22 Apr 1834                Saint Helena a British crown of colony (by
                             Saint Helena Act 1833 of 28 Aug 1833).
 1 Nov 1922                Ascension made a dependency of St. Helena.
12 Jan 1938                Tristan da Cunha, Gough, Inaccessible, and
                             Nightingale made a dependencies of St. Helena (by
                             letters patent published St. Helena 28 Feb 1938).
16 Mar 1938                Island of Saint Helena and its Dependencies
 1 Jan 1967                St. Helena and its Dependencies
25 May 2002                Voters reject adoption of ministerial form of
                             government in referendum 52.6% to 47.2%.
 1 Sep 2009                Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
15 Sep 2016                Saint Helena Marine Protected Area established 
                             by U.K.
French Possessions
Ascension
Tristan da Cunha
Gough
 Inaccessible
Nightingale
 
 
 


Settler

c.1513 - c.1516            Fernão Lopez                       (b. 14.. - d. 1545)
Governors
 5 May 1659 -  6 May 1661  John Dutton
 
6 May 1661 - 1670         Robert Stringer                    (b. 161. - d. 16..)
1670 - Mar 1671            Richard Swallow (acting)           (b. 1638? - d. 16..)
Mar 1671 - 21 Aug 1672     Richard Coney                      (b. 1627 - d. 16..)
21 Aug 1672 - 1672         Bennett (acting)

1672 -  1 Jan 1673         Anthony Beale                      (b. 1637 - d. 1685)
Dutch Commanders
 1 Jan 1673 - Jan 1673
     Jacob de Geus
Jan 1673 - 15 May 1673     Jan Coon
Governors
15 May 1673 - May 1673     Sir Richard Munden                 (b. 1640 - d. 1680)

May 1673 - May 1674        Richard Keigwin                    (b. 1644? - d. 1690)
May 1674 - 19 Jun 1678     Gregory Feild (Field)              (b. 1619? - d. 16..)
19 Jun 1678 -  1 Dec 1690  John Blackmore                     (b. 16.. - d. 1690)
 
1 Dec 1690 - 22 Apr 1693  Joshua Johnson                     (b. 16.. - d. 1693)
22 Apr 1693 - 30 Nov 1697  Richard Keeling (Kelinge)          (b. 164. - d. 1697)
30 Nov 1697 -  8 Sep 1707  Stephen (Étienne) Poirier          (b. 16.. - d. 1707)
 8 Sep 1707 - 24 Aug 1708  Thomas Goodwin (acting)            (b. 16.. - d. 1709)
24 Aug 1708 -  7 Aug 1711  John Roberts
 7 Aug 1711 -  8 Jul 1714  Benjamin Boucher                   (b. 1676 - d. 17..)
28 Jun 1714 -  8 Jul 1714  Matthew Bazett (acting for Boucher)(b. 1664? - d. 1719)
 8 Jul 1714 - 14 Jun 1719  Isaac Pyke (1st time)              (b. 1672 - d. 1738)
14 Jun 1719 - 16 Feb 1723  Edward Johnson                     (b. 1679? - d. 1723)
16 Feb 1723 - 28 May 1723  Edward Byfield (1st time) (acting) (b. 1687? - d. 1774)
28 May 1723 - 26 Feb 1727  John Smith
26 Feb 1727 - 24 Mar 1731  Edward Byfield (2nd time)          (s.a.)
24 Mar 1731 - 28 Jul 1738  Isaac Pyke (2nd time)              (s.a.)
29 Jul 1738 -  9 Aug 1740  John Goodwin (acting to 1738)      (b. 169. - d. 1740)
 
9 Aug 1740 -  9 May 1741  Duke Crispe (acting)               (b. 1695 - d. 17..)
 9 May 1741 - 22 Mar 1742  Robert Jenkins                     (b. 1687? - d. 17..)
22 Mar 1742 - 20 Jul 1742  Thomas Lambert                     (b. 16.. - d. 1742)
20 Jul 1742 - 11 Mar 1744  George Gabriel Powell (acting)     (b. 170. - d. 1779)
11 Mar 1744 - 14 Mar 1747  David Dunbar                       (b. c.1675 - d. 17..)
14 Mar 1747 - 13 May 1764  Charles Hutchinson
                             (acting to 25 Apr 1764)
14 May 1764 - 25 Jul 1782  John Skottowe                      (b. 1724? - d. 1786)
25 Jul 1782 - 22 Jun 1787  Daniel Corneille                   (b. 17.. - d. 1792)
12 May 1787 - 10 Mar 1802  Robert Brooke                      (b. 1744 - d. 1811)
                             (acting to 28 May 1787)
16 Mar 1801 - 10 Mar 1802  Francis Robson
                     (b. 1738? - d. 1819)
                             (acting for Brooke)
10 Mar 1802 -  4 Jul 1808  Robert Patton                      (b. 1743 - d. 1812)
13 Jul 1807 -  4 Jul 1808  William Lane (acting for Patton)   (b. 1753 - d. 1814)
 
4 Jul 1808 - 21 Aug 1813  Alexander Beatson                  (b. 1758 - d. 1833)
21 Aug 1813 - 14 Apr 1816  Mark Wilks                         (b. 1759 - d. 1831)
Governors and Commanders-in-Chief
14 Apr 1816 - 11 Mar 1823  Sir Hudson Lowe                    (b. 1769 - d. 1844)

25 Jul 1821 - 11 Mar 1823  Thomas Henry Brooke (1st time)     (b. 1774 - d. 1849)
                             (acting for Lowe)
11 Mar 1823 - 14 Apr 1828  Alexander Walker                   (b. 1764 - d. 1831)
14 Apr 1828 - 29 Apr 1828  Thomas Henry Brooke (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
29 Apr 1828 -  5 Mar 1836  Charles Dallas                     (b. 1764 - d. 1855)
Governors
 
