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Spain
 
[Kingdom of Castile, to 1230]
               
Castile to 1230

[Kingdom of
                                Castile and Leon, 1230-1516]     
      Castile and León 1230 - 1516 
[Burgundy Cross Flag 1516-1785
                                (Spain)]
     1516 - 1700  (as Jack to 1785) 
[Spain State flag (1701-1759)]
                24 Nov 1700 - 1746
[Spain State
                                flag (1746-1761)]
                    1746 - 1761
[Spain State flag (1761-1785)]
               1761 - 28 May 1785
[Spanish State
                                  and War flag (1785-1873, 1874-1931)]
           28 May 1785 - 11 Feb 1873,
            29 Dec 1874 - 27 Apr 1931

[Spanish
                                  Merchant Ensign 1785-1927]
    1785 - 31 Dec 1927 Merchant Ensign
[Spanish
                                  Republic State flag (1873-1874)]
           11 Feb 1873 - 29 Dec 1874
[SpanishRepublic 1931-1939 state
                                  and war flag (Spain)]
        27 Apr 1931 - 31 Mar 1939 (Republic)
[Spanish State 1936-1938
                                (Nationalist)]
   29 Aug 1936 - 2 Feb 1938 (Nationalist)  
[Spanish State, State and War Flag
                                1938-1945 (Spain)]
   2 Feb 1938 - 11 Oct 1945 (Nationalist)  
[State and War
                                Flag and War Ensign 1945-1977 (Spain)]
             11 Oct 1945 - 21 Jan 1977
[Spain (1977-1981)]
          21 Jan 1977 - 28 Oct 1981  
[Spain]
                Adopted 28 Oct 1981
Map of Spain
Hear National Anthem
"Himno Nacional Español"
(or "Marcha Real"

[Royal March])
Text of National Anthem
3 Sep 1770-1822, 1823-9 Dec 1931,
Re-adopted Jul 1942
Constitution
 (29 Dec 1978)
Spanish Civil
War Map
Former National Anthem
"Himno de Riego"
(Riego's Anthem)
(7 Apr 1822-28 Jan 1823,
9 Dec 1931-1 Apr 1939)

Republic Constitution
(1931-1939; in Spanish)
Former Constitutions
(1808, 1812, 1837, 1845,
1869, 1876, 1938)
Capital: Madrid
(Burgos 1073-1492;
Valladolid 1492-1561,1601-1604;
Republic: Valencia
Nov 1936-Oct 1937;
Barcelona Oct 1937-1939;
Nationalists: Burgos
Jul 1936- Oct 1939)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1868-1 Jan 2002: Spanish
 
Peseta (ESP); 1936-1939
 Spanish Nationalist Peseta
(ESPN);
1595-1868 Spanish
Escudo (ESE)

National Holiday: 12 Oct (1492)
National Day
(Día de la Hispanidad)
Population: 47,370,542 (2013)
GDP: $1.38 trillion (2013)
Exports: $458 billion (2013)
Imports: $431 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Spaniard 44.9%, Catalonian 28%, Galician 8.2%,
Basque 5.5%, Aragonese 5%, 
Extremaduran 2.8%,
Roma (Gitanos/Gypsy) 2%,
other 3.6% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 123,300 (2012)
U.S. Forces: 1,823 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 132 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Muslim 2.5%, Protestant 1%,
other (mostly non-religious) 19.5% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BCIE (nonregional), BIS, BTWC, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CCM, CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), LU, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PA (observer), PCA, SEGIB, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Spain Index
Chronology
 
456 - 711                  Part of Visigothic Kingdom.
19 Jul 711                 Muslim conquest of the Iberian peninsula begun
                             (Toledo and Córdoba fall in 711, Seville in 712,
                             Jaén in 713, Pamplona in 714 (to 755), Zaragoza
                             in 714, and Barcelona in 719); named al-Andalus.
718                        Kingdom founded at Galicia/Asturias (see León).
756 - 929                  Emirate of Córdoba within the Umayyad Caliphate
                             rules most of Iberia.
c.850                      County of Castile, within Galicia/Asturias.

10 Dec 910                 Kingdom of León
929 - 1031                 Caliphate of Córdoba in most of Iberia.
13 May 1029 - 18 Oct 1035  Castile part of Kingdom of Pamplona (Navarra).
18 Oct 1035                Counties of Castile and Aragón become independent
                             kingdoms; Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla).
 4 Sep 1037 - 27 Dec 1065  Castile annexes León.
1040 - Apr 1147            Almoravid Caliphate rules southern Iberia.
12 Jan 1072 - 21 Aug 1157  Castile in personal union with León.
25 May 1085                Toledo annexed by Castile.
1147 - 1248                Almohad Caliphate rules southern Iberia.
24 Sep 1230                León inherited by Castile, both are reunited.
 7 Feb 1236                Córdoba annexed by Castile. 
28 Feb 1246                Jaén annexed by Castile.
23 Nov 1248                Sevilla annexed by Castile.
 2 Feb 1266                Murcia annexed by Castile (vassal from 1243; in
                             rebellion 1264-1266; under Aragón 1296-1304).
26 Mar 1344                Algeciras annexed by Castile.
19 Jan 1479                Accession of Fernando II of Aragón, who is also                              married to Ysabel I, Queen of Castile.
 2 Jan 1492                Annexation of Granada, end of the reconquista.
25 Jul 1512                Navarra annexed by Spain.
23 Jan 1516                Under the Habsburg dynasty.
16 Jan 1556                Spanish Monarchy¹ (dated conventionally to the 
                             accession of Felipe II; the term España acquires
                             Constitutional status only 1808).
1568 - Mar 1571            Las Alpujarras Morisco revolt.
27 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Portugal in personal union with Spain.
16 Nov 1700                Under the Borbón dynasty.
 9 Jun 1715                Constitutional abolition of the separate crowns
                             of Castile and León (separate crown of Aragón
                             already abolished 15 Jul 1707).
24 Mar 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  French occupation.
 6 May 1808                The kings of the Borbón dynasty abdicate in favor
                             of Napoléon I, emperor of the French and king 
                             of Italy.
 6 Jun 1808                Napoléon I proclaims his brother Joseph Napoléon,
                             king of the Two Sicilies, as king of Spain.
 8 Feb 1810 -  1 Dec 1813  Catalonia annexed to France.
11 Dec 1813                Borbón dynasty restored.
 7 Apr 1823 -  1 Oct 1823  French intervention against the Constitutionalists
                             on behalf of Fernando VII.
11 Feb 1873                ("First") Spanish Republic.
29 Dec 1874                Spanish Monarchy (restored).
14 Apr 1931 -  1 Apr 1939  ("Second") Spanish Republic.
17 Jul 1936 -  1 Apr 1939  Civil war (Burgos falls to Nationalists Jul 1936,
                             Bilbao on Oct 1937, Barcelona on 26 Jan 1939,
                             and Madrid on 28 Mar 1939).
23 Jul 1936                Spanish State (to 1 Apr 1939, in opposition).
28 Jul 1947                Spain declared to be a kingdom.
29 Dec 1978                Spain (usually referred to as Kingdom of Spain).
Autonomous
Communities
Canary Islands
Aragón
(c.800-1556)
León
(718-1230)
Galicia
(910-1479)
Navarra
(824-1512)
Minorca
(1708-1802)
The "Resistance"
(1808-1813)
Carlist
Governments

(1833-1839,
 1871-1876)
Republic in Exile
(1939-1977)
Canton Revolts
(1873-1874)
Historical Maps
of Spain
 

Note: The dates of the rulers of the intermittent Carlist insurrections correspond to the
actual presence of the rulers or their forces in the territory of the Spanish Monarchy.


Counts in Castile (title comes in Castella)(Spanish names with Latin in parentheses)
c.850 -  4 Oct 873         Rodrigo (Rudericus)                (b. 82. - d. 873)
 4 Oct 873 - 31 Jan 885    Diego Rodríguez (Didacus Rudericis)(b. 84. - d. 885)
31 Jan 885 - c.897         Vacant
c.897 - 910                Muño Muñoz (Munius Muniz)          (b. 86. - d. 91.) 
91. - c.916                Gonzalo Fernández                  (b. 88. - d. 91.)
                            
(Gundisalvus Fredinandis)
c.916 - c.929              Fernando Ansúrez                  
(b. 88. - d. 93.)
                            
(Fredinandus Assuris)
c.920 - c.92.              Nuño Fernández
(Nunnus Fredinandis)(b. 89. - d. af.932)
929 - Jun 970              Fernаndo González "el Buen Conde"  (b. 91. - d. 970)
                             (Fredinandus Gundisalvis)       

Jun 970 - 30 Dec 995       García Fernández "Manos Blancas"   (b. 93. - d. 995)
                             (Garsea Fredinandis)
29 Dec 995 -  5 Feb 101
7   Sancho Garcéz "los Buenos Fueros"  (b. c.965 - d. 1017)
                             (Sancius Garceis)
 5 Feb 1017 - 13 May 1029  García Sánchez "el Infante"        (b. 1009 - d. 102
9)
                             
(Garsea Sanciis)
13 May 1029 - 18 Oct 1035  part of Pamplona (see Navarra)

Kings of Castile²

18 Oct 1035 - 27 Dec 1065  Fernando I "el Magno"              (b. c.1016 - d. 1065)
                            
(Fredenandus I)
27 Dec 1065 -  7 Oct 1072  Sancho II "el Fuerte" (Sancius II) (b. c.1038 - d. 1072)

 7 Oct 1072 - 30 Jun 1109  Alfonso VI "el Bravo"              (b. c.1040 - d. 1109)

                            
(Aldefonsus VI)
                             (from c.1077, also uses style imperator totius Hispaniae)
30 Jun 1109 -  8 Mar 1126  Urraca -
Queen                      (b. 1080 - d. 1126)
 9 Mar 1126 - 21 Aug 1157  Alfonso VII "el Emperador"         (b. 1105 - d. 1157)
                             (Aldefonsus VII)
                             (co-ruler in Galicia
from 17 Sep 1111)
                            
(from 1135, also uses style imperator totius Hispaniae)
21 Aug 1157 - 31 Aug 1158  Sancho III "el Deseado"
           (b. 1134 - d. 1158)
31 Aug 1158 -  5 Oct 1214  Alfonso VIII "el Noble"            (b. 1155 - d. 1214)
31 Aug 1158 - 1159         Gutierre Fernándiz de              (b. 1080 - d. 1165)
                             Castro -Regent     
1159 - 16 Dec 1160         García Garcés de Aza -Regent       (b. 1106 - d. 1160)
16 Dec 1160 -  9 Jul 1164  Manrique Périz, conde de           (b. 1110? - d. 1164)
                             Lara -Regent  
 9 Jul 1164 - 18 Nov 1169  Fernando de León e Galicia -Regent (b. 1137 - d. 1188)
 6 Oct 1214 -  6 Jun 1217  Enrique I                          (b. 1204 - d. 1217)   
 6 Oct 1214 - 25 Oct 1214  Leonor de Plantagenet (f) -Regent  (b. 1162 - d. 1214)
25 Oct 1214 -  6 Jun 1217  Berenguela de Castilla (f) -Regent (b. 1180 - d. 1246)
May 1215 -  6 Jun 1217     Alvaro Nuñez de Lara, conde de     (b. 1147 - d. 1219)
                             Lara -Regent (in rebellion) 
 6 Jun 1217 - 31 Aug 1217  Berenguela "la Gran" -Queen        (s.a.)
31 Aug 1217 - 30 May 1252  Fernando III "el Santo"            (b. 1201 - d. 1252)
30 May 1252 -  4 Apr 1284  Alfonso X "el Sabio"               (b. 1221 - d. 1284)
 4 Apr 1284 - 25 Apr 1295  Sancho IV "el Bravo"               (b. 1258 - d. 1295)
25 Apr 1295 -  7 Sep 1312  Fernando IV "el Emplazado"         (b. 1285 - d. 1312) 
25 Apr 1295 - Feb 1302    
Regents
                           - María de Molina y Mesa (f)       (b. 1264? - d. 1321)
                           - Enrique de Castilla y León,      (b. 1230 - d. 1303)
                              señor de Écija
21 Jan 1296 -  8 Aug 1304  Alfonso de la Cerda                (b. 1270 - d. 1324)
                             (in rebellion [in León])  
1296 - 26 Jun 1300         Juan de Castilla y León, señor     (b. 1260 - d. 1319)
                             de Valencia (in rebellion)      
 7 Sep 1312 - 26 Mar 1350  Alfonso XI "el Justiciero"         (b. 1311 - d. 1350)

                             (also uses style emperador de España)
 7 Sep 1312 - 13 Aug 1325 
Regents
                           - Pedro de Castilla y Molina       (b. 1290 - d. 1319)
                           - Juan de Castilla y León, señor   (s.a.) 
                               de Valencia
                           - María de Molina y Mesa (f)       (s.a.)

                               (to 1 Jul 1321)
                           - Constanza de Portugal y          (b. 1290 - d. 1313)
                               Aragón (f) (to 18 Nov 1313)
                           - Juan de Castilla y León          (s.a.)
                               (to 25 Jun 1319)
                           - Pedro de Castilla y León, señor  (b. 1290 - d. 1319)
                               de los Cameros (to 25 Jun 1319)
                           - Juan de Castilla, señor de       (b. 129. - d. 1326)
                               Vizcaya
                              (25 Jun 1319 - 13 Aug 1325 [in León])

                           - Felipe, señor de Cabrera y Ribera(b. 1292 - d. 1327)
                              (25 Jun 1319 - 13 Aug 1325 [in Andaluçia])
                           - Juan Manuel, señor de Peñafiel   (b. 1282 - d. 1348)
                              (1 Jul 1321 - 13 Aug 1325 [in Castile])
26 Mar 1350 - 23 Mar 1369  Pedro "el Cruel"                   (b. 1334 - d. 1369)
 
5 Apr 1366 - 23 Mar 1369  Enrique, conde de Trastámara       (b. 1334 - d. 1379)
                             (in rebellion)
23 Mar 1369 - 29 May 1379  Enrique II "el Bastardo"           (s.a.)

                             (= conde de Trastámara)
29 May 1379 -  9 Oct 1390  Juan I                             (b. 1358 - d. 1390)
Dec 1383 - Sep 1384        Regents
                           - Alfonso de Aragón y Foix,        (b. 1332 - d. 1412)
                               marqués de Villena       
                           - Pedro Tenorio, arzobispo de      (b. c.1328 - d. 1399)
                               de Toledo               
                           - Pedro González de Mendoza        (b. c.1340 - d. 1385)
 9 Oct 1390 - 25 Dec 1406  Enrique III "el Infirme"           (b. 1376 - d. 1406)
 9 Oct 1390 -  2 Aug 1393  Johan García Manrrique,
arzobispo  (b. 133. - d. 1416)
                             de Santiago -Regent
25 Dec 1406 - 21 Jul 1454  Juan II                            (b. 1405 - d. 1454)
25 Dec 1406 - 29 Nov 1420  Regents
                           - Fernando de Castilla y León,     (b. 1380 - d. 1416)
                               duque de Peñafiel (to 2 Apr 1416)
                           - Catalina de Lancáster (f)        (b. 1372 - d. 1418)
                               (to 2 Jun 1418)
                           - Sancho de Rojas, arzobispo de    (b. 1372 - d. 1422)
                               Toledo (2 Jun 1418 - 7 Mar 1419)
                           - Enrique de Castilla y León,      (b. 1400 - d. 1445)
                               duque Villena
                              (14 Jul 1420 - 29 Nov 1420)

21 Jul 1454 - 11 Dec 1474  Enrique IV "el Impotente"          (b. 1425 - d. 1474)
 5 Jun 1465 -  5 Jul 1468 
Alfonso da Castilla "el Inocente"  (b. 1453 - d. 1468)
                             (in rebellion)
11 Dec 1474 - 26 Nov 1504  Ysabel I "la Católica" -Queen      (b. 1451 - d. 1504)
                           - jointly with -
11 Dec 1474 - 26 Nov 1504  Fernando V da Aragón "el Católico" (b. 1452 - d. 1516)
                             (Fernando II, king of Aragón from 20 Jan 1479)
12 Dec 1474 -  4 Sep 1479  Juana de Castilla, princessa       (b. 1462 - d. 1530)
                             de Asturias (f) (in rebellion)
26 Nov 1504 - 12 Apr 1555  Juana "la Loca" -Queen             (b. 1479 - d. 1555)
                            - jointly with the following -
26 Nov 1504 - 12 Jul 1506  Fernando V de Aragón -Regent       (s.a.)
                             (1st time)(administrator and governor)
12 Jul 1506 - 25 Sep 1506  Felipe I "el Hermoso"              (b. 1478 - d. 1506)
                             (Philipp IV von Habsburg)
25 Sep 1506 - 21 Aug 1507  Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros,     (b. 1436 - d. 1517)
                             arzobispo de Toeldo -Regent
                             (1st time)
21 Aug 1507 - 23 Jan 1516  Fernando V de Aragón -Regent       (s.a.)
                             
