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U.S. Native American Nations
 
Contents:  Absentee Shawnee - Agua Caliente - Ak-Chin - Alabama-Coushatta of Texas - Arapaho of Wyoming - Aroostook Band of Micmacs - Augustine Band - Barona Band - Barrow - Bay Mills - Big Pine - Bishop Paiute - Blackfeet of Montana - Bridgeport - Burns Paiute - Cabazon - Cahuilla - Campo Band - Chehalis - Chemehuevi - Cheyenne River Sioux - Cherokee of Oklahoma - Chickasaw - Chippewa Cree - Chitimacha - Choctaw of Mississippi - Choctaw of Oklahoma - Cocopah - Coeur d'Alene - Colorado River Indian Tribes - Colville - Comanche Nation - Coos, Lower Umpqua & Siuslaw - Coquille - Cow Creek Umpqua - Cowlitz - Crow Creek Sioux - Crow Tribe Montana - Curyung - Death Valley - Delaware of Western Oklahoma - Eastern Band of Cherokee - Eastern Pequot - Eastern Shawnee of Oklahoma - Ewiiaapaayp - Fallon Paiute-Shoshone - Flandreau Santee Sioux - Fort Belknap - Fort Berthold - Fort Bidwell - Fort Independence - Fort McDowell Yavapai - Fort Mojave - Fort Peck Tribes - Fort Yuma Quechan - Gila River - Grand Ronde - Hannahville - Havasupai - Hoh - Ho-Chunk of Wisconsin - Hoopa Valley - Hopi - Hualapai - Iipay of Santa Ysabel - Inaja Diegueno - Inupiat - Iowa of Kansas & Nebraska - Iowas of Oklahoma - Jamestown S'Klallam - Jamul Indian Village - Jena Choctaw - Kaibab Band of Paiute - Kalispel - Karuk - Ketchikan - Klamath - Kootenai of Idaho - Kotzebue - La Jolla Band - La Posta - Las Vegas Paiute - Little Shell Chippewa - Lone Pine Paiute - Los Coyotes - Lower Elwha - Lummi  Makah - Manzanita - Mashantucket Pequot - Mashpee Wampanoag‏ - Menominee - Mesa Grande - Metlakatla - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma - Miccosukee - Mille Lacs Band - Minnesota Chippewa‏ - Modoc of Oklahoma - MoheganMorongo Band - Muckleshoot - Muskogee (Creek) of Oklahoma - NarragansettNavajo - Nez Perce - Nisqually - Nooksack - Nome Eskimo - Northern Cheyenne - Oglala Sioux - Omaha - Osage - Ottawa of Oklahoma - Orutsararmiut - Pala Band - Pascua Yaqui - Passamaquoddy - Pauma Band - Pawnee Nation of OklahomaPechanga Band - Penobscot - Peoria of Oklahoma - Poarch Band - Pokagon Band - Ponca of Nebraska - Port Gamble S'Klallam - Prairie Band - Puyallup - Quapaw of Oklahoma - Quileute - Quinault - Ramona Cahuilla - Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa - Rincon Band - Robinson Rancheria - Rosebud Sioux - Round Valley - Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa - Sac & Fox of Oklahoma - Salish & Kootenai - Salt River Pima-Maricopa - Samish - San Carlos Apache - San Juan Southern Paiute - San Manuel Band - San Pasqual - Santa Rosa - Santa Ynez Band - Santee Sioux - Saulk-Suiattle - Sault Ste. Marie - Seminole of Florida - Seminole of Oklahoma - Seneca Nation of Indians - Seneca-Cayuga of Oklahoma - Shakopee Mdewakanton - Shoalwater Bay - Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma (Loyal Shawnee) - Shinnecock - Shoshone-Bannock - Siletz - Sitka - Skokomish - Snoqualmie - Soboba Band - Southern Ute - Spokane Tribe - Squaxin Island - Stillaguamish - Suquamish of Port Madison - Swinomish - Sycuan Kumeyaay - Tlingit and Haida - Tohono O'odham - Tonto Apache - Torres-Martinez Desert Cahullia - Tulalip - Tule River - Tunica-Biloxi - Turtle Mountain Chippewa - Twenty-Nine Palms Band - Umatilla - United Band of Keetoowah Cherokee - Upper Skagit - Ute of Uintah & Ouray - Ute Mountain - Utu Utu Gwaitu - Viejas Band - Wampanoag of Gay Head - Warm Springs - Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California - White Earth - White Mountain Apache - Winnebago of Nebraska - Wyandotte of Oklahoma - Yakama - Yavapai-Apache - Yavapai Prescott - Yurok - Zuni -

Note: As of 29 Jan 2014, there were 566 Native American tribal nations, bands, confederations, communities, rancheria, pueblo, and villages recognized by the United States federal government, under the Constitution, by treaties, statutes, or by court decisions as "sovereign domestic dependent nations under the U.S. protection" (approximately 229 of these are located in Alaska).  They have formal government-to-government relations with the United States federal government, enjoy internal self-government and administer the territories they reserved for themselves. During 1887-1906, the majority of natives were granted U.S. citizenship, the remaining natives were declared to be the citizens in 1924. Currently this page lists a small number of the total recognized Native American Nations. More data will be added as information becomes available. Nations are listed alphabetically according to the State in which their lands are currently located.

  Due to the vast number of tribal entities on this page any assistance adding or updating information is greatly appreciated.


National Congress of American Indians

16 Nov 1944                National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), an American Indian
                             and Alaska Native indigenous rights organization, founded in
                             in response to U.S. termination and assimilation policies

Presidents

1944 - 1952                Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee)(b. 1891 - d. 1974)
1953 - 1959                Joseph R. Garry               (b. 1910 - d. 1975)
                             (Coeur d'Alene)
1960 - 1964                Walter "Blackie" Wetzel       (b. 1915)
                             (Blackfeet)
1965 - 1966                Clarence Wesley
                             (San Carlos Apache)
1967 - 1968                Wendell Chino                 (b. 1923 - d. 1998)
                             (Mescalero Apache)
1969 - 1970                Earl Old Person (Blackfeet)   (b. 1929)
1971 - 1972                Leon F. Cook (Red Lake Chippewa)
1973 - 1976                Mel Tonasket (Colville)
1977 - 1978                Veronica L. Murdock (f)
                             (Mohave)
1979 - 1980                Edward Driving Hawk (Sioux)
1981 - 1984                Joseph DeLaCruz (Quinault)    (b. 1937 - d. 2000)
1985 - 1987                Reuben A. Snake, Jr.          (b. 1937 - d. 1993)
                             (Ho-Chunk)
1988 - 1989                John Gonzales                 (b. 1955)
                             (San Ildefonso Pueblo)
1990 - 1991                Wayne L. Ducheneaux           (b. 1936 - d. 2012)
                             (Cheyenne River Sioux)
1992 - 1995                Gaiashkibos
                             (Lac Courte Oreilles)
1996 - 1999                W. Ron Allen
                             (Jamestown S'Klallam)
2000 - 2001                Susan Masten (f)(Yurok)
2002 - 2005                Tex G. Hall                   (b. 1956)
                             (Mandan/Hidatsa/Arikara)
2006 - 2009                Joe A. Garcia (Ohkay Owingeh)
2010 -                     Jefferson E. Keel (Chickasaw) (b. 1947)



Alabama

Poarch Band of Creek Indians

[Poarch Band of Creek Indians
              (Alabama)]

1836                       Some Creeks avoid removal of the Creek Nation from the east to
                             Oklahoma.
11 Aug 1984                Recognized by the U.S. (Poarch Band of Creek Indians).
12 Apr 1985                Poarch Creek Reservation established.
1999                       Self-governance agreement.

Chiefs of Creeks East of the Mississippi
1951 – 1970                Calvin W. McGhee                 (b. 1903 - d. 1970)
1970 – 1977                Houston L. McGhee                (b. 1937 - d. 2012)
Chairmen
1976 – 2000                Eddie L. Tullis (1st time)       (b. 1938)
2000 – 2001                Fred L. McGhee (1st time)        (b. 1950 – d. 2006)
2001 – 2005                Eddie L. Tullis (2nd time)       (s.a.)
2005 – 2006                Fred L. McGhee (2nd time)        (s.a.)
12 Jun 2006 - 19 Jun 2014  Buford L. Rolin
19 Jun 2014 -              Stephanie A. Bryan (f)



Alaska

Note: Currently listed are 8 largest Native Villages by tribal population and both regional tribes out of total of 222 Alaska tribal entities. In 1972 the state was divided into 12 regions of Alaska Native Regional Corporations holding the title to most of the native lands and conducting most of the native affairs. At the same time the existing 23 Indian Reserves were abolished, except Annette Island (Metlakatla), and for the first time complete, but informal list of Alaska tribal entities was created. The tribal entities were listed on the Federal Register from 1982 in a "preliminary list," but since 1993 they are listed along the tribes of the contiguous 48 states. Except Metlakatla, all tribal entities from 1959 on are under the jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.


Barrow


23 May 1939                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Native Village of Barrow).
26 Aug 1971                Part of the Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope, a regional
                             Indian tribe.
22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
1997                       Renamed Native Village of Barrow Inupiat Traditional Government.
1998                       Covered by the Arctic Slope Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Presidents
1940 – 19..                ....
c.1946                     Fred Ipalook
c.1953                     Eben Hopson                      (b. 1922 – d. 1980)
c.1992                     Rex A. Okaok (1st time)
bf.1993 - 1994             Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (1st time)
1994 – 1995                Rex A. Okaok (2nd time)
1995 – 1997                Kathy Itta (f)
1997 – 1998                Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (2nd time)
1998 – 2000                Elsie Itta (f)
2000 – 2001                Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (3rd time)
2001 – 2003                Patsy Aamodt (f)
2003 – 2005                Percy Nusunginya
2005 -                     Thomas P. Olemaun


Curyung


1972                       Native Village of Dillingham listed for the first time, within
                             the region of Bristol Bay Native Corp.

1995                       Covered by the Bristol Bay Area Self-governance agreement
                             with the U.S.

1997                       Renamed Curyung Tribal Council.

Presidents
bf.1992 - af.1993          Sally H. Smith (f)
bf.1994 - 2001             Ida Roehl (f)
2001 – 2002                DuWayne Johnson
First chiefs
2002 – 2003                Rose Heyano (f)
2003 – 2004                Ida Roehl (f)
2004 -                     Thomas Tilden                    (b. 1953)


Inupiat of Arctic Slope

26 Aug 1971                Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope, recognized by the U.S. as
                             the regional Indian tribe, federating 8 (originally 5) Native
                             Villages recognized by the U.S. as native tribal entities on
                             their own: Anaktuvuk Pass, Atqasuk, Barrow, Kaktovik (Barter
                             Island), Nuiqsut, Point Hope, Point Lay, and Wainwright.
22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
1998                       Covered by the Arctic Slope Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Presidents
1971 – 197.                ....
c.1979                     Joseph Upicksoun                 (b. 1932 – d. 2005)
c.1983                     Arnold Brower, Sr.
bf.1992 - 1998             George Edwardson, Jr. (1st time)
1998 – 2000                Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (1st time)
2000 – 2001                Don Long
2001 – 2007                Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (2nd time)
2007 – 2010                George Edwardson, Jr. (2nd time)
2010 – 2011                Doreen Lampe (f)
2011 – 2012                George Edwardson, Jr. (3rd time)
2012 -                     George Olemaun


Ketchikan

[Ketchikan Indian Community
              (Alaksa)]

27 Jan 1940                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Ketchikan Indian Corporation).
19 Aug 1965                Under authority of the Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida,
                             a regional Indian tribe.
22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Sealaska Corp.
1995                       Covered by the South East Alaska Self-governance agreement
                             with the U.S.

Presidents
1940 – 19..                ....
bf.1989 - af.1993          Ronald W. Leighton
c.1995                     Christine Collison (f)
c.1996                     Gerald E. Hope
1998 – 2001                Stephanie D. Rainwater (f)       (b. 1948)
                             (1st time)
2001 – 2002                Marly F. Edenso (f)
2002 – 2003                Charles W. White
2003 – 2005                Stephanie D. Rainwater–Sande (f) (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
2005 – 2006                Samuel E. Bergeron               (b. 1958)
2006 – 2007                Stephanie D. Rainwater–Sande (f) (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
2007 – 2008                Richard Jackson
2008 – 2012                Norman A. Arriola
2012 -                     Irene Dundas (f)


Kotzebue

23 May 1939                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Native Village of Kotzebue).
 7 Jun 1972                Within the region of NANA Regional Corp.
1995                       Covered by the Maniilaq Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Chairmen
1939 – 19..                ....
bf.1992 - af.1996          Peter Schaeffer (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2002             Marie N. Greene (f)
2002 – 2003                Eugene Smith
2003 – 2004                Ian Erlich
2004 – 2007                Peter Schaeffer (2nd time)
2007 – 2008                Guy Adams (1st time)
2008 – 2011                Margaret Hansen (f)
2011 – 2013                Guy Adams (2nd time)
2013 -                     Chester Ballot


Metlakatla

[Metlakatla
                Indian Community (Alaska)]

1887                       Settlement (Metlakatla) by the Tsimshian emigrants from the
                             British Columbia, Canada, governed by Declaration of Residents
                             (1887), Rules and Regulations (1915) and Constitution (1944).
 3 Mar 1891                Annette Island Indian Reserve set aside.
19 Dec 1944                Metlakatla Indian Community of the Annette Island Reserve.
1997                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Mayors
1887 – 1915                Village Council (elected annually)
1915 – 1945                ....
1945 – 1957                John W. Smith                    (b. 1906 – d. 1990)
1957 – 1971                ....
1971 – 1973                John R. Benson                   (b. 1932 – d. 1983)
1973 – 1975                ....
1975 – 1977                Wallace D. Leask                 (b. 1921 – d. 2004)
1977 – 1981                ....
1981 – 1983                Casey Nelson, Sr.
1983 – 1985                Harris L. Atkinson, Jr.          (b. 1928 – d. 1999)
                             (1st time)
1985 – 1987                ....
1987 – 1989                Casey D. Nelson, Jr. (1st time)
1989 – 1991                Harris L. Atkinson, Jr.          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1991 – 1993                Casey D. Nelson, Jr. (2nd time)
1993 – 1995                Jim Scudero
1995 – 1997                Jack Booth, Sr.
1997 – 1999                Timothy E. Gilmartin
1999 – 2001                Solomon D. Atkinson
2001 – 2007                Victor C. Wellington, Sr.
                             (1st time)
2007 – 2008                John A. Scudero, Jr.
2008 – 2009                Karl S. Cook, Jr.
2009 – 2011                Arthur G. Fawcett, Jr.
2011 – 2013                Victor C. Wellington, Sr.
                             (2nd time)
2013 -                     Audrey Hudson (f)



Nome Eskimo


23 Nov 1939                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Nome Eskimo Community).
23 Jun 1972                Within the region of Bering Straits Native Corp.
1995                       Covered by the Kawerak (Norton Sound) Self-governance agreement
                             with the U.S.

Presidents
1939 – 19..                ....
bf.1992 - af.1993          Danny Karmun
bf.1994 - af.1995          Andrew Miller, Jr. (1st time)
c.1996                     Sandra T. Tahbone (f) (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2000             Andrew Miller, Jr. (2nd time)
2000                       Sandra T. Tahbone (f) (2nd time)
2000 – 2003                Andrew Miller, Jr. (3rd time)
2003 – 2005                Laban Iyatunguk, Jr.
2005 – 2006                Dawn Salesky (f) (1st time)
2006 – 2007                Clifford Johnson
2007 – 2008                Alfred Sahlin (1st time)
2008                       Dawn Salesky (f) (2nd time)
2008 – 2009                Karlin Itchoak (f)
2009                       Alfred Sahlin (2nd time)
2009 – 2010                Lester Keller
2010                       Bantu Nichols
2010 – 2013                Cynthia Ahwinona (f)
2013 -                     Janice Doherty (f)



Orutsararmiut

1972                       Native Village of Bethel listed for the first time, within the
                             region of Calista Corp.

bf.1992                    Renamed Orutsararmiut Native Village.
1995                       Covered by Yukon-Kuskokwim Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Presidents
c.1982                     John Angiak
bf.1992 - c.1996           Thaddeus Tikiun, Jr.
Chairmen
c.1996 - 2004              Henry J. Hunter, Sr.
2004 – 2012                Raymond Watson
2012 -                     Gloria Simeon (f)


Sitka

11 Oct 1938                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Sitka Community Association).
1965                       Under authority of the Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida,
                             a regional Indian tribe.

22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Sealaska Corp.
1992                       Renamed Sitka Tribe of Alaska.
1995                       Covered by the South East Alaska Self-governance agreement
                             with the U.S.


Head chiefs of Sitka Tlingits (in Russian: Glavny Koloshensky Toen)
1842 – 1868                Kooxx'aan (Mikhail)              (d. 1868)
1868 – 1874                Vacant
1874 – 1889                Annaxoots (from 1886, Aleksey)   (d. 1889)
1889 – 1908                Laanteech (Ivan)                 (b. c.1843 – d. 1908)
Presidents
1938 – 19..                ....

c.1982                     Andy Hope
1987 – 1990                William M. Brady                 (b. 1922 – d. 1995)
1990 – 1991                Rav Perkins
1991 – 1992                Pete Esquiro       
Chairmen
1992 – 2012                Lawrence A. Widmark, Jr.
2012 -                     Michael Baines


Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes Central Council

[Tlingit and
                Haida Indian Tribes Central Council flag (Alaska)]

 5 Nov 1912                Alaska Native Brotherhood established by the Tlingit and
                             Haida tribes.
11 Nov 1935                Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida first meets (regularly
                             from 1939), this is the origin of tribal government.
19 Aug 1965                Recognized by the U.S. as governing authority of the regional
                             Indian tribe, consisting of a number of Native communities, 17
                             (originally 15) of them recognized by the U.S. as native tribal
                             entities on their own: Angoon, Chilkat (Klukwan), Chilkoot                                    (Haines), Craig, Douglas, Hoonah, Hydaburg, Kake, Kasaan,
                             Ketchikan, Klawock, Petersburg, Saxman, Sitka, Skagway, Wrangell,
                             and Yakutat.
22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Sealaska Corp.
bf.1982                    Renamed Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes.
21 Oct 1993                Interior Department omits council from federal recognition list.
 2 Nov 1994                Congress reconfirms federal recognition.
1995                       Covered by the South East Alaska Self-governance agreement with
                             the U.S.

Presidents
11 Nov 1935 - 1940         David Morgan
1940 - 1966                Andrew Percy Hope, Sr.           (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
1966 - 1967                Ted Denny
1967 - 1972                John Borbridge, Jr.
1972 - 1976                Clarence Jackson, Sr.
1976 - 1980                Raymond E. Paddock, Jr.          (b. 1936 - d. 1987)
1980 - 1984                Andrew John Hope, Jr.            (b. 1923 – d. 1999)
1984 - 2007                Edward K. Thomas (1st time)
2007 - Apr 2010            William E. "Bill" Martin
2010 -                     Edward K. Thomas (2nd time)



Arizona

Ak-Chin Indian Community

[Ak-Chin Indian
              Community (Arizona)]
                        Adopted 1987

May 1912                   Maricopa Indian Reservation established.
20 Dec 1961                Ak-Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian
                             Reservation.
1993                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
c.1929                     General Council
1961 - 1963                Ross Lopez
1963 - 1965                Richard Carlyle                     (d. 1965)
c.1971                     Francis Antone
1972? - af.1979            Wilbert "Buddy" J. Carlyle
1979?                      Jonas Paul Miguelbad
1979? - 19..               Leona M. Carlyle-Kakar (f)(1st time)
c.1984                     Leroy Narcia
198. – 1988?               Leona M. Carlyle-Kakar (f)(2nd time)
1989? - 1993?              Delia M. Antone (f)(1st time)
                             (from c.1991, Delia M. Carlyle)
1993? - 1996               Martin J. Antone
1996 – 1997                Terry O. Enos (1st time)
1997 - 1998                William W. Antone
1998 – 2000                Leona M. Kakar (f) (3rd time)
2000 – 2002                Delia M. Carlyle (f)(2nd time)
2002 – 2006                Terry O. Enos (2nd time)
2006 – 2010                Delia M. Carlyle (f)(3rd time)
2010 -                     Louis J. Manuel, Jr
.


Cocopah


[Cocopah Nation (Arizona)]

27 Sep 1917                 Cocopah Indian Reservation established 
16 Nov 1964                 Cocopah Indian Tribe of Arizona
1992                        Gaming compact.

Chiefs
1917 - af.1927              Frank Tehanna
c.1950                      Joe San Diego
Chairmen
c.1950 - Feb 1963           Pedro Jim
Feb 1963 - 1964             Louis S. San Diego
1964 - 1968                 Clara Barley Brown (f)             (b. 1909)
1968 - 1970                 Lena San Diego (f)
1970 - 1976                 Robert Sam Barley
1976 - 1990                 Fred Miller
1990 - Jul 1994             Dale Phillips
15 Jul 1994 - 1995          Peter Soto                         (d. 1995) 
1995 -                      Sherry Cordova (f)
                              (acting to 1996)
 

C
olorado River Indian Tribes

[Colorado River Indian
              Community CIRT (Arizona, California)]
                   Adopted 4 Jan 1979

1864                       Colorado River Indian Agency established.
 3 Mar 1865                Colorado River Reservation, Arizona/California established (no
                             treaty).
1909                       Reservation opened to the non-Indian settlement.
13 Aug 1937                Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT)
2003                       Gaming compact with the state.


Chiefs of Mojave
1861 – 1874                Yara-tav (= Iretaba)                (b. c.1808 – d. 1874)
                             (in 1867, came from Fort Mojave)
1874 – c.1898              Hook-a-row                          (d. c.1898)
c.1898 - af.1914           Manataba
Chief of Chemehuevi
bf.1863 - 187.             Pan Coyer (Espanqua)
Chairmen
c.1929                     General Council
18 Sep 1937 - 19..         Jay Gould (1st time)
c.1942                     Henry Welsh
c.1945                     Kearney Miller
bf.1951 - 1953             George Fisher
1953                       Jay Gould (2nd time) 
1953 - 1955                Herman Laffoon, Sr. (1st time)
1955 - 1965                Peter Homer                         (b. 1903 - d. 1988)
1965 - 1967                Herman Laffoon, Sr. (2nd time)
1967 – 1969                Dempsey Scott
1969 - 1971                Adrian Fisher
1971 – 1973                Antone Gonzalez
1973 - Jan 1977            Anthony Drennan (1st time)
Jan 1977 – Jan 1981        Franklin McCabe
Jan 1981 – Jan 1989        Anthony Drennan (2nd time)
Jan 1989 - Jan 2009        Daniel Eddy, Jr.
Jan 2009 - Jan 2014        Eldred Enas
Jan 2014 -                 Dennis Wayne Patch, Sr.



Fort McDowell Yavapai

[ Fort
              McDowell Yavapai Reservation (Arizona)]

15 Sep 1903                Fort McDowell Reservation established.
1903 – 1913                Camp McDowell Indian Agency.
1933                       First constitution adopted.
24 Nov 1936                Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Indian Community of the Fort
                             McDowell Reservation
1992                       Gaming compact.
12 Nov 1999                Renamed Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation.