5 Mar 1836 -  6 Jan 1842  George Middlemore                  (b. 1770? - d. 1850)
 6 Jan 1842 -  3 May 1846  Hamelin Trelawny                   (b. 1782 - d. 1846)
 4 May 1846 - 18 Jul 1846  George Brodie Fraser (acting)      (b. 1789 - d. 1854)
18 Jul 1846 - 23 Nov 1846  John Ross (acting)                 (b. 1789? - d. 1851)
23 Nov 1846 - 28 Aug 1850  Sir Patrick Ross                   (b. 1778 - d. 1850)
28 Aug 1850 - 18 Jul 1851  Robert Clarke (acting)             (b. 178. - d. 1864?)
18 Jul 1851 - 10 Oct 1856  Thomas Gore Browne                 (b. 1807 - d. 1887)
15 Dec 1854 - 10 Oct 1856  Horatio Nelson Vigors              (b. 1807 - d. 1864)
                             (acting for
Gore Browne)
10 Oct 1856 -  3 Jul 1863  Edward Hay Drummond Hay            (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
                             (from 22 Aug 1859, Sir Edward Hay Drummond Hay)
 3 Jul 1863 - 30 Nov 1863  Sir Charles Elliot                 (b. 1801 - d. 1875)
Governors and Commanders-in-Chief
30 Nov 1863 -  4 Feb 1870  Sir Charles Elliot                 (s.a.)
29 Jan 1870 -  4 Feb 1870
 Hudson Ralph Janisch (1st time)    (b. 1824 - d. 1884)
                             (acting for Elliot)
 4 Feb 1870 - 11 Dec 1873  Charles George Edward Patey        (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
13 Jul 1873 - 31 Mar 1884  Hudson Ralph Janisch (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                            
(acting for Patey to 11 Dec 1873)
19 Mar 1884 -  4 Oct 1887  Grant Blunt                        (b. 1840 - d. 1912)
                            
(acting [for Janisch to 31 Mar 1884])
 4 Oct 1887 - 18 Jul 1890
  William Grey-Wilson (1st time)     (b. 1852 - d. 1926)
                             (acting)
 
5 Nov 1889 -  8 Jun 1890  Reginald Laurence Antrobus         (b. 1853 - d. 1942)
                             (acting [for Grey-Wilson to 31 Mar 1884])
18 Jul 1890 -  7 Jun 1897  William Grey-Wilson (2nd time)     (s.a.)

Dec 1895 - Jul 1896        Robert Armitage Sterndale          (b. 1839 - d. 1902)
                             (acting for Grey-Wilson)
 7 Jun 1897 -  3 Oct 1902  Robert Armitage Sterndale          (s.a.)

1901                       Thomas Julian Penrhys Evans        (b. 1854 - d. 1921)
                             (acting for absent Sterndale)
25 Jul 1902 -  2 Feb 1903  Adolphus James Price               (b. 1846 - d. 1937)
                             (acting [for absent Sterndale to 3 Oct 1902])
 
3 Feb 1903 - 21 Feb 1912  Henry Lionel Gallwey               (b. 1859 - d. 1949)

1910 - Sep 1911            Henry James Bovell                 (b. 1845 - d. 1936)
                             (acting for G
allwey)
Sep 1911 - 21 Feb 1912     Wilberforce John James Arnold      (b. 1867 - d. 1925)
                             (acting for G
allwey)
21 Feb 1912 - 12 Nov 1920  Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux      (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
Mar 1917 - Oct 1919        William Dixon (acting for Cordeaux)(b. 1868 - d. 1958)
 5 Jun 1920 - 12 Nov 1920  Harold Godfrey St. George Morgan   (b. 1882 - d. 1929)

                             (acting for Cordeaux)
12 Nov 1920 - 10 Aug 1924  Robert Francis Peel                (b. 1874 - d. 1924)

10 Aug 1924 - 29 Jan 1925  Wilberforce John James Arnold      (s.a.)
                             (acting)

29 Jan 1925 -  2 Feb 1925  Harold Edward William Iremonger    (b. 1882 - d. 1937)
                             (acting)
 2 Feb 1925 - 13 Oct 1932  Charles Henry Harper               (b. 1876 - d. 1950)

 
9 Aug 1932 - 13 Oct 1932  Edward Lucas Salier                (b. 1882 - d. 1933)
                             (acting for Harper) 
13 Oct 1932 - 25 Oct 1937  Sir Steuart Spencer Davis          (b. 1875 - d. 1950)

25 Oct 1937 - 16 Mar 1938  Geoffrey Charles Kitching          (b. 1892 - d. 1950)

                             (acting for Davis)
16 Mar 1938 -  1 Nov 1941  Henry Guy Pilling                  (b. 1886 - d. 1953)
 1 Nov 1941 -
31 May 1947  William Bain Gray                  (b. 1886 - d. 1949)
17 Aug 1946 - 31 May 1947  Frank Edward Gilpin                (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
                             (acting for Gray)
31 May 1947 - 11 Jan 1954  George Andrew Joy                  (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
                             (from 9 Jun 1949, Sir George Andrew Joy) 
22 Sep 1953 - 11 Jan 1954  Charles Walter Trevor Johnson      (b. 1893 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Joy)
11 Jan 1954 -  1 Jan 1958  James Dundas Harford               (b. 1899 - d. 1993)
                             (from 2 Jan 1956, Sir James Dundas Harford) 
 
1 Jan 1958 - 26 Feb 1958  George Albert Lewis (acting)       (b. 1922 - d. 2006)
26 Feb 1958 - 13 May 1962  Robert Edmund Alford               (b. 1904 - d. 1979) 
                             (from 11 Jun 1960, Sir Robert Edmund Alford) 
 