(2nd time)
23 Jan 1516 -  8 Nov 1517  Francisco Jiménez de
Cisneros,     (s.a.)
                             arzobispo de Toeldo -Regent
                             (2nd time)
23 Jan 1516 - 16 Jan 1556  Carlos I "el Emperador"            (b. 1500 - d. 1558)
                             (= Holy Roman Emperor Karl V)
Kings of Spain²
16 Jan 1556 - 13 Sep 1598  Felipe II                          (b. 1527 - d. 1598)
13 Sep 1598 - 31 Mar 1621  Felipe III                         (b. 1578 - d. 1621)
31 Mar 1621 - 17 Sep 1665  Felipe IV                          (b. 1605 - d. 1665)
17 Sep 1665 -  1 Nov 1700  Carlos II "el Hechizado"           (b. 1661 - d. 1700)
17 Sep 1665 -  6 Nov 1675  Mariana de Austria (f) -Regent     (b. 1635 - d. 1696)
 1 Nov 1700 - 18 Feb 1701  Governing Board³
18 Feb 1701 - 15 Jan 1724  Felipe V (1st time)                (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
                            (proclaimed 16 Nov 1700; entered Spain 22 Jan 1701)
12 Sep 1703 -  7 Sep 1714  Carlos (III) (in rebellion)        (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                            (recognized in Aragón, Catalonia, Valencia and Baleares)
27 Sep 1711 - Mar 1713     Regency (for Carlos in rebellion)
                           - Elisabeth Christine von          (b. 1691 - d. 1750)
                              Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (f)
                           - Guido, Graf von Starhemberg      (b. 1657 - d. 1737)
15 Jan 1724 - 31 Aug 1724  Luis I                             (b. 1707 - d. 1724)
31 Aug 1724 -  6 Sep 1724  Juan Bautista de Orendain y        (b. 1683 - d. 1734)
                             Azpilgüeta (acting)
 6 Sep 1724 -  9 Jul 1746  Felipe V (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1746 - 10 Aug 1759  Fernando VI                        (b. 1713 - d. 1759)
10 Aug 1759 - 17 Oct 1759  Ricardo Wall y Devreux (acting)    (b. 1694 - d. 1777)
17 Oct 1759 - 14 Dec 1788  Carlos III                         (b. 1716 - d. 1788) 
                             (succeeded 18 Aug 1759; entered Spain 17 Oct 1759,
                              in Madrid from 9 Dec 1759)
14 Dec 1788 - 19 Mar 1808  Carlos IV                          (b. 1748 - d. 1819)
                             (abdication retracted 21 Mar 1808,
                             final abdication 5 May 1808)
19 Mar 1808 -  6 May 1808  Fernando VII (1st time)            (b. 1784 - d. 1833)
 8 Apr 1808 -  7 May 1808  Antonio Pascual de Borbón          (b. 1755 - d. 1817)
                             (president of government junta)
  7 May 1808 - 20 Jul 1808  Joaquín Murat, gran duque de Berg  (b. 1767 - d. 1815)
                             y de Cleves 
                            (lieutenant-general and governor of the realm)
  7 Jul 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  José I Napoleón                    (b. 1768 - d. 1844)
                            (appointed decree of Napoléon I on 6 Jun 1808;
                             in flight in Spain 1 Aug 1808 - 22 Dec 1808 and
                             16 Aug 1812 - 2 Nov 1812; left Spain 28 Jun 1813)
29 Jul 1808 - 22 Jan 1809  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (b. 1768 - d. 1817)
22 Jun 1809 - 15 Aug 1809  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
18 Nov 1809 - 14 May 1810  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
23 Apr 1811 - 15 Jul 1811  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
20 Jul 1812 -  2 Dec 1812  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
17 Mar 1813 - 11 Dec 1813  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
25 Sep 1808 - 10 May 1814  the Supreme Governing Junta
                           (in opposition to José I Napoleón)
11 Dec 1813 - 29 Sep 1833  Fernando VII (2nd time)            (s.a.) 
                            (prisoner in Valençay, France 18 May 1808 - 11 Dec 1813;
                             returns 22 Mar 1814, regency dissolved 10 May 1814;
                        captive of revolutionaries 11 Jun 1823 - 1 Oct 1823)
                           Set up by the Cortes:
11 Jun 1823 - 15 Jun 1823  Provisional Regency
                           (for "morally incapacitated" Fernando VII)
                           - Cayetano Valdés y Flores Bazán   (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
                              (president)
                           - Gabriel de Císcar y Císcar       (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
                           - Gaspar de Vigodet                (b. 1747 - d. 1834)
                           Set up by the invading Powers:
 9 Apr 1823 - 26 May 1823  Francisco Ramón de Eguía Letona    (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
                            (President of the Provisional Government Junta)
26 May 1823 -  1 Oct 1823  Pedro de Alcántara de Toledo y     (b. 1768 - d. 1841)
                             Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado
                            (President of the Regency)
Queen² 
29 Sep 1833 - 30 Sep 1868  Isabel II                          (b. 1830 - d. 1904)
29 Sep 1833 - 12 Oct 1840  Queen María Cristina -Regent       (b. 1806 - d. 1878)
 1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839  Carlos V -King                     (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
                            (Carlist insurrection)
12 Oct 1840 - 23 Jul 1843  Joaquín Baldomero Fernández        (b. 1792 - d. 1879)  Mil
                             Espartero, conde de Luchana
                             (president of the Provisional Regency 
                             to 10 May 1841; from 10 May 1841, regent;
                             continuing in dissidence to 30 Jul 1843)
30 Jul 1843 - 10 Nov 1843  Joaquín María de la Asunción López (b. 1798 - d. 1855)  PM
                             y López (president of the [Provisional]
                             Government acting as regent)
 2 Apr 1860 - 1860         Carlos VI -King                    (b. 1818 - d. 1861)
                            (Carlist insurrection)
Presidents of the Provisional Revolutionary Junta
(from 5 Oct 1868, Revolutionary Superior Junta) of Madrid
30 Sep 1868 -  3 Oct 1868  Pascual Madoz e Ibáñez             (b. 1806 - d. 1870)
 3 Oct 1868 -  8 Oct 1868  Joaquín Aguirre de la Peña         (b. 1807 - d. 1869)
President of the Provisional Government
 8 Oct 1868 - 18 Jun 1869  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (b. 1810 - d. 1885)  PL 
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio 
                            (from 25 Feb 1869, President of the Executive Power)
Kings²
18 Jun 1869 -  2 Jan 1871  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               PL
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                              de San Antonio -Regent 
  2 Jan 1870 - 11 Feb 1873  Amadeo I                           (b. 1845 - d. 1890)
 2 May 1872 - 28 Feb 1876  Carlos VII                         (b. 1848 - d. 1909) 
                            (Carlist insurrection)
Presidents of the Executive Power
11 Feb 1873 - 12 Feb 1873  Blas Nicolás María Rivero          (b. 1813/14-d. 1878)
                             (president of the National Assembly)
12 Feb 1873 - 24 Feb 1873  Estanislao Figueras y Moragas      (b. 1819 - d. 1882)  PD
                             (1st time) 
24 Feb 1873                Cristino Martos Balbi              (b. 1830 - d. 1893)
                             (president of the National Assembly)
24 Feb 1873 - 11 Jun 1873  Estanislao Figueras y Moragas      (s.a.)               PD
                             (2nd time) 
11 Jun 1873 - 18 Jul 1873  Francisco Pi y Margall             (b. 1824 - d. 1901)  PRF 
18 Jul 1873 -  7 Sep 1873  Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso          (b. 1838 - d. 1908)  PRF
 7 Sep 1873 -  3 Jan 1874  Emilio Manuel Castelar Ripoll      (b. 1832 - d. 1899)  PR
 3 Jan 1874 - 30 Dec 1874  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               PLC
                             duque de la Torre, conde de
                             San Antonio 
30 Dec 1874 - 31 Dec 1874  Fernando Primo de Rivera y         (b. 1831 - d. 1921)  Mil
                             Sobremonte (acting)
Kings²
31 Dec 1874 - 25 Nov 1885  Alfonso XII "el Pacificador"       (b. 1857 - d. 1885)
                             (in exile to 9 Jan 1875)
31 Dec 1874 - 14 Jan 1875  Antonio Cánovas del                (b. 1828 - d. 1897)  PLC
                             Castillo -Regent
25 Nov 1885 - 17 May 1886  Queen María Cristina -Regent       (b. 1858 - d. 1929)
17 May 1886 - 14 Apr 1931  Alfonso XIII                       (b. 1886 - d. 1941)
17 May 1886 - 16 May 1902  Queen María Cristina -Regent       (s.a.)
Presidents of the (until 30 Jul 1931, Provisional) Government of the Republic
14 Apr 1931 - 14 Oct 1931  Niceto Alcalá-Zamora Torres        (b. 1877 - d. 1949)  PL
14 Oct 1931 - 11 Dec 1931  Manuel Azaña y Díaz                (b. 1880 - d. 1940)  AR
Presidents (from 23 Jul 1936, in Republican Zone only)
11 Dec 1931 -  7 Apr 1936  Niceto Alcalá-Zamora Torres        (s.a.)               DLR
 8 Apr 1936 - 11 May 1936  Diego Martínez Barrio (interim)    (b. 1883 - d. 1962)  UR
11 May 1936 -  3 Mar 1939  Manuel Azaña y Díaz                (s.a.)               IR
 5 Feb 1939 -  4 Mar 1939  Juan Negrín López                  (b. 1892 - d. 1936)  PSOE
                             (acting for Azaña)
President of the National Council of Defense (Republican Zone)
 5 Mar 1939 - 29 Mar 1939  José Miaja Menant                  (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  Mil
26 Mar 1939 - 29 Mar 1939  Segismundo Casado López            (b. 1893 - d. 1968)  Mil
                             (acting for Menant)
President of the Junta of National Defense (Nationalist Zone)
24 Jul 1936 -  1 Oct 1936  Miguel Cabanellas Ferrer           (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Mil
Head of state (to 31 Mar 1939 in Nationalist Zone only)
 1 Oct 1936 - 20 Nov 1975  Francisco Franco Bahamonde         (b. 1892 - d. 1975)  Mil/FET
                             (personal style Caudillo de España [Leader of Spain])
19 Jul 1974 -  2 Sep 1974  Prince Juan Carlos de Borbón       (b. 1938)            Non-party
                             (1st time)(acting for Franco)
30 Oct 1975 - 20 Nov 1975  Prince Juan Carlos de Borbón       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)(acting for Franco)
President of the Regency Council
20 Nov 1975 - 22 Nov 1975  Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel   (b. 1917 - d. 1976)  FET
                             y Nebreda
Kings²
22 Nov 1975 - 19 Jun 2014  Juan Carlos I                      (s.a.)
19 Jun 2014 -              Felipe VI                          (b. 1968)



