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Eswatini (Swaziland)
 
[Swaziland c.1890-1894?]
c.1890 - 1894?
 
[Swaziland c.1894-1903?]
1894? - 7 Aug 1903?
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
7 Aug 1903 - 30 Oct 1967 
 
[High
                                    Commissioner in and for South Africa
                                    flag 1907-1931]
1907 - 1931  Flag of the High Commissioner
 
[Flag
                                    High Commissioner in and for South
                                    Africa 1931-1963]
1931 - 3 Oct 1963  Flag of the High Commissioner 
 
[Eswatini
                                    (Swaziland)]
Adopted 30 Oct 1967
 
Map of Swaziland Hear National Anthem
"Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso
 temaSwati" (Oh God, Bestower
 of the Blessings of the Swazi)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 6 Sep 1968
Constitution
(8 Feb 2006)
Capital: Mbabane
(Bremersdorp 1890-1902;
Enkanini c.1818-1890)
Royal and Legislative Capital:
 Lobamba (from 1967)
Currencies: Lilangeni (SZL)
(from 6 Sep 1974), South
African Rand (ZAR); 1920-1961
South African Pound (ZAP)
National Holiday: 6 Sep (1968)
 Somhlolo (Independence) Day
Population: 1,467,152 (2017)
GDP: $11.34 billion (2017)
Exports: $1.63 billion (2017)
Imports: $1.46 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Swazi 82.3%, Zulu 9.6%, Tsonga 2.3%,
Afrikaner 1.4%, mixed (white-black) 1%, other 3.4% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 3,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2017)
Religions: Christian 90% (Zionist - a blend of Christianity and
 indigenous ancestral worship - 40%, Roman Catholic 20%,
other 30% - includes Anglican, Methodist, Mormon, Jehovah's
 Witness), Muslim 2%, other 8% (includes Baha'i, Buddhist,
 Hindu, indigenous religionist, Jewish) (2015)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, C, CCM, CMA, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Eswatini
Chronology

c.1760                     The Ngwane (or the Dlamini royal line) settle in the
                             area of modern southern Swaziland (Eshiselweni).
c.1850                     Name "Swaziland" first coined by Europeans from the
                             name of King Mswazi (Mswati).
 
8 Aug 1881                Pretoria Convention, Swazi independence confirmed
                             by Transvaal and the U.K. (signed 3 Aug 1881)
                             (ratified by Transvaal
25 Oct 1881).
27 Feb 1884                London Convention, Swazi independence reconfirmed by
                             Transvaal and U.K. (ratified by Transvaal 8 Aug
                             1884).
 
1 Aug 1888 - 21 Feb 1895  Self-government (autonomy) granted to the White
                             settlers within Swaziland by the iNgwenyama
                           
  (administered by a
tripartite Boer-British-Swazi
                             government commission
).
24 Jul 1890                Swazi independence reconfirmed by Transvaal and U.K.
                             (ratified by South African Republic 7 Aug 1890).
10 Dec 1894                A convention between the U.K. and Transvaal
                             (South African Republic) is signed turning
                             Swaziland into a Transvaal protectorate (ratified
                             by the South African Republic 13 Feb 1895).
21 Feb 1895 - Jun 1902     Protectorate of South African Republic (Swazieland).
Jun 1902 - 25 Apr 1967     Protection and administration transferred to the
                             monarch of the U.K. "by virtue of the conquest
                             and annexation of the South African Republic",
                             (by order-in-council effective 7 Aug 1903),
                             but no formal declaration of a U.K. protectorate
                             over Swaziland was made (Swaziland).
15 Apr 1926                Status referred by the U.K. Privy Council as a
                             protectorate "which approximated in constitutional
                             status a crown colony."
 1 Jan 1951                U.K. recognizes the title of the ruler (iNgwenyama)
                            
and restores most of his powers (by the
                             Swaziland Native Administration Proclamation of
                             22 Dec 1950).

25 Apr 1967 -  5 Sep 1968  Formal U.K. protectorate.
25 Apr 1967                Autonomy granted (Protected State of Swaziland).

 6 Sep 1968                Independence (Kingdom of Swaziland)(in official, but
                             not statutory use in siSwati: Umbuso weSwatini).
19 Apr 2018                Kingdom of Eswatini (gazetted 17 May 2018, backdated
                             to 19 Apr 2018).