2 Mar 1962 - 13 May 1962  Bertram John Weston                (b. 1907 - d. 1997)
                             (acting for
Alford)
13 May 1962 - 27 May 1968  Sir John Osbaldiston Field         (b. 1913 - d. 1985)

May 1964 - Oct 1964        Alan Forbes Bourne Glennie         (b. 1903 - d. 1984)
                             (acting for Field)
25 May 1968 - 31 Oct 1971  Dermod Art Pelly Murphy            (b. 1914 - d. 1975)
                            
(acting for Field to 27 May 1968)
Jul 1969 - 1969            Ian Cameron Rose (1st time)        (b. 1907 - d. 1986)
                             (acting for Murphy)
26 Jun 1971 - 31 Oct 1971  Ian Cameron Rose (2nd time)        (s.a.)

                             (acting for Murphy)
31
Oct 1971 -  5 Dec 1976  Thomas Oates                       (b. 1917 - d. 2015)
                             (from 1 Jan 1972, Sir Thomas Oates)
 5 Nov 1976 -  5 Dec 1976  Charles Brian Kendall              (b. 1921 - d. 2005)
                             (acting for Oates)
 
5 Dec 1976 - 10 Mar 1981  Geoffrey Colin Guy                 (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
 5 Jan 1981 - 10 Mar 1981  Phillip Dale (acting for Guy)      (b. 1921 - d. 2017)
10 Mar 1981 -  3 Aug 1984  John Dudley Massingham             (b. 1930 - d. 2009)
26 Apr 1984 -  3 Aug 1984  William Alan Ferguson              (b. 1932)
                             (acting for Massingham)
 
3 Aug 1984 - 21 Apr 1988  Francis Eustace "Dick" Baker       (b. 1933)
21 Apr 1988 - 17 May 1991  Robert Frederick Stimson           (b. 1939)

 
5 Dec 1988 - 1989         Walter Wilkinson Wallace           (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
                             (acting for Stimson)
16 Apr 1991 - 17 May 1991  Michael Stuart Hone (acting)      
(b. 1936)
17 May 1991 -  8 Sep 1995  Alan Norman Hoole                  (b. 1942 - d. 2000)
26 Nov 1993 – 17 Feb 1994  John Gayford Perrott               (b. 1943)
                             (acting for Hoole)
17 Jun 1995 -  8 Sep 1995  John Gayford Perrott           
    (s.a.)
                             (acting for Hoole)
 
8 Sep 1995 - 24 Jun 1999  David Leslie Smallman              (b. 1940)
 
7 May 1999 - 24 Jun 1999  Michael John Clancy (1st time)     (b. 1949 - d. 2010)
                             (acting for Smallman)
24 Jun 1999 - 15 Oct 2004  David James Hollamby               (b. 1945 - d. 2016)

29 Sep 2004 - 15 Oct 2004  John Michael Styles                (b. 1949)
                             (acting for
Hollamby)
15 Oct 2004 - 11 Nov 2007  Michael John Clancy (2nd time)     (s.a.)
29 Oct 2007 - 10 Nov 2007  Martin Rupert Hallam               (b. 1955)
                             (acting fro Clancy)
11 Nov 2007 - 31 Aug 2009  Andrew Murray Gurr                 (b. 1944)
Governors
 1 Sep 2011 - 29 Oct 2011  Andrew Murray Gurr                 (s.a.)

23 Sep 2011 - 29 Oct 2011  Kenneth "Ken" Ian Baddon           (b. 1956)
                             (acting for Gurr)
29 Oct 2011 - 25 Apr 2016  Mark Andrew Capes                  (b. 1954)
28 Apr 2015 -  8 Jul 2015  Sean Gilbert Peter Burns           (b. 1961)
                             (1st time)(acting for Capes)
18 Mar 2016 - 25 Apr 2016  Sean Gilbert Peter Burns           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting for Capes)
25 Apr 2016 -              Lisa Kathleen Phillips (f)         (b. 1958)
                             (from 24 Feb 2018,
Lisa Kathleen Honan)  
20 Mar 2017 -  3 May 2017  Judith "Judi" Mary Leon (f)        (b. 1963)
                             (acting for Phillips)

Commissioners of the Allied Powers at Saint Helena
17 Jun 1816 -  5 May 1821  Commissioners (for Napoléon)
                           - Graf Aleksandr Antonovich        (b. 1779 - d. 1848)
                               Bal'men (Russia)(to Apr 1820)
                           - Claude Marie Henri, marquis de   (b. 1757 - d. 1831)
                               Montchenu (France)
                           - Bartholomäus Freiherr von Stürmer(b. 1787 - d. 1863)
                               (Austria)(25 Aug 1815-11 Jul 1818)
                           - Hieronymus Franz Seraph Roedlich (b. 1767 - d. 1833)
                               (Prussia)(never went to St. Helena)
                           - Baron Pavel Vasilyevich Gan      (b. 1793 - d. 1862)
                              
(Paul von Hahn)(Russia)(from 1820)
                               (never went to St. Helena)
                           - Pavel Grigoryevich Freiherr von  (b. 1779 - d. 1823)
                              
Holland (Russia)(from 1830)

No Political Parties Exist.


French Possessions on Saint Helena

[France flag]

Map of French
Possessions in St. Helena
Capital: Longwood House

18 Mar 1858                British government cedes two sites on Saint Helena related to the
                             forced stay of the deposed Emperor Napoléon I on the island -
                             Longwood House (where he lived) and the Valley of the Tomb 
                             (vallée du Tombeau)(where he was buried until 1840)- to France
                             as French
Possessions on Saint Helena (Domaines Français de 
                             Sainte-Hélène
)(confirmed 7 May 1858).
23 Jun 1940 - 1944         Conservator loyal to the "Free" French.
26 May 1959                Briars Pavilion (pavillon des Briars) where the Napoléon spent the
                             first days of his
stay on island (17 Oct - 10 Dec 1815) added.