First Secretaries of State (
Primeros Secretarios de Estado)
24 Oct 1529 – 10 May 1547  Francisco de los Cobos y Molina    (b. c.1477 – d. 1547)
10 May 1547 -  6 Feb 1556  Juan Vázquez de Molina             (b. c.1500 – d. 1570)    
 6 Feb 1556 - 26 Apr 1566  Gonzalo Pérez y Hierro             (b. c.1500 – d. 1566)
26 Apr 1566 –  8 Dec 1566  Francisco de Eraso y Hermosa       (b. 151. – d. 1570)
                             (acting)    
 8 Dec 1566 - 17 Jul 1567  Gabriel de Zayas (1st time)(acting)(b. 1526 - d. 1593)
17 Jul 1567 - 27 Jul 1579  Antonio Pérez y Escobar            (b. 1534 – d. 1611)
27 Jul 1579 - 11 Sep 1579  Gabriel de Zayas (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
11 Sep 1579 - 31 Dec 1586  Juan de Idiáquez y Olazábal        (b. 1540 - d. 1614)
31 Dec 1586 -  5 May 1591  Mateo Vázquez de Leca              (b. 1542 – d. 1591)
 5 May 1591 – 13 Sep 1598  Francisco de Idiáquez              (b. 15.. - d. 1600)    
First Ministers and Favorites (Primeros Ministros y Validos)
13 Sep 1598 -  4 Oct 1618  Francisco Gómez de Sándoval y
                             Borja, duque de Lerma            (b. 1553 – d. 1625)
 4 Oct 1618 - 31 Mar 1621  Cristóbal Gómez de Sándoval y de
                             la Cerda, duque de Uceda         (b. 1577 – d. 1624)
31 Mar 1621 -  7 Oct 1622  Baltasar de Zúñiga y de Velasco    (b. 1561 – d. 1622)
 7 Oct 1622 - 17 Jan 1643  Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, conde
                             y duque de Olivares (from 5 Jan  (b. 1587 – d. 1645)
                             1625) y duque de Sanlúcar
17 Jan 1643 - 17 Nov 1661  Luis Méndez de Haro y Guzmán,      (b. 1598 – d. 1661)
                             (from Oct 1644) duque de Olivares
                             (from 12 Apr 1660, duque de Montoro)
17 Nov 1661 - 17 Sep 1665  First Counselors of the Realm
                           - Ramiro Núñez de Guzmán y Álvarez (b. 159. – d. 1668)
                              de Asturias, duque de Medina
                              de las Torres
                           - Baltasar Cardenal Moscoso y      (b. 1589 - d. 1665)
                              Sandoval, arzobispo de Toledo
                           - García de Avellaneda y Haro,     (b. 1588 - d. 1670)
                              conde de Castrillo
17 Sep 1665 –  6 Nov 1675  Governors of the Realm
                           (Junta for Universal Government of the Monarchy)
                           - García de Avellaneda y Haro,     (s.a.)
                              conde de Castrillo (to 24 Dec 1670)
                           - Christóbal Crespì de Valdaura y  (b. 1599 - d. 1671)
                              Brizuela (to 22 Feb 1671)
                           - Baltasar Cardenal Moscoso y      (s.a.)
                              Sandoval, arzobispo de Toledo
                              (to 17 Sep 1665)
                           - Pascual Cardenal de Aragón,      (b. 1626 - d. 1677)
                              arzobispo de Toledo
                           - Guillén Ramón de Montcada y de   (b. 1618 - d. 1670)
                              Alagón-Espés, marqués de Aytona
                              (to 17 Mar 1670)
                           - Gaspar de Bracamonte y Pacheco,  (b. 1596 - d. 1676)
                              conde de Peñaranda 
 6 Nov 1675 -  7 Nov 1675  Juan José de Austria (1st time)    (b. 1629 - d. 1679)
 7 Nov 1675 - 23 Jan 1677  Vacant                   
23 Jan 1677 - 17 Sep 1679  Juan José de Austria (2nd time)    (s.a.)
17 Sep 1679 - 22 Feb 1680  Vacant
22 Feb 1680 -  2 Jun 1685  Juan Francisco de la Cerda y       (b. 1637 - d. 1691)
                             Portocarrero, duque de Medinaceli              
 2 Jun 1685 - 24 Jun 1691  Manuel Joaquín Álvarez de Toledo   (b. 1642 - d. 1707)
                             y Zúñiga, conde de Oropesa
24 Apr 1691 - Feb 1698     ....  
Secretaries of the Universal Office (Secretarios del Despacho Universal)     
Feb 1698 - Feb 1705        Antonio Cristóbal de Ubilla y      (b. 1643 - d. 1726) 
                             y Medina, marqués de Rivas
Feb 1705 - 15 Apr 1714     Pedro Cayetano Fernández del       (b. 1656 - d. 1721)
                             Campo y Angulo, marqués de
                             Mejorada
15 Apr 1714 - 30 Nov 1714  Manuel de Vadillo y Velasco        (b. 1659 - d. 1729)  
First Secretaries of State and of the Universal Office
(Primeros Secretarios de Estado y del Despacho Universal)
30 Nov 1714 - 14 Jan 1724  José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de    (b. 1660 - d. 1733)
                             Solórzano, marqués de Grimaldo
                             (1st time)
14 Jan 1724 -  4 Sep 1724  Juan Bautista de Orendain y        (b. 1683 - d. 1734)
                             Azpilgüeta (1st time)
 4 Sep 1724 - 12 Dec 1725  José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de    (s.a.)
                             Solórzano, marqués de Grimaldo
                             (2nd time)
12 Dec 1725 - 14 May 1726  Juan Guillermo de Ripperdá,        (b. 1680 - d. 1737)
                             duque de Ripperdá
14 May 1726 -  1 Oct 1726  José de Grimadlo y Gutiérez de     (s.a.)
                             Solórzano, marqués de Grimaldo 
                             (3rd time)
 1 Oct 1726 -  3 Nov 1734  Juan Bautista de Orendain y        (s.a.)     
                             Azpilgüeta, marqués de la Paz 
                             (2nd time)
 3 Nov 1734 -  3 Nov 1736  José de Patiño y Rosales           (b. 1666 - d. 1736)
 3 Nov 1736 -  4 Dec 1746  Sebastián de la Cuadra y de        (b. 1687 - d. 1766)
                             Llerena, marqués de Villarías
                             (acting to 6 Nov 1736)
 4 Dec 1746 -  8 Apr 1754  José de Carvajal y Lancaster       (b. 1698 - d. 1754)
 8 Apr 1754 - 17 May 1754  Fernando de Silva y Álvarez de     (b. 1714 - d. 1776)  
                             Toledo, duque de Huéscar (acting)
17 May 1754 -  9 Oct 1763  Ricardo Wall y Devreux             (b. 1694 - d. 1778)
 9 Oct 1763 - 25 Feb 1777  Pablo Jerónimo de Grimaldi y       (b. 1706 - d. 1789)
                             Pallavicini
25 Feb 1777 - 28 Feb 1792  José Moñino y Redondo, conde       (b. 1728 - d. 1808)
                             de Floridablanca
28 Feb 1792 - 15 Nov 1792  Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y      (b. 1719 - d. 1798)
                             Ximénez de Urrea, conde de
                             Aranda (acting)
15 Nov 1792 - 28 Mar 1798  Manuel de Godoy y Álvarez de       (b. 1767 - d. 1851)
                             Faría, duque de Alcudia, (from
                             27 Sep 1795) príncipe de la Paz
28 Mar 1798 - 13 Aug 1798  Francisco Saavedra y Sangronis     (b. 1746 - d. 1819)
                             (1st time) (acting)
13 Aug 1798 - 22 Oct 1798  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga          (s.a.)
                             (1st time) (acting)
22 Oct 1798 - 21 Feb 1799  Francisco Saavedra y Sangronis     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
21 Feb 1799 - 13 Dec 1800  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
13 Dec 1800 -  7 Jul 1808  Pedro Félix Cevallos y Guerra de   (b. 1759 - d. 1839)
                             la Vega (1st time)
 9 Apr 1808 -  2 Jun 1808  Francisco Gil y Lemus              (b. 1733 - d. 1810)
                             (acting for Cevallos)
 2 Jun 1808 -  7 Jul 1808  Eusebio Bardají y Azara            (b. 1776 - d. 1742)
                             (acting for Cevallos)
Minister Secretary of State (Ministro Secretariao de Estado)
 7 Jul 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga          (s.a.)
First Secretaries of State (Primeros Secretarios de Estado)
 6 Dec 1813 - 10 May 1814  José de Luyando y Diez Pueyo       (b. 1773 - d. 1835)
                             (1st time) (acting)
10 May 1814 - 15 Nov 1814  José Miguel de Carvajal y Manrique,(b. 1771 - d. 1828)  Abs
                             duque de San Carlos 
15 Nov 1814 - 30 Oct 1816  Pedro Felix Cevallos y Guerra de   (s.a.)
                             la Vega (2nd time)
30 Oct 1816 - 14 Sep 1818  José García de León y Pizarro      (b. 1770 - d. 1835)  Abs
                             Ximenez de Frías
14 Sep 1818 - 12 Jun 1819  Carlos Martínez de Irujo Tacón,    (b. 1763 - d. 1824)  Abs
                             marqués de Casa-Irujo (1st time)
                             (acting)
12 Jun 1819 - 12 Sep 1819  Manuel González Salmón y Gómez     (b. 1778 - d. 1832)  Abs
                             de Torres (1st time) (acting)
12 Sep 1819 - 18 Mar 1820  Joaquín José Melgarejo Saurín,     (b. 1780 - d. 1835)  Abs
                             duque de San Fernando
18 Mar 1820                Juan Gabriel de Jabat y Aztal      (b. 1762 - d. 1825)  Lib
                             (acting)
18 Mar 1820 -  2 Mar 1821  Evaristo Pérez de Castro y Brito   (b. 1778 - d. 1848)  Lib
 2 Mar 1821 - 23 Apr 1821  Joaquín de Anduaga y Siles Cuenca  (b. 1783 - d. 1840)  Lib
                             (acting)
23 Apr 1821                Francisco Escudero y Ramíerz de    (b. 1764 - d. 1831)  Lib
                             Arellano (acting)
23 Apr 1821 -  8 Jan 1822  Eusebio Bardají y Azara (2nd time) (s.a.)               Lib
 8 Jan 1822 - 28 Feb 1822  Ramón López Pelegrín (acting)      (b. 1767 - d. 1841)  Lib
28 Feb 1822 -  5 Aug 1822  Francisco Martínez de la Rosa      (b. 1787 - d. 1862)  Mod
10 Jul 1822 - 11 Jul 1822  Santiago Usoz y Mozy (Moxí)        (b. 176. - d. 18..)  Lib
                             (acting for de la Rosa)
11 Jul 1822 - 23 Jul 1822  Nicolás María Garelly y Battifora  (b. 1777 - d. 1850)  Lib
                             (acting for de la Rosa)
23 Jul 1822 -  5 Aug 1822  Santiago Usoz y Mozy (Moxí)        (s.a.)               Lib
                             (acting for de la Rosa)
 5 Aug 1822 - 25 Apr 1823  Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y    (b. 1785 - d. 1862)  Lib
                             Valledor
25 Apr 1823 -  7 May 1823  José Manuel de Vadillo y Hernández (b. 1777 - d. 1858)  Lib
                             (acting)
 7 May 1823 - 13 May 1823  Santiago Usoz y Mozy (Moxí)(acting)(s.a.)               Lib
13 May 1823 - 27 May 1823  José María Pando y Remírez de      (b. 1787 - d. 1840)  Lib
                             Laredo
27 May 1823 -  7 Aug 1823  Antonio de Vargas y Laguna
27 May 1823 -  2 Dec 1823  Víctor Damían Sáez y Sánchez Mayor (b. 1776 - d. 1839)  Abs
                             (acting [for Vargas] to 7 Aug 1823)
                             (counter-government to 1 Oct 1823)
19 Aug 1823 -  1 Oct 1823  Luis María de Salazar y Salazar    (b. 1758 - d. 1838)
                             (acting for Damían Sáez)
                             (counter-government)
29 Aug 1823 -  4 Sep 1823  Juan Antonio Yandiola Garay        (b. 1786 - d. 1830)  Lib
                             (acting)
 4 Sep 1823 - 30 Sep 1823  José de Luyando y Diez Pueyo       (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)
 2 Dec 1823 - 17 Jan 1824  Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón,  (s.a.)              
                             marqués de Casa-Irujo (2nd time)
25 Dec 1823 - 11 Jul 1824  Narciso de Heredia y Begines de    (b. 1775 - d. 1847)  Mod
                             los Ríos, conde de Ofalia
                             (acting [for duque de Sotomayor] to 17 Jan 1824)
11 Jul 1824                Luis María de Salazar y Salazar    (s.a.)
                             (acting) 
11 Jul 1824 - 24 Oct 1825  Francisco de Cea Bermúdez y Buzo   (b. 1779 - d. 1850)  Mod
                             (1st time) 
24 Oct 1825 - 19 Aug 1826  Pedro de Alcántara de Toledo y     (s.a.)
                             Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado
19 Aug 1826 - 20 Jan 1832  Manuel González Salmón y Gómez     (s.a.)               Abs
                             de Torres (2nd time)
                             (acting to 15 Oct 1830)
 8 Jan 1832 - 22 Feb 1832  Francisco Tadeo Calomarde y Arría  (b. 1773 - d. 1842)
                             (acting [for Salmón y Gómez to 20 Jan 1832])
22 Feb 1832 -  1 Oct 1832  Antonio de Saavedra y Jofré,       (b. 1765 - d. 1842)
                             conde de Alcudia (acting)
 1 Oct 1832 - 29 Nov 1832  José Cafranga y Costilla (acting)  (b. 1783 - d. 1854)
29 Nov 1832 - 15 Jan 1834  Francisco de Cea Bermúdez y Buzo   (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time)
15 Jan 1834 -  7 Jun 1835  Francisco Martínez de la Rosa      (b. 1787 - d. 1862)  PM
Prime ministers (presidents of the council of ministers)
 7 Jun 1835 - 14 Sep 1835  José María Queipo de Llano y Ruiz  (b. 1786 - d. 1843)  PM
                             de Saravia, conde de Toreno 
14 Sep 1835 - 25 Sep 1835  Miguel Ricardo de Álava y Esquivel (b. 1772 - d. 1843)  PPg
                             (refused to take office)
25 Sep 1835 - 15 May 1836  Juan Álvarez y Mendizábal (acting) (b. 1790 - d. 1853)  PPg
15 May 1836 - 14 Aug 1836  Francisco Javier de Istúriz y      (b. 1790 - d. 1871)  PM
                             Montero (1st time) (acting)
14 Aug 1836 - 18 Aug 1837  José María Calatrava y García      (b. 1781 - d. 1846)  PPg
                             Peinado             
18 Aug 1837 - 18 Oct 1837  Joaquín Baldomero Fernández        (s.a.)               PPg
                             Espartero, conde de Luchana
                             (1st time)
18 Oct 1837 - 16 Dec 1837  Eusebio Bardají y Azara            (s.a.)               PM
16 Dec 1837 -  6 Sep 1838  Narciso de Heredia y Begines       (s.a.)               PM
                             de los Ríos, conde de Ofalia 
 6 Sep 1838 -  9 Dec 1838  Bernardino Fernández de Velasco y  (b. 1783 - d. 1851)  PM
                             Benavídez, duque de Frías 
 9 Dec 1838 -  3 Feb 1839  Isidro Alaix Fábregas (acting)     (b. 1790 - d. 1853)  PM
 3 Feb 1839 - 20 Jul 1840  Evaristo Pérez de Castro y Brito   (b. 1778 - d. 1848)  PM
20 Jul 1840 - 12 Aug 1840  Antonio Bonifacio González Olañeta (b. 1792 - d. 1876)  PPg
                             y González de Ocampo (1st time) 
12 Aug 1840 - 29 Aug 1840  Valentín Ferráz y Barrau           (b. 1794 - d. 1866)  PPg
29 Aug 1840 - 11 Sep 1840  Modesto Cortázar y Leal de Ibarra  (b. 1783 - d. 1862)  PPg
                             (acting)         
11 Sep 1840 - 16 Sep 1840  Vicente Sancho y Cubertures        (b. 1784 - d. 1860)  PPg
16 Sep 1840 - 10 May 1841  Joaquín Baldomero Fernández
                             Espartero, duque de la Victoria  (s.a.)               PPg
                             (2nd time)
 5 Oct 1840 - 20 May 1841  Joaquín María de Ferrer y Cafranga (b. 1777 - d. 1861)  PPg 
                             (acting for Espartero to 10 May 1841)
20 May 1841 - 17 Jun 1842  Antonio Bonifacio González Olañeta (s.a.)               PPg
                             y González de Ocampo (2nd time) 
17 Jun 1842 -  9 May 1843  José Ramón Méndez Rodil Gayoso,    (b. 1789 - d. 1853)  PPg
                             marqués de Rodil 
 9 May 1843 - 19 May 1843  Joaquín María López y López        (s.a.)               PPg
                             (1st time) 
19 May 1843 - 23 Jul 1843  Álvaro Gómez Becerra               (b. 1771 - d. 1855)  PPg 
                             (continues in dissidence to 30 Jul 1843)
23 Jul 1843 - 20 Nov 1843  Joaquín María López y López        (s.a.)               PPg
                             (2nd time) 
20 Nov 1843 - 29 Nov 1843  Salustiano de Olózaga y Almandoz   (b. 1805 - d. 1873)  PPg
29 Nov 1843 -  5 Dec 1843  Vacant
 5 Dec 1843 -  3 May 1844  Luis González Bravo y López de     (b. 1811 - d. 1871)  PM
                             Arjona (1st time)  
 3 May 1844 - 11 Feb 1846  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (b. 1800 - d. 1868)  PM
                             duque de Valencia (1st time)
12 Feb 1846 - 16 Mar 1846  Manuel de Pando Fernández de       (b. 1792 - d. 1872)  PM
                             Pinedo, marqués de Miraflores
                             (1st time)
16 Mar 1846 -  5 Apr 1846  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (2nd time) 
 5 Apr 1846 - 28 Jan 1847  Francisco Javier de Istúriz y      (s.a.)               PM
                             Montero (2nd time) 
28 Jan 1847 - 28 Mar 1847  Carlos Fernando Martínez de Irujo  (b. 1804 - d. 1889)  PM
                             y McKean, marqués de Casa-Irujo,
                             duque de Sotomayor
28 Mar 1847 - 31 Aug 1847  Joaquín Francisco Pacheco y        (b. 1808 - d. 1865)  PM
                             Gutiérrez Calderón 
31 Aug 1847 - 12 Sep 1847  Vacant
12 Sep 1847 -  4 Oct 1847  Florencio Francisco García Goyena  (b. 1783 - d. 1855)  PM
                        y Orobia
 4 Oct 1847 - 19 Oct 1849  Ramón María Narváez y Campos
                             duque de Valencia (3rd time)     (s.a.)               PM
19 Oct 1849 - 20 Oct 1849  Serafín María de Soto y Abacu,
                             conde de Clonard                 (b. 1793 - d. 1862)  PM
20 Oct 1849 - 10 Jan 1851  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (4th time)
10 Jan 1851 - 14 Jan 1851  Vacant
14 Jan 1851 - 14 Dec 1852  Juan Manuel José Primo Méndez-     (b. 1803 - d. 1873)  PM