Chiefs
c.1900 - 1914              Yuma Frank (Kapalwa)                (d. 1914)
1914 – 19..                Thomas Surrama
bf.1929 - 1933             General Council
Presidents
1933 – 193.                ....
c.1938                     Sam Wilson
c.1947                     Harry Austin
c.1968                     Vincent Smith
c.1971                     Harry Jones
c.1973                     Gilbert S. Jones (1st time)      
c.1975                     Robert Russell
bf.1992 - 1997             Clinton M. Pattea (1st time)        (b. 1930 – d. 2013)
1997 – 1999                Gilbert S. Jones (2nd time)      
1999 – 2000                Bernadine Boyd (f)
2000 - 2004                Clinton M. Pattea (2nd time)        (s.a.)
2004 - 2008                Raphael R. Bear
2008 -  5 Jul 2013         Clinton M. Pattea (3rd time)        (s.a.)

Aug 2013 -                 Ruben Balderas


Fort Mojave

[Fort Mojave Indian Tribe
              (Arizona, California, Nevada)]

30 Mar 1870                Fort Mojave Indian Reservation established (formally from
                             2 Feb 1911).
1890 – 1930                Fort Mojave Indian Agency.   
 6 May 1957                Fort Mojave Indian Tribe
1990                       Gaming compact with the state.


Chiefs of Mojave (title: Aha Macav Pina Ta'ahon)
bf.1859 - 1861             Homoseh-quahot (1st time)           (d. 1875)
1861 – 1867                Yara-tav (= Iretaba)                (b. c.1808 – d. 1874)
                            (moved to Colorado River)
1867 – 1875                Homoseh-quahot (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1875 – 1877                Empote-quatachech (= Potachecha)    (d. 1877)
1877 – 1947                Sukulai-homar (Peter Lambert)       (b. 1869 – d. 1947)
1877 – c.1890              John Asukit (guardian)
1947 – 1951                Homer O. Davidson                   (b. 1892 – d. 1959)
                             (head of interim government)
Chairmen

1951 - 1957                Robert Jenkins                      (b. 1897 – d. 1964)
1957 - 1965                Frances Malika Stillmann (f)        (b. 1910 – d. 1994)
1965 - af.1976             Llewellyn Barrackman                (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
c.1984                     Minerva Jenkins (f)
1985 - Jun 1993            Nora Garcia (f)(1st time)
                             (from 19.., Nora
Helton)
Jun 1993 - 1997            Patricia Madueρo (f)
1997 - 2007                Nora Garica Helton (f)(2nd time)
                             (from 2002, Nora McDowell)
2007 -                     Timothy Williams


Fort Yuma Quechan: see under California


Gila River Indian Community


[Gila River Indian
              Community (Arizona)]

17..                       Pima and Maricopa tribes confederate.
1825 - 1856                Treaty of alliance with Mexico.
1856                       Pima (1864 - 1875 occasionally named Gila River) Indian Agency
                             established.
21 Feb 1859                Gila River Indian Reservation established (no treaty)
14 May 1936                Gila River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community,.
20 Jan 1960                Gila River Indian Community (GRIC).
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.
2003                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Head chiefs of Pima (largest tribe of the confederacy; title of chief: Uhgchu)
bf.1825 - 1855             Juan Antonio Llunas "Culo Azul"     (d. 1855)
                             (also titled as governor)
1855 - 1910                Antonio Azul                        (b. c.1825 - d. 1910)
1910 - 1923                Antonito Azul                       (b. 1851 – d. 1923)
Governors
1923 – 1926                General Council
1926 – 1934/36             Advisory Committee
Oct 1936 – 1937            Xavier Cawker
1937 – 1938                Johnson McAfee
1939 - 1942                Alexander Cannon
1942 – 1944                Alfred Jackson, Sr. (1st time)
1944 - 1945                Gee Gage
1945 - 1950                David A. Johnson, Sr.
1951 - 1952                Alfred Jackson, Sr. (2nd time)
1952 - 1954                Loyde A. Allison (1st time)         (b. 1904 - d. 1985)
1954 – 31 Dec 1960         Jay R. Morago, Jr.                  (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
 1 Jan 1961 – 31 Dec 1963  Nelson Josι
 1 Jan 1964 – 31 Dec 1969  Loyde A. Allison (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1970 – 31 Dec 1981  Alexander Lewis, Sr.
 1 Jan 1982 – 31 Dec 1984  Dana R. Norris     
 1 Jan 1985 – 31 Dec 1987  Donald R. Antone, Sr. (1st time)    (b. 1937)
 1 Jan 1988 – 31 Dec 1993  Thomas P. White
 1 Jan 1994 – 31 Dec 1999  Mary Vivian Thomas (f)
 1 Jan 2000 – 31 Dec 2002  Donald R. Antone, Sr. (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2003 – 31 Dec 2005  Richard P. Narcia                   (b. 1953)
 1 Jan 2006 – 31 Dec 2011  William P. Rhodes                   (b. 1933)
 1 Jan 2012 -              Gregory Mendoza                     (b. 1965)



Havasupai


[Havasupai Tribe of the Havasupai Reservation
                (Arizona)]

 8 Jun 1880                Havasupai Reservation set aside.
1904 – 1933                Havasupai Indian Agency.
27 Mar 1939                Havasupai Tribe of the Havasupai Reservation, Arizona.

Chiefs
bf.1869- 1872              Wa Sgwiivma                         (d. 1872)
1872 – 1898                'Navahu (= Navajo)                  (d. 1898)
1900 – 1942                Hmaan Gjaah (= Manakaja)            (b. c.1848 – d. 1942)
Chairmen
Mar 1939 - 1940            Arthur Kaska
1940 - 194.                Dean Sinyella
c.1943                     Jim Crook
c.1946                     West Sinyella
c.1947                     Lemuel Paya (1st time)
c.1951                     Clark Jack, Sr.
c.1957                     Juan Sinyella
c.1959                     Lemuel Paya (2nd time)
c.1962                     Earl Paya
c.1967                     Lee Marshall (1st time)             (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
c.1968 - c.1969            Daniel Kaska                        (b. 1928)
bf.1971 - 1973             Lee Marshall (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1973 - 1975                Oscar Paya
1975 – 197.                Leon Rogers
1976 - 1978?               Clark C. Jack, Jr. (1st time)
1978 - 1980                Reed Watahomigie
1980 - 1982                Wayne Sinyella (1st time)
1982 - 1984                Clark C. Jack, Jr. (2nd time)
1984 - 1986                James Uqualla
1986 – 198.                Wayne Sinyella (2nd time) 
198. - 1988                Delmer Uqualla
1988? - 1990               Clark C. Jack, Jr. (3rd time)
1990 - 1993                Wayne Sinyella (3rd time)
1993 – 1994                Rex Tilousi (1st time)
1994 - 1996                Wayne Sinyella (4th time)
1996 - c.1997              Lester Crooke
c.1997 - 1998              Lincoln Manakaja
1998 – 1999                Thomas Siyuja (1st time)
1999 – 2001                Augustine Hanna
2001 – 2002                Agnes Chamberlain (f)
2002 – 2004                Donald E. Watahomigie (1st time)
2004 – 2005                Rex Tilousi (2nd time)
2005 – 2007                Thomas Siyuja (2nd time)
2007 – 2009                Donald E. Watahomigie (2nd time)
2009 - 2011                Bernadine Jones (f)
2011 -                     Donald E. Watahomigie (3rd time)



Hopi

Hopi Nation (Arizona) U.S.
                       Adopted 2002

c.1100                     Pueblo of Oraibi founded (one of the oldest continuously inhabited
                             settlements in the U.S.)
1629 – 1680                Subject to the Spanish (1699 – 1700 again briefly).
1869                       Moqui Pueblo (from 1923, Hopi) Indian Agency established
                             (1883-1899 closed).
16 Dec 1882                Hopi (to 1907, Moqui) Indian Reservation created.
19 Dec 1936                Hopi Tribe, a "union" of 12 self-governing Villages.
1936 – 1974                Most of the original Hopi Reservation (except the District 6)
                             shared between Hopi and Navajo (in 1962, the shared area
                             formally organized as the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area; in 22 Dec
                             1974, that Area partitioned between Hopi and Navajo by the
                             Navajo-Hopi Land Settlement Act).

Chiefs of Oraibi Pueblo (oldest pueblo with precedence over others; title: Kikmongwi)
c.1825 - c.1850            Talayawma
c.1850 - c.1865            Nakwaiyamtewa                  (d. c.1865)
c.1865 – 1880              Kuyingwu (acting)
1880 – 1904                Lololoma                       (d. 1904)
1904 – 1906                Wilson Tewaquaptewa (1st time) (b. 1871/73 – d. 1960)
1906 – 1909                Sakwaitiwa (acting)
                             (not recognized by the U.S.)
1909 – 1960                Wilson Tewaquaptewa (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             [not the last chief]

Chairmen
1936 - 1937                Peter Nuvamsa
1937 – 1938                Otto Lomavitu
bf.1942 - 1943             Byron P. Adams
1943 – 1951                Council suspended   
1951                       Logan Koopee (1st time)
1951 – 1955                Council suspended
1955 - af.1957             Karl T. Johnson
c.1958                     Willard Sekiestewa
c.1961                     Dewey Healing                   (b. 1905? - d. 1992)
1961 - 196.                Jean Fredericks (1st time)      (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
c.1963                     Abbott Sekaquaptewa (1st time)  (b. 1929 - d. 1992)
c.1965                     Lee Thomas
bf.1967 - 1968             Logan Koopee (2nd time)
1968 – Dec 1969            Jean Fredericks (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Dec 1969 – Dec 1973        Clarence C. Hamilton
Dec 1973 – Dec 1981        Abbott Sekaquaptewa (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Dec 1981 - Dec 1989        Ivan L. Sidney  (1st time)      (b. 1947)
Dec 1989 - Dec 1993        Vernon Masayesva
Dec 1993 - Dec 1997        Ferrell Secakuku                (b. 1937 - d. 2007)
Dec 1997 - Dec 2005        Wayne Taylor Jr.
Dec 2005 – Sep 2006        Ivan L. Sidney (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Sep 2006 – Mar 2007        Todd Honyaoma (acting)
Mar 2007 - 31 Dec 2008     Benjamin H. Nuvamsa
 1 Jan 2009 – Dec 2009     Mary A. Felter (f) (acting)
Dec 2009 - Dec 2013        LeRoy N. Shingoitewa            (b. 1945?)
Dec 2013 -                 Herman G. Honanie               (b. 1953?) 

Hualapai

[Hualapai Tribe
              (Arizona)]

 4 Jan 1883                Hualapai (to 1929, also spelled Walapai) Indian Reservation
                             established.
1901                       Truxton Canyon Indian Agency established.
17 Dec 1938                Hualapai Indian Tribe of the Hualapai Reservation, Arizona.

Chiefs of Middle Mountain People (largest of 3 tribal divisions; title: Pa-kawha't)
1863 – 1910                Cherum (Tokumhet "Big Chief")     (b. c.1840 – d. 1910)
1910 – 1919                Leve Leve                         (b. 184. - d. 1919)
First chiefs (honorary leaders of the council)
c.1921                     Steve Leve-Leve                   (b. 1875 – d. 19..)
bf.1927 - af.1931          Bob Schrum                        (d. af.1944)
Chairman
1934 – Nov 1938            Charles McGee                     (b. 1903 – d. 1979)
Presidents
Nov 1938 - 1939            Philip Quasula                    (b. 1890 – d. 19..)
1939 - 1940                Charles McGee                     (s.a.)

1940 - 1941                Leo Bill Andrews (1st time)
1941 - 1944                Grant Tapija (1st time)
1944 - 1945                Leo Bill Andrews (2nd time)
1945 - 1946                Grant Tapija (2nd time)
1946 - 1948                Leo Bill Andrews (3rd time)
1948 - 1950                Wilson Honga (1st time)
1950 - Oct 1952            Sterling Mahone                   (b. 1915 - d. 1977)
 4 Oct 1952 - 1953         Wilson Honga (2nd time)
1953 - Dec 1953            Leo Bill Andrews (4th time)
1954 - Oct 1955            Rupert Parker
Chairmen
Oct 1955 - 1958            Rupert Parker
(1st time)
1958 - 1960                Jacob Honga
1960 - 1962                Rupert Parker (2nd time)
1962 - 1963                Willie Walker
1963 - 1964                Sterling Mahone (1st time)        (s.a.)
1964 - 1966                George Rocha
1966 - Oct 1966            Sterling Mahone (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Oct 1966 - Feb 1970        Rupert Parker (3rd time)
Feb 1970 - Jun 1971        Sterling Mahone (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Jun 1971 - 1973            Benedict Beecher
1973 - 1975                Sterling Mahone (4th time)        (s.a.)
1975 - 1976                Wilfred Whatoname (1st time)
1976 - 1979                Earl Havatone (1st time)          (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
1979? - 1983               Delbert Havatone (1st time)
 1 Jul 1983 - 20 Sep 1983  Justin Powskey
Sep 1983 - Jun 1984        Delbert Havatone (2nd time)
Jun 1984 - Jun 1988        Edgar B. Walema
Jun 1988 - 1990            Carrie Bender Imus (f)
1990 - 1992                Earl Havatone (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1992 - 1996                Delbert Havatone (3rd time)
1996 - 2000                Earl Havatone (3rd time)          (s.a.)
2000 - 2004                Louise Benson (f) (1st time)
2004 - 2009                Charlie Vaughn
2009 - 2011                Wilfred Whatoname (2nd time)
2011 - 2012                Louise Benson (f) (2nd time)
2012 -                     Sherry J. Counts (f)


Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians


[Kaibab Band of Paiute
              Indians (Arizona)]

1910 – 1927                Kaibab Indian agency.
11 Jun 1913                Kaibab Reservation set aside.
1951                       Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians


Chairmen
bf.1942 – 195.             ....
c.1959                     Theodore Drye
bf.1963 - 1969             Vernon E. Jake
1969 – af.1974             Bill Tom (1st time)
c.1976                     Vivian C. Jake (f)
bf.1979 - 1982             Bill Tom (2nd time)
1982 – 1983                Dolores Savala (f) (1st time)
1983 – 1984                Gloria Bulletts (f) (1st time)
1984 – 1989                Dolores Savala (f) (2nd time)
1989 – 1990                Alberta Fuller (f)
1990 – 1996                Gloria Bulletts-Benson (f) (2nd time)
1996 – 2006                Carmen M. Bradley (f)
2006 – 2009                Ona M. Segundo (f) (1st time)
2009 – 2010                Timothy L. Rogers
2010 – 2011                Ona M. Segundo (f) (2nd time)
2011 -                     Manuel M. Savala

Navajo

Navajo - Arizona, New
                  Mexico, & Utah (U.S.)
             Adopted 21 May 1968

1786 - 1793                Subject to the Spanish.
1849                       Navajos under protection of the U.S. (Navajo Tribe; official
                             spelling Navaho), the original boundaries of the Navajo country
                             fixed.
1851                       Navaho Indian Agency established (1901-1935 divided into several
                             agencies).
1864 - 1868                Settled at Bosque Redondo Reservation in New Mexico.
 1 Jun 1868                Navajo country formally ceded to the U.S. in exchange for a 
                             reservation (Navaho Indian Reservation).
1922                       Tribal government established, tribe governed by Regulations
                            (24 Apr 1923), Rules (26 Jul 1938) and Resolution (15 Dec 1989).
15 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
15 Apr 1969                Navajo Nation (also spelling "Navajo" is officially specified).
2004                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head Chiefs (title of chief: Naat'aanii)
c.1822 - 1849              Narbona (Hastiin Naat'aa)      (b. 1766 - d. 1849)
1849 - 1853                Mariano Martinez
1853 - 1855                Zarcillos Largos (1st time)    (d. 1858)
1855 - 1858                Manuelito (Hastiin Ch'ilhajini)(b. 1818 - d. 1893)
                             (1st time)
1858                       Zarcillos Largos (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1858 - 1861                Herrero Delgado (A'tsidii Sani)(b. 1830 - d. 1870)
1861 - 1866                Herrero Grande
1866 - 1871                Barboncito (Hastiin Da'ghaaii) (b. 1820 - d. 1871)
1871 - 1885                Ganado Mucho                   (b. 1809 - d. 1890)
                             (To'tso'nii Hastiin)
                             (for Western Navajos)
1871 - 1885                Manuelito (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (for Eastern Navajos)
1885 - 1923                Henry Chee Dodge               (b. 1857 - d. 1947)
                             (Hastiin Adiitsa'ii)
Chairmen 
1922 – 1923                Business Council
                           - Henry Chee Dodge             (s.a.)
                           - Dugal Chee Bekiss
                           - Charley Mitchell             (d. 1932)
 7 Jul 1923 - 1928         Henry Chee Dodge (1st time)    (s.a.)
1928 – Jul 1932            Deshna Clah Chischilze
                             (Dashne Cheschillege)
Jul 1932 – Mar 1936        Thomas Dodge
Mar 1936 - Mar 1937        Marcus Kanuho (interim)
Mar 1937 – Nov 1938        Henry Taliman, Sr.
Nov 1938 – Nov 1942        Jacob C. Morgan                (b. 1879 – d. 1950)
Nov 1942 - Nov 1946        Henry Chee Dodge (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Nov 1946 - Apr 1955        Sam Ahkeah                     (b. 1896 - d. 1967)
Apr 1955 – Apr 1963        Paul Jones
Apr 1963 - Apr 1971        Raymond Nakai                  (b. 1918 - d. 2005)
Apr 1971 - Apr 1983        Peter MacDonald (1st time)     (b. 1928)
Apr 1983 – Apr 1987        Peterson Zah                   (b. 1937)
Apr 1987 – Feb 1989        Peter MacDonald (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Feb 1989 – Jan 1991        Leonard Haskie (interim)
Presidents
Jan 1991 - Jan 1995        Peterson Zah                   (s.a.)
Jan 1995 - Feb 1998        Albert A. Hale
Feb 1998 - Jun 1998        Thomas E. Atcitty              (b. 1933)
Jun 1998 - Jan 1999        Milton Bluehouse, Sr. (interim)(b. 1935)
Jan 1999 - 20 Jan 2003     Kelsey A. Begaye               (b. 1951)
20 Jan 2003 - 11 Jan 2011  Joe Shirley, Jr.               (b. 1947)
11 Jan 2011 -              Ben Shelly                     (b. 1947)


U.S. Navajo Agents (at Fort Defiance, Arizona)
1851 – 1852                R.H. Weightman
1852 – 1853                S.M. Baird
1853 – 1856                Henry L. Dodge                 (d. 1856)
1856 – 1858                Vacant
1858 – 1858                W.R. Harley
1858 – 1859                R.J. Cowart
1859 – 1861                S.F. Kendrick
1861 – 1865                John Ward
1865 – 1868                Theodore H. Dodd            
1868 – 1869                J.C. French
1869 – 1870                Frank T. Bennett (1st time)
1870 – 1872                James Y. Myer
1872 – 1873                Thomas V. Keams
1873 – 1875                William F.M. Arny
1875 – 1878                Alexander G. Irvine
1878 – 1879                John E. Pyle
1879 – 1880                Galen Eastman (1st time)
1880 – 1881                Frank T. Bennett (2nd time)(acting)
1881 – 1882                Galen Eastman (2nd time)
1883 – 1884                Dennis M. Riordan
1884 – 1886                John H. Bowman
1886 – 1889                S.S. Patterson
1889 – 1890                Charles E. Vandever
1890 – 1893                Dana L. Shipley
1893 – 1894                Edward H. Plummer (acting)
1894 – 1898                Constant Williams
1898 – 1903                George W. Hayzlett
Navajo (from 1927, Southern Navajo) Superintendents
(at Fort Defiance, Arizona)
1903 – 1906                Reuben Perry
1906                       Sam B. Daire (acting)
1906 – 1908                William H. Harrison
1908 – 1919                Peter Paquette (1st time)
1919                       S. Young (acting)
1919 – 1924                Peter Paquette (2nd time)
1924                       Chester L. Walker (acting agent)
1925 – 1928                August F. Duclos
1929 – 1934                John G. Hunter
1934 – 1935                William H. Zeh (acting administrator)
Western Navajo Superintendents (in Tuba City, Arizona)
1901 – 1904                Milton J. Needham
1904 – 1907                Matthew M. Murphy
1907 – 1910                Stephen Janus
1910 – 1912                Clarence R. Jeffries
1912                       Claude C. Early (special agent)
1912 – 1914                William T. Sullivan
1914 – 1920                Walter Runke
1920 – 1921                Robert E. Burns
1921                       Charles E. Coe (special supervisor)
1921 – 1923                Charles L. Ellis (special agent)
1921 – 1923                Byron A. Sharp
1923 – 1926                Harvey K. Meyer
1926 – 1933                Chester L. Walker
1933 – 1934                John E. Balmer
1934 – 1935                Francis J. Scott
San Juan (from 1927, Northern Navajo) Superintendents
(in Shiprock, New Mexico)
1903 – 1913/17             William T. Shelton
1913/17 - 1927             Evan W. Estep
1927 – 1928                Albert H. Kneale
1929 – 1931                Billie P. Six
1931                       Ernest H. Hammond
1931 – 1935                Ernest R. McCray
Leupp Superintendents (in Leupp, Arizona)
1908 – 1911                Joseph E. Maxwell
1911 – 1914                Charles H. Dickson (supervisor to 19..)
1914 – 1915                Thomas K. Adreon (special agent)
1915 – 1924                Stephen Janus
1924 – 1926                Harmond P. Marble
1926 – 1927                William O. Roberts
1927 – 1928                John G. Hunter
1929 – 1933                John E. Balmer
1933                       Ernest H. Hammond
1933 – 1934                Theodore B. Hall
1934                       Francis J. Scott
1934 – 1935                Gordon J. Baber (senior clerk)
Pueblo Bonito (from 1927, Eastern Navajo) Superintendent
(in Crownpoint, New Mexico)
1909 – 1935                Samuel F. Stacher
Navajo Special Commissioner (charged with general Navajo issues)
1923 – 1935                Herbert J. Hagerman            (b. 1871 – d. 1935)
Consolidated Navajo Superintendents
(in Window Rock, Arizona)
1935 – 1936                Chester E. Faris
1936 – 1942                E. Reeseman Fryer
1942 – 1949                James M. Stewart
1949                       Allan G. Harper


Pascua Yaqui


[Pascua Yaqui Tribe of
              Arizona (Arizona)]

Aug 1964                   Pascua Yaqui Village formed (special federal involvement).
18 Sep 1978                Pascua Yaqui Tribe of Arizona federally recognized; until 1985
                             remains under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.