Conservators (title Conservateur des Domaines Français de Sainte-Hélène)
30 Jun 1858 -  6 Mar 1868  Nicolas Martial Gauthier de
                             Rougemont                        (b. 1794 - d. 1868)
 6 Mar 1868 - 12 Jul 1880  Jean-Claude Mareschal              (b. 1816 - d. 1884)
12 Jul 1880 - 10 Feb 1907  Lucien Désiré Constans Morilleau   (b. 1835 - d. 1907)
10 Feb 1907 - 27 Jan 1908  Louisa Elizabeth Thompson          (b. 1842 - d. 19..)
                             Morilleau (f) (acting)

27 Jan 1908 -  6 Nov 1916  Henri Roger
 6 Nov 1916 -  6 Oct 1919  Bazett Legg (acting)               (b. 1876 - d. 1945)
 6 Oct 1919 - 14 Oct 1945  Georges Pierre Louis Colin         (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
14 Oct 1945 -  6 Dec 1954  Georges Peugeot                    (b. 1912 - d. ....)
 6 Dec 1954 - 27 Oct 1956  Steven Strong                      (b. 1914 - d. 1978)
27 Oct 1956 -  1 Dec 1987  Gilbert Martineau                  (b. 1918 - d. 1995)
 1 Dec 1987 -              Michel Dancoisne-Martineau         (b. 1965)

Vice Consul
14 Jul 1847 - 31 Dec 1888  George Moss                        (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
Consular Agents
 1 Jan 1889 - 28 Feb 1895  George Moss                        (s.a.)
 
1 Mar 1895 - 10 Feb 1907  Lucien Désiré Constans Morilleau   (s.a.)
10 Feb 1907 - 27 Jan 1908  Louisa Elizabeth Thompson          (s.a.)
                             Morilleau (f) (acting)

27 Jan 1908 -  6 Nov 1916  Henri Roger
 6 Nov 1916 -  6 Oct 1919  Vacant
 6 Oct 1919 - 14 Oct 1945  Georges Pierre Louis Colin         (s.a.)
14 Oct 1945 - 16 Jul 1947  Georges Peugeot                    (s.a.)
Vice Consul
17 Jul 1947 -  5 Dec 1954  Georges Peugeot                   
(s.a.)
Consular Agents
 
6 Dec 1954 - 27 Oct 1956  Steven Strong                     
(s.a.)
27 Oct 1956 - 19..         Gilbert Martineau                  (s.a.)
Honorary Consuls

19.. -  1 Dec 1987         Gilbert Martineau                  (s.a.)
 
1 Dec 1987 -  5 Aug 1991  Vacant
 5 Aug 1991 -              Michel Dancoisne-Martineau         (s.a.)



Ascension

[UK naval ensign]1864 - 31 Oct 1922 
[Flag of Ascension
                          Island (Saint Helena) from 2013]
Adopted 11 May 2013
Map of Ascension
Capital: Georgetown
Police Force: 6 (2003)
Local Holiday:
in May or Jun (1503)
Ascension Day
Population: 806 (2016)

25 Mar 1501                Discovered and claimed for Portugal by Admiral João da Nova, 
                             named Ilha de Nossa Senhora de Conceição (Conception Island).
25 May 1503                Re-discovered by Affonso d'Albuquerque, named Ilha de Ascensão
                             (
Ascension Island).
23 Feb 1701 -  3 Apr 1701  English Capt. William Dampier (b. c.1652 - d. 1712), and crew of
                             the
Roebuck, wrecked on Ascension.
 
5 May 1725 - Oct 1725     Dutchman Leendert Hasenbosch (b. c.1695 – d. 1725?) marooned on
                             Ascension.
22 Oct 1815                U.K. takes possession (the Admiralty records the island as
                            
H.M.S. Ascension, members of the island garrison were classed
                             as a ship's crew
).
 
1 Nov 1922                Ascension made a dependency of St. Helena (managed until 1964,
                             by the Eastern Telegraph Company [from 24 May 1953, Cable and
                             Wireless
Ltd])(by letters patent of 12 Sep 1922).
30 Mar 1942 - 31 May 1947  U.S. airbase (Wideawake Airfield) on Ascension Island during
                             World War II.
 1 Sep 2009               
Equal status with St Helena (Saint Helena, Ascension and
                             Tristan da Cunha).

Commandants
22 Oct 1815 - 18 Mar 1816  James Kearney White               (b. 1782? - d. 1828)
18 Mar 1816 - 26 Aug 1817  William Roberts                   (b. 1786? - d. 1823)
26 Aug 1817 - 11 Sep 1819  James Thorne (Thorn)              (b. 1792? - d. 1870)
11 Sep 1819 - 21 Mar 1823  Robert Campbell                   (b. 178. - d. 1832)
21 Mar 1823 -  3 Nov 1828  Edward Nicolls                    (b. 1779 - d. 1865)
 3 Nov 1828 - 15 Apr 1838  William Bate                      (b. 178. - d. 1838)
15 Apr 1838 - 25 Jan 1839  Hugh Evans                        (b. 179. - d. 1861?)
25 Jan 1839 - 14 Sep 1840  Roger Sawry Tinklar               (b. 1795 - d. 1840)
14 Sep 1840 -  7 Dec 1840  John Wade (acting)                (b. 181. - d. 1851)
 
7 Dec 1840 - 27 Apr 1841  William Lee (1st time)(acting)    (b. 180. - d. 1855?)
27 Apr 1841 -  9 Dec 1841  Henry Bennett                     (b. 179. - d. 1841)
 