                             Bravo Murillo
14 Dec 1852 - 14 Apr 1853  Federico de Roncali y Ceruti,      (b. 1806 - d. 1859)  PM
                             conde de Alcoy
14 Apr 1853 - 19 Sep 1853  Francisco de Lersundi y Ormaechea  (b. 1817 - d. 1874)  PM
19 Sep 1853 - 17 Jul 1854  Luis José Sartorius y Tapia,       (b. 1820 - d. 1871)  PM
                             conde de San Luis
17 Jul 1854 - 18 Jul 1854  Fernando Fernández de Córdova y    (b. 1809 - d. 1883)  PM
                             Valcárcel (1st time)
18 Jul 1854 - 20 Jul 1854  Ángel Pérez de Saavedra y Ramírez  (b. 1791 - d. 1865)  PM
                             de Baquedano, duque de Rivas
21 Jul 1854 - 29 Jul 1854  Evaristo Fernández de San Miguel   (b. 1785 - d. 1862)  Mil
                             y Valledor (president of Junta of
                             Salvation and Defense of the town
                             of Madrid [from 23 Jul 1854 president
                             of Superior Junta of Salvation,
                             Armament and Defense of Madrid])
                             (acting)
29 Jul 1854 - 14 Jul 1856  Joaquín Baldomero Fernández        (s.a.)               PPg
                             Espartero, duque de la Victoria
                             (3rd time)
14 Jul 1856 - 12 Oct 1856  Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris,       (b. 1809 - d. 1867)  UL
                             conde de Lucena (1st time)
12 Oct 1856 - 15 Oct 1857  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (5th time)
15 Oct 1857 - 14 Jan 1858  Francisco Armero y Fernández de    (b. 1804 - d. 1867)  PM
                             Peñaranda
14 Jan 1858 - 30 Jun 1858  Francisco Javier de Istúriz        (s.a.)               PM
                             Montero (3rd time) 
30 Jun 1858 -  2 Mar 1863  Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris,       (s.a.)               UL
                             (from 7 Feb 1860) duque de Tetuán 
                             (2nd time)
 2 Mar 1863 - 17 Jan 1864  Manuel de Pando Fernández de       (s.a.)               PM
                             Pinedo, marqués de Miraflores
                             (2nd time) 
17 Jan 1864 -  1 Mar 1864  Lorenzo Arrazola y García          (b. 1797 - d. 1873)  PM
 1 Mar 1864 - 16 Sep 1864  Alejandro Món y Menéndez           (b. 1801 - d. 1882)  PM
16 Sep 1864 - 21 Jun 1865  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (6th time) 
21 Jun 1865 - 10 Jul 1866  Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris,       (s.a.)               UL
                             duque de Tetuán (3rd time)
10 Jul 1866 - 23 Apr 1868  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (7th time)
23 Apr 1868 - 19 Sep 1868  Luis González Bravo y López de     (s.a.)               PM
                             Arjona (2nd time)   
19 Sep 1868 -  8 Oct 1868  José Gutiérrez de la Concha e      (b. 1809 - d. 1895)  PM
                             Irigoyen de la Quintana,
                             marqués de la Habana
 8 Oct 1868 - 18 Jun 1869  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               UL
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio (1st time)
18 Jun 1869 - 27 Dec 1870  Juan Prim y Prats, marqués de      (b. 1814 - d. 1870)  PPg
                             Castillejos, conde de Reus,
                             vizconde del Bruch
26 Aug 1869 - 21 Sep 1869  Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo    (b. 1821 - d. 1885)  UL
                             (acting for Prim y Prats)
27 Dec 1870 -  4 Jan 1871  Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo    (s.a.)               UL
                             (1st time) (acting) 
29 Dec 1870 -  2 Jan 1871  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (b. 1825 - d. 1903)  PC
                             Escolar (acting for Topete y Carballo)
 4 Jan 1871 - 24 Jul 1871  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               UL 
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio (2nd time) 
24 Jul 1871 -  5 Oct 1871  Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla y Ruiz        (b. 1833 - d. 1895)  PDR
                             Zorrilla (1st time)
 5 Oct 1871 - 21 Dec 1871  José Malcampo y Monge, marqués     (b. 1828 - d. 1880)  PC
                             de San Rafael
21 Dec 1871 - 26 May 1872  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PC
                             Escolar (1st time)
26 May 1872 -  4 Jun 1872  Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo    (s.a.)               UL
                             (2nd time)(acting) 
 4 Jun 1872 - 13 Jun 1872  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               UL
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio (3rd time)
13 Jun 1872 - 16 Jun 1872  Fernando Fernández de Córdova y    (s.a.)               PM
                             Valcárcel, marqués de Mendigorría
                             (2nd time)(acting) 
16 Jun 1872 - 11 Feb 1873  Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla y Ruiz        (s.a.)               PDR
                             Zorrilla (2nd time)
12 Feb 1873 -  4 Jan 1874  Vacant
 4 Jan 1874 - 26 Feb 1874  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               UL
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio (4th time)
26 Feb 1874 -  3 Sep 1874  Juan de Zavala y de la Puente,     (b. 1804 - d. 1879)  Mil
                             marqués de Sierra Bullones 
29 Jun 1874 - 31 Dec 1874  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PC
                             Escolar (2nd time)
                             (acting for Zavala to 3 Sep 1874)
31 Dec 1874 -  9 Jan 1875  Vacant
 9 Jan 1875 - 12 Sep 1875  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (1st time) 
12 Sep 1875 -  2 Dec 1875  Joaquín José Ramon Jovellar y      (b. 1819 - d. 1892)  PLC
                             Soler
 2 Dec 1875 -  7 Mar 1879  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (2nd time) 
 8 Aug 1877 -  6 Sep 1877  Manuel de Orovio y Echagüe,        (b. 1817 - d. 1883)  PLC   
                             marques de Orovio
                             (acting for Cánovas del Castillo)   
 7 Mar 1879 -  9 Dec 1879  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Antón (b. 1831 - d. 1900)  PLC
 9 Dec 1879 -  8 Feb 1881  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (3rd time) 
 8 Feb 1881 - 13 Oct 1883  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             Escolar (3rd time)
10 Jul 1881 -  2 Aug 1881  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Antón (s.a.)               PLC   
                             (acting for Mateo-Sagasta)
 9 Jan 1882 - 19 Jan 1882  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Antón (s.a.)               PLC
                             (acting for Mateo-Sagasta)
25 Jul 1882 - 25 Aug 1882  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Antón (s.a.)               PLC
                             (acting for Mateo-Sagasta)
13 Oct 1883 - 18 Jan 1884  José de Posada Herrera             (b. 1815 - d. 1885)  ID
18 Jan 1884 - 27 Nov 1885  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (4th time) 
27 Nov 1885 -  5 Jul 1890  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             Escolar (4th time)
 5 Jul 1890 - 11 Dec 1892  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (5th time) 
11 Dec 1892 - 23 Mar 1895  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             (5th time)
23 Mar 1895 -  8 Aug 1897  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             Escolar (6th time) 
 8 Aug 1897 -  4 Oct 1897  Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero     (b. 1832 - d. 1915)  PLC
                             (1st time)(acting to 21 Aug 1897)
 4 Oct 1897 -  4 Mar 1899  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             Escolar (6th time)
 4 Mar 1899 - 23 Oct 1900  Francisco Silvela y Le-Vielleuze   (b. 1843 - d. 1905)  PLC
                             (1st time)
23 Oct 1900 -  6 Mar 1901  Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero     (s.a.)               PLC
                             (2nd time)
 6 Mar 1901 -  6 Dec 1902  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             Escolar (7th time)
 6 Dec 1902 - 20 Jul 1903  Francisco Silvela y Le-Vielleuze   (s.a.)               PLC
                             (2nd time)
20 Jul 1903 -  5 Dec 1903  Raimundo Fernández Villaverde y    (b. 1848 - d. 1905)  PLC
                             García del Rivero, marqués
                             de Pozo Rubio (1st time)
 5 Dec 1903 - 16 Dec 1904  Antonio Maura y Montaner (1st time)(b. 1853 - d. 1925)  PLC
16 Dec 1904 - 27 Jan 1905  Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero     (s.a.)               PLC
                             (3rd time)
27 Jan 1905 - 23 Jun 1905  Raimundo Fernández Villaverde y    (s.a.)               PLC
                             García del Rivero, marqués
                             de Pozo Rubio (2nd time)
23 Jun 1905 -  1 Dec 1905  Eugenio Montero Ríos               (b. 1832 - d. 1914)  PL
 1 Dec 1905 -  6 Jul 1906  Segismundo Moret y Prendergast     (b. 1838 - d. 1913)  PL
                             (1st time)
 6 Jul 1906 - 30 Nov 1906  José López Domínguez               (b. 1829 - d. 1911)  PL
30 Nov 1906 -  4 Dec 1906  Segismundo Moret y Prendergast     (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
 4 Dec 1906 - 25 Jan 1907  Antonio González de Aguilar y      (b. 1824 - d. 1908)  PL
                             Correa, marqués de la Vega de
                             Armijo
25 Jan 1907 - 21 Oct 1909  Antonio Maura y Montaner (2nd time)(s.a.)               PLC
21 Oct 1909 -  9 Feb 1910  Segismundo Moret y Prendergast     (s.a.)               PL
                             (3rd time)
 9 Feb 1910 - 12 Nov 1912  José María Eduardo Ignacio         (b. 1854 - d. 1912)  PL
                             Canalejas y Méndez
12 Nov 1912 - 14 Nov 1912  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (b. 1859 - d. 1938)  PL
                             de Alhucemas (1st time) (acting)
14 Nov 1912 - 27 Oct 1913  Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres        (b. 1863 - d. 1950)  PL
                             Mendieta, conde de Romanones
                             (1st time) 
 5 May 1913 - 12 May 1913  Juan Navarro Reverter y Gomis      (b. 1844 - d. 1924)  PL
                             (acting for conde de Romanones)
27 Oct 1913 -  9 Dec 1915  Eduardo Dato e Iradier (1st time)  (b. 1856 - d. 1921)  PLC
 9 Dec 1915 - 19 Apr 1917  Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres        (s.a.)               PL
                             Mendieta, conde de Romanones
                             (2nd time)
19 Apr 1917 - 11 Jun 1917  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (s.a.)               PLD
                             de Alhucemas (2nd time)
11 Jun 1917 -  3 Nov 1917  Eduardo Dato e Iradier (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PLC
 3 Nov 1917 - 22 Mar 1918  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (s.a.)               PLD
                             de Alhucemas (3rd time)
22 Mar 1918 -  9 Nov 1918  Antonio Maura y Montaner (3rd time)(s.a.)               PLC
 9 Nov 1918 -  5 Dec 1918  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (s.a.)               PLD
                             de Alhucemas (4th time)
 5 Dec 1918 - 15 Apr 1919  Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres        (s.a.)               PL
                             Mendieta, conde de Romanones
                             (3rd time)
18 Dec 1918 - 24 Dec 1918  Amalio Gimeno y Cabañas            (b. 1852 - d. 1936)  PL   
                             (acting for conde de Romanones)
15 Apr 1919 - 20 Jul 1919  Antonio Maura y Montaner (4th time)(s.a.)               PLC
20 Jul 1919 - 12 Dec 1919  Joaquín Sánchez de Toca y Calvo    (b. 1852 - d. 1942)  PLC
12 Dec 1919 -  5 May 1920  Manuel Allendesalazar y Muñoz      (b. 1856 - d. 1923)  PLC
                             de Salazar (1st time)
 5 May 1920 -  8 Mar 1921  Eduardo Dato e Iradier (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PLC
 8 Mar 1921 - 13 Mar 1921  Gabino Bugallal Araujo,            (b. 1861 - d. 1932)  PLC
                             conde de Bugallal (acting)
13 Mar 1921 - 14 Aug 1921  Manuel Allendesalazar y Muñoz      (s.a.)               PLC
                             de Salazar (2nd time)
14 Aug 1921 -  8 Mar 1922  Antonio Maura y Montaner (4th time)(s.a.)               PLC
 8 Mar 1922 -  7 Dec 1922  José Sánchez-Guerra y Martínez     (b. 1859 - d. 1935)  PLC
 7 Dec 1922 - 15 Sep 1923  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (s.a.)               PLD
                             de Alhucemas (5th time)
15 Sep 1923 - 30 Jan 1930  Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, (b. 1870 - d. 1930)  Mil;1924 UP
                             marqués de Estella
                             (president of the Military Directory to 3 Dec 1925)
14 Nov 1923 -  4 Dec 1923  Antonio Magaz y Pers, marqués      (b. 1864 - d. 1953)  Mil    
                             de Magaz (acting for Primo de Rivera)
 5 Sep 1924 - 31 Oct 1925  Antonio Magaz y Pers, marqués      (s.a.)               Mil 
                             de Magaz (acting for Primo de Rivera)
30 Jan 1930 - 18 Feb 1931  Dámaso Berenguer Fusté, conde      (b. 1873 - d. 1953)  Mil
                             de Xauen
18 Feb 1931 - 14 Apr 1931  Juan Bautista Aznar y Cabañas      (b. 1860 - d. 1933)  Mil
14 Apr 1931 - 14 Oct 1931  Niceto Alcalá-Zamora Torres        (s.a.)               PL
14 Oct 1931 - 12 Sep 1933  Manuel Azaña y Díaz (1st time)     (s.a.)               AR
12 Sep 1933 -  8 Oct 1933  Alejandro Lerroux García           (b. 1864 - d. 1949)  PRR
                             (1st time)
 8 Oct 1933 - 16 Dec 1933  Diego Martínez Barrio (1st time)   (s.a.)               PRR
16 Dec 1933 - 28 Apr 1934  Alejandro Lerroux García           (s.a.)               PRR
                             (2nd time)
28 Apr 1934 -  4 Oct 1934  Ricardo Samper Ibáñez              (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  PRR
 4 Oct 1934 - 25 Sep 1935  Alejandro Lerroux García (3rd time)(s.a.)               PRR
25 Sep 1935 - 14 Dec 1935  Joaquín Chapaprieta y Torregrosa   (b. 1871 - d. 1951)  Non-party
14 Dec 1935 - 19 Feb 1936  Manuel Portela Valladares Dios y   (b. 1867 - d. 1952)  PRR
                             Rial
19 Feb 1935 - 10 May 1936  Manuel Azaña y Díaz (2nd time)     (s.a.)               IR
10 May 1936 - 13 May 1936  Augusto Barcia Trelles (interim)   (b. 1881 - d. 1961)  IR
13 May 1936 - 19 Jul 1936  Santiago Casares Quiroga de la     (b. 1884 - d. 1950)  IR
                             Paz y Moredo           
19 Jul 1936                Diego Martínez Barrio (2nd time)   (s.a.)               UR
19 Jul 1936 -  4 Sep 1936  José Giral Pereira                 (b. 1879 - d. 1962)  IR
 4 Sep 1936 - 17 May 1937  Francisco Largo Caballero          (b. 1869 - d. 1946)  PSOE
17 May 1937 -  4 Mar 1939  Juan Negrín López                  (b. 1892 - d. 1956)  PSOE
 6 Sep 1937 - 27 Sep 1937  Indalecio Prieto Tuero             (b. 1883 - d. 1962)  PSOE  
                             (acting for Negrín López)
17 Aug 1938 - 24 Aug 1938  Julio Álvarez del Vayo             (b. 1891 - d. 1975)  PSOE   
                             (acting for Negrín López)
14 Sep 1938 - 27 Sep 1938  José Giral Pereira                 (s.a.)               IR
                             (acting for Negrín López)
Chairmen of the Technical Junta (Nationalist Zone)
 3 Oct 1936 -  3 Jun 1937  Fidel Dávila Arrondo               (b. 1878 - d. 1962)  Mil
 3 Jun 1937 - 31 Jan 1938  Francisco Gómez-Jordana Souza,     (b. 1876 - d. 1944)  Mil
                             conde de Jordana
General governors of State (Nationalist Zone)
 4 Oct 1936 -  4 Nov 1936  Francisco Fermoso Blanco           (b. 1870 - d. 1955)  Mil
 4 Nov 1936 - 31 Jan 1938  Luis Valdés Cavanilles             (b. 1874 - d. 1950)  Mil
Prime ministers (presidents of the Government)(to 31 Mar 1939 in Nationalist Zone only)
31 Jan 1938 -  8 Jun 1973  Francisco Franco Bahamonde         (s.a.)               Mil/FET
 8 Jun 1973 - 20 Dec 1973  Luis Carrero Blanco                (b. 1903 - d. 1973)  Mil/FET
20 Dec 1973 - 29 Dec 1973  Torcuato Fernández-Miranda y Hevia (b. 1915 - d. 1980)  FET
                             (acting)
29 Dec 1973 -  1 Jul 1976  Carlos Arias Navarro               (b. 1908 - d. 1989)  FET
 1 Jul 1976 -  3 Jul 1976  Fernando de Santiago y Díaz de     (b. 1910 - d. 1994)  Mil
                             Mendivil (acting)
 3 Jul 1976 - 25 Feb 1981  Adolfo Suárez González             (b. 1932 - d. 2014)  UCD
25 Feb 1981 -  1 Dec 1982  Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo y Bustelo    (b. 1926 - d. 2008)  UCD
 1 Dec 1982 -  4 May 1996  Felipe González Márquez            (b. 1942)            PSOE
 4 May 1996 - 16 Apr 2004  José María Aznar López             (b. 1953)            PP
16 Apr 2004 - 20 Dec 2011  José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero       (b. 1960)            PSOE
20 Dec 2011 -              Mariano Rajoy Brey                 (b. 1955)            PP