Chairmen
1978 - Dec 1987            David G. Ramirez
1988 - 1992                Arcadio Gastelum (1st time)
1992 - 1994                Albert V. Garcia               (d. 1994)
1994  (2 months)           Octaviana V. Trujillo (f)
1994 - 1996                Arcadio Gastelum (2nd time)
1996 - 2000                Benito F. Valencia
2000 - 2004                Robert Valencia                (b. 1951)
2004 -  1 Aug 2007         Herminia Frias (f)             (b. 1973)
 1 Aug 2007 -              Peter S. Yucupicio
                             (acting to 2008)


Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community

[Salt River
              Pima–Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona)]

14 Jun 1879                Salt River Indian Reservation set aside.
1913 – 1934                Salt River (from 1927, Phoenix) Indian Agency established.
11 Jun 1940                Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, Arizona.
1993                       Self-governance agreement with the US.
1998                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs of Pima (title of chief: Uhgchu)
bf.1911 - 1933             Juan Andreas Chappo          (b. c.1853 – d. 1933)
1933 - 19..                Jose King
Chairman
19.. – 1940                Vavages Buck

Presidents
1940 - 1946                Joseph Thomas

1946 - 1951                Billman Hayes, Sr. (1st time)
1951 - 1956                Hollis Chough
1956 - 1957                Billman Hayes, Sr. (2nd time)
1957 - 1958                Edmund Manuel (1st time)
1958 - 1959                Charles Chough
1959 - May 1960            Lemuel King
May 1960 - Sep 1960        Raymond Enos, Sr. (acting)
Sep 1960 - 1962            Burgess Burke
1962 - 1964                Vernon Smith
1964 - Jun 1967            Filmore Carlos (1st time)
Jun 1967 - Aug 1967        Johnson Enos (acting)
Aug 1967 - 1969            Filmore Carlos (2nd time)
1969 - 1970                Harold R. Schurz
1970 - 1971                Edmund Manuel (2nd time)
1971 - 1974                Paul J. Smith
1974 - 1979                Gerald Anton (1st time)
1979 - 1982                Herschel Andrews
1982 - Feb  1990           Gerald Anton (2nd time)
Feb 1990 - Jul 1990        Alfretta M. Anton (f)(acting)  (b. 1929 - d. 2012)
Jul 1990 - 2002            Ivan Makil
2002 - 2006                Joni M. Ramos (f)
2006 -                     Diane Enos (f)                 (b. 1950)


San Carlos Apache

[San Carlos Apache
              Tribe (Arizona)]

1871                       Camp Grant (from 1872, San Carlos) Indian Agency established.
14 Dec 1872                San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation established.
17 Jan 1936                San Carlos Apache Tribe
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.

Chiefs of Aravaipa and Pinal Apache (largest band on the reservation; title: Nant'an)
c.186.                     Santos
(chief of Aravaipa)         (d. af.1872)
bf.1871 – 1891             Haske-bahnzin (= Eskiminzin)       (b. c.1828 – d. 1895)
18.. – c.1915              General Council
c.1915 - 1923              Tribal Council
1923 – 1933                General Council
Chairmen
1933 – 193.                ....
bf.1935 - af.1937          Victor Kindelay                    (b. 1882 - d. 19..)
c.1940 - 1942?             Ernest Victor
c.1945                     Clarence Bullis
c.1947 - 1954              Clarence Wesley (1st time)         (b. 1914)
1954 - 1958                Jesse J. Stevens
1958 - 1962                Clarence Wesley (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1962 - 1974                Marvin Mull
1974 - 1978                Buck Kitcheyan, Sr. (1st time)     (b. 1936 - d. 2010)
1978 - 1986                Ned Anderson
1986 - 1991                Buck Kitcheyan, Sr. (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1991                       Raleigh Thompson (acting)
1991 - 1994                Harrison Talgo
1994 - 2002                Raymond Stanley
2002 - 2006                Kathleen "Kathy" Wesley-Kitcheyan (f)
2006 - 2010                Wendsler A. Nosie, Sr.
2010 -                     Terry Rambler



San Juan Southern Paiute


1907 – 1922                Paiute Strip Indian Reservation set aside (from 1933, part of the
                             Navajo reservation).
1990                       Recognition by the U.S. confirmed, no reservation (tribe continues
                             to reside on the Navajo land).

Chiefs
186. – 1877                Patnish                            (d. 1877)
c.1880 – c.1930            Pakai (from c.1900, David Lehi)    (b. c.1845 – d. c.1930)
c.1930 – 1969              Alfred Lehi                        (b. 1898 – d. 1969)
1970 – 1980                Anna Whiskers (f)
Presidents
1980 – 1999                Evelyn James (f) (1st time)
                             (to 1984, spokesperson)
1999 – 2003                Johnny M. Lehi, Sr.
2003 – 2004                James Lehi (acting)
2004 – 2007                Evelyn James (f) (2nd time)
2007                       Lee Choe (acting)
2007 – 2012                Mary L. Boone (f)
                             (not recognized by the U.S.)
2012 -                     May Preston (f)

Tohono O'odham

[Tohono
                          O'odham flag to 2000]
                          to 2000
[Tohono
                          O'odham - Arizona (U.S.)]
                      Adopted 2000

1699                       Subject to the Spanish (from 1821, Mexico).
 8 Jun 1854                Gadsden Purchase leads to the current U.S.-Mexico border                              traversing Papago Indian lands (by 1860, the Papago in the U.S.
                             were organized in at least 12 villages, each having a chief or
                             governor).
1857 – 1939                Papago (to 1864, Tucson; from 1919, Sells) Indian Agency
                             established (1869-1902 closed).
 1 Jul 1874                San Xavier reservation established.
12 Dec 1882                Gila Bend reservation established.
 1 Feb 1917                Papago Indian Reservation established.
18 Jun 1937                Papago Tribe
10 Sep 1978                Florence Village is established as part of the Nation.
18 Jan 1986                Renamed Tohono O'odham Nation,.
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.

Governors of San Xavier Papago (most important village in the later U.S. territory)
c.1751                     Cristobal
c.1830                     Juan Ignacio Zapata
c.1851                     Jose Golosa
c.1857                     Jose Victoriano Lucas
18.. – 193.                .... 
Chairmen
Jul 1936 - 1940            Josι Ignacio (1st time)
1940 - 1942                Peter Blaine                       (b. 1902 – d. 19..)
1942 - 1945                Henry A. Throssell (1st time)
1945 - 1946                Josι Ignacio (2nd time)
1946 - 1947                Henry A. Throssell (2nd time)
1947 - 1953                Thomas A. Segundo (1st time)      (b. 1922 - d. 1971)
1953 - Jan 1955            Enos J. Francisco, Sr. (1st time)
Jan 1955 - 1959            Mark Manuel
1959 - 1963                Enos J. Francisco, Sr. (2nd time)
1963 - 1965                Eugene J. Johnson
1965 - 1968                Robert C. Mackett                 (b. 1922)
1968 -  6 May 1971         Thomas A. Segundo (2nd time)      (s.a.)
May 1971 - Mar 1974        Augustine B. Lopez, Sr.           (b. 1935 - d. 2013)
Mar 1974 – May 1975        Jacob A. Escalante                (b. 1927 - d. 2013)
May 1975 - 1979            Cecil Williams
1979 - 1983                Max H. Norris
1983 - 1987                Josiah Moore (1st time)           (b. 1934 - d. 1993)
1987 - 31 Mar 1989         Enos J. Francisco, Jr.  
1989 - 1991                Angelo Joaquin, Sr.               (b. 1929 - d. 1995)
1991 - 19 Apr 1993         Josiah Moore (2nd time)           (s.a.)
Apr 1993 - 1995            Sylvester Listo
1995 -  3 Jun 2003         Edward D. Manuel                  (b. 1947)
 3 Jun 2003 -  3 Aug 2007  Vivian Juan-Saunders (f)          (b. 1960)
 3 Aug 2007 -              Ned Norris, Jr.                   (b. 1955)


Tonto Apache

[Tonto Apache Tribe
                of Payson (Arizona)]

 6 Oct 1972                Recognized by the U.S. (Payson Community of Yavapai-Apache).
22 Dec 1979                Renamed Tonto Apache Tribe.
1993                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
1972 – 1986?               Melton Campbell                  (b. 1941 – d. 1993)
1986? - 1989?              Ivan Smith (1st time)
1989? - 1992?              Louise C. Lopez (f) (1st time)
1993                       Howard Burdette, Sr. (acting)
1993 – 1996                Jeri Johnson (f) (1st time)
1996 – 2004                Vivian L. Burdette (f)
2004 – 2008                Ivan Smith (2nd time)
2008                       Jeri DeCola (f) (2nd time)
                             (= Jeri Johnson)
2008 – 2012                Ivan Smith (3rd time)
2012 -                     Louise C. Lopez (f) (2nd time)


White Mountain Apache 

[White
              Mountain Apache flag]

 9 Nov 1871                White Mountain Reservation established.
1872                       Fort Apache (to 1876, Camp Apache) Indian Agency (1876-97 closed)
.
 
7 Jun 1897                Fort Apache Reservation.
26 Aug 1938                White Mountain Apache Tribe of the
Fort Apache Indian Reservation.
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.

Chiefs of White Mountain Apache
(largest band on the reservation; title Nant'an)
bf.1864 – 1872             Esh-kel-dah-silah (= Eskiltesela)(b. c.1830 – d. 1875)
1872 – 1875                Palone                           (b. c.1852 - d. 1880)
1875 – 1885                Pedro (Hacke-yanil-tli-din)      (b. c.1835 – d. 1885)
Chiefs of Cibecue Apache
(other band on the reservation, in the west; title: Nant'an)
bf.1860 - 1874             Miguel (Esh-ke-iba)              (d. 1874)
1874 – 1880                Diablo (Es-ki-in-la)             (b. c.1846 – d. 1880)
1881 – 1885                Sanchez (Becbiyo'an)             (d. af.1888)
Head Chiefs

1885 -  6 Aug 1928         Alchise (
William H. Alchesay)    (b. 1853? - d. 1928)
1928 - 11 Oct 1952         William Baha
Alchesay            (b. 1885? - d. 1952)

Chairmen
c.1938                     Roy Clark
1948 - 1950                Lester Oliver (1st time)         (b. 1910 – d. 1997)
1950 - 1952                Nelson Lupe (1st time)           (b. 1909 – d. 1993)
1952 - 1954                Lester Oliver (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1954 - 1956                Nelson Lupe
(2nd time)           (s.a.)
1956 - 1958                Clinton Kessay
1958 - 1966                Lester Oliver (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1966 - 1970                Ronnie Lupe
(1st time)
1970 - 1974                Fred Benashley
1974 - 1986                Ronnie Lupe
(2nd time)
1986 - 1990                Reno Johnson
1990 - 1998                Ronnie Lupe
(3rd time)
1998 - Apr  2006           Dallas Massey, Sr.
Apr 2006 -                 Ronnie Lupe
(4th time)


Yavapai-Apache Nation

[Yavapai-Apache
              Nation (Arizona)]

1900 – 1930                Camp Verde Indian agency.
1910                       Camp Verde Reservation set aside.
12 Feb 1937                Yavapai-Apache Indian Community of the Camp Verde Reservation.
1992                       Renamed Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Reservation.
1993                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
1937 – 19..                ....
c.1947                     Harrington Turner (1st time)
c.1948                     Callaway Bornah
1966 - 1968?               Vincent Everett Randall (1st time)
1968 - c.1971              Harrington Turner (2nd time)
c.1971                     Vincent Everett Randall (2nd time)
c.1972 - af.1973           Aaron H. Russell (1st time)
1975 - Jul 1978            Vera Brown Starr (f)             (b. 1924)
1978 - 1981?               David Kwail (1st time)
c.1984                     Ned Russell
198. - Jul 1987            Theodore Smith, Sr. (1st time)   (b. 1922 – d. 2008)
1987? - af.1990            David Kwail (2nd time)
199. - 1995                Theodore Smith, Sr. (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1995 - Sep 1998            David Kwail (3rd time)
1998 - Oct 2001            Vincent Everett Randall (3rd time)
Oct 2001 - 2003            Aaron H. Russell (2nd time)
2003 - Oct 2007            Jamie L. Fullmer
 4 Oct 2007 - Oct 2010     Thomas Beauty (1st time)
 7 Oct 2010 - 2013         David Kwail (4th time)
2013 -                     Thomas Beauty (2nd time)


Yavapai Prescott Indian Tribe

[Yavapai of Prescott
              (Arizona)]

 7 Jun 1935                Yavapai-Prescott Indian Reservation established.
 5 Dec 1962                Yavapai-Prescott Community.
1970/74                    Renamed Yavapai-Prescott Tribe of the Yavapai Reservation.
2003                       Gaming compact.

Chief
19.. - 21 May 1940         Sam "Red Ants" Jimulla           (b. 1877 - d. 1940)
Chieftess
1940 -  7 Dec 1966         Viola Jimulla (f)                (b. 1878 - d. 1966)
Aug 1967 - 1976            Grace Mitchell (f)               (d. 1976)
Jul 1976 -                 Lucy Miller (f)

Ch
airmen
1938 - 1946                Don S. Mitchell                  (b. 1906 - d. 2002)
1946 - 1948                ....
Presidents
1948 - 1972                Don S. Mitchell                  (s.a.)
1972 - 1988                Patricia McGee (f) (1st time)    (b. 1926 - d. 1994)
1988 - 1990                Stan Rice, Jr. (1st time)
1990 - 1994                Patricia McGee (f) (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1994 - 13 Nov 2001         Stan Rice, Jr. (2nd time)
13 Nov 2001 -              Ernest Jones, Sr.
                             (acting to Jul 2002)


Arkansas

None Recognized


California

Note: It is intended to cover here all of the 106 native tribal entities in California. Currently all the Mission tribes of Southern California and the nine Paiute-Shoshone tribes along the Nevada boundary, as well as the four major native nations of northern and central California are recorded. The latter four (Hoopa Valley, Round Valley, Tule River, Yurok) are the original reservations that were intended for all the natives of northern and central part of the state. Tribal entities currently unrecorded are so-called "rancherias", tiny tracts set aside in the early 20th century for natives who avoided removal to the four original reservations. In contrast to other parts of the U.S., there are no ratified treaties between the U.S. and native nations of California. All the California tribes from 1953 on (Agua Caliente from 1949) are under the jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.


Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla

[Agua Caliente Band of
                Cahuilla (California)]

15 May 1876                Agua Caliente Indian Reservation established (confirmed 14 May
                             1896).

15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1939                       Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians, first constitution adopted.
1972                       Renamed Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente
                             Indian Reservation.
1999                       Self-governance agreement.
2000                       Gaming compact.

Captains
bf.1895 - 1930             Alejo Patencio                      (b. c1852 - d. 1930)
1930 – 193.                Francisco Patencio                  (b. 1857 – d. 1947)
Spokesmen
bf.1934 - 1935             Marcus Pete
1936 – 22 Jun 1939         Willy Marcus Belardo
Chairmen
22 Jun 1939 - af.1941      Willy Marcus Belardo
1952 – 1954                Lorene McGlamary (f)                (b. 1908 – d. 2002)
1954 -  6 Jan 1959         Vyola J. Olinger (f)
1959 - 1968                Eileen Miguel (f)
1968 - 1970                Joseph Patrick Patencio             (b. 19.. - d. 2008)
1970 - 1972                Larry N. Olinger
1972 - 1981                Ray Leonard Patencio                (b. 1946 - d. 2007)
1981 – 1984                Edmund Peter Siva?                  (b. 1937 - d. 2003)
1982 – 1984                Barbara Gonzalez-Lyons (f)          (b. 1954)
1984 - 11 Mar 2012         Richard M. Milanovich               (b. 1942 - d. 2012)
11 Mar 2012 -              Jeff L. Grubbe
                             (acting to 19 Jun 2012)

Augustine Band of Cahuilla

[Augustine Band
                          of Cahuilla Indians (California) old flag]
                         Former flag
[Augustine Band
                          of Cahuilla Indians (California) ]
                         Current flag

Feb 1893                   Augustine Indian Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Augustine Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Augustine Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.   
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.
2007                       Renamed Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians.

Spokeswoman
c.1954                     Margaret Andreas (f)
Chairman
1988 -                     Mary Ann Martin (f)                 (b. 1964)
                             (from 2006, Mary Ann Green)


Barona Band of Mission Indians

[Barona Band of Mission
                Indians (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Capitan Grande Reservation established for the Barona Group of
                             Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians and Viejas Group of
                             Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians
1932                       Barona Reservation established, the Capitan Grande Band divided
                             into two groups - Barona Group and the Viejas Group (see Viejas).
1992                       Gaming compact.

Spokesmen
1932 – af.1934             Ramon C. Ames (1st time)
1946 – 19..                Bob Quitac
c.1950                     Ramon C. Ames (2nd time)
1953 – 19..                Catherine Banegas-Welch (f)
1970 – 197.                Josephine Romero (f) (1st time)
c.1972                     Edward Joseph Welch (1st time)      (b. 1937)
c.1978                     Josephine Romero (f) (2nd time)
bf.1987 – 31 Dec 1988      Edward Joseph Welch (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1989 – 31 Dec 2004  Clifford M. La Chappa
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2008  Rhonda "Lisa" Welch-Scalco (f)
Chairmen
 1 Jan 2009 – 31 Dec 2012  Edwin "Thorpe" Romero
 1 Jan 2013 -              Clifford M. La Chappa

Big Pine Paiute

[Big Pine Paiute (Paiute
                Tribe of the Owens Valley) (California)]

1912                       Big Pine Indian Reservation established.
11 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1939                       Part of the Owens Valley Paiute-Shoshone Bands (see Bishop).
c.1962?                    Big Pine Band of Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone Indians of the
                             Big Pine Reservation.
2011                       Renamed Big Pine Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley.

Chairmen
bf.1962 - 19..             Art Richars
19.. - 19..                Anona Harvier (f)                   (b. 1904 - d. 1995)
19.. - 19..                Harvey Stewart
19.. - 19..                Dolores Miller (f)
19.. - 19..                James Duckey                        (b. 1938 - d. 2014)
c.1982                     Cheryl Coleman (f)
bf.1984 - af.1987          Velma Jones (f) (1st time)
c.1989                     Tom Lone Eagle                      (b. 1932 - d. 2008)
c.1993                     Velma Jones (f) (2nd time)
c.1994                     Cheryl Andreas (f)
c.1996                     Donna Duckey (f)
bf.1997 - 2000             Roseanne Moose (f)
2000 - 2002                Cheryl Levine (f)
2002 – 2008                Jessica Bacoch (f)
2008 - 2013                Virgil "Dave" Moose
2013 -                     Genevieve "Gina" Jones (f)

Bishop Paiute

[Bishop Paiute Tribe
                (California)]

1912                       Bishop Indian Colony set aside.
1916 – 1926                Bishop Indian agency.
11 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1939                       Owens Valley Paiute-Shoshone Bands (includes also Big Pine and
                             Lone Pine).
1962?                      Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Bishop Community
2000                       Gaming compact.
2010                       Renamed Bishop Paiute Tribe.

Chief
bf.1860- 1863              "Captain George"
Chairmen
1939 – 19..                ....
bf.1967 - af.1969          Gerald Kane
c.1984                     Earl Frank
bf.1986 - af.1987          Joann Poncho (f)
bf.1989 - af.1993          Jess R. Paco
bf.1994 - af.1996          Allen Summers
bf.1997 - 2000             Mervin Hess
2000 – 2002                Monty J. Bengochia (1st time)
2002 – 2004                Douglas T. Vega
2004 – 2005                Michael Rogers
2005 – 2009                Gerald Howard
2009 – 2010                Monty J. Bengochia (2nd time)
2010 – 2011                William Vega
2011 -                     Dale Delgado, Jr.


Bridgeport

17 Oct 1974                Bridgeport Indian Colony set aside.
21 Jul 1976                Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony
2010                       Renamed Bridgeport Indian Colony.

Chairmen
1976 – 19..                ....
bf.1979 - af.1984          Maurice C. Crawford
c.1990                     Joseph A. Sam (1st time)
bf.1993 - af.1996          Herb Glazier (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2000             Vineca Hess (f)
2000 – 2002                Herb Glazier (2nd time)
2002 – 2003                Gerald Sam (1st time)
2003 – 2004                Herb Glazier (3rd time)
2004 – 2005                Gerald Sam (2nd time)
2005 – 2009                Charlotte Baker (f)
2009 – 2011                Joseph A. Sam (2nd time)
2011 -                     John Glazier


Cabazon Band of Mission Indians

[Cabazon Band of Mission
                Indians (California)]

15 May 1876                Cabazon Indian Reservation established.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1965                       Cabazon Band of Mission Indians
1979 – 2003                Renamed Cabazon Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.
1997                       Self-governance agreement.
2000                       Gaming compact.

Captains

bf.1845 - 1883             Cabezon                             (b. c1783 – d. 1883)
1883 – 1890                Genazio Cabezon                     (d. 1890)
Spokesmen
19.. – 1963                Remeijo Callaway
1963 – 1965                Joseph R. "Joe" Benitez             (b. 1935)
Chairmen
1965 - 1978                Joseph R. "Joe" Benitez             (s.a.)
1978 - 1989                Arthur J. Welmas                    (b. 1929 - d. 2006)
1989 - 2009                John A. James                       (b. 1930)
2009 - 2013                David Roosevelt
2013 -                     Douglas Welmas

Cahuilla

27 Dec 1875                Cahuilla Indian Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1960                       Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains (1855 – 1877, also Captains-general of the Cahuilla tribe)
bf.1842 - 1863             Juan Antonio                        (b. 1783 - d. 1863)
1863 – 1877                Manuel Largo                        (b. c.1820 – d. 1889)
1877 – 1887                Fernando Lugo                       (b. 1820 – d. 1905)
1887 – 1890                Pablo Cassaro                       (d. 1890)
1890 – 1907                ....
1907 – 1912                Leonicio Lugo                       (b. c.1860 – d. 1937)
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Gabriel Costo
c.1954                     Billy P. Salgado
c.1962                     Rupert Costo                        (b. 1906 – d. 1989)
c.1984                     Eugene Madrigal
bf.1990 – 1993             Louis Candelaria
1993 – 1994                Rose A. Hamilton (f)
1994 – 1999                Michelle Salgado (f)
1999 – 2001                Antonio Heredia, Jr.
Chairmen
2001 – 2002                Leanne Salgado (f) (1st time)
2002 – 2004                Eugenia Nogalez (f)
2004 – 2006                Jerome Salgado, Sr.
2006                       Leanne Salgado (f) (2nd time)
2006 – 2009                Anthony Madrigal, Jr.
                             (interim to 2007)

2009 -                     Luther Salgado, Sr.


Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians

[Campo
                Band of Diegueno Mission Indians (California)]

10 Feb 1893                Campo Indian Reservation established.
1910 – 1920                Campo Indian agency.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Campo Community of Mission Indians
13 Jul 1975                Renamed Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.

Captain of Jacum
c.1852                     Santiago
Spokesmen
c.1934                     John Williams
c.1972                     Christobal Pinto
Chairmen
bf.1978 - 1985             Valacia M. Thacker (f)
1985 - 2004                Ralph L. Goff (1st time)
2004 - 2009                Harry Paul Cuero
2009 - 2012                Monique LaChappa (f)
2012 -                     Ralph L. Goff (2nd time)


Chemehuevi

[Chemehuevi Indian Tribe
                (California)]  


 2 Feb 1907                Chemehuevi Valley Reservation established.
1971                       Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact

Chairmen
1951 – af.1964             Dan Eddy, Sr.
19.. - 1972                Ralph Esquerra
1972 - 1978                Herbert Pencille
1978 - 1980                Ronald L. "Ron" Esquerra
1980? - 1982?              Betty McDonald (f)
1982? - 1984               Martha Wetmore (f)
1984 - 1988                Richard Alvarez
1988 - Apr 1992            Christine Walker (f)
Apr 1992 - 1996            Matthew Leivas
                             (acting to Apr 1993)
1996 - Dec 1997            Levi Esquerra
Dec 1997 – 1999            Gjrjle Dunlap (f)
1999 – 2000                David Chavez           
c.2000 - 2005              Edward D. "Tito" Smith (1st time)
2005 - 2012                Charles F. Wood
2012 -                     Edward D. "Tito" Smith (2nd time)

Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone

1983                       Recognized by the U.S. (Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone Band).
2010                       Renamed Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone Tribe.