9 Dec 1841 - 26 Jul 1842  William Lee (2nd time)(acting)    (s.a.)
26 Jul 1842 - 18 Apr 1844  Thomas Peard Dwyer                (b. 1797? - d. 1863)
18 Apr 1844 - 18 May 1844  Thomas Charles Cotton Moore       (b. 1809? - d. 1884)
                             (acting)
18 May 1844 - 11 Oct 1844  John Fraser (Frazer)              (b. 180. - d. 188.)
11 Oct 1844 - 18 Jan 1847  Arthur Fleming Morrell            (b. 1788 - d. 1880)
18 Jan 1847 - 14 Oct 1851  Frederick Hutton                  (b. 1801 - d. 1866)
14 Oct 1851 -  1 Jun 1855  William Hewgill Kitchen           (b. 1787 - d. 1865)
 
1 Jun 1855 - 13 Mar 1858  George Alexander Seymour          (b. 1802 - d. 1868)
13 Mar 1858 -  5 Jul 1861  William Farquharson Burnett       (b. 1815 - d. 1863)
 
5 Jul 1861 -  5 Mar 1864  Frederick Lamport Barnard         (b. 1813 - d. 1880)
 
5 Mar 1864 - 15 Jun 1864  Frederick Hammond                 (b. 183. - d. 1869?)
15 Jun 1864 - 25 Sep 1866  Joseph Grant Bickford             (b. 1815? - d. 1886)
25 Sep 1866 -  3 Mar 1867  Walter James Hunt-Grubbe          (b. 1833 - d. 1922)
 
3 Mar 1867 - 16 Nov 1868  Arthur Wilmshurst                 (b. 1817 - d. 1891)
16 Nov 1868 -  4 May 1869  James George Mead                 (b. 1834 - d. 1913)
 
4 May 1869 -  1 Oct 1869  Robert William Evans              (b. 184. - d. 19..)
 
1 Oct 1869 - 15 Oct 1872  Edward Francis Kerby              (b. 1832 - d. 1904)
15 Oct 1872 - 19 Jan 1874  John Brasier-Creagh               (b. 1830 - d. 1885)
19 Jan 1874 -  8 Feb 1877  James Wylie East                  (b. 1830 - d. 1893)
 
8 Feb 1877 - 12 Dec 1878  Henry Bouchier Phillimore         (b. 1833 - d. 1893)
12 Dec 1878 - 10 Sep 1882  Arthur George Robertson Roe       (b. 1836 - d. 1885)
10 Sep 1882 - 10 Oct 1886  George Parsons                    (b. 183. - d. 1907?)
10 Oct 1886 - 16 Jun 1890  Richard Henry Napier              (b. 1836 - d. 1903)
16 Jun 1890 - 31 May 1893  Richard Evans                     (b. 1840 - d. 1927)
31 May 1893 - 27 May 1896  John George Jones                 (b. 184. - d. 193.)
27 May 1896 - 15 Jul 1899  John Edric Blaxland               (b. 1847 - d. 1935)
15 Jul 1899 - 13 May 1902  George Northmore Arthur Pollard   (b. 1847 - d. 1920)
13 May 1902 - 14 Mar 1905  Robert Kyle McAlpine              (b. 1851 - d. 1923)
14 Mar 1905 - 29 Apr 1908  Reginald Hallward Morgan          (b. 1871 - d. 1948)
29 Apr 1908 - 27 Apr 1910  John William Dustan               (b. 1874 - d. 1917)
27 Apr 1910 - 21 Apr 1913  George Carpenter                  (b. 1877 - d. 1952)
21 Apr 1913 -  8 Jun 1919  Henry Cleeve Benett               (b. 1877 - d. 1941)
 8 Jun 1919 - 15 Oct 1920  Harold George Grant               (b. 1884 - d. 1950)
15 Oct 1920 - 31 Oct 1922  Charles Arthur Tennyson           (b. 1884 - d. 1945)
Resident magistrates (managers of the Eastern Telegraph Company;
from 24 May 1934, of Cable and Wireless Ltd.
)
1922 - 1925                William Haining
1925 - 1928                Edward Lee Lander                 (b. 1887 - d. 1937)
1928 - 1929                Fred Wood
1929 - 1934                Ernest Arthur Willmott            (b. 1880 - d. 1939)
1934 - 1936                Lionel Schon Bartlett             (b. 1881 - d. 1958)
1936 - 1938                Percy Edwin Bunker (1st time)     (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
1938                       Carl Nias                         (b. 1887 - d. 1968)
1938 - 1939                Percy Edwin Bunker (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1939 - 1944                Stephen Harold Cardwell           (b. 1887 - d. 1947)
26 Sep 1944 - 1947         Maurice Campbell Clarke           (b. 1888 - d. 1955)
 1 Jul 1947 - 1949         Vivian Winterfeld Oelrichs        (b. 1893 - d. 1987)
15 Jul 1949 - 1951         Herbert Louis Nicholson Ascough   (b. 1897 - d. 1981)
 1 Feb 1951 - 1952         Francis George Eastwood           (b. 1899 - d. 1958)
14 Apr 1952 - 1954         Frank B. Stephens
 1 Nov 1954 - 1955         Arnold Rainbird Harrison          (b. 1904 - d. 1972)
                             (1st time)

10 Oct 1955 - 1956         F.J. Atkins
 5 Mar 1956 - 18 May 1958  Arnold Rainbird Harrison          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

18 May 1958 -  4 Nov 1958  Bruce Randall Irving              (b. 1901 - d. 1999)
 4 Nov 1958 - 30 Apr 1961  Arnold Rainbird Harrison          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