 
 
 
 
 


Paramount rulers
(title iNgwenyama)

c.1760 - c.1780            Ngwane III                         (d. c.1780)
c.1780                     Queen Nxumalo (Ndwandwe)(f) -Regent
                             (= laYaka)
c.1780 - c.1815            Ndvungunye (= Zikodze, Mavuso II) 
(b. c.1760 - d. c.1815)
c.1815                     Queen Lomvulo Mndzebele (f) -Regent
                             (= laKubekha)
c.1815 - 1839              Ngwane IV (= Sobhuza I)(= Somhlolo)
(b. c.1795 - d. 1839)
1839 - 1840                Queen Lojiba Simelane -Regent
                             (= laMsibandze)
1840 - Aug 1865            Mswati II (= Mavuso III
)           (b. c.1827 - d. 1865)
Aug 1865 - Jun 1875        Queen Thandile Nxumalo (f) -Regent (b. c.1806 - d. c.1875)
                             (= laZidze)
Aug 1865 - 18 Mar 1874     Ludvonga II (= Macaleni)           (b. c.1851 - d. 1874)

                             (not allowed to accede)
Jun 1875 -  7 Oct 1889     Dlamini IV              
          (b. c.1855 - d. 1889)
                             (= Mbandzeni, Nguluqulu, Gaca, Lozighi, Ndaha)
 7 Oct 1889 - 
Feb 1895     Queen Tibati Madvolomafisha 
                             Nkambule (f) -Regent

                             (= laMbandzeni)
19 Feb 1895 - 10 Dec 1899  Ngwane V
                          (b. c.1875 - d. 1899)
                            
(= Bhunu, Mahlokohla, Hhili, Ingongobezi)
10 Dec 1899 - 22 Dec 1921  Queen Labotsibeni Gwamile
         (b. c.1859 - d. 1925)
                             Mdluli (= laMvelase)(f) -Regent
                             (referred to as acting Paramount chief)
22 Dec 1921
 - 25 Apr 1967  Sobhuza II                         (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
                             (= Nkhotfotjeni, Mona, Mahogoza, Mpandla)

Kings

25 Apr 1967 - 21 Aug 1982  Sobhuza II                         (s.a.)
21 Aug 1982 -  9 Aug 1983  Queen Dzeliwe Shongwe (f) -Regent  (b. c.1927 - d. 2003)
                             (= nguMetjisi Shongwe)
 9 Aug 1983 - 18 Aug 1983  Prince Sozisa Dlamini                  (b. c.1912 - d. 1992)
                             ("Authorized Person")
18 Aug 1983 - 25 Apr 1986  Queen Ntombi Tfwala (f) -Regent    (b. c.1950)
                             (= nguMfelani Tfwala)
25 Apr 1986 -              Mswati III                         (b. 1968)
                             (= Makhosetive, Makhosimvelo)


Prime ministers

16 May 1967 - 17 Mar 1976  Prince Makhosini Dlamini           (b. 1914 - d. 1978) INM;1973 None
17 Mar 1976 - 25 Oct 1979  Prince Maphevu Harry Dlamini       (b. 1922 - d. 1979)  Mil
25 Oct 1979 - 23 Nov 1979  Benjamin "Ben" Mshamndane          (b. 1931)            Non-party
                             Nsibandze
(acting)
23 Nov 1979 - 25 Mar 1983  Prince Mabandla Ndawombili Fred    (b. 1930)            Non-party
                            
Dlamini
25 Mar 1983 -  6 Oct 1986  Prince Bhekimpi Alpheus Dlamini    (b. 1924 - d. 1999)  Non-party
 6 Oct 1986 - 12 Jul 1989  Sotsha Ernest Dlamini              (b. 1940 - d. 2017)  Non-party
12 Jul 1989 - 25 Oct 1993  Obed Mfanyana Dlamini              (b. 1937 - d. 2017)  Non-party
                             (acting to 18 Jul 1989)
25 Oct 1993 -  4 Nov 1993  Andreas Fakudze (acting)                                Non-party
 4 Nov 1993 -  8 May 1996  Prince Makhosini Jaheso (Jameson)  (b. 1932 - d. 2008)  Non-party
                            
Dlamini 
 8 May 1996 - 26 Jul 1996  Simon Sishayi Nxumalo (acting)     (b. 1936 - d. 2000)  Non-party
26 Jul 1996 - 29 Sep 2003  Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini          (b. 1942 - d. 2018)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
29 Sep 2003 - 26 Nov 2003  Paul Shabangu (acting)             (b. 1943? - d. 2003) Non-party
26 Nov 2003 - 18 Sep 2008  Prince Absalom Themba Dlamini      (b. 1950)            Non-party
18 Sep 2008 - 23 Oct 2008  Prince Bheki R. Dlamini (acting)   (b. 1952?)           Non-party
23 Oct 2008 -  5 Sep 2018  Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
 5 Sep 2018 -
29 Oct 2018  Vincent Mhlanga (acting)           (b. 1965)            Non-party
29 Oct 2018 -              Ambrose Mandvulo Dlamini           (b. 1968)            Non-party