Chairmen
1966 - af.1986             Pauline Esteves (f) (1st time)      (b. 1924)

                             (spokesperson to 1978)
c.1987                     Dollie Jones (f) (acting)
c.1989                     Alice Eben (f)       
19.. – 1993                Angela Boland (f) (1st time)
1993 – 1995                Roy Kennedy
1995 – 1996                Pauline Esteves (f) (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1996 – 1997                Angela Boland (f) (2nd time)(acting)
1997 – 2001                Pauline Esteves (f) (3rd time)       (s.a.)
2001 – 2002                Leroy Jackson
2002                       Georgia E. Kennedy (f)(1st time)
                             (acting)
2002 – 2003                Richard Boland
2002 – 2003                Georgia E. Kennedy (f) (2nd time)
                             (in opposition in Bishop; from 2003, recognized by U.S.)
2003 – 2004                Shirley Summers (f)
                             (from 2004, in Bishop)

2004                       Dan Shoshone
                             (in opposition to Summers; not recognized by U.S.)

2004 -                     Joseph Kennedy
                             (not recognized by U.S. from 2010)

2007 -                     George Gholson                      (b. 1963)
                             (in opposition in Bishop; from 2011 recognized by U.S.)


Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians (Cuyapaipe Band)

[Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay
                Indians (Cuyapaipe Band) (California)]

10 Feb 1891                Cuyapaipe Reservation established.
bf.1972                    Cuyapaipe Band of Mission Indians
28 Sep 1973                Renamed Cuyapaipe Community of Diegueno Mission Indians of
                             the Cuyapaipe Reservation.
2002                       Self-governance agreement
20 May 2003                Renamed Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians, California.

Chairmen
1967 - 2001                Anthony "Tony" J. Pinto             (b. 1914 - d. 2003)

                             (spokesman to 1973)
2001 - 2007                Harlan Pinto
2007 -                     Robert Pinto, Sr.                   (b. 1973)

Fort Bidwell

30 Jan 1897                Fort Bidwell Reservation set aside.
1898 – 1930                Fort Bidwell Indian agency.
1936                       Fort Bidwell Indian Community

Chiefs
bf.1878 - 19..             Ocheho
c.1929                     General Council
bf.1932 - af.1936          Charlie Washo
Chairmen
1936 – 19..                ....
c.1940                     Connan Dick
bf.1941 - af.1967          Herman Townsend
bf.1979 - af.1984          Lucinda Lame Bull (f)
bf.1990 - af.1996          Ralph DeGarmo
bf.1999 - 2002             Denise Pollard (f)
2002 – 2005                Frances Benally (f)
2005                       Jana Townsend (f)
2005 – 2007                Lawrence Harlan
2007 – 2009                Todd DeGarmo
2009 – 2010                Aaron R. Townsend
2010 -                     Bernold Pollard


Fort Independence Paiute

28 Oct 1915                Fort Independence Reservation set aside.
24 May 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1965                       Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute

Chairmen
1965 – 1993                Vernon J. Miller (1st time)         (b. 1927 – d. 2002)
1994 - af.1997             Richard Wilder, Sr. (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2000             Wendy Stine (f)
2000 – 2002                Vernon J. Miller (2nd time)         (s.a.)
2002 – 2004                Richard Wilder, Sr. (2nd time)
2004 – 2010                Carl A. Dahlberg (1st time)
2010 – 2011                Israel Naylor (1st time)
2011 – 2012                Carl A. Dahlberg (2nd time)
2012 – 2013                Richard Wilder, Sr. (3rd time)
2013 -                     Israel Naylor (2nd time)


Fort Yuma Quechan

[Fort Yuma Quechan
                Indians (Arizona and California)]

1777 – 1781                Subject to the Spanish.
1825 – 1849                Treaty of alliance with Mexico.
22 Jul 1884                Fort Yuma (to 1910, Yuma) Indian Reservation established.
1900 – 1935                Fort Yuma Indian Agency established.
11 Dec 1936                Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation, Arizona
                             and California.
1994                       Gaming compact with the state.
  
Head chiefs (title: Kwaxot)
bf.1774 - af.1796          Salvador Palma
bf.1848 – 1849             Pablo Coclum (Mexican captain)      (b. c.1800 – d. 18..)
1849 – 1852                Santiago
1852 – 1886                Pasqual                             (b. c.1800 - d. 1886)
Chiefs
1886 – 1893                Miguel de Xuksil
1893 – 1894                Joe Palma
1894 – 1897                Vacant
1897 – 19..                Pancho LaCherro
19.. – 1924                Chappo Jackson                      (d. 1924)
1924 - af.1929             General Council
Chairman

193. – 1936                Edward Roosevelt
Presidents
1936 - 193.                Edward Roosevelt
1939 - c.1947              Edmond Jackson, Sr.
1953 – 1955                George Cachora
1955 – 1957                Henry F. DeCorse
1957 – 1959                Henry Chaipos
c.1959 - Jan 1961          Lee Emerson (1st time)
Jan 1961 – 196.            Leroy Ward
196. - Jan 1963            Lee Emerson (2nd time)
Jan 1963 - Jan 1965        Edmond Jackson, Jr.                 (b. 1915 – d. 1965) 
Jan 1965 - 1967            Fritz E. Brown (1st time)           (b. 1925 - d. 1995)
1967 - 1971                Henry A. Montague                   (b. 1919 - d. 1982)
1971 - 1973                Fritz E. Brown (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1973 – 1976                Elmer M. Savilla
1976 - 1980?               Fritz E. Brown (3rd time)           (s.a.)
1980 - Jan 1986            Vincent B. Harvier                  (b. 1935 - d. 2009)
1986? - Dec 1990           Lorraine E. White (f)
Jan 1991 - Jan 1995        Fritz E. Brown (4th time)           (s.a.)
Jan 1995 - Jan 2011        Michael "Mike" Jackson, Sr.
Jan 2011 -                 Kenny Escalanti, Sr.


Hoopa Valley

[Hoopa Valley
                          Tribe (California) first flag 1994]
                        1994 - ... .
[Hoopa Valley
                          Tribe (California) ]
                         Current flag

 8 Apr 1864                Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation established (no treaty).
1891 - 1988                Klamath River reservation (see Yurok) made a part of the Hoopa
                             Valley reservation, known as the Hoopa Extension.
1865 – 1948                Hoopa Valley Indian Agency established.
20 Nov 1933                Hoopa Tribe, the first constitution adopted.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
 4 Sep 1952                Renamed Hoopa Valley Tribe.
1993                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.
2000                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chief of Hoopa (title of chief: Ningxa’t’e:n)
c.1851                     Ahrookoos
Chairmen

Jun 1933 - 1935            Edward Marshall, Sr. (1st time)
1935 - 1937                Gilbert R. Marshall
1937                       Anderson Mesket
1937? – 1938?              Julius Marshall
1938? – 1939?              David Masten (1st time)

1939 - 1943                Mahlon Marshall                     (d. 1943)
Sep 1943 - 1948?           David Masten (2nd time)
1948? - 1951?              Peter Masten, Sr.
1951? - 1954               Ernest Marshall, Jr. (1st time)
1954 - 1955                Elsie Ricklefs (f)
1956 - 1957                Edward Marshall, Sr.
1957 - 1958                Jack Norton
1958 – 1960?               Vernon Davis, Sr.
1960? – 1961?              Ernest Marshall, Jr. (2nd time)
1961 – 1963?               Edward Marshall, Jr.

1963? – 1964?              Lawrence Hostler  
1964? – 1965?              Gifford Logan
1965? – 1969?              Charles J. Moon
1969? – 1971?              Peter Jackson
1971? - 1979               Peter Masten, Jr.

1979 - 1981                Dale Risling, Sr. (1st time)
1981 - 1985                Elsie G. Ricklefs  (f)
1985 - 1989                Wilfred K. Colegrove
1989 - 1997                Dale Risling, Sr. (2nd time)
1997 -  12 Dec 1997        Duane J. Sherman, Sr. (1st time)
1997 - 1999                Merv George, Jr.
                             (acting to 1998)

1999 - 2001                Duane J. Sherman, Sr. (2nd time)
2001 - 2009                Clifford L. Marshall
2009 - 28 Jun 2013         Leonard E. Masten, Jr.
28 Jun 2013 -              Danielle Vigil-Masten (f)


Iipay of Santa Ysabel 

[Iipay Nation of Santa
                Ysabel (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Santa Ysabel Reservation set aside.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Santa Ysabel Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Santa Ysabel Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.
2003                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.
2007                       Renamed Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel.

Captains (years given when names identified)
1852                       Lazaro
1853 - 1854                Tomas                               (d. af.1860)
                            (also captain-general of Diegueno tribe)
1860                       A. Manuel
1865                       Ambrosio
1875                       Anodeh
1880                       Gasparo
1883 - 1886                Jose Pablo (1st time)
1890                       Manuel
1903 - 1904                Jose Pablo (2nd time)
1910 – 1912                John Linton
1914                       Baptisto LaChappa
1917                       Jose Pablo Guachene
1918                       Joe Pablo
1932                       Incencio LaChappa
Spokesmen
1933 – 1936                Winslow J. Couro (1st time)
1937                       Abraham Paipa (1st time)
1938 – 1939                Winslow J. Couro (2nd time)
1940 – 1941                Abraham Paipa (2nd time)
1942                       Winslow J. Couro (3rd time)          
1943 – 1945                Julia Osuna (f) (1st time)
1946 – 1948                Nazario J. Guachena
1949                       Stephen LaChappa
1950 – 1951                Stephen Ponchetti (1st time)
1952                       Incencio LaChappa
1953 – 1960                Stephen Ponchetti (2nd time)
1961 – 1963                Erwin Osuna
1964 – 1965                Julia Osuna (f) (2nd time)
1966                       John LaChappa
1967 – 1970                Stephen Ponchetti (3rd time)
1971                       Anthony Taylor
c.1974                     James Ponchetti (1st time)
bf1978 - af.1980           Ignacio Scerato
c.1984                     Joan King (f)
c.1990                     James Ponchetti (2nd time)
c.1993                     Virgil Osuna
bf.1994 - Dec 2002         Ben Scerato
Dec 2002 – 2007            Johnny Hernandez, Jr.
Chairmen
2007 – Dec 2010            Johnny Hernandez, Jr.
Dec 2010 -                 Virgil Perez                        (b. 1971)


Inaja Diegueno

27 Dec 1875                Inaja and Cosmit Indian Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1993                    Inaja Band of Diegueno Mission Indians
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Spokesmen
c.1934                     Clayton Sloan (representative)
c.1978                     Josephine Leo (f)
c.1984                     Rebecca Contreras (f)   
Chairmen
bf.1993 – 1994             Josephine Leo (f)
1994 -                     Rebecca Maxcy (f)
                             (from 2002, Rebecca Osuna)


Jamul Indian Village

[Jamul Indian Village
                Kumeyaay Nation (California)]

 7 Jul 1981                Recognized by the U.S. (Jamul Indian Village).

Chairmen
c.1984                     Kenneth A. Meza (1st time)          (b. 1945)
bf.1990 - 1997             Raymond R. Hunter (1st time)
1997 - 2003                Kenneth A. Meza (2nd time)          (s.a.)
2003 - 2007                Leon Acevedo
2007 - Jul 2008            William "Bill" C. Mesa              (b. 1951 - d. 2008)
2008 - 2011                Kenneth A. Meza (3rd time)          (s.a.)
2011 -                     Raymond R. Hunter (2nd time)


Karuk

[Karuk Tribe (California)]

Chairmen
c.1984 - 2003              Alvis "Bud" Johnson
2003 - 2011                Arch Super
2011 -                     Russell "Buster" Attebery


La Jolla Band of Luiseρo Indians

[La Jolla Band of
                  Luiseno Indians (California)]


 3 May 1877                La Jolla Indian Reservation established.

1909 – 1911                La Jolla Indian agency.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1962                       La Jolla Band of Mission Indians                   
bf.1979                    Renamed La Jolla Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.
2010                       Renamed La Jolla Band of Luiseρo Indians.

Captains
c.1852                     Santiago
c.1882                     Jose Albanez
Chairmen
1962 – 19..                ...
bf.1972 - af.1978          Lester Leonard Nelson
19.. - 19..                Henry Rodriguez                     (b. 1919 - d. 2002)
bf.1984 - 1994             Doris J. Magante (f)
1994 – 199.                Geneva FitzSimmons (f)
c.1996                     Janet Weeks (f)                     (b. 1941 – d. 2010)
bf.1999 - 2002             Jack Musick                         (b. 1961)
2002 – 2004                Wendy Schlater (f)
2004 - 2008                Tracy Lee Nelson
2008 – 2010                Lariann Musick (f)
2010 -                     LaVonne Peck (f)

La Posta Diegueno

10 Feb 1893                La Posta Reservation set aside.
bf.1972                    La Posta Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed La Posta Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.

Chairmen
1973 – 1983                Marie LaChappa (f)                  (b. 1920 – d. 2005)
1983 -                     Gwendolyn Parada (f)                (b. 1959)


Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone

1912                       Lone Pine Reservation set aside.
1939 - 1962?               Part of the Owens Valley Paiute-Shoshone Bands (see Bishop).
1962?                      Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Lone Pine Community.
2010                       Renamed Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe.

Chairmen
bf.1962 – 19..             ....
bf.1984 - af.1989          Naddeen Naylor (f)
bf.1990 - 1999             Sandra Jefferson-Yonge (f)
1999 – 2000                Dale Newell
2000 – 2005                Rachel A. Joseph (f)
2005 – 2009                Marjianne Yonge (f)
2009 – 2010                Richard Button
2010 – 2012                Melvin R. Joseph
2012 -                     Mary Wuester (f)


Los Coyotes Cahuilla and Cupeno

[Los Coyotes Band of
                Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians (California)]

 5 May 1889                Los Coyotes Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.
2003                       Renamed Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captain
c.1883                     Pablo Pena
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Robert Chutnicut
c.1945 – 1996              Banning Taylor, Sr.                 (b. 1906 – d. 1998)
1996 – 1998                Frank Taylor                        (b. 1938)
1998 – 2007                Catherine S. Saubel (f)             (b. 1919)
2007 – 2010                Francine Kupsch (f)
2010 -                     Shane Chapparosa


Manzanita Diegueno 

[Manzanita Band of
                Diegueno Mission Indians (California)]

10 Feb 1893                Manzanita Reservation set aside.
bf.1972                    Manzanita Band of Mission Indians
1976                       Renamed Manzanita Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.
1999                       Self-governance agreement.

Spokesman
c.1934                     Jinks Elliott
Chairmen
1976 - 197.                ....
c.1978                     David Z. Elliott
1980 – 1998                Frances Shaw (f)                    (b. 1928 - d. 2002)
1998 -                     Leroy J. Elliott                    (b. 1943)


Mesa Grande Diegueno

[Mesa Grande Band of
                Diegueno Mission Indians (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Mesa Grande Indian Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1971                       Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Mesa Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captains (years given when names identified)

1852                       Jose Apan
1860                       Jose Pedro Panto                    (b. c.1804 – d. 1874)
                             (also captain of San Pasqual)
1875 – 1880                Senon Duro                          (b. 18.. - d. 1906)
1887                       Narcisso LaChappa (1st time)
1889 – 1890                Jose Cleto Duro
1890 - 1892                Jose Antonio LaChappa (1st time)
1897                       Francisco Nejo
1903 - 1904                Narcisso LaChappa (2nd time)
1904                       Rafael Charley
1908                       Adolph Beresford
1908 - 1909                Jose Antonio LaChappa (2nd time)
1911                       Arturo Charley
1912                       Richard Nejo
1914 – 1915                Jose Antonio LaChappa (3rd time)
1923 – 1924                Roscindo Curo (1st time)
1925                       Ramone Charlie
1926                       Roscindo Curo (2nd time)
1931                       Roscindo Curo (3rd time)
1932                       Valentine LaChusa
Spokesmen
1933 - 1950                Valentine LaChusa
1950                       Gilbert Clelland
1951 – 1957                Delmar Nejo
1957 – 1967                Charles Ponchetti
1968 – 1969                Virgil Oyos
1970 – 1971                Claude Devers
Chairmen
1971 – af.1972             Jessie Beresford (f)
c.1978                     Jack Hamilton
c.1984                     Brian Beresford
c.1990                     Delmar Nejo
bf.1992 - af.1996          Carlos Guassac
bf.1997 - 2002             Howard K. Maxcy
2002 – 2005                Charlene G. Siford (f)
2005 – 2006                Michael Linton (acting)
2006 -                     Mark Romero


Morongo Band

Morongo Band of Mission
                Indians

15 May 1876                Morongo Reservation established.
1908 – 1920                Malki Indian agency.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1962                       Morongo Band of Mission Indians                     
bf.1979 - 2009             Renamed Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians of the Morongo
                             Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains
c.1852                     Emeterio
c.1876                     Gabriel Ygindio
18.. – 1891                William G. Pablo                     (b. c1862 – d. 1935)
1891 – 189.                John Morongo                         (b. c1850 – d. 1898)
.... - 1910                Mauricio Laws
Spokesman
c.1934                     John Morongo, Jr.
Chairmen
bf.1965 - af.1977          Emmett St.Marie
c.1978                     Tom Lyons
bf.1984 - 1987             Robert Martin (1st time)
1987 - 1991                Dennis Miller (1st time)
1991 - 1992                Adelaide L. Presley (f)             (b. 1940 - d. 2013)
Dec 1992 - Jul 1993        Mary Ann Martin-Andreas (f)
                             (1st time)
1993 - 1995                Dennis Miller (2nd time)
1995 - 2001                Mary Ann Martin-Andreas (f)         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
2001 - 2006                Maurice B. Lyons                    (b. 1950 - d. 2013)
2006 -                     Robert Martin (2nd time)



Pala Band

[Pala Band of Cupeρo Indians
              (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Pala Indian Reservation established.
1903                       Agua Caliente band of Cupeno moved to Pala, eventually becoming
                             a majority of the reservation population.
1903 – 1920                Pala Indian agency.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1961                       Pala Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Pala Reservation.
1998                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captains of Pala Luiseno (1853 – 1878, also captains-general of the Luiseno tribe)
1835 – 18..                ....
bf.1851 - 1853             Pablo Apis, Jr.                     (b. 1810 – d. 1853)
1853 – 1862                Manuel Cota (1st time)
1862 – 1865                Francisco
1865 – 1871                Manuel Cota (2nd time)
1871                       Manuel Olegario                     (b. c.1830 - d. 1877)
1871 - af.1885             Jose Antonio Sal
Captains of Agua Caliente Cupeno
bf.1847 - 1852             Antonio Garra                       (b. c.1815 - d. 1852)
1852 – 185.                Jose Noca
185. – 1885                Jose Maria Moro                     (b. 1820 - d. 1885)
1885 – 188.                Adolfo Moro
c.1892                     Jose Cecilio Blacktooth (1st time)  (b. c.1840 – d. 1918)
c.1896                     Alejandro Barker                    (b. c.1854 – d. 1900)
c.189.                     Salvador Nolasquez                  (b. 1861 – d. 1933)
c.1902                     Jose Cecilio Blacktooth (2nd time)  (s.a.)
c.1903                     Juan Maria Cibimoat
Captains of Pala
c.1906                     Ambrosio Ortega                     (b. 1869 – d. 1922)
c.1921                     Domingo Moro                        (b. 1866 – d. 1931)
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Remeijo Robles
bf.1954 - af.1956          Robert Lavato (1st time)
c.1957                     Catherine Trujillo (f)
bf.1960 - 1961             Robert Lavato (2nd time)
Chairmen
1961 – 196.                Robert Lavato
196. - 196.                Gerard Boisclair
196. - 196.                Robert Mel Lavato
c.1968                     Josephine "Josie" Jackson (f)
c.1972                     King Freeman (1st time)
c.1973                     Donald Magee
1977 – 1978                Lawrence "Larry" Blacktooth
1978 - 1987                King Freeman (2nd time)
1987 - 1988                Robert H. Smith (1st time)
1988 - 1989                Richard D. Stephens                 (b. 1952)
1989 – 1990                Patricia R. Nelson (f)
1990 -                     Robert H. Smith (2nd time)

Pauma Band of Luiseρo Indians

[Luiseρo Band of Pauma /
                Yuima Mission Indians (California)]

18 Aug 1892                Pauma and Yuima Reservation established.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1966                       Pauma Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Pauma Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians of the Pauma
                             and Yuima Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captains
c.1852                     Francisco
c.1885                     Pedro Pablo
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Roscencio Ardilla
c.1958                     Maurice Magante
Chairmen
1966 – 19..                ....
c.1972                     Edward Calac
1970's                     Lorena Dixon (f)                   (b. 1922 - d. 2012)
c.1975                     Samuel J. Powvall (1st time)
c.1978                     Florence Lofton (f) (1st time)
c.1979                     Samuel J. Powvall (2nd time)
bf.1984 - c.1988           Patricia A. Dixon (f)
c.1990                     Benjamin Magante (1st time)
bf.1992 – af.1993          Florence Lofton (f) (2nd time)
c.1993                     Lee E. Dixon ??
c.1994                     Maurice J. Magante
c.1994                     Christobal C. Devers (1st time)
bf.1996 – 199.             Samuel J. Powvall (3rd time)
bf.1998 - Jan 2001         Benjamin Magante (2nd time)
Jan 2001- Jan 2011         Christobal C. Devers (2nd time)
Jan 2011 -                 Randall G. Majel



Pechanga Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians

[Pechanga Band of Luiseno Mission Indians,
              Pechanga Reservation (California)]

27 Jun 1882                Pechanga Reservation established.
1909 – 1913                Pechanga Indian agency.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Pechanga Band of Mission Indians
1978?                      Renamed Pechanga Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians,
                             Pechanga Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.
 
Captains of Temecula (later Pechanga)
1835 – 1851                Pablo Apis                          (b. 1792 - d. 1851)
                             (alcalde)
1851 - af.1869             Lauriano
1900? - 1910?              Juan Macarro                        (b. 1851 – d. 1920)
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Louis Flores
bf.1978 - af.1980          Vincent Ibanez
c.1984                     Gabriel H. Pico
bf.1990 - 1995             Jennie Miranda (f)
1995 – 2003                Marc A. Macarro                     (b. 1965)
Chairman
2003 -                     Marc A. Macarro                     (s.a.)