30 Apr 1961 - 28 Jun 1962  J.R. Bruce (1st time)
28 Jun 1962 - 21 Dec 1962  J. Markham
21 Dec 1962 - 1964         J.R. Bruce (2nd time)
Administrators
Jul 1964 - May 1968        John Maurice Everard Wainwright   (b. 1916 - d. 20..)
Sep 1966 - Sep 1967        Anthony Grant Ayerst Beyts        (b. 1915 - d. 1997)
                             (acting)
Jun 1968 - Sep 1973        Harvey William Donald McDonald
    (b. 1906 - d. 1986)
Sep 1973 - Nov 1976        Geoffrey Colin Guy                (b. 1921 - d. 2006) 
Nov 1976 - Jun 1977        Gordon McDonald                   (d. 1977)
Jun 1977 - Sep 1977        Charles Brian Kendall (acting)    (b. 1921 - d. 2005)
Sep 1977 - Jun 1979        Simon Gillett (acting)            (b. 19.. - d. 2016)
Jun 1979 - Sep 1980        Pennell Manfred Duncan
Sep 1980 - Aug 1982        Bernard Edward Pauncefort         (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
Aug 1982                   Warburton "Warby" Maggott (acting)(b. 1941? - d. 2001)
Aug 1982 - Aug 1984        Ian George Thow                  
(b. 1924 - d. 2017)
Aug 1984 - Jan 1989        Michael Thomas Smallwood Blick    (b. 1932)
11 Aug 1986 - Oct 1986     Anthony Arthur Green              (b. 1948)
                             (acting for Blick)
Jan 1989 - Jan 1991        John Joseph Beale                
(b. 1934)
Jan 1991 - Jun 1995        Brian Norman Connelly             (b. 1941)
Jun 1995 - 23 Jul 1999     Roger Christopher Huxley          (b. 1939 - d. 2015)
23 Jul 1999 - 10 Jul 2002  Geoffrey Fairhurst                (b. 1942)
10 Jul 2002 - 13 Aug 2002  Matthew J. Young (1st time)       (b. 1943?)
                             (acting)

14 Aug 2002 -  3 Sep 2002  Adam Henshaw (acting)
 
4 Sep 2002 - 22 Sep 2002  Matthew J. Young (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)

22 Sep 2002 - Sep 2005     Andrew Michael Kettlewell         (b. 1958)
Sep 2005 - Sep 2008        Michael Thomas Hill               (b. 1945)
Sep 2008 -  9 Sep 2011     Ross Patrick Denny                (b. 1955)
10 Sep 2011 - 18 Sep 2011  Miles Keith Miller (1st time)     (b. 1968)
                             (acting)
19 Sep 2011 - 14 Oct 2011  Joanne Mary Yeadon (f)(acting)    (b. 1965)
15 Oct 2011 - 26 Oct 2011  Miles Keith Miller (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
27 Oct 2011 - 26 Aug 2014  Colin Neil Wells                  (b. 1967)
26 Aug 2014 - 22 Nov 2017  Marc Holland                      (b. 1974)
22 Nov 2017 - 26 Mar 2018  Nicholas Joseph Kennedy
26 Mar 2018 -              Justine Rachael Anne Allan (f)    (b. 1969)


Chairmen of the Eastern Telegraph Company (from 24 May 1934,
Cable and Wireless Ltd.)
(in London)
Dec 1917 - 1929            Sir John Denison-Pender           (b. 1855 - d. 1929)
Apr 1929 - 1932            Sir Basil Phillott Blackett       (b. 1882 - d. 1935)
Apr 1932 - 1936            John Cuthbert Denison-Pender      (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
Jul 1936 - Dec 1946        Sir Edward Wilshaw                (b. 1880 - d. 1967)
Jan 1947 - 1951            Sir Arthur Stanley Angwin         (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
Apr 1951 - 1956            Sir Leslie Burtonshaw Nicholls    (b. 1895 - d. 1975)
Feb 1956 - 1962            Sir Godfrey Ince                  (b. 1891 - d. 1960)
Jan 1962 - Nov 1967        Sir John Stuart Macpherson        (b. 1898 - d. 1971)


U.S. Commanders of Wideawake Airfield

30 Mar 1942 - 17 Aug 1942  Robert Emmet Coughlin             (b. 1894 - d. 1981)
17 Aug 1942 - 27 Jan 1943  Ross O. Baldwin                   (b. 1891 - d. 1970)
27 Jan 1943 -  1 Apr 1943  Russell Belcher Hathaway          (b. 1897 - d. 1965)
 1 Apr 1943 - 19 Apr 1944  John Charles Mullenix             (b. 1889 - d. 1986)
19 Apr 1944 - 194.         James Arthur Ronin                (b. 1904 - d. 1980)



Tristan da Cunha
 
[Jonathan
                          Lambert's flag of Isles of Refreshment
                          1811-1816 (Tristan da Cuhna)]
4 Feb 1811 - 14 Aug 1816 
[UK naval ensign]10 May 1942 - 8 May 1946
[Flag of Tristan
                          da Cunha (Saint Helena) from 2002]
Adopted 20 Oct 2002
Map of Tristan da Cunha
Capital: Edinburgh of
the Seven Seas
(Fort Malcolm 1816-1867; Reception
1811-1816)
Police Force: 4 (2000)
Local Holiday:
14 Aug (1816)
Anniversary Day
Population: 293 (2016)

May 1506                   Sighted and claimed for Portugal by Admiral Tristão da Cunha,
                             named Ilha de Tristão da Cunha.
17
Feb 1643                First undisputed landing under Dutch Capt. Claes Gerritsz
                             Bierenbroodspot on the ship Heemstede.