Chairmen of the (Provisional 18 Dec 1889 - 13 Sep 1890) Government Committee
16 May 1887 - Feb 1889
    Theophilus "Offy" Shepstone, Jr.   (b. 1843 - d. 1907)
                             (1st time)

Feb 1889 - 10 May 1889     Allister Mitchell Miller           (b. 1864 - d. 1951)
May 1889 -
18 Dec 1889     Naphtali "Naph" Herz Cohen         (b. 18.. - d. 1907)
18 Dec 1889 - 28 Aug 1894  Theophilus "Offy" Shepstone, Jr.   (s.a.
)
                             (2nd time)

28 Aug 1894 - 21 Feb 1895  George Herbert Hulett              (b. 1864 - d. 1943)

South African Republic (Transvaal) Special Commissioner
21 Feb 1895 - 1902         Johannes Christoffel Krogh         (b. 1846 - d. 1921)
British Special Commissioner (subordinated to the governor of Transvaal)
24 Aug 1902 - Mar 1907     Francis Greenock Herbert Enraght-  (b. 1865 - d. 1943)
                             Moony

British Resident Commissioners, Swaziland

(subordinated to the High Commissioner for Southern Africa to 3 Oct 1963)
Mar 1907 - Oct 1907        Francis Greenock Herbert Enraght-  (s.a.)
                             Moony
Apr 1907 - Jan 1916        Robert Thorne Coryndon             (b. 1870 - d. 1925)
                             (acting for
Enraght-Moony to Oct 1907)
1916
- Oct 1928            De Symons Montagu George Honey     (b. 1872 - d. 1945)
                             (acting to 1 Jan 1917)
Oct 1928 -  1 Apr 1935     Thomas Ainsworth-Dickson           (b. 1881 - d. 1935)
Apr 1935 - Sep 1935        John Rae Armstrong (acting)        (b. 1881 - d. 1955?)
Oct 1935 - Nov 1937        Allan Graham Marwick               (b. 1877 - d. 1966)
Nov 1937 - 1942            Charles Lamb Bruton                (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
30 Sep 1942 - 1946         Eric Kellett Featherstone          (b. 1896 - d. 1965)
25 Aug 1946 - 1951         Edward Betham Beetham              (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
 
5 Mar 1951 - 1956         David Loftus Morgan                (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
19 Dec 1956 -  4 Oct 1963  Brian Allan Marwick                (b. 1908 - d. 1992)
                             (from 8 Jun 1963, Sir Brian Allan Marwick)
Commissioners for Swaziland
 
4 Oct 1963 - 1964         Sir Brian Allan Marwick            (s.a.)
12 May 1964 -  5 Sep 1968  Francis Alfred Lloyd               (b. 1916 - d. 2006) 
                             (from 12 Jun 1965, Sir Francis Alfred Lloyd)
            

 Style of the rulers:
(a) in the Convention of 1894: called "Paramount Chief of the Swazies in Swazieland";
(b) 22 Dec 1921 - 25 Apr 1967: normally referred to as "Paramount Chief of Swaziland" for official purposes during the period when the sovereignty over Swaziland was exercised by the monarch of the United Kingdom;
(c) 25 Apr 1967 - 8 Feb 2006: "King of Swaziland";
(d) the Constitution (effective 8 Feb 2006): refers to the position of head of state as "King and
iNgwenyama of Swaziland (from 19 Apr 2018, Eswatini)" where iNgwenyama means "The Ngwenyama"; title of the Queen Mother is Ndlovukazi recorded in the Constitutions (1968, 2005) is the isiZulu form of the siSwati word Ndlovukazi;
(e) claimed ancestors of the founder of the polity of the Dlamini clan, officially considered and counted as kings: Dlamini I, Mswati I, Ngwane II, Dlamini II, Nkosi II, Mavuso I, Magudulela, Ludvonga (I), and Dlamini III.

Territorial Dispute: In 2006, the Eswatini king advocated resorting to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from South Africa.

Party abbreviations (the status of political parties, previously banned in 1973, is unclear under the 2006 Constitution and currently being debated);
- Former parties: INM = Imbokodvo National Movement (royalist, Swazi nationalist, 1964-12 Apr 1973)






  Ben Cahoon