Ramona Cahuilla

[Ramona Band of Cahuilla
                (California)]

10 Feb 1893                Ramona Indian Reservation set aside.
bf.1993                    Ramona Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.
2010                       Renamed Ramona Band of Cahuilla

Representatives
bf.1984 - 1993/94          Anne Hamilton (f)
1993/94 - 2002             Manuel W. Hamilton
Chairmen
2002 – 2007                Manuel W. Hamilton
2007 -                     Joseph D. Hamilton



Rincon Band of L
uiseρo Indians


[Rincon Band of
                          Luiseρo Indians (California) old flag]
                      Former flag
[Rincon Band
                          of Luiseρo Indians (California)]
                       Current flag

27 Dec 1875                Rincon Indian Reservation established.
1909 – 1911                Rincon Indian agency.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1960                       Rincon Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Rincon Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captain of Potrero
c.1852                     Jose Calac
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Tomas Arviso
1940's                     Marcus Golsh                        (b. 1890 - d. 1987)
1947 – 1955                Max C. Mazzetti (1st time)          (b. 1921 - d. 2010)
1955 – af.1957             Therman E. McCormick                (b. 1912 – d. 1958)
195. - 1960                Max C. Mazzetti (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1960 - bf.1967             Leo D. Calac                        (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
Chairmen
1960 – 196.                ....
c.1965                     DeLisle Calac
c.1966/88                  Patricia A. Duro (f)
c.1970                     Frank Mazzetti
c.1972                     Donald Calac
c.1975                     Max C. Mazzetti                     (s.a.)
c.1976/78                  Matthew Calac
bf.1978 - c.1979/81        Edward T. Arviso (1st time)
c.1979/81 - bf.1990        ....
bf.1990 - 1994             Edward T. Arviso (2nd time)
1994 - 1996                Robert G. Calac
1996 – 1998                Edward T. Arviso (3rd time)
1998 - Feb 2006            John D. Currier
Feb 2006 - 10 Apr 2008     Vernon H. Wright                    (b. 1955 - d. 2008)
Apr 2008 -                 Frederick "Bo" Mazzetti



Robinson Rancheria of Pomo

[Robinson
              Rancheria of Pomo Indians (California)]

1956                       U.S. terminated the reservation status of the Indians at Old
                             Robinson.
1960's                     Federal recognition re-instituted.
1978                       Robinson Rancheria Pomo
tribal government organized.
1980                       Constitution adopted.


Chairmen

c.1981 - c.1986            Bernadine Tripp (f)
c.1990                     Marcus Anderson                    (b. 1939 - d. 2000)
c.1993 - 1999              Curtis E. Anderson (1st time)
1999 - 2006                Clara Wilson (f)
Oct 2006 -  4 Dec 2013     Tracey Avilia (f)                  (b. 1961 - d. 2013)
Dec 2013 -                 Curtis E. Anderson (2nd time)
                             (acting?)



Round Valley

14 Jun 1856                Round Valley Reservation set aside (no treaty).
1860 – 1950                Round Valley (to 1865, Northern District; 1923 - 1948 Sacramento;
                             from 1948, California) agency.
 8 Apr 1864                Round Valley R
eservation established by Congress.
1936                       Covelo Indian Community of the Round Valley Reservation.
1994                       Renamed Round Valley Indian Tribes.

Presidents
1936 – af.1937             Arthur Anderson
c.1969                     Warren Lincoln
c.1979                     Douglas Whipple
c.1984                     Daran Lincoln
c.1993                     Gaylan Azbill
bf.1994 - af.1996          Joseph A. Russ, Sr.
c.1999                     Norman W. Whipple
bf.2000 - 2004             John Azbill, Sr.
2004 – 2005                Deborah Oliver (f)
2005 – 2006                Shannon M. Barney (f)
2006 – 2010                Eugene Jamison, Jr.
2010 – 2011                Carlino Bettega
2011 -                     Kenneth Wright


San Manuel Band of Mission Indians


[San Manuel Band of Mission
              Indians (California)]

1865 – 1948                Mission Indian agency.
1891                       San Manuel Indian Reservation established.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1966                       San Manuel Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979 - 2009             Renamed San Manuel Band of Serrano Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains
18.. – 1866                Antonio Sever
1866 – af.1893             Santos Manuel                       (b. 1814 – d. 1919)
Spokesman
c.1934                     Alfred Marcus
Chairmen
1966 – 19..                ...
bf.1984 - c.1991           Henry Duro (1st time)               (b. 1949)
c.1993                     Harvey Duro
1994 - 1996                Lynn R. LeRoy (f) (1st time)
1996 - 1999                Henry Duro (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1999 - 2006                Deron Marquez                       (b. 1970)
2006 - 2008                Henry Duro (3rd time)               (s.a.)
2008 - 2012                James C. Ramos                      (b. 1967)
2012 - 2014                Carla Rodriguez (f)                 (b. 1953)
2014 -                     Lynn R. Valbuena (f) (2nd time)
                             (= Lynn R. LeRoy)

San Pasqual Diegueno


[San Pasqual Diegueno
              Tribe (California)]

 1 Jul 1910                San Pasqual Reservation set aside.
1971                       San Pasqual Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed San Pasqual Band of Diegueno Mission Indians
2000                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captains
1835 – 183.                Juan Cuerpo (alcalde)
bf.1837 - 1874             Jose Pedro Panto                     (b. c.1804 – d. 1874)
                            (from 1854, also captain-general of the Diegueno tribe)
Spokesmen
c.1954                     Florence Trask-Wolf (f)
bf.1978 - af.1984          Ronald Peralta                      (b. 1931 – d. 2010)
c.1993                     Diane Martinez (f)
c.1994                     Ray Natividad                       (b. 1940 – d. 2007)
bf.1996 - 1997             Dorothy Tavui (f)
1997 -                     Allen E. Lawson, Jr.



Santa Rosa Cahuilla


[Santa Rosa
              Band of Cahuilla Indians (California)]

 2 Feb 1907                Santa Rosa Reservation set aside.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Santa Rosa Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.
2007                       Renamed Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Indians.

Captain
c.1911                     Manuel Tortes
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Jack Meyers
1976 – 2000                Anthony Largo
2000 – 2001                Vivian Scribner (f)
2001 – 2003                Christina Arzate (f)
2003 – 2004                Erlinda A. Jones (f)
Chairmen
2004 – 2008                John Marcus (acting to 2006) (1st time)
2008 – 2009                Mayme Estrada (f) (1st time)
2009 – 2010                John Marcus (2nd time)
2010 – 2012                Mayme Estrada (f) (2nd time)
2012 -                     John Marcus (3rd time)



Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians

[Santa Ynez Band
              of Chumash Indians (California)]


27 Dec 1901                Santa Ynez Indian Reservation established.
1964                       Santa Ynez Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Mission Indians
2000                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
bf.1967 - c.1983           Edward Olivas
c.1984                     James P. Pace
c.1985                     Edward A. Valencia
198. - 199.                Richard Gomez
bf.1990 - 1999             David Dominguez
1999 -                     Vincent Armenta


Soboba Band of Luiseρo Indians

[Soboba Band of
              Luiseno Indians (California)]

19 Jun 1883                Soboba Reservation established.
1910 – 1920                Soboba Indian agency
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Soboba Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Soboba Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2002                       Renamed Soboba Band of Luise
ρo Indians.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains
bf.1852 - af.1860          Victoriano                          (d. 1888)
c.1882                     Jose Jesus Castillo
Spokesmen
bf.1934 - af.1948          Anthony Mojado
19.. - 1953                Adam Castillo                       (b. 1885 - d. 1953)
c.1962                     Elor Soza
c.1964 - c.1969            William P. Soza
19.. - 1972                Eleanor Gomez (f)
1972 – 197.                Benny Helms (1st time)
1976 – 19..                Robert J. Salgado (1st time)        (b. 1942)
c.1984                     Benny Helms (2nd time)
198. – 1986                Robert J. Salgado (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1986 - 1988                Scott Cozart (1st time)
1988 – 1994                Robert J. Salgado (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1994 – 1996                Ernest Salgado, Jr.
1996 – 1998                Charles Lopez
1998 – 2007                Robert J. Salgado (4th time)        (s.a.)
2007 – Apr 2008            Rosemary Morillo (f) (1st time)     (b. 1953)
                             (acting)
Apr 2008 - Nov 2009        Robert J. Salgado (5th time)        (s.a.)
Nov 2009 – Apr 2010        Rosemary Morillo (f) (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)   
Apr 2010 – Apr 2012        Scott Cozart (2nd time)
Chairman
Apr 2012 -                 Rosemary Morillo (f)                (s.a.)


Sycuan Kumeyaay


[Sycuan Band of Kumeyaay
              Nation (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Sycuan Reservation set aside.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Sycuan Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Sycuan Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.
1998                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Renamed Sycuan Band of Kumeyaay Nation.

Captain
c.1852                     Surdo
Spokesmen
c.1934                     John Helmiup
1972 – 1992                Anna Prieto-Sandoval (f)            (b. 1934 – d. 2010)
1992 – 1994                Daniel J. Tucker (1st time)
1994 – 2002                Georgia Tucker (f)
2002 -                     Daniel J. Tucker (2nd time
)


Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla


[Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla (California)]

15 May 1876                Torres-Martinez Indian Reservation established.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Torres-Martinez Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Torres-Martinez Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.
2004                       Renamed Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians Indian Tribe.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Spokesmen
c.1934                     Basquet Chihuahua
bf.1950 - af.1957          Virgil R. Lawson                    (b. 1918 – d. 1997)
Chairmen
1974 - 19..                ....
bf.1984 - af.1987          Harvey J. Duro
198. – 1990                Helen Jose (f) (1st time)
1990 – 199.                Mary E. Belardo (f) (1st time)      (b. 1949)
199. - 1994                Helen Jose (f) (2nd time)
1994 - c.1997              Mary E. Belardo (f) (2nd time)      (s.a.)
c.1997 - c.1998            Arthur R. Lopez
c.1998 - Nov 2002          Mary E. Belardo (f) (3rd time)      (s.a.)
2002 - 2009                Raymond Torres
2009 -                     Mary L. Resvaloso (f)


Tule River

[Tule River
              Indian Tribe (California)]

1860 – 1923                Tule River (to 1865, Southern District) agency.
 9 Jan 1873                Tule River Reservation set aside.
 7 Jan 1936                Tule River Indian Tribe
2000                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
bf.1936 - 19..             ....
c.1940                     Ross Ellis
c.1969                     Robert Santos
c.1979                     Alec Garfield
c.1984                     Crispina Sierra (f)
bf.1990 - af.1993          Nicola Larsen (f)
c.1994                     Irma Hunter (f)
c.1996                     Duane M. Garfield, Sr. (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2001             Phillip D. Hunter
2001 – 2004                Duane M. Garfield, Sr. (2nd time)
2004 – 2010                Neil Peyron (1st time)
2010 – 2012                Ryan Garfield
2012 -                     Neil Peyron (2nd time)



Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians


[Twenty-Nine Palms Band of
              Mission Indians (California)]

11 Nov 1895                Twenty-Nine Palms Reservation established.
1972                       Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979 - 2002             Renamed Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains
187. – af.1895             William Mike (Mike Boniface)        (b. 18.. - d. 1909)
bf.1908 - 1911             Jim Pine                            (b. c.1840 – d. 19..)
Spokesmen
1972 – 19..                ....
c.1984                     Jennifer Andrade (f)
bf.1990 - 1996             June Mike (f)
1996 - 2006                Dean Mike
 1 Jan 2007 -              Darrell Mike


Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute of Benton

22 Jul 1915                Benton Reservation set aside.
20 Jan 1976                Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation

Chairmen
bf.1970 - af.1979          Joseph C. Saulque (1st time)
c.1984                     Gladys Beauregard (f)
c.1989                     Joseph C. Saulgue (2nd time)
bf.1990 - 2003             Rose M. Saulque-Bahe (f)
2003 – 2007                Joseph C. Saulque (3rd time)
2007 – 2010                Mike Keller
2010 -                     Billie G. Saulque


Viejas Band


[Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians
              (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Capitan Grande Reservation established for the Capitan Grande Band
 
                            of Mission Indians.
1932                       Capitan Grande Band divided into two groups - the Barona Group
                             (see Barona) and the Viejas (to 1934, Los Conejos) Group.

1934                       Viejas Reservation established.
1990                       Gaming compact.

Spokesmen
1932 – af.1936             Ventura Paipa                       (b. 1879 – d. 19..)
c.1954                     Sam Brown
1973 – 1983                Carmen "Daisy" Welch (f)            (b. 1940 – d. 2004)
1983 – bf.1993             Anthony R. Pico                     (b. 1945)
Chairmen
bf.1993 – 2001             Anthony R. Pico (1st time)          (s.a.)
2001 - 2002                Steven TeSam                        (b. 1960)
2002 - 2006                Anthony R. Pico (2nd time)          (s.a.)
2007 - 2010                Bobby L. Barrett                    (b. 1964)
2011 -                     Anthony R. Pico (3rd time)          (s.a.)


Yurok


[Yurok Tribe (California)]

16 Nov 1855                Klamath River Reservation set aside (no treaty).
1856 – 1860                Klamath River Indian agency.
1891 - 1988                Reservation a part of the Hoopa Valley reservation, known as the
                             Hoopa Extension.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1940                       Yurok Tribe.
1996                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1991 – 1997                Susie L. Long (f)
1997 – 2003                Susan M. Masten (f)
2003 – 2006                Howard McConnell
2006 – 2009                Maria Tripp (f)
2009 -                     Thomas P. O'Rourke, Sr.



Colorado

Southern Ute

[Southern Ute Tribe
                (Colorado) Flag]
                     Adopted 1970/71

30 Dec 1849                Under the U.S. protection (Confederated Bands of the Ute), divided
                             into 6 bands. 
1860                       Conejos (1869 – 1877 Los Pinos; 1877 – 1922 Southern Ute; from
                             1922, Consolidated Ute) Indian Agency established (1869 – 1881
                             there was additional White River Indian Agency for the northern
                             bands).
 2 Mar 1868                Confederated Ute Reservation established.
15 Jun 1880                Reservation diminished to the Southern Ute (from 1918, Consolidated
                             Ute) Reservation.
1881                       Northern bands of Ute removed to the Uintah Reservation in Utah.
1896                       Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1920, all were
                             citizens); non-citizens separated to become the latter Ute
                             Mountain Ute and retained the western sector of the reservation.
 4 May 1899                Eastern sector of the reservation (from 1938, alone formally known
                             as the Southern Ute Reservation) opened to the non-Indian
                             settlement.
 7 Nov 1936                Southern Ute Tribe
1984                       Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1992                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs for the Capote, Muache, Weminuche bands (in the south)
c.1849                     Quixiachigiate
bf.1855 - 1868             Coneache (Kaniache)               (d. 1881)
Head chief for the Tabeguache, Grand River, Yampa bands
(in the north)
bf.1849 - 1868             Nevava                            (d. 1868)
Head chief of the Confederated Ute (title of chief: Ta'wa-vi)
1868 - 24 Aug 1880         Ouray                             (b. 1833 - d. 1880)
Chiefs of Southern Ute
1880 – 1896                Ignacio (head chief)              (b. 1844 – d. 1913)
1896 -   8 May 1936        Charles Buck "Buckskin Charlie"   (b. 1840 - d. 1936)
1936                       Antonio Buck, Sr.                 (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
Chairmen 

1935 – Dec 1936            John Burch
Dec 1936 - 1939            Antonio Buck, Sr.                 (s.a.) 
1940 - 1944                Julius N. Cloud (1st time) 
1945 - 1948                Samuel Burch (1st time)
1949                       Julius N. Cloud (2nd time)
1950                       Samuel Burch (2nd time)
1951 - 1952                Julius N. Cloud (3rd time)
1953 - 1956                Samuel Burch (3rd time)
1957 - 1960                John E. Baker, Sr. (1st time)
1961                       Anthony C. Burch 
1962 - 1963                John E. Baker, Sr. (2nd time)
1963 - 1965                John S. Williams 
1966                       John E. Baker, Sr. (3rd time)
1967 - Dec 1984            Leonard C. Burch (1st time)        (b. 1933 - d. 2003)
Dec 1984 – Dec 1987        Christopher A. Baker, Sr.
Dec 1987 – Dec 1996        Leonard C. Burch (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Dec 1996 – Dec 1999        Clement J. Frost (1st time)
Dec 1999 – Dec 2000        John E. Baker, Jr.                 (b. 1947)
Dec 2000 – Feb 2001        Vida B. Peabody (f) (acting)
Feb 2001 – Dec 2002        Leonard C. Burch (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Dec 2002 – Nov 2004        Howard D. Richards, Sr.
Nov 2004 – Jan 2005        Anthony C. Burch (acting)
Jan 2005 - 21 Dec 2008     Clement J. Frost (2nd time)
21 Dec 2008 – Feb 2011     Matthew J. Box                     (b. 1970)
Feb 2011 – 13 Apr 2011     Jimmy R. Newton, Jr. (1st time)    (b. 1976 - d. 2014)
                             (acting) 
13 Apr 2011 - 15 Dec 2011  Pearl E. Casias (f)
15 Dec 2011 - 31 Mar 2014  Jimmy R. Newton, Jr. (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Apr 2014 - 29 May 2014  James M. "Mike" Olguin (acting)
29 May 2014 -              Clement J. Frost (3rd time)

Ute Mountain Tribe


[Ute Mountain Tribe
              (Colorado)]

1896                       Non-citizens (from 1915, known as the Ute Mountain Ute) separated
                             from the rest of Southern Ute and retained the western sector of
                             the reservation (from 1938 the Ute Mountain Reservation).
1900 – 1922                Navajo Springs (from 1915, Ute Mountain) Indian Agency established.
1938                       Ute Mountain Reservation established.
 6 Jun 1940                Ute Mountain Tribe
1992                       Gaming compact with the state.
  
Chiefs
1896 – 1913                Ignacio (head chief)               (b. 1844 – d. 1913)
1913 – 1936                John Miller                        (d. 1936)
1936 - 1971                Jack House                         (b. 188. - d. 1971)
                             [last traditional leader]
Chairmen

1938 – May 1940            Jack House                         (s.a.)
May 1940 - 1955            George Mills
1955 - 1958?               Scott Jacket (1st time)
1958? – af.1962            Albert Wing (1st time)             (b. 1923)
c.1965 - c.1967            Scott Jacket (2nd time)
c.1970 - c.1973            Albert Wing (2nd time)             (s.a.)
c.1975 - c.1976            Marshall Whyte
c.1977 - 1979              Scott Jacket (3rd time)
1979 - 1981                Judy Pinnecoose (f) (1st time)     (b. 1943)
1981 - 1982                Terry Knight
1982 - 1985?               Ernest House (1st time)            (b. 1945 - d. 2011)
1985? - 1986               ....
1986 - 1989                Ernest House (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1989 - 1998                Judy Knight-Frank (f) (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (= Judy Pinnecoose)
1998 - Oct 2001            Ernest House (3rd time)            (s.a.)
Oct 2001 – Jul 2002        Judy Knight-Frank (f) (3rd time)   (s.a.)
Jul 2002 – Oct 2004        Harold D. Cuthair
Oct 2004 – Aug 2005        Selwyn Whiteskunk
Aug 2005 – Oct 2007        Manuel Heart (1st time)
Oct 2007 – Oct 2010        Ernest House (4th time)            (s.a.)
Oct 2010 – Oct 2013        Gary Hayes
Oct 2013 -                 Manuel Heart (2nd time)


Connecticut

Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation

[Eastern Pequot Tribal
              Nation (Connecticut)]

2002                       Eastern Pequot and Paucatuck Eastern Pequot merge as the
                             Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation.
Jun 2002                   Federal recognition is granted as "Historical Eastern Pequot
                             Tribe."
Oct 2005                   Federal recognition withdrawn.

Chairmen
2002 - Jul 2006            Marcia Jones Flowers (f)
2006 - 2009                Lewis Randall
25 Jul 2009 - Jul 2012     James "Jim" Cunha
Jul 2012 - Jun 2013        Brian Geer
2013 -                     Denis Jenkins
                             (acting to Nov 2013)

Eastern Pequot

2002  
                    Merged into Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation.

Chairmen

1976 - 1997                Roy Sebastian Chief Hockeo
1997 - 2001                Mary E. Sebastian (f)
2001 - 2002                Marcia Jones Flowers (f)

Paucatuck Eastern Pequot

2002  
                    Merged into Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation.

Chairmen

c.1982 -  Feb 1987         Raymond A. Geer
1988 - 2002                Agnes Cunha (f)



Mashantucket Pequot 

[Mashantucket Pequot
                  flag (Connecticut)]

18 Oct 1983                Mashantucket Pequot Tribe gains federal recognition.

Chiefs
19.. - 1973                Elisabeth George Plouffe (f)     (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
1973 - 1975                Amos George 
Chairmen
1975 - 
Jan 1999            Richard "Skip" Hayward           (b. 1947) 
Jan 1999 - Jan 2003        Kenneth M. Reels
Jan 2003 -  1 Jan 2009     Michael J. Thomas
 1 Jan 2010 -              Rodney Butler



Mohegan 

[Mohegan Tribe flag
                  (Connecticut)]

 7 Mar 1994                Federal recognition granted to the Mohegan Tribe of
                             Indians of the State of Connecticut.

Chiefs
1902 - 1903                Henry Mathews (Wegun) 
1903 - 1928                Lemuel Fielding (Occum)            (b. 1859 - d. 1928) 
1929 - 1935                Everett Fielding                   (b. 1887 - d. 19..) 
1935 - 1937                Julian Harris (Peegee Uncas)       (b. 1872 - d. 19..) 
1937 - 1952                Burrill Fielding (Matahga)         (b. 1862 - d. 1952)
1952 - 1970                Harold A. Tantaquidgeon            (b. 1904 - d. 1989) 
1970 - 1991                Courtland Fowler (Little Hatchet)  (b. 1905 - d. 1991) 
1992 -  1 Oct 2007         Ralph W. Sturges (G'tinemong)      (b. 1918 - d. 2007)
15 Aug 2010 -              Lynn Malerba (Mutawi Mutahash
)(f)  (b. 1954?)


Schaghticoke

24 Jan 2004                Schaghticoke Tribal Nation federally recognized.
11 Oct 2005                Federal recognition withdrawn.

Chief
1987 -                     Richard L. Velky


Delaware

None Recognized



Florida

Miccosukee
[Miccosukee Tribe
                  (Florida)]
                  Adopted 1962
11 Jan 1962                Miccosukee Tribe of Indians recognized as separate from 
                             the Seminole Tribe of Florida.
 6 Mar 1971                Miccosukee constitution established.

Chairmen
1962 - 1985                Buffalo Tiger                  (b. 1920)
1986 - 2010                Billy Cypress                  (b. 1952)
 5 Jan 2010 -              Colley Billie


Seminole Nation of Florida

[Flag of the
                        Florida Seminole Tribe]
                        Adopted 1966

18 Sep 1823                Seminole country ceded to the U.S. in return for the Seminole
                             Indian Reservation by Treaty of Moultrie Creek.
 9 May 1832                Seminole Indian Reservation ceded to the U.S. in return for a new
                             reservation in the Indian Territory by Treaty of Payne's Landing.
23 Dec 1835 - 14 Aug 1842  Second Seminole War.
1839                       Majority of the Seminoles moved to the Indian Territory.
1856 - 1858                Third Seminole War.
1913                       Seminoles of Florida recognized as separate from the Seminole 
                             Nation of Oklahoma.
1917                       Big Cypress Indian Reservation established.
1926                       Dania (1966, renamed Hollywood) Indian Reservation added.
13 Jun 1935                Brighton Indian Reservation added.
1953                       U.S. House proposes termination of Seminole Tribe.
21 Aug 1957                Seminole Tribe of Florida, federal recognition.