 
4 Jan 1656                Visited by Dutch Cmdr. Jan Jacobszoon aboard 't Nachtglas.
Aug 1790 - Apr 1791        Capt. John Patten of the American whaler
Industry spends seven
                             months on the island.
27 Dec 1810                Privately settled by a small group led by U.S. mariner Jonathan
                             Lambert.

 4 Feb 1811                Privately claimed by Jonathan Lambert as sole proprietor. Island
                             group renamed the Islands of Refreshment, with Tristan da Cunha
                             renamed Island of Refreshment.
14 Aug 1816                U.K. formally annexes Tristan da Cunha (as a dependency of the
                             Cape Colony).

18 Nov 1817                U.K. garrison is withdrawn; three of its members stay,
                             forming the nucleus of a small self-governing community of six.
12 Jan 1938                Tristan da Cunha made a dependency of St. Helena (by letters patent
                             published
in St. Helena 28 Feb 1938).
10 May 1942 -  8 May 1946  British Naval garrison named H.M.S. Job 9 (from 1 Jan 1944, H.M.S.
                             Atlantic Isle
).
 9 Oct 1961 -  9 Apr 1963  Island evacuated following volcanic eruption.
 1 Sep 2009                Equal status with St Helena (Saint Helena, Ascension and
                             Tristan da Cunha).

Proprietors of the Islands of Refreshment
 4 Feb 1811 - 17 May 1812  Jonathan Lambert                   (b. 1772 - d. 1812)

17 May 1812 - 14 Aug 1816  Tommaso Corri (Thomas Curry)       (b. 17.. - d. 1817)
British Officers in charge

14 Aug 1816 - 17 Aug 1816  Robert Worgan George Festing       (b. 1789 - d. 1862)
17 Aug 1816 - 28 Nov 1816  David Rice                         (b. 1791? - d. 1837)
28 Nov 1816 - 15 May 1817  Abraham Josias Cloëte              (b. 1794 - d. 1886)
 5 May 1817 - 18 Nov 1817  Robert Scott Aitchison             (b. 1789 - d. 1837)
British Senior Naval Officers in charge of Naval Detachment Station

10 May 1942 -  1 Jul 1944  Edward James Starbuck Woolley      (b. 1909 - d. 1972)
 1 Jul 1944 -  8 May 1946  Harry Seymour Alleyne Corfield     (b. 1908 - d. 1998) 
Administrators
 8 May
1946 - 13 Feb 1948  Alec Edward Handley (acting)       (b. 1896 - d. 1948)
                             (arrived 4 Feb 1946)
Jan 1949 - Apr 1949        David Ingles Luard (acting)
       (b. 1909 - d. 1979)
Oct 1949 - 31 Jan 1950     Dennis Wilkinson (acting)
31 Jan 1950 - 30 Oct 1952  Hugh Francis Ivo Elliott           (b. 1913 - d. 1989)

30 Oct 1952 -  8 Nov 1954  John Philip Lennox Scott           (b. 1922 - d. 2006)
 8 Nov 1954 -  4 Apr 1957  Patrick "Pat" Richard Forsyth      (b. 1920 - d. 1998)
                             
Thompson
 4 Apr 1957 -  5 Apr 1959  Godfrey F. Harris                  (b. 1922)
 
5 Apr 1959 - 18 Apr 1959  .... (acting)
18 Apr 1959 -  6 Apr 1961  
Peter Andrew Day (1st time)        (b. 1926)
 6 Apr 1961 -  9 Oct 1961  Peter James Freeman Wheeler        (b. 1928 - d. 2018)
 9 Oct 1961 -  9 Apr 1963  Vacant
 9 Apr 1963 -  2 May 1965  Peter Andrew Day (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 2 May 1965 - 21 Apr 1966  Gordon Henry Whitefield            (b. 1920)
21 Apr 1966 - 17 May 1969  Brian Watkins                      (b. 1933)
17 May 1969 - 29 Aug 1972  James Ian Hendry Fleming           (b. 1923 - d. 2007)
29 Aug 1972 - 12 Dec 1974  .... (acting)
12 Dec 1974 - 23 Jun 1975  William "Bill" Sandham (acting)   
(b. 192.)
23 Jun 1975 - 18 Sep 1978  Stanley "Stan" Graham Trees        (b. 1914 - d. 1997)
18 Sep 1978 -  1 Nov 1981  Edward "Eddie" Charles Brooks      (b. 192. - d. 1994)
 1 Nov 1981 - 25 Sep 1984  Colin Frank Redston                (b. 1939)
25 Sep 1984 - 24 Oct 1984  E.M.E. Alexander (acting)
24 Oct 1984 -  9 Feb 1989  Roger Perry                        (b. 1933 - d. 2016)
 9 Feb 1989 - 12 Jan 1992  Bernard Edward Pauncefort          (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
12 Jan 1992 - 30 Apr 1994  Philip Hughes Johnson              (b. 1935)
30 Apr 1994 -  3 May 1994  .... (acting)
 3 May 1994 - 19 Sep 1994  Lewis Edward Glass
(acting)        (b. 1948
20 Sep 1994 -  3 Nov 1997  Brendan G.P. Dalley
1995 - 1996                Alan Victor Waters                 (b. 1942)
                             (acting for Dalley)
 3 Nov 1997 -  9 Jan 1998  Brian Walter Money (acting)        (b. 1941)
 9 Jan 1998 -  5 Mar 2001  Brian Paul Baldwin                 (b. 1944)
 6 Mar 2001 - 12 Sep 2001  James Patrick Glass (acting)       (b. 1961)
12 Sep 2001 - 17 Mar 2004  William "Bill" Andrew Dickson      (b. 1950)
17 Mar 2004 - 26 May 2004  Anne Green (f) (acting)            (b. 1952)
26 May 2004 - 12 Sep 2007  Michael "Mike" Joseph Hentley      (b. 1946)