The "Resistance" 1808-1814

May 1808                   The abdication of Fernando VII (s.a.) on 6 May 1808 is not
                             recognized by the "Resistance"; Supreme Governing Juntas
                             are established in the provinces (ultimately numbering 18),
                             as well as in the Indies, ruling in the name of Fernando VII.
25 Sep 1808                The Supreme Central Governing Junta is established, ruling
                             in the name of Fernando VII, and gradually superseding the
                             previously established Juntas.
31 Jan 1810                A Supreme Council of Regency is established, governing in
                             the name of Fernando VII.
10 May 1814                Upon the return of Fernando VII the Regency dissolved by force.

Presidents of the Supreme Central Governing Junta
25 Sep 1808 - 30 Dec 1808  José Moñino y Redondo, conde de    (s.a.)
                             Floridablanca 
                             (interim to 1 Oct 1808)
30 Dec 1808 -  1 Nov 1809  Vicente Isabel Osorio de Moscoso   (b. 1777 - d. 1837)
                             y Álvarez de Toledo, marqués de
                             Astorga (interim to 1 May 1809)
 1 Nov 1809 - 31 Jan 1810  Juan Acisclo de Vera y Delgado,    (b. 1761 - d. 1818)
                             arzobispo de Laodicea 
Presidents of the Supreme Council of Regency
 1 Feb 1810 - 29 May 1810  Francisco Javier Castaños y        (b. 1758 - d. 1852)
                             Aragorri                
29 May 1810 - 26 Sep 1810  Pedro de Quevedo y Quintano,       (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
                             obispo de Orense         
27? Sep 1810 - 28 Oct 1810 Francisco Saavedra y Sangronis     (s.a.)
Presidents of the Council of Regency
28 Oct 1810 -  8 Dec 1810  Pedro Agar y Bustillo (1st time)   (b. 1760 - d. 1822)
 8 Dec 1810 -  8 Apr 1811  Joaquín Blake y Joyes              (b. 1739 - d. 1827)
 8 Apr 1811 -  8 Aug 1811  Pedro Agar y Bustillo (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1811 -  8 Dec 1811  Gabriel de Císcar y Císcar         (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
 8 Dec 1811 - 22 Jan 1812  Pedro Agar y Bustillo (3rd time)   (s.a.)
Presidents of the Regency
22 Jan 1812 - 15 Jun 1812  Joaquín de Mosquera y Figueroa     (b. 1748 - d. 1830)
15 Jun 1812 - 15 Dec 1812? Pedro de Alcántara de Toledo y     (s.a.)
                             Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado 
15 Dec 1812? - 8 Mar 1813  Juan María de Villavicencio        (b. 1755 - d. 1830)
President of the (to 22 Mar 1813, Provisional) Regency
 8 Mar 1813 - 10 May 1814  Cardenal Luis María de Borbón y    (b. 1777 - d. 1823)
                             Vallabriga, arzobispo de Toledo,
                             primado de las Españas 
       

First Secretaries of State
15 Oct 1808 -  5 Jan 1809  Pedro Felix Cevallos y Guerra de   (s.a.)
                             la Vega
 5 Jan 1809 - 13 Oct 1809  Martín de Garay y Perales (acting) (b. 1760 - d. 1823)
13 Oct 1809 - 30 Oct 1809  Pedro Inguanzo y Rivero (acting)   (b. 1764 - d. 1836)
30 Oct 1809 - 31 Jan 1810  Francisco Saavedra y Sangronis     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
31 Jan 1810 - 20 Mar 1810  Nicolás Ambrosio de Garro y        (b. 1747 - d. 1825)
                             Arizcun, marqués de las Hormazas
                             (acting)
20 Mar 1810 -  6 Feb 1812  Eusebio Bardají y Azara            (s.a.)
                             (acting to 27 May 1810)
 6 Feb 1812 - 12 May 1812  José García de León Pizarro y      (s.a.)
                             Ximenez Frías (acting)
12 May 1812 - 23 Jun 1812  Ignacio de la Pezuela y Sánchez    (b. 1764 - d. 1850)
                             (acting)
23 Jun 1812 - 27 Sep 1812  Carlos Martínez de Irujo Tacón,    (s.a.)
                             marqués de Casa-Irujo (1st time)
23 Jun 1812 - 27 Sep 1812  Ignacio de la Pezuela y Sánchez    (s.a.)
                             (acting for
marqués de Casa-Irujo)
27 Sep 1812 - 11 Jul 1813  Pedro Gómez
Labrador y Havelo      (b. 1764 - d. 1852)
11 Jul 1813 - 10 Oct 1813  Antonio Cano Manuel y Ramírez de   (b. 1768 - d. 1836)
                             Arellano (acting)
10 Oct 1813 -  6 Dec 1813  Juan O'Donoju y O'Ryan (acting)    (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
 6 Dec 1813 - 10 May 1814  José de Luyando y Diez Pueyo       (s.a.)
                             (1st time) (acting)

"Carlist" Insurrectionary Governments 1833-1839, 1860, 1872-1876

[Burgundy Cross Flag 1516-1785 (Spain),
                  Carlist flag 1833 - 1860, 1872 - 1876]

29 Sep 1833                King Fernando VII dies, Queen María Cristina becomes regent on
                             behalf of their infant daughter Isabel II. This splits the
                             country into two factions, known as the "Cristinos" (or
                             "Isabelinos") and the "Carlists", who were the supporters of 
                             Don Carlos, conde de Molina as Carlos V, who was the brother 
                             of Fernando VII.
 9 Dec 1833                Carlos V appoints a government under Joaquín Abarca y Banqué.
22 Apr 1834                Quadruple Alliance of Portugal, Spain, England and France
                             agree to banish Don Carlos from Spain & Dom Miguel from Portugal.
31 Aug 1839                Carlos V leaves Spain for France. For almost a year some of his 
                             commanders continued to fight on his behalf especially in
                             Catalonia. By 6 Jul 1840 almost all resistance concludes.
25 Sep 1839                Guevara, the last Carlist stronghold in the north, submits.
18 May 1845                Carlos V renounces his claims in favor of his son Carlos Luis,
                             conde de Montemolín, who becomes Carlist claimant as Carlos VI.
 2 Apr 1860                Carlos VI lands at San Carlos de la Rapita in the southernmost
                             part of Catalonia. 
21 Apr 1860                Carlos VI is captured by the troops of Isabel II and forced to
                             renounce his claims to the Spanish throne. On 2 Jun 1860 his
                             brother Juan Carlos, conde de Montizón (b. 1822 - d. 1887),
                             publishes a declaration affirming his accession as Juan III,
                             however on 15 Jun 1860 Carlos VI declares his renouncement was
                             invalid as he been forced to sign against his will.
13 Jan 1861                Carlos VI dies and Juan III becomes sole Carlist claimant, although
                             he takes no active part in the Carlist cause.
30 Sep 1868                Queen Isabel II is deposed by a military coup.
 3 Oct 1868                Juan III abdicates his rights to the Spanish throne in favor
                             of his son Carlos María, duque de Madrid who becomes Carlos VII.
 2 May 1872                Carlos VII crosses into Spain on foot, and subsequently joins 
                             the volunteers at Oroquieta in Navarre.
Aug 1873                   Carlist forces capture Estella in Navarre.
Oct 1874 - 19 Nov 1875     Carlos VII restores the Generalitat in Catalonia.
19 Feb 1876                Spanish government forces retake Estella.
28 Feb 1876                Carlos VII leaves Spain ending the Carlist insurrection.
 
Kings (dates correspond to presence on Spanish territory)
 1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839  Carlos V                           (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1860 - 1860         Carlos VI                          (s.a.)
 2 May 1872 - 28 Feb 1876  Carlos VII                         (s.a.) 

First Secretaries of State 
 9 Dec 1833 - 1836         Joaquín Abarca y Blanqué,          (b. 1778 - d. 1844)
                             obispo de Leó
20 Apr 1836 - 10 Jan 1837  Juan Bautista Erro Azpiroz y       (b. 1773 - d. 1854)
                             Beloqui
10 Jan 1837 - 24 Feb 1839  Joaquín Abarca y Blanqué,          (s.a.)
                             obispo de Leó
24 Feb 1839 - 14 Sep 1839  Paulino Ramírez de la Piscina      (b. 1799 - d. 18..)
 6 May 1871 - 17 Apr 1874  Joaquín Elío y Ezpeleta, duque     (b. 1806 - d. 1876) 
                             de Elío, marqués de la Lealtad
17 Apr 1874 -  3 May 1875  Romualdo Martínez de Viñalet       (b. 1814 - d. 1882)
 3 May 1875 - 28 Feb 1876  Luís Mon y Velasco, conde del      (d. 1879)
                             Pinar (acting) 


Spanish Republic in Exile

[Spanish Republic state
                flag]

Presidents
27 Feb 1939 -  1 Jan 1962  Diego Martínez Barrio              (s.a.)               UR
                             (acting to 17 Aug 1945)
                             (in France [Mexico 1940-1946] exile)
 1 Jan 1962 - 16 Nov 1970  Luis Jiménez de Asúa               (b. 1889 - d. 1970)  PSOE
                             (acting to Feb 1962)(in Argentina exile)
16 Nov 1970 - 21 Jun 1977  José Maldonado González            (b. 1901 - d. 1985)  ARDE
                        (acting to Nov 1970)(in Paris exile)
 
Prime ministers (in Paris, France [1940-Feb 1946 Mexico] exile)
 6 Feb 1939 - 17 Aug 1945  Juan Negrín López                  (s.a.)               PSOE
17 Aug 1945 -  9 Feb 1947  José Giral Pereira                 (s.a.)               IR
 9 Feb 1947 -  8 Aug 1947  Rodolfo Llopis Ferrándiz           (b. 1895 - d. 1983)  PSOE
 8 Aug 1947 - 30 Nov 1950  Álvaro de Albornoz y Liminiana     (b. 1879 - d. 1959)  IR
30 Nov 1950 -  9 May 1960  Félix Gordón Ordás                 (b. 1885 - d. 1973)  UR
 9 May 1960 - 28 Feb 1962  Emilio Herrera Linares             (b. 1876 - d. 1967)  Non-party
28 Feb 1962 - 28 Feb 1971  Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz y         (b. 1893 - d. 1984)  Non-party
                             Menduiña
28 Feb 1971 - 21 Jun 1977  Fernando Valera Aparicio           (b. 1899 - d. 1981)  ARDE 

 ¹What we typically think of as España (Spain) had no constitutionally sanctioned identity until 1808. The style Monarquía Española (Spanish Monarchy) gradually came into use for the whole complex, while several of the component units maintained (in some cases fanatically) their political identity, with their own Cortes, their own charters of rights (fueros), etc. Españas (or Españas e Indias) more closely reflects usage before 1808 than España.

 ²royal style:
(a) 18 Oct 1035 - 21 Aug 1157: 
Rex/Regina Castellae; (in Spanish): Rey/Reina de Castiella ("King of Castile");
(b) 21 Aug 1157 - 24 Sep 1230: Rex/Regina Castellae et Toleti
; (in Spanish): Rey/Reina de Castiella e Toledo ("King/Queen of Castile and Toledo");
(c) 24 Sep 1230 - 1516: 
Rey/Reina de Castiella, de Toledo, León e de Gallizia ("King/Queen of Castile, of Toledo, León and of Galicia");
(d) after 1516: In official documents the ruler used a full style that included effective and titular non-Hispanic titles (e.g., Archduke of Austria) the following is a typical form, while variants are not uncommon: Por la gracia de Dios, Rey/Reina de Castilla, de León, de Aragón, de las dos Sicilias, de Jerusalén, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Mallorca, de Menorca, de Sevilla, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba, de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaén, del Algarve, de Algeciras, de Gibraltar, de las Islas Canarias, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, de las Islas y Tierrafirme del Continente Oceánico, Archiduque/Archiduquesa de Austria, Duque/Duquesa de Borgoña, de Brabante y de Milán, Conde/Condesa de Abspurg, de Flandes, del Tirol y de Barcelona, Señor/Señora de Vizcaya y de Molina, etc ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of Castille, of Leon, of Aragon, of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, of Navarre, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Mallorca, of Minorca, of Seville, of Sardinia, of Cordoba of Corsica, of Murcia, of Jaen, of the Algarve, of Algeciras, of Gibraltar, of the Canary Islands, of the East and West Indies, of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Continent, Archduke/Archduchess of Austria, Duke/Duchess of Burgundy, of Barabant and Milan, Count/Countess of Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, and of Barcelona, Lord/Lady of Vizcaya and of Molina, etc."). The following short style gradually comes into official use before 1808: Por la gracia de Dios Rey/Reina de las Españas y de las Indias ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of the Spanish and of the Indies").
(e) from 1978: Rey Constitucional de España, Rey de Castilla, de León, de Aragón, de las Dos Sicilias, de Jerusalén, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba, de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaén, de los Algarves, de Algerciras, de Gibraltar, de las Islas Canarias, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, de las Islas y Tierra Firme del Mar Océano; Archiduque de Austria; Duque de Borgoña, de Brabante, de Milán, de Atenas y Neopatria; Conde de Habsburgo, de Flandes, del Tirol, del Rosellón, y de Barcelona; Señor de Vizcaya y de Molina; Capitán General de las Reales Fuerzas Armadas y su Comandante Supremo; Soberano Gran maestre de la Insigne Orden del Toisón de Oro, y de cuantas Ordenes discierne el Estado Español ("Constitutional king of Spain, king of Castile, king of Leon, king of Aragon, king of the Two Sicilies, king of Jerusalem, king of Navarra, king of Granada, king of Toledo, king of Valencia, king of Galicia, king of Sardinia, king of Cordoba, king of Corsica, king of Murcia, king of Jaén, king of the Algarves, king of Algeciras, king of Gibraltar, king of the Canaries Islands, king of the West and East Indies, king of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea [the Americas]; Archduke of Austria; duke of Burgundy, duke of Brabant, duke of Milan, duke of Athens and duke of Neo-Patras, count of Habsburg, count of Flanders, count of Roussillon, count of Barcelona; lord of Viscaya, lord of Molina; Captain-General and Supreme Head of the Royal Armed Forces, Sovereign Grand-Master of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Grand-Master of the orders awarded by the Spanish State").