Principal Chiefs
1750 - 1785                Cowkeeper (Abaya)              (d. 1785)
1785 - 1812                King Payne                     (d. 1812)
1812 - 1819                King Bowlegs                   (d. 1819/21) 
1819 -  2 Jan 1849         Mikanopi (Sint Chakkee)        (d. 1849)
1849 - 1953                
Interregnum
War Chiefs
1835 - 1837                Osceola (William Powell)       (b. 1804 - d. 1838)
1837 - 1842                Abiaka (Sam Jones)             (b. 1774 - d. 1866)
1856 - 1858                Holata Micco (Billy Bowlegs)   (b. 1810 - d. 1864)
Chairmen

1953 - 1967                Bill "Billy" Osceola           (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
1967 - 1971                Betty Mae Jumper (f)           (b. 1923)
1971 - 1979                Howard E. Tommie
1979 - 2001                James E. "Jim" Billie          (b. 1944)
2001 -                     Mitchell Cypress               (b. 1947)

Georgia

None Recognized

Hawaii

None Recognized

Idaho

Coeur d'Alene

[Coeur d'Alene Tribe
                  (Schitsu'Umsh) - Idaho]

14 Jun 1867                Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation set aside (no treaty).
 8 Nov 1873                Reservation enlarged.
 3 Mar 1891                Reservation reduced.
1905                       Coeur d'Alene (from 1937, Northern Idaho) Indian Agency
                             established.
1910                       Reservation opened to the non-Indian settlement.
17 Nov 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
 2 Sep 1947                Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.
1995                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Head chiefs (title of chief: Yelmixwum)
c.1660 - c.1760            "Circling Raven"
c.1760 – 1844              Stelam "Thunder"                    (d. 1844)
1844 – 1865                Vincent Bassah (Selepsto)           (d. af.1889)
1865 – 1902                Andrew Seltice                      (b. 182. - d. 1902)
1902 – 1907                Peter Louis Wildshoe                (d. 1907)
1907 – 1932                Peter Bartholomew Moctelme          (d. 1934)
1932 – 1949                Joseph Seltice                      (d. 1949)
1949 - 1965                Ignace Garry                        (d. 1965)

Chairmen
1934 – af.1936             Basil Peone
19.. – 1947                Pascal J. George (1st time)
1947 – 1949                Joseph Seltice                      (s.a.)
1949 – 1950                Ignace Garry                        (s.a.)
1950 – 1954                Pascal J. George (2nd time)
1954 – 1955                Felix Aripa
1955 – 1956                Lawrence Nicodemus
1956 – 1968                Joseph R. Garry                     (b. 1910 - d. 1975)
1968 – 1970                Oswald George
1970 – 1972                Bernard LaSarte (1st time)
1972 – 1974                Hillary Skanen
1974 – 1982                Bernard LaSarte (2nd time)
1982 – 1985                Dave Matheson
1985 – May 1986            Bernard LaSarte (3rd time)
May 1986 – May 2005        Ernest L. Stensgar
May 2005 -                 James Allan                         (b. 1972)



Kootenai Tribe of Idaho


[Kootenai tribe (Idaho)]

1896                       Kootenai Reservation established, but gradually lost.
1947                       Kootenai Tribe of Idaho
18 Oct 1974               
Kootenai Reservation re-established.
1993                       Gaming compact.

2001                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1947 – 19..                ....
bf.1974 - af.1984          Amelia "Amy"  C. Trice (f)          (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
c.1990                     Velma A. Bahe (f)(1st time)
199. - 1993                Larry Aitken

1993 – 2001                Velma A. Bahe (f)(2nd time)
2001 – 2005                Gary Aitken, Sr.
2005 -                     Jennifer Porter (f)

Nez Perce


[Nez Perce - Idaho (U.S.)]
                      Adopted 1991

12 Jun 1855                Under the U.S. protection (Nez Perce Tribe).
1857 – 1933                Washington East of the Cascades (1861 – 1902 Nez Perce; from 1902,
                             Fort Lapwai) Indian Agency established.

 9 Jun 1863                Nez Perce (1873-1929 Lapwai) Indian Reservation established.
Jul 1878 – May 1885        Joseph band of Nez Perce displaced to the Nez Perce Indian
                             Reservation in Oklahoma; in 1885 moved to the Colville Indian
                             Reservation (see Colville).

1893                       Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1920, the majority
                             were citizens).

18 Nov 1895                Reservation opened to the non-Indian settlement.
1927                       Nez Perce advisory committee established under a constitution.
17 Nov 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
13 Apr 1948                New constitution adopted
1995                       Gaming compact with the state.

2001                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Head chiefs (title: Wiya-taqis Miyo-xat ["Older Chief"])
1842 – 1848                Twvish Sisimnen "Sparkling Horn"    (b. c.1810 – d. 1848)
                            
(Ellis)
1848 – 1849                Richard Tackensuatis                (d. af.1858)
1849 – 1876                Hallalhot-soot (‘Alu-ya "Lawyer")   (b. 1796 – d. 1876)
1876 – 1877                Reuben                              (d. 1877)
1877 – 1879                James Lawyer                        (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
1879 – 1880                ....
1880 – 1927                General Council
Presidents
1927 – 1929                James Stuart                        (b. 1862 – d. 1929)
c.1932                     Harry Wheeler                       (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
1936 - 19..                James M. Parsons

Chairmen
1948 – 19..                Sam Slickpoo                        (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
c.1952                     Harrison Lott                       (b. 1891 - d. 1971)
1955 - 1961                Richard A. Halfmoon (1st time)      (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
1961 - May/Aug 1965        Angus A. Wilson (1st time)          (b. 1913)
May/Aug 1965 – 1966        Richard A. Halfmoon (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1966 – Feb/May 1967        Angus A. Wilson (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Feb/May 1967 – 1976        Richard A. Halfmooon (3rd time)     (s.a.)
1976 – 1977                ....
1977 - 1983                Wilfred A. Scott
1983 - c.1985              Allen V. Pinkham, Sr. (1st time)    (b. 1938)
c.1985 - 1987              Herman J. Reuben
1987 – May 1990            Allen V. Pinkham, Sr. (2nd time)    (s.a.)
May 1990 – 1992            Charles H. Hayes (1st time)         (d. 1996)
1992 – 1994                Samuel N. Penney (1st time)
1994 – 1995                Charles H. Hayes (2nd time)         (s.a.)                
1995 – 2003                Samuel N. Penney (2nd time)

2003 – 2005                Anthony D. Johnson
2005 – 2007                Rebecca A. Miles (f)                (b. 1978)
2007 – 2010                Samuel N. Penney (3rd time)
2010 – 2011                McCoy Oatman                        (b. 1978)
2011 – 2012                Brooklyn D. Baptiste
2012 -                     Silas C. Whitman                    (b. 1942)

Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

Shoshone-Bannock
                Tribes of Fort Hall Reservation (Idaho)

17..                       Bannock and Northern Shoshone confederate.
14 Jun 1867                Fort Hall Indian Agency set aside.
 3 Jul 1868                Fort Hall Indian Reservation established by Treaty.
30 Apr 1936                Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs (all Bannock; title of chief: Kapitaa)
bf.1814 - 1832             Po'have "The Horse" ("Horn Chief")  (d. 1832)
bf.1843 - 1863             Toso-Kwauberaht "Le Grand Coquin"
1863 – 1871                Tagi (= Taghee)                     (b. c.1825 - d. 1871)
1871 – 1878                Council (5 band headmen)
1878 – 1891                Tyghee                              (d. 1891)
1892 - af.1901             James Ballard (Sheme)               (b. 1843 – d. 1918)
bf.1909 - af.1917          Pat L. Tyhee                        (b. 1853 – d. 1924)
c.1929                     Council (6 band headmen)
Chairmen
1930 – 1936/37             Charles Peterson                    (b. 1867 – d. 194.)
c.1937                     Peter Jim
c.1938                     Willie George
c.1947                     LaSalle Pocatello
c.1955                     Wilford Broncho
c.1957                     Frank W. Parker
c.1962                     Edward Boyer
c.1964                     Layton L. Littlejohn
1966 – 1967                Kesley Edmo, Sr. (1st time)         (b. 1919 – d. 1998)
c.1967                     Herbert LeClair

c.1968                     Joseph Thorpe, Jr.
c.1969                     Arthur Hayball
bf.1971 - 1972             Kesley Edmo, Sr. (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1972 – 1973                Zelma Edmo (f)
1973 – 1974                Kesley Edmo, Sr. (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1974 – 197.                Jimmie Dann
c.1982                     R. Willis Dixey
c.1983                     Lionel Q. Boyer (1st time)
c.1984                     Kesley Edmo, Sr. (4th time)         (s.a.)
bf.1992 - 1993             Kesley Edmo, Sr. (5th time)         (s.a.)

1993 – 1994                Keith Tinno (1st time)
1994 - 1995                Marvin Osborne
1995 - 1997                Delbert Farmer
1997 - 1998                Arnold Appenay
1998 - 1999                Keith Tinno (2nd time)
1999 - 2000                Duane Thompson
2000 - 2001                Lionel Q. Boyer (2nd time)
2001 - 2003                Blaine J. Edmo (1st time)
2003 - 2004                Nancy Eschief-Murillo (f)
2004 - 2005                Frederick Auck
2005 - 2006                Blaine J. Edmo (2nd time)
2006 –  8 Jun 2010         Alonzo A. Coby                      (b. 1969)
 8 Jun 2010 -              Nathan Small


Illinois

None Recognized


Indiana

Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Michigan and Indiana

[Pokagon Band of
              Potawatomi Indians, Michigan and Indiana ]

1994                       Pokagon Band regained U.S. recognition.
2000                       Pokagon Reservation established.

Chairmen

18.. - 1899                Simon Pokagon
1899/1901                  Isaac Quigno                       (d. 1926)
Oct 1929 - 1938            Andrew Rapp                        (b. 1865 - d. 1938)
1945/53                    Michael Williams                   (b. 1881 - d. 1969)
19.. - 19..                Cecelia Williams (f)
bf.1989                    Phillip Alexis
1992? - 1994               Daniel Rapp                        (b. 1939 - d. 2011)
1994 - 1996                Joseph Rufus Winchester            (b. 1927 - d. 2005)
1996 - 1997                Matthew Wesaw (1st time) (acting)
1997 - Nov 1998            Robert "Bob" Moody (1st time) 
1998 - Nov 2001            John Miller (1st time)
                             (acting to ....)
Nov 2001 - Sep 2002        Mike Zimmerman, Jr. (acting)
Sep 2002 - 2008            John Miller (2nd time)
2008 - 26 Oct 2013         Matthew Wesaw (2nd time)
Oct 2013 - Feb 2014        Robert "Bob" Moody (2nd time)(acting)
 8 Feb 2014 -              John P. Warner  

Iowa

Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

[Sac & Fox Tribe of the
              Mississippi in Iowa]

Chairmen
c.1992                     Keith C. Davenport
199. - 2002?               Talbert Davenport
2002? - 2004               Alexander Walker
 3 Mar 2003 - 2005?        Homer Bear (in opposition)
2005/06                    Talbert Davenport
c.2012/13                  Frank Black Cloud
c.2014 -                   Judith Youngbear-Bender (f)

Kansas

Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska

[Iowa Tribe of
              Kansas and Nebraska]

 6 Mar 1861                Iowa Reservation established by treaty.
26 Feb 1937                Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska


Chairmen

c.1954                     Leonard Fee
1962 - 1965                Marvin L. Franklin
1965 - 19..                Cecil R. Green
c.1979/82                  Howard Simmonds
1984 - ....                Leon Campbell (1st time)           (b. 1945 - d. 2014)
1998 - 200.                Louis Deroin
200. - 2009                Leon Campbell (2nd time)           (s.a.)

2011 -                     Timothy Rhodd


Prairie Band of Potawatomi Nation


[Prairie Band of
              Potawatomi Nation, Kansas]

1832                       Potawatomi Tribe of Indians of the Prairie.
1846                       Tribe relocated to Kansas.
....                       Prairie Band of Potawatomi Indians.
....                       Renamed Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation.

Chairmen

c.1939 - c.1940            James Wahb-no-sah
1946? - 196.
?              Minnie Evans (f)
196.? - 196.               Mage Puckkee (f)
c.1963                     Philip D. Burns                    (b. 1925 - d. 2001)
196. - c.1974              Lester L. Jessepe                  (b. 1929 - d. 2007)
c.1985                     Delores A. Miller (f)
c.1986 - 1993?             George Wahquahboshkuk
Jul 1994 - Oct 2000        Mamie Rupnicki (f)
Oct 2000 -  5 Dec 2000     Gary Mitchell (acting)
 5 Dec 2000 - 2002         Badger Wahwassuck
2002 - 2006                Zach Pahmahmie
2006 - 2007                Tracy Stanhoff (f) (interim)
2007 -                     Steve Ortiz

Wyandot Nation of Kansas

[Wyandot Nation of Kansas]



Kentucky

None Recognized

Louisiana

Apalachee (Talimali Band of Apalachee Indians‏)

[Apalachee
              Nation (Louisiana)]

Chairmen
.... - ....                Gilmer "Boy" Vallery              (b. 1866 - d. 1952)
.... - ....                ....
c.1997 -                   Gilmer Bennett



Chitimacha 

[Chitimacha tribe
                  (Louisiana)]

1917                       Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana granted federal recognition.

Chiefs 
1903 - 1934                Benjamin Paul 
1934 - 1947                Ernest "Papa Jack" Darden 
1947                       Alexander Darden 
1948 - 1950                Leroy Burgess (chairman)
1950 - 1969                Emile "Bizz" Stouff 
1969 - 1971                Leonard "Nick" Stouff 
Chairmen 
1971 - 1981                Leroy Burgess
1981 - 1983                Daniel Darden (1st time)
1983 - 1987                Larry Burgess 
1987 - 1989                Daniel Darden (2nd time)
1989 - 1998                Ralph Darden 
1998 - 2007                Alton D. LeBlanc, Jr.
2007 - 2009                Lonnie L. Martin
2009 -                     John Paul Darden



Jena Band of Choctaw Indians


31 May 1995                Jena Band of Choctaw Indians federally recognized.

Chiefs

1850 - 1910                John Allen
1910 - 1916                Sam Gibson
1917 - 1933                Bill Lewis
1933 - Dec 1950            Will Jackson                      (d. 1950)
1950 - 1958                Chris Jackson
1958 - 1968                William Lewis                     (d. 1968)
Chairmen
1974 - 1975                Jerry D. Jackson (1st time)
1975 - 1985                Clyde Jackson
1985 - 1986                George Allen
1986 - 1998                Jerry D. Jackson (2nd time)
1998 - 2002                Beverly Cheryl Jackson Smith (f)
                             (1st time)
2002 - 2010                Christine M. Norri (f)
2010 -                     Beverly Cheryl Jackson Smith (f)
                             (2nd time)


Tunica-Biloxi Indians

[Tunica Biloxi Indians
              of Louisiana]
                      Adopted 1992

1975                       Recognized by the state of Louisiana.
23 Jul 1981                Tunica-Biloxi Indians of Louisiana federally recognized.
 1 Jan 1999                Renamed Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe.

Chiefs

18.. - 1841                Melancon
1841 - 187.                Zenon La Joie
187. - 1911                Valsin (Volsin) Chiqui
Jun 1911 - 1921            Sesostris Youchican
                             (Sesostrie Youchicant)
1921 - 1936                Ernest Pierite
1936 - 1948                Eli Barbry                        (b. 1877 - d. 1956)
1948 - 1955                Horace Pierite, Jr.               (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
1955 - 16 Mar 1976         Joseph A. Pierite, Sr.            (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
Chairmen
1976 - 1978                Joseph "Joe" Pierite, Jr.
1978 - 31 Jul 2013         Earl J. Barbry                    (b. 1950 - d. 2013)
24 Aug 2013 -              Marshall Pierite


Maine

Aroostook Band of Micmacs

[Aroostook Band of
                  Micmacs (Maine)]

1984                       Aroostook Micmac Council
26 Nov 1991                Federal Recognition granted (Aroostook Band of Micmacs).

Presidents     
1984 - 1985                Donald Sanipass (1st time)
1985 - 1986                Paul Phillips
1986 - 1987                Donald Sanipass (2nd time)
1987 - 1988                David Sanipass
1988 - 1989                Wesley Miller
1989 - 1991                Mary Philbrook (f)
Chiefs
1992 - 1994                Mary Philbrook (f)(1st time)
1994 - 1995                Roger Pictou

1995 - 1997                Mary Philbrook (f)(2nd time)

1997 - 1999                Richard Getchell

1999 - 2007                William W. Phillips

2007 -                     Victoria Higgins (f)



Passamaquoddy

[Passamaquoddy Nation
              flag (Maine)]
                      Adopted 1995

Governors (Sakom)

 1 Oct 1998 - 2002         Richard Stevens
2002 -  1 Oct 2006         Robert L. Newell
 1 Oct 2006 - 2010         William J. Nicholas
 3 Dec 2010 -              Joseph Socobasin


Penobscot Indian Nation


Penobscot Indian Nation -
              Maine (U.S.)

Governors (Chiefs)

2000 - 2004                Barry Dana
2004 - 2006                James Sappier
2006 -                     Kirk E. Francis                   (b. c.1969) 


Maryland

None Recognized

Massachusetts

Mashpee Wampanoag

[ Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe
                (Massachusetts)]

1665                       Reservation (to 1834 Indian Plantation, from 1834 Indian District)
                             set aside.
1870                       Dissolved by the state.
1974                       Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Council established.
23 May 2007                Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, Massachusetts federally recognized, no
                             reservation.

Chiefs
1665 – 1720                Council of Chiefs
1720 – 1763                General Council of Proprietors
Presidents (not recognized by the state 1833-1834)
1763 – 1788                Board of Overseers
                           (elected annually; composition as of 1786 below)
                           - Simon Ketour
                           - Moses Pocknett
                           - ...(name unknown)
1788 – 1833                General Council of Proprietors
1833                       Ebenezer Attaquin, Sr.            (b. 1786 - d. 1850)
1833 – 1834                Daniel B. Amos                    (b. 1804 – d. 1858)
1834 – 1870                Board of Selectmen
                           (elected annually; composition as of 1834 below)
                           - Isaac Coombs                    (b. 1773 – d. 18..)
                           - Israel Amos                     (b. 1786 – d. 18..)
                           - Ezra Attaquin                   (b. 1794 – d. 18..)
1870 – 1974                Abolished
1974 – Mar 1980 1984       Russell M. Peters (1st time)      (b. 1928 – d. 2002)
Mar 1980 – 1984            Hannah M. Averette (f)            (b. 1917)
1984 – 1986                Vernon Pocknett, Sr.              (b. 1933 – d. 1999)
1986 – 1992                Joan Tavares-Avant (f)            (b. 1940)
1992 – Oct 1992            Earl Guy Cash
Oct 1992 - 2000            Russell M. Peters (2nd time)      (s.a.)
2000 - 27 Aug 2007         Glenn A. Marshall                 (b. 1949)
Chairmen
Aug 2007 - 2009            Shawn W. Hendricks
2009 -                     Cedric Cromwell                   (b. 1965)

Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah)

[Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head
                (Aquinnah) (Massachusetts)]

1621                       Wampanoags an ally (later subject) of the English.
1711                       Reservation (to 1862 Indian Plantation, from 1862 Indian District)
                             set aside.

1870                       Dissolved by the state.
Nov 1972                   Wampanoag Tribal Council of Gay Head, Inc. formed.
10 Apr 1987                Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) federally recognized,
                             remains under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.

2001                       Self-governance agreement.

Grand Chiefs of Wampanoag
bf.1620 – 1661             Massasoit                        (b. c.1580 – d. 1661)
1661 – 1662                Alexander (Wamsutta)             (b. c.1621 – d. 1662)
1662 – 1676                Philip (Metacomet)               (b. c.1638 – d. 1676)
Chiefs of Gay Head
1675 – 1683                Mittark                          (d. 1683)
1683 – 1687                Joseph Mittark                   (d. bf.1705)
1687 – 1727                None
1727 – 1855                General Council of Proprietors
Presidents
1855 – 1862                Board of Overseers
                           (elected annually; composition as of 1855 below)

                           - Zacheus Howwaswee              (b. 1792 – d. 1873)
                           - Samuel Peters                  (b. 1809 – d. 1880)
                           - Aaron Cooper                   (b. 1822 – d. 1900)
1862 – 1870                Board of Selectmen
                           (elected annually; composition as of 1869 below)

                           - Isaac D. Rose                  (b. 1812 – d. 1880)
                           - Aaron Cooper                   (s.a.)
                           - Thomas Jeffers                 (b. 1829 – d. 1916)
1870 – 1972                Abolished
1972 – 1976                Beatrice Vanderhoop-Gentry (f)   (b. 1910)
1976 – 1979                Wenonah Silva (f)
1979 – 1987                Gladys A. Widdiss (f)            (b. 1914)
Chairmen
1987 - 1991                Donald A. Widdiss (1st time)
1992 - 2005                Beverly M. Wright (f)
2005 - 2008                Donald A. Widdiss (2nd time)
2008 - 2014                Cheryl Andrews-Maltais (f)
2014 -                     Tobias Vanderhoop

Michigan

Bay Mills Indian Community

[Bay Mills Ojibwe (or
                Chippewa) - Michigan (U.S.)]

27 Nov 1937                Bay Mills Indian Community

Chairmen
1937 - 1 Jun 1937          Herman E. Cameron
1937 - 1939                Lucy M. Leblanc (f)
1939 - 1941                John H. Cameron
1941                       D. Henry Teeple
30 Jun 1941 - 1945         George W. Teeple
1945 - 1953                William L. LeBlanc
1953 - 1961                Arthur L. LeBlanc (1st time)
1961 - 1963                Irma G. Parrish (f)
1963 - 1967                Herman E. Cameron
1967 - 1971                Maurice Le Blanc
1971 - 1973                Albert B. LeBlanc
1971 - 1973                Donald W. Parish
1973 - 1975                Michael C. Parish
1975 - 1979                Arthur L. LeBlanc (2nd time)
1979 - 1987                Wade I. Teeple
1987 - 1989                Clinton J. Parish
1989 - 2001                Jeffrey D. Parker (1st time)
2001 - 2003                L. John Lufkins
2003 - 2012                Jeffrey D. Parker (2nd time)
2012 -                     Kurt Perron 


Hannahville Potawatomi Indian Community

[Hannahville Potowatomie Indian Community]

1870                       Reservation established.
21 Aug 1937                Hannahville Potawatomi Indian Community federally recognized.

Chairmen
c.1937                     Frank Elie
c.1967 - c.1971            Joe Sagataw
1972 - c.1974              James McCulloch
c.1975 - c.1978            Sally Halfaday (f)
197. - 198.                Henry Philemon (1st time)
c.1985                     Theodore Wandahsega
198. - 1990                Henry Philemon (2nd time)
1990 -                     Kenneth Meshigaud


Sault Ste. Marie Ojibwe

Sault Ste. Marie Tribe
                  of Chippewa (Michigan)
                    Adopted 1970's
24 Dec 1953                Sugar Islands Chippewa begin attempt to separation from Bay Mills
                             Tribe.
 7 Sep 1972                Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa (Ojibew) Indians of Michigan
                             recognized as separate from the Bay Mills Tribe.
 7 Mar 1974                Sault Ste. Marie Indian Reservation established.