12 Sep 2007 - 15 Sep 2010  David John Morley                  (b. 1954)

15 Sep 2010 - 23 Sep 2013  Sean Gilbert Peter Burns           (b. 1961)
                             (1st time)
 8 Jun 2011 – 14 Sep 2011  Lorraine Jennifer Repetto (f)      (b. 1969)
                             (acting for Burns)
23 Sep 2013 - 28 Sep 2016  Richard Alexander "Alex" John      (b. 1975)
                             Mitham
28 Sep 2016 - 29 Nov 2016  Ann Biddle (f)(1st time) (acting)
29 Nov 2016 -              S
ean Gilbert Peter Burns           (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
 6 Jun 2017 - 13 Sep 2017  Ann Biddle (f)(acting for Burns)
13 Jun 2018 - 12 Sep 2018  David Moores
(acting for Burns)


Chief Islanders
18 Nov 1817 - 24 Nov 1853  William Glass                      (b. 1786 - d. 1853)
Dec 1853 - Oct 1857        Alexander Cotton                   (b. 1783 - d. 1865)
Oct 1857 -  2 Apr 1902     Peter William Green                (b. 1808 - d. 1902)
                            
(= Pieter Willemszoon Groen)
1902 -  9 Feb 1911         Andrea Repetto                     (b. 1867 - d. 1911)

1911 - 1932                no acknowledged chief islander
1932 - 1970                William Peter Repetto              (b. 1902 - d. 1976)
                             "Chief Willie"       
15 Jan 1970 - 23 Mar 1973  Harold Green (1st time)            (b. 1934)
23 Mar 1973 - 28 May 1979  Albert Glass (1st time)            (b. 1935 - d. 2007)
29 May 1979 - 23 Jun 1982  Harold Green (2nd time)            (s.a.)
24 Jun 1982 - 10 Jul 1985  Albert Glass (2nd time)            (s.a.)
11 Jul 1985 - 22 Aug 1988  Harold Green (3rd time)            (s.a.)
23 Aug 1988 - 30 May 1991  Anne Green (f)(1st time)           (s.a.)
31 May 1991 - 23 Nov 1994  Lewis Edward Glass                 (s.a.)
24 Nov 1994 -  6 Nov 2003  James Patrick Glass                (s.a.)
 7 Nov 2003 - 21 Mar 2007  Anne Green (f)(2nd time)           (s.a.)
22 Mar 2007 - 12 Apr 2010  Conrad Jack Glass                  (b. 1961)
12 Apr 2010 -              Ian Joseph Lavarello               (b. 1970)


Tristan da Cunha Group of Islands

Gough Island

May 1506                   Discovered by Portuguese Capt. Gonçalo Álvarez, and named
                             Ilha de Gonçalo Álvares.
 3 Mar 1732                Re-sighted by Capt. Charles Gough (b. 1693 - d. 1774), on the
                             East India Co. ship Richmond, and subsequently named after him
                             as Gough's Island

10 Jun 1795                Re-sighted by British Capt. William Broughton aboard the
                             H.M.S. Providence.

 
8 Jan 1811                Visited by British Capt. Peter Heywood on H.M.S. Nereus.
14 Aug 1816                U.K. claims possession along with Tristan da Cunha (
Gough Island).
12 Jan 1938                Formally annexed by U.K. as a dependency of St. Helena.
29 Mar 1938                Uninhabited Gough Island formally annexed by U.K. by Capt. Robert
                             Lionel Brooke Cunliffe (b. 1895 - d. 1990) on H.M.S. Milford.
 2 Apr 1976                Gough made a wildlife reserve (Gough Island Wildlife Reserve).

 
5 Jan 1996                Inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site (from 1 Jul 2004,
                            
as Gough and Inaccessible Islands).



Inaccessible Island

May 1506                   Sighted by Portuguese Admiral Tristão d'Acunha.
 
5 Jan 1656                Re-sighted by Dutch Capt. Jan Jacobszoon aboard 't Nachtglas
                            
and named Nachtglas Eylandt.
 9 Sep 1767                Visited by French
by French Capt. d'Etchevery (d'Escheverry), 
                             named
Île Inaccessible.
 
4 Feb 1811 - 17 May 1812  Claimed by Jonathan Lambert (s.a.) and renamed Printard Island.
14 Aug 1816                U.K. Claims possession along with Tristan da Cunha (Inaccessible
                             Island).

27 Nov 1871 - 19 Oct 1873  Inhabited by brothers Gustav and Friedrich Stoltenhoff from
                             Germany.
Stoltenhoff Island is later named for them.
12 Jan 1938                Formally annexed by U.K. as a dependency of St. Helena.
 1 Jul 2004                Added to Gough UNESCO
World Heritage site (as Gough and
                             Inaccessible Islands).



Nightingale Island

11 Jan 1656                Discovered by the Dutch Capt. Jan Jacobszoon aboard 't Nachtglas
                            
and named Gebroocken Eylandt (Broken Island).
Aug 1696                   First landing probably by Dutch Capt. Willem de Vlamingh.
1760                       British Capt. Gamaliel Nightingale (b. 1731 - d. 1791) explores
                             the island which is later named Nightingale Island by for him.

 
9 Sep 1767                Visited by French Capt. d'Etchevery (d'Escheverry).
 4 Feb 1811 - 17 May 1812  Claimed by Jonathan Lambert (s.a.) and renamed Lovel
Island.
14 Aug 1816                U.K. claims possession along with Tristan da Cunha (Nightingale
                             Island
).

12 Jan 1938                Formally annexed by U.K. as a dependency of St. Helena.
 1 Jul 2004                Added to Gough UNESCO World Heritage site (as Gough and
                             Inaccessible Islands).







 © Ben Cahoon