 ³The Governing Board (Junta de Gobierno) had no formal chairman, but only one of its members was con voto de calidad, i.e., with "preferred vote," namely the widow of Carlos II: María Ana de Baviera-Neoburgo y Hesse-Darmstadt, Reina de las Españas y de las Indias (b. 1667 - d. 1740). 


Noble titles:
archiduque/archiduquesa = archduke/archduchess; barón/baronesa = baron/baroness; conde/condesa = count/countess; duque/duquesa = duke/duchess; marqués = marquis; 
rey/reina = king/queen; señor/señora = lord/lady; vizconde = viscount; príncipe/princesa = prince/princess

Ecclesiastical titles: arzobispo = archbishop; cardenal = cardinal; obispo = bishop

Territorial Disputes: In 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the U.K. and Spain; Spain disapproves of U.K. plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peñón de Alhucemas, Isla de Alborán, Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters, both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza (Olivença) based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz.

Party abbreviations: PP = Partido Popular (People's Party, center-right, est.1989); PSOE = Partido Socialista Obrero Español (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, social-democratic, est.1879, banned 1939-1977); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Abs = Absolutist (royalist, right-wing reactionary); AR = Acción Republicana (Republican Action, liberal progressive, republican, 1930-1934, then IR); ARDE = Acción Republicana Democrática Española (Spanish Democratic Republican Action, left republican, merger of IR and UR, 1959-85); DLR = Derecha Liberal Republicana (Liberal Republican Right, conservative republican, 1930-1936); FET = Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensivas Nacional Sindicalistas (Spanish Phalange Traditionalists and the Junta of National Syndicalist Offensive, main party of the National Movement, authoritarian, fascist, 1937-1977, only legal party 1939-1975); ID = Izquierda Dinástica (Dynastic Left, liberal, 1881-1884, then part of PL); IR = Izquierda Republicana (Republican Left, reformist republican, anti-clerical, 1934-1959); Lib = Liberal; Mod = Moderato (Moderate, moderate liberal, centralist, monarchist, 1834-1874, then part of PC); PC = Partido Constitucional (Constitutional Party, liberal, constitutionalist, 1871-1880, split from PPg); PD = Partido Democrático (Democratic Party, liberal, progressive, 1849-1869); PDR = Partido Demócrata-Radical (Radical Democratic Party, republican, liberal progressive, split from PPg, 1871-1880); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, liberal, monarchist, 1880-1931); PLC = Partido Liberal-Conservador (Liberal-Conservative Party, liberal-conservative, monarchist, 1874-1931); PLD = Partido Liberal Democrático (Liberal Democratic Party, 1913-1931, split from PL); PM = Partido Moderado (Moderate Party, moderate, 1834-1873, merged into PLC); PPD = Partido Progresista Demócrata (Progressive Democratic Party, liberal, republican, 1849-1873); PPg = Partido Progresista (Progressive Party, liberal, progressive, 1834-1874); PR = Partido Republicano (Republican Party, conservative); PRF = Partido Republicano Democrático Federal (Democratic Federalist Republican Party, republican federalist, 1868-1910); PRR = Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party, radical republican, 1908-1936, split from UR); UCD = Unión Centro Democrático (Union of Democratic Center, centrist, 1977-1983); UL = Unión Liberal (Liberal Union, 1858-1874, merged into PLC); UP = Unión Patriótica (Patriotic Union, nationalist, catholic conservative, 1924-1931); UR = Unión Republicana (Republican Union, republican 1903-1910 and 1934-1958 as centrist republican)



Aragón


[Aragón]
                 From after 1164

c.800 - c.820              County of Aragón part of the Frankish Marca Hispanica.
809 - c.810                Muslim occupation.
c.820 - 18 Oct 1035        County of Aragón part of Kingdom of Pamplona (see Navarra).
18 Oct 1035                Kingdom of Aragón (separated from Navarra).
1043                       Sobrarbe and Ribagorza incorporated into Aragón.
18 Dec 1118                Zaragoza annexed by Aragón (local rulers ousted 30 May 1110, but
                             who continue in Ruida until ousted in 1131; occupied by Castile
                             1137-1138).

18 Jun 1164                Count of Barcelona inherits the Kingdom of Aragón.
31 Dec 1229                Mallorca conquered by Aragón; Menorca from 1232, Ibiza from 1235.

 2 Feb 1231 -  8 May 1234  Personal union with Navarra.
28 Sep 1238                Valencia conquered and made a kingdom within the crown of Aragón.
11 May 1258                Catalonia recognized as part of Aragón by France in the Treaty
                             of Corbeil (ratified 16 Jul 1258), king of Aragón renounces
                             rights to the County of Provence.
 4 Sep 1282 - 11 Nov 1285  Personal union with Kingdom of Sicily.
12 Jul 1276 - 27 May 1343  Kingdom of Mallorca under a junior branch (see Mallorca).
24 Apr 1326 – 13 Aug 1708  Personal union with Kingdom of Sardinia.
29 Mar 1344                Mallorca merged into Aragón.
25 Jul 1409 – 22 Sep 1713  Personal union with Kingdom of Sicily.
 2 Jul 1442 -  7 Jul 1707  Personal union with Kingdom of Naples (except 1458-1501).
27 Jun 1458 - 19 Jan 1479  Personal union with Navarra.
11 Aug 1462                Civil war in Catalonia erupts.
17 Oct 1472                Barcelona subdued.
22 Dec 1472                Civil war in Catalonia terminated (with oath on Usajes, fueros y
                             constituciones de Cataluña).
19 Jan 1479 - 23 Jan 1516
  Dynastic union (by marriage) with Castile.
23 Jan 1516                Union with Spanish Monarchy.
12 Sep 1703 -  7 Sep 1714  Aragón, Catalonia, Valencia and Balearic Islands recognize Holy
                             Roman Emperor Karl VI of Habsburg as king during the War
                             of Spanish succession.
15 Jul 1707                Constitutional abolition of the separate crowns of Aragón,
                             Mallorca (from 1715), and Valencia and their institutions.
1833                       Remaining fueros (privileges) are abolished.
 
Counts
(style Aragonensium comes)
(Spanish names with Latin in parentheses)
c.800 - 809                Aureolo (Aureolus)                 (d. 809)
809 - c.810                under Muslim occupation
c.810 - c.820              Aznar Galíndez (Isinar Galindis)   (d. c.838)

c.820 - c.833              García Galíndez "el Malo"          (d. 858)
                             (Garsias Galindis)

c.833 - c.844              Galindo Garcés (Galindus Garceis)  (d. c.844)

c.844 - c.867              Galindo Aznárez (Galindus Isinaris)(d. c.867)
c.867 - 893                Aznar Galíndez (Isinar Galindis)   (d. 893)
893 - c.922                Galindo Aznárez (Galindus Isinaris)(d. c.922)
c.922 - c.943              Andrégoto Galíndez -Countess       (b. c.900 - d. 972)
                            
(Anderegoto Galindis)
c.943 - 18 Oct 1035       
part of Pamplona (see Navarra)
Kings¹ (Catalan names with Latin [to 1137, then Spanish] in parentheses)
18 Oct 1035 -  8 May 1063  Ramir I Sánchez                    (b. c.1008 - d. 1063)
                             (Ranimir I Sanciis)
                           -
jointly with -
18 Oct 1035 - 26 Jun 1045  Gonzalo Sánchez                    (b. 101. - d. 1045)
                            
(Gundisalvus Sanciis)
 8 May 1063 -  4 Jun 1094  Sancho I Ramírez                   (b. c.1043 - d. 1094)

                            
(Sancius Ranimiris)
 4 Jun 1094 - 28 Sep 1104  Pere I Sánchez                     (b. c.1069 - d. 1104)

                            
(Petrus I Sanciis)
28 Sep 1104 -  7 Sep 1134  Alfons I Sánchez
"el Bataller"     (b. c.1083 - d. 1134)
                            
(Adefons I Sanciis)
                             (from 1109 also uses style
imperator)
 
7 Sep 1134 - 13 Nov 1137  Ramir II Sánchez "el Monjo"        (b. 1086 - d. 1157) 

                            
(Ranimir II Sanciis)
13 Sep 1137 - 18 Jun 1164  Peronella (Petronilla) -
Queen      (b. 1136 - d. 1173)
                           - with the following –
13 Nov 1137 –  6 Aug 1162  Ramon Berenguer -Prince            (b. c.1114 – d. 1162)
                             (Raimund Berenguer IV Count of Barcelona)
18 Jun 1164 – 25 Apr 1196  Alfons II "el Cast" (Alfonso II)   (b. 1157 – d. 1196)
18 Jun 1164 - 17 Oct 1173  Peronella (f) -
Regent              (s.a.)
25 Apr 1196 – 12 Sep 1213  Pere II "el Catòlic" (Pedro II)    (b. 1174 - d. 1213)
12 Sep 1213 – 27 Jul 1276  Jaume I "el Conqueridor"          
(b. 1208 – d. 1276)
12 Sep 1213 - Sep 1218     Sanç Raimúndez, comte              (b. c.1161 - d. 1226)
                             de Rosellón -Regent
27 Jul 1276 - 11 Nov 1285  Pere III "el Gran" (Pedro III)     (b. 1239 - d. 1285)
11 Nov 1285 - 17 Jun 1291  Alfons III "el Franc"
(Alfonso III)(b. 1265 – d. 1291)
18 Jun 1291 -  2 Nov 1327  Jaume II "el Just" (the Just)      (b. 1267 - d. 1327)

                            
(also king of Sicily)
 2 Nov 1327 - 24 Jan 1336  Alfons IV "el Benigne" (
Alfonso IV)(b. 1299 - d. 1336)
24 Jan 1336 -  5 Jan 1387  Pere IV "el Cerimoniós"
(Pedro IV) (b. 1319 – d. 1387)
1364 -  5 Jan 1387         Joan, duc de Gerona e conde de     (b. 1350 - d. 1395)
                             Cervaria -Regent
                             (Juan, duque de Gerona y conde de Cervaria)

                             (governor-general of the kingdom)
 5 Jan 1387 - 19 May 1396  Joan I "el Caçador" (Juan I)       (s.a.)
                             (= duc de Gerona)
19 May 1396 - 31 May 1410  Martí I "l'Humà"                   (b. 1356 - d. 1410)
19 May 1396 - 27 May 1397  Maria López de Luna (f) -Regent    (b. 1353 - d. 1406)
31 May 1410 -  5 Aug 1412  interregnum
 5 Aug 1412 -  2 Apr 1416  Ferran I d'Antequera "el Just"     (b. 1380 - d. 1416)
                             (Fernando I)
 2 Apr 1416 - 27 Jun 1458  Alfons V "el Magnànim"             (b. 1396 - d. 1458)

                             (Alfonso V)
27 Jun 1458 - 19 Jan 1479  Joan II "el Sense Fe" (Juan II)    (b. 1398 - d. 1479)
                             (governor-general 1435 - 27 Jun 1458)

19 Jan 1479 - 23 Jan 1516  Ferran II "el Catòlic"             (b. 1452 - d. 1516)
                             (Fernando V "el Católico" in Castile)    
23 Jan 1516 - 12 Apr 1555  Jaoana "la Loca" –Queen            (b. 1479 – d. 1555)
                             (Juana "la Loca" in Spain)
                           -
jointly with -
23 Jan 1516 – 16 Jan 1556  Carles I (= Carlos I in Spain)     (s.a.)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Karl V)

Note: After 1556 under the Spanish rulers Aragón continued to be a kingdom in more than name until 15 Jun 1707. A significant symbol of this fact is that in Aragón the kings were proclaimed with a different numbering than in the Spanish Monarchy, as follows:

16 Jan 1556 – 13 Sep 1598  Felip I (= Felip II in Spain)   
13 Sep 1598 – 31 Mar 1621  Felip II (= Felip III in Spain) 
31 Mar 1621 – 17 Sep 1665  Felip III (= Felip IV in Spain)
17 Sep 1665 –  1 Nov 1700  Carles II (= Carlos II in Spain) 
 1 Nov 1700 – 15 Jan 1724  Felip IV (= Felip V in Spain)
12 Sep 1703 -  7 Sep 1714  Carles II (= Carlos III in Spain)
                             (in rebellion)


 ¹royal style:     
(a) before 1076 - 7 Sep 1134: Aragonensium et/vel Pampilonensium Rex ("Aragonese and/or  Pamplonese King");
(b) 7 Sep 1134 - 18 Jun 1164: Aragonensium Rex/Regina ("Aragonese King/Queen");
(c) 18 Jun 1164 - 28 Sep 1238: Rex Aragonum (from 31 Dec 1229) et regni Majoricarum
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó (from 31 Dec 1229) e de Mallorques ("King of Aragón [from 31 Dec 1229] and of Majorca");
(d) 28 Sep 1238 - 21 Jul 1276: Rex Aragonum, Majoricarum et Valenciae
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó, de Mallorques e Valencia ("King of Aragón, Mallorca and Valencia");
(e) 21 Jul 1276 - 4 Sep 1282: Rex Aragonum
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó ("King of Aragón");
(f) 4 Sep 1282 - 11 Nov 1285: Rex Aragonum et Siciliae
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó è Sicilia ("King of Aragón and Sicily");
(g) 11 Nov 1285 - 20 Jun 1295: Rex Aragonum, (from 17 Jun 1291) Siciliae, Majoricarum et Valenciae ("King of Arag
ón, [from 17 Jun 1291] Sicily, Majorca and Valencia");
(h) from 20 Jun 1295: Rex Aragonum, Valenciae (from 19 May 1296) et Murciae
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó, de Valencia (from 19 May 1296) et Murcia ("King of Aragón, Valencia [from 19 May 1296] and Murcia").


Valencia

714 - 17 Jun 1094          Valencia under Muslim rule.
17 Jun 1094                Principality of Valencia.
10 Jun 1099 –  5 May 1102  Incorporated into Castile, governed by the widow of El Cid.
 5 May 1102 - 28 Sep 1238  Muslim rule restored.
28 Sep 1238                Incorporated into Aragón.

Prince
17 Jun 1094 – 10 Jun 1099  Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar "el Cid"      (b. 1043 – d. 1099)


León


[Kingdom of Leon flag]

718                        Elective kingship set up in Asturias in opposition to Muslim
                             rule in Spain (later referred to as Kingdom of Asturias),
                             claiming sucession from the Visgothic kingdom.
722                        Reconquista begins with the Battle of Covadonga.
747                        León retaken by Asturias.
842                        Kingship made hereditary.
10 Dec 910                 Capital is moved to León, the polity later becomes known as
                             Kingdom of León (Reino de León).
 4 Sep 1037 - 27 Dec 1065  León annexed by Castile (ratified by coronation 22 Jun 1038).
1055                       Salamanca annexed by León.
27 Dec 1065 - 12 Jan 1072  León and Galicia separated from Castile by agreement.
Jun 1071                   Galicia taken over by Castile by force.
12 Jan 1072 - 21 Aug 1157  Personal union with Castile.
27 Jul 1139                Portugal becomes an independent kingdom.
21 Aug 1157 - 24 Sep 1230  León and Galicia again separated from Castile.
1229/1230                  Extremadura and Mérida annexed by León.
24 Sep 1230                León inherited by Castile (contrary to last testament),
                             both are effectively reunited.
 9 Jun 1715                Constitutional abolition of the separate crowns of Castile
                             and León.
1833                       Remaining fueros (privileges) of León are abolished.
 