Chairmen

1973 - 1987                Joseph "Joe" K. Lumsden          (d. 1987)
1987 - 2004                Bernard Bouschor
                             (acting to 1988)
2004 - 2008                Aaron A. Payment (1st time)      (b. 1966?)
2008 - 10 May 2011         Darwin "Joe" McCoy
May 2011 - 23 Aug 2011     Lana Causley (f)(interim)
23 Aug 2011 - Jul 2012     Joe Eitrem
Jul 2012 -                 Aaron A. Payment (2nd time)      (s.a.)

Minnesota

Bois Forte Chippewa

[Bois Forte Chippewa
                (Minnesota)]

Fond du Lac Chippewa

[Fond du Lac Chippewa
                (Minnesota)]

Grand Portage Chippewa

[Grand Portage
                Chippewa (Minnesota)]

Leech Lake Ojibwe

[Leech Lake Ojibwe
                (Minnesota)]


Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe

[Mille Lacs Band
                of Ojibwe (Minnesota)]

1855                       Mille Lacs Indian Reservation established.

Chairmen
1930s                      Fred Sam
1940s                      Sam Yankee
1950s                      Fred Jones
1950s                      Jerry Martin
1959 – 1964                James Shaugobay
1964 – 1965                Raining Boyd (interim)
1965 – 1972                Sam Yankee                      (d. 1975)
1972 – 1991                Arthur Gahbow
1991 – 1992                Marge Anderson (f) (interim)
Chief Executives
1992 – 2000                Marge Anderson (f)(1st time)
2000 – 2008                Melanie Benjamin (f)(1st time)
2008 – 2009                Herbert Weyaus (interim)
2009 – 2012                Marge Anderson (f)(2nd time)
2012 –                     Melanie Benjamin (f)(2nd time)
1959 - 19..                Peter B. Buckanaga


Minnesota Chippewa Tribe

[Minnesota Chippewa Tribe
                flag]

18 Jun 1934                Minnesota Chippewa Tribe established
24 Jul 1936                Federally recognized.

Chairmen
c.1937                     John L. Pemberton
1959 - 19..                Peter B. Buckanaga
1961 - 1964                Allen Wilson
c.1965 - 1970              Peter Dufault (Du Fault)
1970 - c.1973              Simon Howard
1978? - c.1993             Darrell "Chip" Wadena
199. -                     Norman W. Deschampe


Upper Sioux Community

[Upper Sioux Community
                (Minnesota])


White Earth Ojibwe

[flag of White Earth
                Ojibwe Reservation (Minnesota)]

19 Mar 1867                White Earth Indian Reservation created.

Chairmen

1976 - 1996                Darrell Wadena                   (b. 1939 - d. 2014)
1996 - 1998                Eugene McArthur, Jr.
1998 - 2000                Peter B. Buckanaga
2000 - 2004                Doyle Turner
2004 -                     Erma J. Vizenor (f)


Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians

[Red Lake Band of Chippewa
                Indians]

Chairmen
1959 - 1990                Roger Jourdain                   (b. 1912 - d. 2002)
1990 - 1994                Gerald F. "Butch" Brun (1st time)(b. 1939? - d. 2003)
1994 - 2002                Bobby Whitefeather
2002 - 26 Apr 2003         Gerald F. "Butch" Brun (2nd time)(s.a.)
11 May 2003 - May 2004     William "Billy" King (interim)
May 2004 - Jun 2014        Floyd "Buck" Jourdain
Jun 2014 -                 Darrel Seki, Jr.


Shakopee Mdewakanton

[Shakopee Mdewakanton
                  Sioux Community (Minnesota)]

1868                       Shakopee Mdewakanton Reservation
1969                       Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community

Chairmen
1969 - 1984                Norman Melvan Crooks             (b. 1917 - d. 1989)
1984 - 1992                Leonard Prescott
1992 - 25 Aug 2012         Stanley R. Crooks                (b. 1941 - d. 2012)
2012 -                     Charlie Vig                      (b. 1960)


Mississippi

Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians

[Mississippi Band of
                  Choctaw Indians flag]
                  Adopted Dec 1994

1786                       Choctaws under protection of the U.S., the original boundaries of
                             the Choctaw country fixed.
1805 & 1820                Main Choctaw land cessions to the U.S.
1826                       Choctaw tribal government (Choctaw Nation) established, governed by
                             the chiefs of the Okla Tannip District, the Okla Falaya District,
                             and the Okla Hannali District.
1830                       Choctaw Indian Reservation ceded to the U.S. in return for a new
                             reservation in the Indian Territory.
1834                       Majority of the Choctaws moved to the Indian Territory.
1918                       Choctaws of Mississippi recognized as separate from the Choctaw 
                             Nation of Oklahoma.
23 Dec 1944                Mississippi Choctaw Indian Reservation established.
20 Apr 1945                Choctaw tribal government (Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians).

Chiefs of Oklatannip District
.... - 1809                Homastubbee                    (d. 1809)
1809 - 1826                Moshulatubbee (1st time)       (b. c.1778 - d. 1838)
1826 - 1830                David Folsom                   (b. 1791 - d. 1847)
1830 - 1834                Moshulatubbee (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1834 - 1945                Vacant
Chiefs of Oklafalaya District

1802 - 18 Oct 1824         Apukshunnubbee                 (b. c.1740 - d. 1824)
1824 - 1826                Robert Cole
1826 - 1834                Greenwood LeFlore              (b. 1800 - d. 1865)
1834 - 1945                Vacant
Chiefs of Oklahannali District

1803 - 24 Dec 1824         Pushmataha                     (b. c.1764 - d. 1824)
Dec 1824                   Oklahoma
Dec 1824 - 28 Sep 1828     Humming Bird                   (d. 1828)
1828 - 1830                John "Sam" Garland
1830 - 1834                Nitakechi                      (b. 1792 - d. 1846)
1834 - 1945                Vacant
Chairmen
1945 - 1949                Joe Chitto
1949 - 1959                Emmett York (1st time)
1959 - 1967                Phillip Martin                 (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
1967 - 1975                Emmett York (2nd time)
Chiefs (title Miko)
1975 - 1979                Calvin Issac
1979 - Jul 2007            Phillip Martin                 (s.a.)
Jul 2007 -                 Beasley Denson



Missouri

None Recognized

Montana

Blackfeet of Montana

[Blackfeet of Montana]

13 Nov 1935                Blackfoot Nation of Montana recognized.

Head Chiefs
1874 - ....                Little Plume
.... - 1903                White Calf                      (d. 1903)

Chairmen
1935 - 19..                Joseph W. Brown
19.. - 1972                ....
1972 - 2008                Earl Old Person                 (b. 1929)
12 Jul 2008 - 12 Aug 2011  Willie A. Sharp, Jr. (1st time)
15 Aug 2011 - 2011         Terry "T.J." Show
2011 - 10 Jul 2014         Willie A. Sharp, Jr. (2nd time)
10 Jul 2014 -              Harry Barnes

Chippewa Cree


[Chippewa Cree
              Tribe (Montana)]

 7 Sep 1916                Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation established.
....                       Chippewa Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation, Montana.

Chairmen

1935 - 1936                Malcolm Mitchell
1936 - 1937                Louis St. Marks
1937 - 1938                Dan Sangrey
1938 - 1939                Dan Belcourt
1939 - 1940                William "Bill" Morsette, Sr.
                             (1st time)
1941 - 1942                Paul Mitchell
1942 - 1945                John Parker, Sr.
1946 - 1947                William "Bill" Morsette, Sr.
                             (2nd time)   
1948 - 1949                Jim Monteau
1950 - 1951                Joe Corcoran
1951 - 1953                Four Souls
1954 - 1955                Joe Demontiney, Sr. (1st time)
1956 - 1957                Fred Nault
1958 - 19..                William "Bill" Morsette, Sr.
                             (3rd time)
1961 - 1962                Paul Eagleman  
1962 - 1963                Ted Lamere, Sr.
1964 - 1965                Pete Sutherland
1966 - 1968                Joe Demontiney, Sr. (2nd time) 
1969 - 1970                Joe Rosette, Sr.
1971 - 1984                John Windy Boy
1985 - 1992                Rocky Stump, Sr.
1992 - 1996                John "Roddy" Sun Child, Sr.
1996 - 2000                Bret Corcoran
2000 - 2004                Alvin Windy Boy
2004 - 2009                John "Chance" Houle
Feb 2009 - 2011            Raymond Jake Parker
2011 - 2012                Bruce Sun Child
2012 - Mar 2013            Ken Blatt St. Marks (1st time)
Mar 2013 - Jul 2013        Richard "Ricky" Morsette (interim)
Jul 2013 -                 Ken Blatt St. Marks (2nd time)

Fort Belknap Indian Community (Assiniboine & Gros Ventre of Fort Belknap)

[Assiniboine & Gros
                Ventre of Fort Belknap Reservation (Montana)]

 1 May 1888                Fort Belknap Indian Reservation established for the Assiniboine
                             or Nakoda, and the Gros Ventre or A'aninin.
1935                       Fort Belknap Indian Community

Chairmen

1921 - 1934?               Bear John Buckman               (b. 1873 - d. 19..)
c.1935                     John Bigby
1935? - 1948?              Clarence Brockie                (d. 1949)
1948 - 1949                Rufus Warrior (1st time)        (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
1950 - 1951                Carl Grant? 
1952 - 1953                John Capture? (1st time)
1954 - 1955                Rufus Warrior (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1956 - 1957                John Capture? (2nd time)
1958 - 1960                John Matthew Bell               (b. 1924 - d. 1975)
1960 - 1962                Richard King
c.1968 - c.1972            John Capture (3rd time?)
c.1972 - c.1973            John Crasco
c.1975 - c.1980            Charles "Jack" Plumage
c.1982 - Dec 1985?         Henry Brockie
c.1986                     William "Snuffy" Main (1st time)
1988 - 1989                Gilbert Horn                    (b. 1925)
c.1990 - c.1991            Donovan Archambault
c.1993                     William "Snuffy" Main (2nd time)
c.1994 - c.1995            Harlan Mount
c.1996 - c.1998            Tracy "Ching" King (1st time)
1998? - May 2004           Ben Speakthunder
2004 - Feb 2005            Darell Martin 
2005 - 2009?               Julia Doney (f)
2009? - 2013?              Tracy "Ching" King (2nd time)
Nov 2013 -                 Mark L. Azure


Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes

[Fort Peck Assiniboine
                and Sioux Tribes (Montana)]

1935                       Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.

Chairmen
1941 - 1945                George Washington
1945 - 1947                Carl Walking Eagle
1947 - 1949                Pete Eagle
1949 - 1951                David Buckles
1951 - 1953                William Knorr
1953 - 1957                Austin Buckles (1st time)
1957 -  6 Sep 1958         Dolly Akers
 6 Sep 1958 - 1959         George Thompson, Jr. (acting)
31 Jan 1959 - 15 Apr 1959  Roy L. Sansaver (acting)
1959 - 1961   
             Austin Buckles (2nd time)
1961 - 1971                William Youpee
1971 - 1973                Joseph Red Thunder
1973 - 1985                Norman Hollow
1987 - 1989                Kenneth Ryan
1989 - 1991                Lawrence "Larry" Wetsit
1991 - 1997                Caleb Shields
1997 -  1 Aug 1999         Spike Bighorn
1999                       Ray K. Elder
1999 - 2003                Arlyn Headdress
2003 - May 2004            John Morales (1st time)
2004 - 2005                Ray Eder
2005 - 2007                John Morales (2nd time)
2007 - 2011                A.T. "Rusty" Stafne (1st time)
2011 - 2013                Floyd Azure
2013 -                     A.T. "Rusty" Stafne (2nd time)


 
Crow Tribe of Montana

[Crow Tribe of Montana]

18 May 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.

Chairmen
1920 - 1921                Ralph Saco   
1921 - 1927                James Carpenter 
1927 - 1934                William Bends    
1934 - 1938                Hartford Bear Claw 
1938 - 1941                Charles Yarlott 
1941 - 1946                Henry Pretty On Top 
1946 - 1954                Robert "Robbie" Yellowtail     (b. 1889 - d. 1988)
1954 - 1956                William Wall    
1956 - 1960                Edward "Posie" Whiteman  
1960 - 1964                John Cummings 
1964 - 1966                John Wilson  
1966 - 1972                Edison Real Bird
1972 - 1974                David Stewart 
1974 - 1977                Patrick Stands Over Bull  
1977 - 1982                Forrest Horn   
1982 - 1986                Donald Stewart
1986 - 1990                Richard Real Bird
1990 - 2000                Clara Nomee (f)                 (b. 1938 - d. 2012)
2000 - 2002                Clifford Birdinground 
2002                       Vincent Goes Ahead (acting)
11 Nov 2002 - Feb 2009     Carl Venne                      (b. 1946 - d. 2009)
2009 -  3 Dec 2012         Cedric Black Eagle 
 2 Dec 2012 -              Darrin Old Coyote



Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana


[Little Shell
              Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana]

Chairmen
19.. - 1963                Joseph "Joe" Dussome            (d. 1963)
1963 - Apr 1976            George Sinclair
1976 - 1977                John Contway
1977 - 1978                George Plummer
1978 - 1981?               John Sinclair
Sep 1981 - 1984            Ralph Doney
1984 - 1988?               Donald Bishop
1988 - 16 Sep 1994         Deborah "Debbie" Swanson (f)
Sep 1994 - 1995?           Mack McGillis (interim)
1996 - 11 Feb 1997         James Parker Shield 
1997 - 1999?               John Gilbert (acting to 199.)
c.2000 - 2003              Tim Zimmerman
Aug 2003 - 2011            John Sinclair
Mar 2010 - Nov 2012        John Gilbert
                             (to Dec 2011 in opposition)
Nov 2012 -                 Gerald Gray


Northern Cheyenne

[Northern Cheyenne Tribe
              (Montana)]
                       Adopted 1964

16 Nov 1888                Tongue River Indian Reservation established.
19 Mar 1900                Renamed Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation.

Presidents

Dec 1935 - Sep 1936        Rufus Wallowing "Big Egg"
                             (1st time)
Sep 1936 - Jun 1938        Joseph White Bear "Black Ree"
Sep 1938 - 31 May 1940     Eugene Fisher, Sr. (1st time)
                             "Tall Buffalo"
 4 Jun 1940 - Sep 1940     William Red Cherries "Oyster"
                             (1st time)
Sep 1940 - 19 Jan 1943     Eugene Little Coyote
                             "One that Kills in the Morning"
19 Jan 1943 - 21 Mar 1943  William Red Cherries "Oyster"
                             (2nd time)
22 Mar 1943 - 22 Jul 1943  John Stands in Timber
                             "One that Stands in the Timber"
Jul 1943 - Oct 1943        William Red Cherries "Oyster"
                             (3rd time)
30 Nov 1943 - Sep 1944     William Red Cherries "Oyster"
                             (4th time)
Sep 1944 -  9 Jul 1947     Eugene Fisher, Sr. (2nd time) 
                             "Tall Buffalo"
Jul 1947 - Sep 1948        John Russell "Bear"
Sep 1948 - Sep 1952        Rufus Wallowing "Big Egg"
                             (2nd time)
Sep 1952 -  4 Mar 1955     Eugene Fisher, Sr. (3rd time) 
                             "Tall Buffalo"
Mar 1955 - Sep 1968        John Wooden Legs
Sep 1968 - Sep 1984        Allan Rowland "Ghost Bull"
Sep 1984 -  2 Dec 1985     Windy Shoulder Blade
                             "Beaver Heart"
Dec 1985 - 30 Jan 1986     Mark Elk Shoulder
                             "Wondering Medicine"
30 Jan 1986 - 18 Aug 1986  John Buffalo Horn
30 Aug 1986 - 22 Sep 1986  Charles Yellowfox "Bird"
22 Sep 1986 - Sep 1988     Robert Bailey "He's Blue"
Sep 1988 - Dec 1989        Edwin Dahle (1st time)
16 Dec 1989 - 18 Jan 1990  John Wooden Legs, Sr.
                             "Mighty Eagle"
18 Jan 1990 - 1992         Edwin Dahle (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1992 - Dec 1996     Llevando "Cowboy" Fisher
Dec 1996 - Jan 1998        William Walks Along
                             "Wolf Chief"
Jan 1998 - Mar 1998        Norma Gourneau (f)
                             "Sacrifices Woman"
Mar 1998 - Nov 2000        Joe Walks Along, Sr.
                             "Little Bear"
Nov 2000 - Nov 2004        Geri Small (f)
                             "Lighting Woman"
Nov 2004 - 28 Dec 2007     Eugene Little Coyote
28 Dec 2007 - Nov 2008     Rick Wolfname (interim)
Nov 2008 - 16 Nov 2012     Leroy A. Spang
16 Nov 2012 -              John Robinson

Salish and Kootenai Confederated Tribes of the Flathead

[Confederated Salish and
              Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation]
                      Adopted 1979

1854                       Flathead Indian Agency established (
briefly closed 1857-1861).
16 Jul 1855                Under the U.S. protection (Confederated Tribes of the Flathead
                             Nation); the Jocko (from 1910, Flathead) Indian Reservation
                             established.
1910                       Reservation opened to the non-Indian settlement.
28 Oct 1935                Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation.
 
9 Apr 1954                Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes successfully resisted the
                             U.S. government attempt to terminate their tribes & reservation.
1963 – 1995                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.

1993                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.
2001                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs of the Flathead (largest tribe of the confederacy; title of chief: Ilmixwm)
bf.1831 - 1841             "Big Face" (from 1840, Paul)    (b. c.1750 – d. 1841)
1841 – 1870                Victor (Xwelxlcin "Many Horses")(b. c.1790 – d. 1870)
1870 – 1910                Charlo                          (b. c1830 - d. 1910)
                             (Slmxe Qwoxwqeys "Little Grizzly Claw")
                            
(refused to settle on the reservation until 1891)
1872 – 1889                Henry Arlee (acting)            (d. 1889)

1910 – 1941                Martin Charlo                   (b. 1856 - d. 1941)
Chiefs of Upper Kalispel (Pend d'Oreille) (second largest tribe of the confederacy)
1848 – 1868                Alexander (Tmlxicin 'No Horses")(b. c.1808 – d. 1868)
1868 – 1897                Michell                         (b. 1805 – d. 1897)
1897 – 1929                Charley Michell                 (b. 1863 – d. 1929)
1929 – 1944                Moses Michell                   (b. 1886 – d. 1944)

Chairman

1910 – 1921                Duncan McDonald                 (b. 1849 – d. 1934)
Presidents
c.1921                     Thomas J. Burland
1923 – 193.                Caville Dupuis                  (b. 1873 – d. 19..)
bf.1933 - 1936             Joseph R. Blodgett, Jr.         (b. 1877 - d. 1950)
Chairmen
1936 – 1940                Edwin Dupuis                    (b. 1896 – d. 1976)
1940 – 1942                Eneas Granjo (1st time)         (b. 1882 – d. 1957)
1942                       Richard McLeod
1942 – 1944                Eli Gingras
1944 – 1945                Stephen DeMers
1945 – 1946                Lester Dupuis
1946 – 1948                Eneas Granjo (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1948 – 1950                Walter W. McDonald (1st time)
1950 – 1952                Walter Morigeau
1952 – 1960                Walter W. McDonald (2nd time)
1960 – 1964                William E. Morigeau
1964 – 1966                Walter W. McDonald (3rd time)
1966 – 1968                Lyman L. Trahan
1968 – 1970                Harold W. Mitchell, Jr.
                             (1st time)
1970 – 1972                Fred Whitworth
1972 – 1978                Harold W. Mitchell, Jr.
                             (2nd time)
1978 – 1979                Thomas Swaney
1979 – 1984                Thomas Pablo
1984 – 1986                Joseph J. Felsman               (b. 1932 – d. 2006)
1986 – 1987                Ron Therriault
1987 – 1996                Michael T. Pablo (1st time)     (b. 1948 – d. 1999)
1996 – 1998                Rhonda C. Swaney (f)
1998 – 1999                Michael T. Pablo (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1999 – 2006                D. Frederick Matt
2006 – 2010                James H. Steele, Jr.
2010 – 2012                Ernest T. Moran
2012 – 2014                Joe Durglo
2014 -                     Ronald Trahan


Nebraska

Omaha Tribe

[Omaha Tribe of Nebraska
              and Iowa]

Chairmen
c.1944 - c.1953            Amos Lamson 

c.1954                     Alfred W. Gilpin (1st time)
c.1955 - c.1957            Gustavus White
c.1958 - Nov 1962          Alfred W. Gilpin (2nd time)
Nov 1962 - 196.            Louis Saunsoci
c.1965                     Valentine Parker                 (b. 1931 - d. 2004)
c.1967 - c.1968            Alfred W. Gilpin (3rd time)
c.1969 - c.1970            Edward L. Cline (1st time)
c.1970 - c.1975            Elmer LaFlesche Blackbird        (b.1921 - d. 2007)
c.1975 - c.1977            Edward L. Cline (2nd time)
1980 - 1981?               Oliver Saunsoci                  (b. 1931 - d. 2008)
1981 - 1983                Doran L. Morris (1st time)       (b. c.1940 - d. 2003)
1983 - 1986                Wade Miller
1986 - 1992                Doran L. Morris (2nd time)       (s.a.)

c.1993 - c.1995            Rudi Mitchell
c.1997 - c.2000            Gary Lasley
c.2001 - c.2004            Donald Grant
2005 - 2006                Orville Cayou
2006 - 2007                Eleanor Baxter (f)
2007 - 2008                Mitchell Parker (1st time)
2008 - 2009                Ansley Griffin
2009 - 2010                Amen Sheridan (1st time)
2010 - 2011                Mitchell Parker (2nd time)
2011 - 2012                Amen Sheridan (2nd time)
2012 - 2013                Rodney Morris
2013 -                     Clifford Wolfe


Ponca Tribe

[Ponca Tribe (Nebraska)]

1962                       Federal recognition revoked.
31 Oct 1990                Ponca Tribe of Nebraska (federal recognition restored).

Chairmen

1990 - 2002                Fred LeRoy                      (b. 1947 - d. 2012)
2002 - Nov 2006            Mark Peniska
Nov 2006 - Jan 2011        Larry Wright, Jr.
Jan 2011 -                 Rebecca White (f)



Santee Sioux

[Santee Sioux Nation
              (formerly the Santee Sioux Tribe of the Santee Reservation
              of Nebraska)]

 3 Mar 1863                Santee Sioux Reservation of the Santee Sioux
....                       Santee Sioux Tribe of the Santee Reservation of Nebraska
....                       Renamed Santee Sioux Tribe of Nebraska.


Chairmen

1936 - 1972                David Frazier                   (d. 1972)

c.1976                     Enid Goodteacher
c.1982 - 1985              Richard L. Kitto                (b. 1950 - d. 1995)
1985 - 1990?               Donald LaPointe
1990 - 1995                Daniel Denny
1995 - 2000                Arthur "Butch" Denny
2000 -                     Roger Trudell                   (b. 1948)


Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska


[Ho-Chunk (or Winnebago) -
              Wisconsin (U.S.)]