Kings
(Spanish names with Latin in parentheses)
718 - 737                  Pelayo Favilañez                   (b. 68. - d. 737)
                             (Pelagius Fafilanis)  
737 -  1 Jun 739           Favila Pelayez (Fafila Pelagiis)   (b. 71. - d. 739) 
Jun 739 - 757              Alfonso I Pérez "el Católico"      (b. c.705 - d. 757)
                             (Adefonsus I Petris) 
757 - 768                  Froila I Alfonsez                  (b. c.722 - d. 768) 
                             (Froila I Adefonsis)
768 - 774                  Aurelio Froilez (Aurelius Froilis) (b. 73. - d. 774)
774 - 783                  Silo (Silo)                        (b. 73. - d. 783) 
783 - 788                  Mauregato Alfonsez                 (b. 74. - d. 788) 
                             (Mauregato Adefonsis)
788 - 14 Sep 791           Bermudo I "el Diacono"             (b. c.750 - d. 797)
                             (Veremundus I Froilis)
14 Sep 791 - 20 Mar 842    Alfonso II Froilez "el Casto"      (b. c.765 - d. 842)
                             (Adefonsus II Froilis)
20 Mar 842 - May? 842      Nepotiano (Nepocianus)             (b. 78. - d. af.842)
May? 842 -  1 Feb 850      Ramiro I Bermúdez                  (b. c.790 - d. 850)
                             (Ranimirus I Veremundis)   
 1 Feb 850 - 27 May 866    Ordoño I Ramírez                   (b. c.830 - d. 966)
                             (Hordonius I Ranimiris)
27 May 866 - 20 Dec 910    Alfonso III Ordóñez "el Magno"     (b. c.848 - d. 910)
                             (Adefonsus III Hordoniis)
20 Dec 910 - May? 914      García I Alfonsez
                             (Garsea Adefonsis)               (b. c.871 - d. 914)
May? 914 - Apr 924         Ordoño II Alfonsez                 (b. c.873 - d. 924)
                             (Hordonius II Adefonsis)
Apr 924 - Aug 925          Froila II Alfonsez "el Leproso"    (b. c.875 - d. 925)
                             (Froila II Adefonsis)
Aug 926 - Aug 931          Alfonso IV Ordóñez "el Monje"      (b. 89. - d. 933)
                             (Adefonsus IV Hordoniis)
Aug 931 - 31 Jan 951       Ramiro II Ordóñez "el Grande"      (b. 89. - d. 951)
                             (Ranimirus II Hordoniis)
31 Jan 951 - Oct? 956      Ordoño III Ramírez                 (b. c.926 - d. 956)
                             (Hordonius III Ranimiris)
Oct? 956 - Feb 958         Sancho I Ramírez "el Craso"        (b. c.933 - d. 966)
                             (Sancius I Ranimiris)(1st time)
Feb 958 - Jun 960          Ordoño IV Alfonsez "el Malo"       (b. c.926 - d. 962)
                             (Ordoño IV Alfonsez)
Jun 960 - Dec 966          Sancho Ramírez I "el Craso"        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
Dec 966 - 26 Jun 985       Ramiro III Sánchez                 (b. c.961 - d. 985)
                             (Ranimirus III Sanciis)
Dec 966 - c.975            Elvira Ramírez (f) -Regent         (b. c.935 - d. c.986)
                             (Gilvira Ramiris)
26 Jun 985 -  7 Sep 999    Bermudo II Ordóñez "el Gotoso"     (b. c.953 - d. 999)
                             (Veremundus II Hordoniis)
                             (in rebellion from 15 Oct 982)
 7 Sep 999 -  7 Aug 1028   Alfonso V Bermúdez "el Noble"      (b. c.994 - d. 1028)
                             (Adefonsus V Veremundis)
 7 Sep 999 -  6 Oct 1008   Menendo González -Regent           (b. 9.. - d. 1008)
                             (Menendus Gundisalvis)
 7 Aug 1028 -  4 Sep 1037  Bermudo III Alfonsez               (b. 1017 - d. 1037)
                             (Veremundus III Adefonsis)
 4 Sep 1037 - 27 Dec 1065  Fernando I "el Magno"              (b. c.1016 - d. 1065)
                             (Fredenandus I)(also king of Castile)
27 Dec 1065 - 12 Jan 1072  Alfonso VI "el Bravo"              (b. c.1040 - d. 1109)
                            
(Aldefonsus VI Fredenandis)
                             (in León)
27 Dec 1065 - Jun 1071     García Fernández (in Galicia)      (b. c.1042 - d. 1090)
                             (Garsea Fredenandis) 
12 Jan 1072 - 21 Aug 1157  the Kings/Queens of Castile  

Nov 1072 - 13 Feb 1073     García Fernández (in rebellion)    (s.a.)
                            
(Garsea Fredenandis) 
 8 Mar 1126 - 21 Aug 1157  Alfonso VII "el Emperador"         (b. 1105 - d. 1157)
                             (also king of Castile)
21 Aug 1157 - 22 Jan 1188  Fernando II                        (b. 1137 - d. 1188)
22 Jan 1188 - 24 Sep 1230  Alfonso IX                         (b. 1171 - d. 1230)
24 Sep 1230 -  9 Jun 1715  the Kings/Queens of Castile/Spain
1296 - 26 Jun 1300         Juan de Castilla y León            (b. 1260 - d. 1319)
                             (in rebellion)

 ¹royal style
(a) c.925 - 21 Aug 1157:
Legionis Rex/Regina ("King/Queen of Ln");
(b) from 21 Aug 1157: Rex Legionis et Galleciae
; (in Spanish): Rey de León e de Galicia ("King of León and Galicia").


Galicia

409                        Suebi found a kingdom in
the province of Gallaecia.
585 - 712                  Part of the Visigothic kingdom.
718                        Part of the kingdom founded in Austrias; later called
                             the Kingdom of León (see León).
20 Dec 910 - May? 914      Kingdom of Galicia, separated from León.
926 - 929                  Kingdom of Galicia, in rebellion from León.
27 Dec 1065                León and Galicia separated from Castile by agreement.
Jun 1071                   Galicia taken over by Castile by force.
1296 - 26 Jun 1300         Kingdom of Galicia, in rebellion from Castile.
Jun 1369 - 31 Mar 1371     Kingdom of Galicia, occupied by Portugal in Castile succession
                             dispute.
25 Jul 1386 -  8 Jul 1388  Kingdom of Galicia, in rebellion from Castile.
 5 Jun 1465 -  4 Sep 1479  Kingdom of Galicia, in rebellion from Castile.

Kings (Spanish with Latin names in parentheses until 1126)
20 Dec 910 - May? 914      Ordoño II Alfonsez                  (b. c.873 - d. 924)
                             (Hordonius II Adefonsis)
                             (from May? 914, King of León)
926 - 929                  Sancho I Ordóñez                    (b. c.895 - d. 929)
                             (Sancius I Hordoniis)
27 Dec 1065 - Jun 1071     García II (Garsea II Fredenandis)   (b. c.1142 - d. 1190)
                             (in dissidence in León Nov 1072 - 13 Feb 1073)
17 Sep 1111 -  9 Mar 1126  Alfonso VII "el Emperador"-Co-ruler (b. 1105 - d. 1157)
                             (Aldefonsus VII)
                             (from 9 Mar 1126, King of
León)
1296 - 26 Jun 1300         Juan de Castilla y León             (b. 1260 - d. 1319)
                            
(in dissidence)
Jun 1369 - 31 Mar 1371     Fernando I de Portugal              (b. 1345 - d. 138
3)
25 Jul 1386 -  8 Jul 1388  Juan de Gante (in dissidence)       (b. 1340 - d. 1399)
                             (John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster)
 5 Jun 1465 -  4 Sep 1479  Afonso V de Portugal                (b. 1432 - d. 1481)
                           + Juana de Castilla (f) -Queen      (b. 1462 - d. 1530)
                          (in dissidence)


Navarra

[Standard of the Kings of
                Navarra since 1212, also used as flag of Basse Navarre]
                c.1212 - 16 Aug 1841
 
Map of Kingdom of Navarra
Capital: Pamplona
Population: N/A (1841)

6.. - 781                  Pamplona under Frankish rule (part of Gascogne).
714 - 755                  Pamplona city occupied by Muslims.
781 - 798                 
Pamplona under Muslim rule.
798 – 824                  Pamplona under Frankish rule (part of Gascogne).
824                        Separated from Gascogne by revolt; Kingdom of Pamplona
                             (Pampilonensium regnum).
18 Oct 1035                Pamplona divided into separate Kingdom of Navarra (Regnum Navarrae)
                             Kingdom of Aragón and Kingdom of Castile.
 4 Jun 1076 - Sep? 1134    Incorporated into Aragón by force.
1199                       Alava and Biscay are annexed by Castile.
 2 Feb 1231 -  8 May 1234  Inherited by Aragón.
 8 May 1234 -  6 Apr 1305  Inherited by County of Champagne.
 6 Apr 1305 -  1 Feb 1328  Inherited by France.
27 Jun 1458 - 19 Jan 1479  Personal union with Aragón.
25 Jul 1512                Upper Navarra (Kingdom of Navarra south of the Pyrenees)
                             is annexed to the Spanish monarchy, but retaining its many
                             fueros (privileges); oath of allegiance of Estates 23 Mar 1513.
May 1521 - 30 Jun 1521     Navarrese-Béarnese army supporting the House of Albret occupies
                             Spanish Navarra.
 2 Aug 1589                Lower Navarre (Basse-Navarre) is inherited by the King of
                             France (see Provinces of France).
20 Oct 1620                Basse-Navarre fully incorporated into royal domain of France.
14 Sep 1791                Remaining privileges of Basse-Navarre are abolished by France.
 6 May 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  Separate identity of Navarra disrupted by French invasion (from 8 

                             Feb 1810 divided into the Governments of Navarra and Biscay,
                             directly subordinate to the French Emperor, but nominally
                             part of the Kingdom of Spain).
15 Nov 1833 - 18 Apr 1838  "Carlists" insurrection establishes the Real Junta Gubernativa de
                             Navarra
at Estella under the presidency of Martín Luis Echeverría
                             (b. 1795 - d. c.1865).
16 Aug 1841                Kingdom of Navarra fully is incorporated into Spain.
1872 - 1876                "Carlists" insurrection re-establishes the Real Junta Gubernativa
                             de Navarra
at Urdax, later Elizondo, under the presidency of
                             Cesáreo Sanz y López (b. 1810 - d. c.1873).
21 Jul 1876                Last remaining forales (separate laws) of Navarra are abolished.


K
ings of Pamplona (style Rex Pampilonensium)
(Spanish named with Latin and Basque in parentheses)
824 – 852                  Iñigo Iñíguez                       (b. c.789 – d. 852)
                             (Enneco Enneconis Arista)
                             (Eneko Aritza)

852 – 882                  García Iñíguez                      (b. 82. - d. 882)
                             (Garsia Enneconis)(Gartzea Eneko)
882 – 905                  Fortún Garcés                       (b. 84. - d. af.905)
                             (Fortunus Garseranis)
                             (Fortun Gartzea)
905 - 11 Dec 925           Sancho I Garcés                     (b. c.880 - d. 925)
                             (Sancius I Garseanis)
                             (Antso I Gartzes)

29 May 925 - 22 Feb 970    García I Sanches                    (b. c.919 – d. 970)
                             (Garsia I Sancionis)
                             (Gartzea I Santxez)
11 Dec 925 - 29 May 931    Jimeno Garcés -Regent               (b. 88. - d. 931)
                             (Eximinus Garseanis)(Semeno Gartzes)
29 May 931 - Feb? 933      Íñigo Garcés -Regent                (b. 86. - d. af.933) 
                             (Enneco Garseanis)(Eneko Gartzea)
Feb? 933 - 937             Toda Aznárez (f) -Regent            (b. c.885 - d. 96.) 
                             (Tota Isinaris)(Toda Aznar)
22 Feb 970 - Dec 994       Sancho II Garcés "Abarca"           (b. c.937 – d. 994)
                             (Sancius II Garseanis)
                             (Antso II Gartzez Abarka)
                           - jointly with -
22 Feb 970 -  8 Jul 981    Ramiro Garcés (in Viguerra)         (b. c.939 - d. 981)
                             (Ranimirus Garseanis)(Ramiro Gartzea)  
Dec 994 - Dec 999          García II Sánchez                   (b. c.964 - d. 999)
                             (Garsia II Sancionis)
                             (
Gartzea II Santxez)         
Dec 999 - 18 Oct 1035      Sancho III Garcés "el Mayor"        (b. c.992 – d. 1035)
                             (Sancius III Garseanis)
                             (Antso III Gartzez Nagusia)        
Dec 999 - 1005             Jimena Fernández (f) -Regent        (b. 96. - d. af.1035)
                             (Eximina Fredinandis)
                             (
Semena Fernandez
18 Oct 1035 -  1 Sep 1054  García Sánchez III                  (b. 100. – d. 1054)
                             (Garsea III Sancionis)
                             (Gartzea III Santxez)          
 1 Sep 1054 -  4 Jun 1076  Sancho IV Garcés "el Noble"         (b. 1039 – d. 1076)
                             (Sancius IV Garsianis)
                             (Antso IV Nafarroakoa)     
 4 Jun 1076 -  4 Jun 1094  Sancho I Ramírez (Sancius Ranimiris)(b. 1042 - d. 1094)
                             (Antso V Ramiro)(also king of Aragón)
 4 Jun 1094 – 29 Sep 1104  Pere I Sánchez (Petrus I Sanciis)   (b. 1068 – d. 1104)
29 Sep 1104 - Sep? 1134    Alfons I Sánchez "el Bataller"      (b. 1073 – d. 1134)
                             (Adefons I Sanciis)
                             (Alfontso I Borrokalaria)
Sep? 1134 - 21 Nov 1150    García IV "el Restorador" (Garsea V)(b. 1105? - d. 1150)
                             (Gartzea IV Berrezarlea)
Kings of Navarra¹
(Spanish or French names with Basque in parentheses)
21 Nov 1150 - 27 Jun 1194  Sancho VI "el Sabio"
               (b. 1132 – d. 1194)  
                             (
Antso VI Jakintsua)    
24 Jun 1194 -  7 Apr 1234 
Sancho VII "el Fuerte"              (b. 1154? – d. 1234)
                             (
Antso VII Azkarra) 
 8 May 1234 -  8 Jul 1253  Thibaut I (
Tibalt I Koblakaria)     (b. 1201 – d. 1253)
 8 Jul 1253 -  4 Dec 1270  Thibaut II (
Tibalt II Gaztea)       (b. 1237 – d. 1270)
 4 Dec 1270 - 22 Jul 1274  Henric I (
Henrike I Gizena)         (b. 1238 – d. 1274)
22 Jul 1274 -  6 Apr 1305  J
ehanne I (Joana I) –Queen          (b. 1273 – d. 1305)
                           - jointly with -
22 Jul 1274 – 27 Aug 1274 
Blanche d'Artois (f) –Regent        (b. 1248 – d. 1302)
                             (
Blanka Artoiskoa)
16 Aug 1284 -  6 Apr 1305  Philippe I (
Filipe I Ederra)        (b. 1268 – d. 1314)
                             (from 2 Oct 1285, Philippe IV "le Bel" King of France) 
 6 Apr 1305 -  5 Jun 1316  Louis I (Luis I)  
                 (b. 1289 – d. 1316)
                             (Louis X "le Hutin" King of France)  
 5 Jun 1316 - 17 Jul 1316  Charles, comte de Valois -Regent    (b. 1270 - d. 1325)
17 Jul 1316 - 15 Nov 1316  Philippe, comte de Poitiers -Regent (b. 1293 - d. 1322)
                             (1st time)
15 Nov 1316 – 19 Nov 1316  Jean I (Joanes I)
                  (b. 1316 – d. 1316)
                             (Jean I "le Posthume" King of France) 
15 Nov 1316 - 19 Nov 1316  Philippe, comte de Poitiers -Regent (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
19 Nov 1316 -  3 Jan 1322 
Philippe II (Filipe II)             (s.a.)
                             (Philippe V "le Long" King of France)
                             (= Philippe, comte de Poitiers)
 3 Jan 1322 -  1 Feb 1328  Charles I (Karlos I)               
(b. 1292 – d. 1328)
                             (Charles IV "le Bel" King of France)
 1 Feb 1328 -  6 Oct 1349  Jehanne II (
Joana II) –Queen        (b. 1311 – d. 1349)
                           - jointly with  -
 9 Oct 1328 – 26 Sep 1343 
Philippe III "la Sage" (Filipe III) (b. 1306 – d. 1343)
 6 Oct 1349 –  1 Jan 1387  Charles II "le Male" (
Karlos II)    (b. 1332 – d. 1387)
 1 Jan 1387 -  8 Sep 1425  Charles III "le Noble" (
Karlos III) (b. 1361 – d. 1425)
 8 Sep 1425 -  3 Apr 1441  Blanche I (
Blanka I) -Queen         (b. 1385 - d. 1441)
                           - jointly with -
 8 Sep 1425 – 19 Jan 1479 
Joan II (Joanes II)                 (b. 1398 – d. 1479)
                             (from
27 Jun 1458, Joan II "el Sense Fe" King of Aragón)
 1 Apr 1441 – 23 Sep 1461  Charles (IV) de Viana (
Karlos [IV]) (b. 1421 – d. 1461)
                             (in opposition)
23 Sep 1461 -  2 Dec 1464  Blanche (II)(
Blanka [II])Queen    (b. 1424 – d. 1464)
                             (in opposition) 
19 Jan 1479 - 12 Feb 1479 
Leonor I (Elionor I) -Queen         (b. 1425 - d. 1479)
                             (regent 30 May 1471 - 19 Jan 1479)
12 Feb 1479 - 30 Jan 1483  François I Phèbus                   (b. 1466 – d. 1483)
                             (Frantzisko I Febus)
12 Feb 1479 -  3 Nov 1482  Cardinal Pierre de Foix -Regent
    (b. 1449 - d. 1490)
30 Jan 1483 – 25 Jul 1512  Catharina I (Katalina I) –Queen     (b. 1468 – d. 1517)
                           - jointly with -
                            (continues in
Basse-Navarre only to 12 Feb 1517)
14 Jul 1484 – 25 Jul 1512  Jean III d'Albret (Joanes III)      (b. 1469 – d. 1516)
                            (continues in Basse-Navarre only to 14 Jun 1516)
25 Jul 1512 - 16 Aug 1841  the Kings/Queens of Spain


Note: After 1512 under the Spanish rulers Navarra continued to be a kingdom in more than name until 16 Aug 1841. A significant symbol of this fact is that in Navarra the kings were proclaimed with a different numbering than in the Spanish Monarchy, as follows:

16 Jan 1556 - 13 Sep 1598  Felipe IV (Felipe II in Spain)
13 Sep 1589 - 31 Mar 1621  Felipe V (Felipe III in Spain)
31 Mar 1621 - 17 Sep 1665  Felipe VI (Felipe VI in Spain)
17 Sep 1665 -  1 Nov 1700  Carlos V (Carlos II in Spain)
16 Nov 1700 - 14 Jan 1724  Felipe VII (1st time)(Felipe V in Spain)
14 Jan 1724 - 31 Aug 1724  Luis II (Luis I in Spain) 
 6 Sep 1724 -  9 Jul 1746  Felipe VII (2nd time) 
 9 Jul 1746 - 10 Aug 1759  Fernando II (Fernando VI in Spain)
10 Aug 1759 - 14 Dec 1788  Carlos VI (Carlos III in Spain) 
14 Dec 1788 - 19 Mar 1808  Carlos VII (Carlos IV in Spain)
19 Mar 1808 -  6 May 1808  Fernando III (Fernando VII in Spain)
 6 May 1808                Carlos VII (2nd time)      
 6 May 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  interruption
11 Dec 1813 - 29 Sep 1833  Fernando III (2nd time)
29 Sep 1833 - 16 Aug 1841  Isabel I -Queen (Isabel II in Spain) 
 1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839  Carlos VIII (Carlos V in Spain) 
                             (Carlist insurrection)

French military governors of Navarra
 8 Feb 1810 - Jul 1810
    Georges Joseph Dufour              (b. 1758 - d. 1820)
Jul 1810 - Feb 1812        Honoré Charles Michel Joseph,
                             comte Reille                     (b. 1775 - d. 1860)
Feb 1812 - 1813            Jean Nicolas Louis, baron Abbé     (b. 1764 - d. 1834)
French military governor of Biscay

17 Feb 1810 - 1813         Pierre Thouvenot                   (b. 1757 - d. 1817)
                             (from 13 Feb 1811, Pierre, baron
Thouvenot)

 ¹royal style:   
(a) Sep? 1134 - 18 May 1234: Rex Navarrae ("King of Navarre");
(b) 8 May 1234 - 5 Oct 1285: 
Rei/Reina de Navarra ("King/Queen of Navarre");
(c) 5 Oct 1285 - 6 Apr 1305, 29 Sep 1314 - 1 Feb 1328: Rei/Reina de Francia et de Navarra; (in Latin): Franciae et Navarrae Rex/Regina
("King/Queen of France and of Navarre");
(d) 6 Apr 1305 - 29 Sep 1314, 1 Feb 1328 - 27 Jun 1458: Rei/Reina de Navarra; (in Latin): Rex/Regina Navarrae
("King/Queen of Navarre");
(e) 27 Jun 1458 - 19 Jan 1479:
Rei/Reina Daragón, de Navarra, de Sicilia, de Valencia, de Mallorcas, de Cerdenya, de Córçega; (in Latin): Rex/Regina Aragonum, Navarrae, Siciliae, Valenciae, Maioricarum, Sardiniae et Corsicae ("King/Queen of Aragón, of Navarre, of Sicily, of Valencia, of Majorca, of Sardinia and Corsica);
(f) 19 Jan 1479 - 6 May 1808, 11 Dec 1813 - 16 Aug 1841: Rei/Reina de Navarra; (in Latin): Rex/Regina Navarrae
("King/Queen of Navarre").



Minorca
[Flag of the Great
                  Britian 1606]
         24 Sep 1708 - 28 May 1756; 
         10 Feb 1763 - 20 Jan 1782; 
         15 Nov 1798 - 27 Mar 1802
Map of Minorca
Capital: Port Mahon
(Ciutadella 1708-1714)
Population: N/A (1802)


24 Sep 1708                Minorca (Menorca) Island occupied by Britain, in the
                             name of King Carlos (III).
Aug 1712                   British take full possession.
13 Jul 1713                Formally ceded to Britain by Treaty of Utrecht.
1714                       British colony.
28 May 1756 - 10 Feb 1763  French occupation.
 5 Feb 1782                Spanish occupation.
20 Jan 1783                Restored to Spain by Treaty of Paris.
15 Nov 1798                British colony.
27 Mar 1802                Restored to Spain by Peace of Amiens.

British Military commanders
24 Sep 1708 - 1708         James Stanhope                     (b. 1673 - d. 1721)
1708 - 1711                Lewis Petit                        (b. 1665? - d. 1720)
1711 - 1712                John Fermor                        (b. 1674 - d. 1722)
Governors
1708 - 1711                Josef de Izaguirre
                             (Spanish civil governor)
1711 - Aug 1712            Francisco Thomás
                             (Spanish civil governor)

Jun 1712 - Apr 1714        John Campbell, Duke of Argyll      (b. 1680 - d. 1743)
                             (1st time)
1714                       Charles Mordaunt,                  (b. 1658 - d. 1735)
                             Earl of Peterbough
 5 Oct 1714 - 29 Jun 1716  John Campbell, Duke of Argyll      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1716 - 1732                George Carpenter                   (b. 1657 - d. 1732)
1733 - 31 Dec 1736         Sir Richard Kane                   (b. 1666 - d. 1736)
1737 - 1742                Algernon Seymour, Earl of Hertford (b. 1684 - d. 1750)
1742 - 1747                John Dalrymple, Earl of Stair      (b. 1673 - d. 1747)
1747 - 28 May 1756         James O'Hara, Earl of Tyrawley     (b. c.1682 - d. 1773)
1756 - 1758                Hyacinthe Gaëtan, comte de Lannion (b. 1719 - d. 1762)
                             (1st time)
 1 May 1758 -  2 Apr 1759  Jean Toussaint de la Pierre de     (b. 1697 - d. 1759) 
                             Frémeur, marquis de Frémeur 
1759 - 1760                Louis-Félicien de Boffin           (b. 1716 - d. 1778)
                             d'Argenson, marquis de Puisigneu
                             (1st time)
1760 -  2 Oct 1762         Hyacinthe Gaëtan, comte de Lannion (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1762 - 1763                Louis-Félicien de Boffin           (s.a.) 
                             d'Argenson, marquis de Puisigneu
                             (2nd time) 
1763 - 1766                Richard Lyttleton                  (b. 1718 - d. 1770)
1766 - 1768                George Howard                      (b. 1718 - d. 1796)
1768 - 1779                John Mostyn                        (b. 1710 - d. 1779)
1779 -  5 Feb 1782         James Murray                       (b. 1721 - d. 1795)
 5 Feb 1782 - 15 Nov 1798  Spanish rule
15 Nov 1798 - 1801         Charles Stuart                     (b. 1753 - d. 1801)
1801 - 27 Mar 1802         Henry Edward Fox                   (b. 1755 - d. 1811)

Lieutenant governors (sometimes acting for the governors)
1708 - 1711                Luis Petit
                             (Spanish appointed 
Lieutenant governor)
1711 - 1712                John Fermo
r                        (s.a.)
10 Nov 1712 - 1733         Richard Kane                       (s.a.)
1717 - 1718                
George, Lord Forbes                (b. 1685 - d. 1765)
                             (acting for Kane)

1719 - 1720                Lewis Petit
(acting for Kane)      (s.a.)
1726                       Otway (acting for Kane)
1733 - 1747                Philip Anstruther                  (b. c.1680 - d. 1760)
1736 - 1738                William Pinfold                    (d. 1760)
                             (acting for Anstruther)
1742 - 1744                Roger Handasyde?                   (b. c.1684 - d. 1763)
                             (acting for Anstruther)
1745 - 1747                John Wynyard                       (b. 1677 - d. 1752)
                             (acting for Anstruther)
30 May 1748 - 28 May 1756  William Blakeney                   (b. 1672 - d. 1761)
Intendant
1759 - 1763                Antoine de Causan
Lieutenant governors
1763 - 1774                James Johnston                     (b. c.1721 - d. 1797)
1764 -  4 Dec 1765         Thomas Townshend
                             (acting for Johnston)
24 Dec 1774 - 1779         James Murray                       (s.a.)
1779 -  5 Feb 1782         Sir William Draper                 (b. 1721 - d. 1787)
 5 Feb 1782 - 15 Nov 1798  Spanish rule
1798                       William Anne Villettes             (b. 1754 - d. 1808)
1798 - 1800                Sir James St. Clair Erskine        (b. 1762 - d. 1837)
1800 - 1801                Henry Edward Fox                   (s.a.)
1801 - 27 Mar 1802         William Douglas MacLean Clephane   (b. 1759 - d. 1803)



Cantonal Revolution of 1873


Note: The Cantonal Revolution was a leftist political movement favoring federalism during first Spanish Republic. The federalist sentiment did not give rise to autonomous states, but instead it burst into a constellation of "independent" cantons intended to become part of a Spanish Federation. The insurrection began in Cartagena on 12 July 1873, extending into the regions of Andalusia, Murcia, and Valencia. Some cantons were provincial in nature, like Valencia or Málaga, but most comprised only a city and its surroundings. Cantonal revolts occurred in: Algeciras (22 Jul - 8 Aug 1873), Alicante (20-23 Jul 1873), Almansa (19-21 Jul 1873), Andújar (22 Jul 1873), Bailén (22 Jul 1873), Béjar (22 Jul 1873), Cádiz (19 Jul - 4 Aug 1873), Camuñas (1873), Cartagena (12 Jul 1873 - 13 Jan 1874), Castellón (21-26 Jul 1873), Córdoba (23-24 Jul 1873), Granada (20 Jul 1873 - 1873), Gualchos (23 Jul 1873), Jaén, Jumilla, Loja, Málaga (22 Jul - 19 Sep 1873), Motril (22-25 Jul 1873), Murcia (14 Jul 1873), Orihuela (30 Aug 1873), Plasencia (1873), Salamanca, Sevilla (19 Jul 1873), Tarifa (22 Jul 1873), Torrevieja (19 Jul 1873), Valencia (19 Jul - 7 Aug 1873), and Zaragoza. Only Cartagena - which had imposed its authority over a wider are and became a major center of the federalist movement (even minting its own currency, the duro cantonal) - resisted for six months.


Cantonal Authorities
-
Algeciras, Mayor (Alcalde) -
22 Jul 1873 -  8 Aug 1873
 Francisco Guerrero
- Alicante, President of the Committee of Public Safety -
20 Jul 1873 - 23 Jul 1873  Antonio Gálvez Arce             (b. 1819 - d. 1898)
- Almansa -
19 Jul 1873 - 21 Jul 1873  ....
-
Cádiz, Mayor (Alcalde) -
19 Jul 1873
 -  4 Aug 1873  Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez      (b. 1842 - d. 1907)
-
Castellón, President of Revolutionary Junta
21 Jul 1873 - 26 Jul 1873  Francisco González Chermá       (b. 1832 - d. 1896)
-
Málaga, Civil Governor -
22 Jul 1873 - 19 Sep 1873
 Francisco Sorlier
-
Motril, President of Committee of Public Safety -
23 Jul 1873 - Jul 1873     Ruperto Vidaurreta de la Cámara (b. c.1853 - d. ....)

- Valencia, President of the Committee of Public Safety -
19 Jul 1873 -  7 Aug 1873  Pedro Barrientos Robles         (b. 1818 - d. 1891)
-
Cartagena, President of the Junta of Public Salvation (from 2 Sep 1873, Sovereign Junta) -
12 Jul 1873 -
13 Jan 1874  Pedro Gutiérrez

The umbrella government at Cartagena:

[Red flag used by Cantonal
                Revolt 1873-74 (Spain)]

                                        
Presidents of the Provisional Government (acting as the   
first provisional government of the 'Spanish Federation')
24 Jul 1873 - 1873         Juan Contreras y San Román      (b. 1807 - d. 1881)
1873 -  2 Sep 1873         Roque Barcia Martí              (b. 1821 - d. 1885)


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