1863                       Winnebago Reservation established.
....                       Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska

Chairmen
1972? - Nov 1977           Louis LaRose
1977 - 1987                Reuben A. Snake                 (b. 1937 - d. 1993)
1987 - 1990?               Gordon Thunder
1990 - 1991                Gerban Earth
1991 - 1998                John Blackhawk (1st time)
1998                       Kenny Mallory
Oct 1998 - May 1999        Daryl L. LaPointe, Sr.          (b. 1950 - d. 1999)
May 1998 - 2007?           John Blackhawk (2nd time)
c.2007 - c.2008            Matthew Pilcher                 (b. 1930)
2009 -                     John Blackhawk (3rd time)



Nevada

Las Vegas Paiute 

[Las Vegas Paiute
                  Tribe (Nevada)]

30 Dec 1911                Las Vegas Paiute Colony established (part of the Moapa River
                             Indian Reservation) in Las Vegas, Nevada.
18 Jun 1934                Las Vegas Paiutes recognized as separate from the Moapa River
                             Reservation.
22 Jul 1970                Tribe recognized by Federal government (Las Vegas Tribe of Paiute 
                             Indians).

Chairmen
1970 - 1978                ....
1978 - 1988                Gloria Yazzie (f)
1988 - 1990                Margaret Henry (f)
1990 - 1993                Alfreda Mitre (f) (1st time)    (b. 1954)
1993 - 1994                ....
1994 - 1998                Alfreda Mitre (f) (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1998 - 1999                Kenny Anderson
1999 -                     Curtis Anderson


Paiute Shoshone Tribe of Fallon Reservation

1887                       Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation

Chairmen
2003 - 13 Nov 2012         Alvin Moyle
13 Nov 2012 -              George Len


Reno-Sparks Indian Colony

[Reno-Sparks Indian
                Colony (Nevada)]


Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California

[Washoe Tribe of Nevada
                  and California]

24 Jan 1936                Federal recognition.

Chairmen of Tribal Council
1990 - 2006                A. Brian Wallace
 1 Dec 2006 -  1 Dec 2010  Waldo W. Walker
 1 Dec 2010 - Apr 2013     Wanda Batchelor (f)
Apr 2013 -                 Darrel D. Kizer



New Hampshire

None Recognized

New Jersey

None Recognized

New Mexico

Jicarilla Apache

[Jicarilla Apache (New
              Mexico)]

Pueblo of Acoma

[Pueblo of Acoma
              (New Mexico)]

Pueblo de Conchiti

[Pueblo de Conchiti (New
              Mexico)]

Pueblo of Laguna

[Pueblo of Laguna
              (New Mexico)]

Pueblo of Nambe

[Nambe Pueblo - New Mexico
              (U.S.)]

Pueblo of Picuris

[Pueblo of Picuris
              (New Mexico)]

Pueblo of Sandia

[Pueblo of
              Sandia (New Mexico)]

Pueblo of San Ildefonso

[Pueblo of San
              Ildefonso (New Mexico)]

Pueblo of Santa Clara

[Pueblo of Santa
              Clara (New Mexico)]

Pueblo of Zia

[Pueblo of Zia (New
              Mexico)]

Zuni

[Zuni (New Mexico)]

Governors
1830 - 1875                Lai-iu-ah-tsai-ah (Pedro Pino)
                            (governor several times in this period)
1858                       Mariano (1st time)
1863                       Mariano (2nd time)
1875 - 1885                Ba:lawahdiwa
                            (Palowahtiwa, Patricio Pino)
1885                       Yacqui Pie (Yaki)
1885                       Quala Mona
1888                       Dick Senaha (Tsinnahe)
1889                       Juan Antonio (Juan DeDiose)
1891                       Jesus Eriacho
1895                       Mu:ma (1st time)
                             (Ramon Luna, Mormon)
1897 - 1899                Mu:ma (2nd time)
1907                       Jesus Eriacho
1907 - 1909                Keecko (Quicko) Chavez
1909                       DaThlana (Di:clana)
1909 - 1911                Juan DeDiose
                            (Kwan Antonia, Juan Antonia)
1912 - 1916                William F. Lewis (1st time)
1917                       Ernest Seciwa
1917                       Margaret Lewis (f) (intetrim)
1917 - 19..                William F. Lewis (2nd time)
1923                       Wayhusiwa
1923                       Mocko Ondulacy
1923 - 1924                Dumahka (Nick)
1924 - 1926                Eustace (Usstisy)
1926 - 192.                Nastacio
1928 - 1933                Lallio (1st time)
1933                       Warren Ondulacy
1933                       Leopoldo Eriacho
1935                       Lallio (2nd time)
1935 - 1941                Henry Gaspar (1st time)
1942                       Henry Natewa
1943                       Lallio (3rd time)
1943 - 1947                Henry Gaspar (2nd time)
1947 - 1951                Leopoldo Eriacho
1951 - 1954                Conrado Lesarlley
1955                       Latone Wyaco
1955 - 1957                Casa Appa
1957 - 1960                Calvin Eustace
1960 - 1962                Warren Ondulacy
1962 - 1964                Fred Bowanie
1965 - 1974                Robert E. Lewis (1st time)
1975 - 1978                Edison Laselute
1979 - 1982                Robert E. Lewis (2nd time)
1982 - 1983                Quincy Panteah
1983 - 1986                Chauncey Simplicio
1987 - 1994                Robert E. Lewis (3rd time)
1994 - 1998                Donald Eriacho
1998 - 2002                Malcolm Bowkaty
2002 -  5 Jan 2007         Arlen P. Quetawki
Sr. (1st time)
 5 Jan 2007 - 2011         Norman J. Cooeyate
2011 -                    
Arlen P. Quetawki Sr. (2nd time)


New York


Cayuga Nation

[Cayuga Nation (New York)]

Representative

c.2011 -                   Clint C. Halftown



Mohawk  (St. Regis Mohawk Tribe)

Oneida

[Oneida Nation (New
              York)]


Seneca Nation of Indians

[flag of the Seneca Nation
              (New York)(US)]

1794                       Canandaigua Treaty of Peace
15 Sep 1797                Allegany and Cattaraugus Indian Reservations established.
15 Jan 1838 - 1842         U.S. attempts to remove Seneca and other tribes west.
 4 Dec 1848                Seneca Nation of Indians, constitution adopted.
1857                       Seneca Tonawanda Band secedes.

Jun 1935                   Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum
                             on all reservations.
 
Presidents

 4 Dec 1848 - 1849         Solomon William MacLane
1850 - 1851                Zechariah L. Jimerson
1852 - 1853                Jacob Blacksnake
1853 - 1854                John Luke (1st time)
1854 - 17 Jun 1855         Henry Two Guns                    (d. 1855)
c.1857                     John Luke (2nd time)
c.1858                     Edward Purse
c.1859                     John Luke (3rd time)
c.1860                     Isaac Halftown                    (b. 1790? - d. 1879)
c.1862                     Henry Silverheels (1st time)
1864 - 1865                Henry Silverheels (2nd time)
af.1865                    Harrison Halftown
1867 - 1868                Peter Snow (1st time)
c.1871                     William Krouse
1872 - 1873                Peter Snow (2nd time)
1874 - 1875                William Nephew
1875 - 1876                Casler Redeye                     (b. 1829 - d. af.1910)
1876 - 1877                Andrew John, Jr. (1st time)
1882                       Sylvester Cowles Lay              (b. 1822 - d. 1907)
1884                       Chester C. Lay
1888                       Chester C. Lay
1890                       Andrew John, Jr. (2nd time)
1891 - 1892                Thomas Kennedy
1892 - 1893                Wallace Halftown
1893 - 1894                Frank L. Patterson (1st time)     (b. 18.. - d. 1925)
1894 - 1895                William C. Hoag (1st time)
       (b. 1860 - d. 1927)
1895 - 1896                Frank L. Patterson (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1896 - 1897                William C. Hoag (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1897 - 1898                Theodore F. Jamerson
c.1902                     William C. Hoag (3rd time)        (s.a.)
c.1906                     William C. Hoag (4th time)        (s.a.)
c.1912                     George Dekker 
1912 - 1914                Frank L. Patterson (3rd time)     (s.a.)
1914 - 1916                ....
1916 - 1918                Frank L. Patterson (4th time)     (s.a.)
1918 - 1920                ....
1920 - 1922                ....
1922 - 1924                William C. Hoag (5th time)        (s.a.)
Nov 1924 -  6 Nov 1925     Frank L. Patterson (5th time)     (s.a.)
Nov 1925 - 31 Jul 1927     William C. Hoag (6th time)        (s.a.)
1928 - 1930                Ray W. Jimerson (1st time)
1930 - 1932                Leland John                       (b. 1898 - d. 1989)
1932 - 1934                Ray W. Jimerson (2nd time)
1934 - Aug 1935
            Henry John                        (d. 1935)
Aug 1935 - 1936            Franklin John
1936 - 1938                Adlai S. Williams
1938 - 1940                Wilford J. Crouse (3rd time)
1940 - 1942                Cornelius Seneca (1st time)
1942 - 1944                Wilford J. Crouse (4th time)      (1902 - 1944)
1944 - 1946                Cornelius Seneca (2nd time)
1946 - 1948                Calvin John (1st time)
1948 - 1950                Dean Williams
1950 - 1952                Calvin John (2nd time)
1952 - 1954                Francis Kettle
1954 - 1956                Leo Cooper
1956 - 1958                Cornelius Seneca (
3rd time)
1958 - 1960                George D. Heron (1st time)        (b. 1919 - d. 2011)
1960 - 1962                Basil Williams
1962 - 1964                George D. Heron (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1964 - 1966                Martin Seneca, Sr.
1966 - 1968                Calvin John (3rd time)
1968 - 1970                William Seneca                    (b. 1926? - d. 1984)
1970 - 1972                James E. George
1972 - 1974                Dean Williams
1974 - 1976                Robert C. Hoag (1st time)         (b. 1935 - d. 1989)
1976 - 1978                Calvin E. Lay                     (b. 1925 - d. 2012)
1978 - 1980                Robert C. Hoag (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1980 - 1982                Barry E. Snyder, Sr. (1st time)
1982 - 1984                Lionel R. John                    (b. 1938 - d. 1993)
1984 - 1986                Calvin E. Lay (1st time)
1986 - 1988                Robert C. Hoag (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1988 - 1990                Dennis M. Lay (2nd time)
1990 - 1992                Calvin John                       (b. 1920 - d. 2004)
1992 - 1994                Barry E. Snyder, Sr. (2nd time)
1994 - 1996                Dennis J. Bowen
1996 - 1998                Michael Schindler
1998 - 2000                Duane J. Ray
2000 - 2002                Cyrus Schindler
2002 - 2004                Barry E. Snyder, Sr. (3rd time)
2004 - 2006                Rickey Armstrong
2006 - 2008                Maurice A. John
2008 -  9 Nov 2010         Barry E. Snyder, Sr. (4th time)
 9 Nov 2010 - 2012         Robert Odawi Porter
2012 -                     Barry E. Snyder, Sr. (5th time)


Shinnecock Indian Nation

Shinnecock Indian Nation (New
                York)

 1 Oct 2010                Shinnecock Indian Nation federally recognized.

Chairmen
c.1995 - c.1999            Peter Smith
c.1999 - c.2000            James W. Eleazer
2001? - 2004               Charles Smith
2004 - 2007                Lance Gumbs
2007 - 2009                Frederick C. Bess
2009 - 2013                Randall "Randy" King
2013 -                     Daniel Collins

Tuscarora Nation


North Carolina

Eastern Band of Cherokee

[flag of Eastern Band of
                Cherokee Indians (North Carolina)]

1824                       Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians formed in North Carolina at
                             Qualla Boundary after removal west of other Cherokee.

1865                       North Carolina assured the permanent residence of the Cherokees.

Principal Chiefs
1824 - Apr 1839            Yonaguska (Drowning Bear)          (b. c.1759 - d. 1839)
1839 - 1869                William Holland Thomas             (b. 1805 - d. 1893)
 1 Dec 1870 - 1875         Salonitah (Flying Squirrel)
1875 - 1880                Lloyd R. Welch                     (d. 1880)  
1880 - 1891                Nimrod Jarrett Smith (Tsaladihi
)   (b. 1837 - d. 1893)
1891 - 1895                Stillwell Saunooke  
1895 - 1899                Andy Standing Deer  
1899 - 1903                Jesse Reed  
1903 - 1907                Bird Saloloneeta (Young Squirrel)
1907 - 1911                John Goins  
1911 - 1915                Joseph A. Saunooke (1st time)  
1915 - 1919                David Blythe  
1919 - 1923                Joseph A. Saunooke (2nd time)  
1923 - 1927                Sampson Owl  
1927 - 1931                John A. Tahquette  
1931 - 1947                Jarret Blythe (1st time)           (b. 1886 - d. 1977)  
1947 - 1951                Henry Bradley                      (b. 1883 - d. 1965)  
1951 - 1955                Osley Bird Saunooke (1st time)  
1955 - 1959                Jarret Blythe (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1959 - 1963                Olsey Bird Saunooke (2nd time)  
1963 - 1967                Jarret Blythe (3rd time)           (s.a.)  
1967 - 1971                Walter Jackson  
1971 - 1973                Noah Powell  
1973 - 1983                John A. Crowe
1983 - 1987                Robert S. Youngdeer
1987 - 1995                Jonathan L. Taylor
15 Sep 1995 -  2 Oct 1995  Gerard Parker
1995 - 1999                Joyce C. Dugan (f)
1999 - 2003                Leon Jones  
2003 -                     Michell Hicks


North Dakota

Spirit Lake Tribe

[Spirit Lake Tribe
              (North Dakota)]

Standing Rock Sioux

[Standing Rock Sioux (North Dakota)]

25 Jun 1914      Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, North Dakota, constitution adopted.


Fort Berthold T
hree Affiliated Tribes (Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara)

[Three Affiliated Tribes
              (Mandan, Hidatsa, & Arikara) of the Fort Berthold
              Reservation (North Dakota)]
                        Adopted 1997

12 Apr 1870                Fort Berthold Indian Reservation created.

15 May 1936                Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation

Chairmen
1936 - 1985                ....
1985 - 1990                Edward Lone Fight                  (b. 1939)
1990 - 1998                ....
1998 - 2006                Tex G. Hall "Red Tipped Arrow"     (b. 1956)
                             (1st time)
2006 - 2010                Marcus Levings
2010 -                     Tex G. Hall (2nd time)             (s.a.)



Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa

[Turtle
              Mountain Band of Chippewa (North Dakota)]

  8 Oct 1932                Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, North Dakota
                             constitution adopted
18 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.


Chairmen
1932 - 1940                Kanick "Walking with Thunder"
1940 - 1942                Louis Marion (1st time)            (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
1942 - 1943                Frank Vondal (1st time)
1943 - 1945                Louis Marion (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1945 - 1947                Edward "Chick" Jollie (1st time)
   (b. 1907 - d. 19..)
1947 - 1948                Frank Vondal (2nd time)
1948 - 1949                Edward "Chick" Jollie (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1949 - 1950                Norbert Davis
1950 - 1953                Edward "Chick" Jollie (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1954 - 1958                Patrick Gourneau                   (b. 1904 - d. 1989)
1959 - 1961                Louis F. LaFountain                (b. 1918 - d. 1985)
1962 - 1963                Francis Cree (1st time)            (b. 1920)
1964 - 1966                Reginald "Tiny" Brien (1st time)   (b. 1932 - d. 1990)
1966                       Russell Davis
1966 - 1968                Reginald "Tiny" Brien (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1968                       Mary Cornelius (f)
1968 - 1970                Peter Marcellais, Jr.              (b. 1929)
1970 - 1971                Edwin James Henry (1st time)
1971 - 1972                Gregory LaVallie
1972 - 1978
                Edwin James Henry (2nd time)
1978 - 1980                Wayne Keplin
1980 - 1982                Edwin James Henry (3rd time)
1982 - 1988                Richard "Jiggers" LaFromboise      (b. 1946)
                             (1st time)
1988 - 1992                Twila Martin-Kekahbah (f)          (b. 1947)
                             (1st time)
1992 - 1994                Richard "Jiggers" LaFromboise      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1994 - 1995                Twila Martin-Kekahbah (f)          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1995 - 1996
                Francis Cree (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Nov 1996 - 1997            Melvin L. Lenoir, Sr.              (b. 1938 - d. 1997)
22 Apr 1997 - 1998         Raphael John DeCoteau              (b. 1955)

1998 - 2000                Richard "Jiggers" LaFromboise      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
2000 - 16 May 2002         Richard Monette (1st time)
16 May 2002 - Nov 2002     Melvin Mike Lenoir
Nov 2002 - 2004            Richard Monette (2nd time)
2004                       Leon Morin
2004 - 2006                Kenneth W. Davis
2006 - 2008
               David "Doc" Brien
Nov 2008 - 2010            Richard Marcellais
2010 - 2012                Merle St. Claire

2012 -                     Richard McCloud


Ohio

None Recognized

Oklahoma

Note: Upon Oklahoma’s admission to the union in 1907 it was considered that all the Indian Reservations have ceased to exist through allotment and opening to the non-Indian settlement (except Osage). From 1936 some remains of tribal authority were recognized under term "Former Indian reservations" (in 1997 replaced by term "Tribal jurisdictional areas").

Apache of Oklahoma

[Apache Tribe of Oklahoma]



Absentee Shawnee of Oklahoma

 
[Absentee-Shawnee
              Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma ]
                         Adopted 1974

1793                            Eastern Shawnee received a Spanish land grant at Cape
                                  Girardeau, Missouri.
1845                            Absentee Shawnee Tribe absented itself from the reservation
                                  in Kansas (thus their name), and traveled southwards to
                                  Texas and later Oklahoma.
1869                            Kansas Shawnee forced to merge with Oklahoma Cherokee.
26 Jun 1936                     Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma federally   
                                  recognized.
 
Governors
c.1892                          John Welch
1894 - ....                     Thomas Wildcat Alford            (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
c.1935                          James W. Alford
c.1938                          Thomas B. Hood
c.1949                          Harold Abraham
c.1953                          Charles R. Alford
c.1957 - 197.                   Arthur Rolette                   (d. 1977)
197. - 197.                     Betty Mahardy Watson (f)
c.1974                          Daniel Little Axe (1st time)
c.1976                          Lee Edwards
1978 - 1984                     John Sloat
c.1985 - c.1989                 Daniel Little Axe (2nd time)
c.1990 - 1991                   Larry Nuckolls (1st time)
1991 - 20 May 1992              John Edwards
1992                            Leroy Ellis (acting)
c.1993 - 1999                   Larry Nuckolls (2nd time)
Jan 1999 - 21 Oct 2003          James Lee Edwards                (b. 19.. - d. 2003)
2003 – 2005                     Kenneth Blanchard
2005 – 2007                     Larry Nuckolls (3rd time)
2007 – 31 Dec 2007              Jennifer Onzahwah (f)
31 Dec 2007 - 2008              Scott Miller
2008 -                          George Blanchard


Cherokee Nation

[Cherokee
                      Braves Confederate Battle Flag]           7 Oct 1861 - 23 Jun 1865           
        Cherokee Braves Battle Flag
Cherokee Flag 1978-89 (Oklahoma)                  9 Oct 1978 - 9 Sep 1989 Cherokee Flag (Oklahoma)                    Adopted 9 Sep 1989

 7 Oct 1861                Treaty of alliance with the Confederate States of America.
20 Feb 1863                Pro-U.S. faction revokes treaty with the Confederacy.
19 Jul 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.
24 Apr 1906                End of national self-government.
1971                       Restoration of tribal self-government.
26 Jun 1976                Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma
26 Jul 2003                Renamed the Cherokee Nation.

Principal Chiefs, Western Cherokees
1795 - 1813                John Bowles
1813 - 1818                Takatoka (Degadoga)
1818 - 1819                Tahlonteeskee (Ataluntiski)        (d. 1819)
1819 - 28 Dec 1838         John Jolly (Ahuludegi)             (b. c.1763 - d. 1838)
Dec 1838 - 1839            John Looney
1839 - 11 Oct 1839         John Brown
11 Oct 1839 - 1840         John Rogers                        (b. 1778 - d. 1846)
Principal Chiefs, Eastern Cherokees
1730 - c.1753              Moytag                             (d. c.1753)
1753 - Aug 1760            Old Hop (Kanagatoga)               (d. 1760)
1760 - 1778                Attacullaculla                     (d. 1778)
1778 - 1780                Oconocoasta                        (d. 1783)
1780 - Jun 1788            Old Tassel (Kayatihi)              (d. 1788)
1788 - 1792                Haning Maw (Uskwaliguta)           (d. 1794)
1792 - 1801                Little Turkey (Kanagadoga)         (b. 1758 - d. 1801)
1801 - 22 Jul 1811         Blackfox (Enoli)                   (d. 1811)
1811 -  6 Jan 1827         Pathkiller (Nunnadihi)             (b. 1749 - d. 1827)
Jan 1827 - 20 Jan 1827     Charles Renatus Hicks              (b. 1767 - d. 1837)
1827 - 1828                William Hicks                      (b. 1769 - d. 1823)        
Oct 1828 - 11 Aug 1866     John Ross                          (b. 1790 - d. 1866)
Principal Chiefs
 2 Oct 1839 -  1 Aug 1866  John Ross                          (s.a.)
                            (in exile in Kansas, 3 Aug 1862 - Jun 1865)
21 Aug 1862 - 1866         Stand Watie (in rebellion)         (b. 1806 - d. 1871)
                            (elected by Confederate Cherokee;
                             surrendered to U.S. 23 Jun 1865)
 1 Aug 1866 - 19 Oct 1866  Lewis Downing (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1823 - d. 1882)
19 Oct 1866 -  4 Nov 1867  William Potter Ross (1st time)     (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
 4 Nov 1867 -  9 Nov 1872  Lewis Downing (2nd time)           (s.a.)
10 Nov 1872                Charles Thompson (1st time)        (d. 1891)
11 Nov 1872 -  1 Nov 1875  William Potter Ross (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1875 -  3 Nov 1879  Charles Thompson (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 3 Nov 1879 -  1 Aug 1887  Dennis Wolf Bushyhead              (b. 1826 - d. 1898)
 1 Aug 1887 - 14 Dec 1891  Joel Bryan Mayes                   (b. 1833 - d. 1891)
14 Dec 1891 - 23 Dec 1891  Thomas Mitchell Buffington         (b. 1855 - d. 1938)
                             (1st time) (acting)
23 Dec 1891 -  4 Nov 1895  Colonel Johnson Harris             (b. 1856 - d. 1921)
 4 Nov 1895 -  6 Nov 1899  Samuel Houston Mayes               (b. 1845 - d. 1927)
 6 Nov 1899 -  2 Nov 1903  Thomas Mitchell Buffington         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 2 Nov 1903 - 21 Nov 1905  William Charles Rogers (1st time)  (b. 1849 - d. 1917)
21 Nov 1905 - 1906         Frank Josiah Boudinot              (b. 1866 - d. 1945)
1906 - 1917                William Charles Rogers (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1917 - 1919                Vacant
 8 Nov 1919 - 25 Nov 1919  Andrew Bell Cunningham             (b. 1869 - d. 1928)
26 Nov 1919 - 23 Jun 1923  Vacant
23 Jun 1923                Edward M. Frye                     (b. 1879 - d. 19..)
24 Jun 1923 - 15 Oct 1925  Vacant
15 Oct 1925                Richard Baxter Choate              (b. 1863 - d. 1937)
16 Oct 1925 - 27 Dec 1927  Vacant
27 Dec 1927                Charles J. Hunt                    (b. 1876 - d. 19..)
28 Dec 1927 - 26 May 1931  Vacant
26 May 1931                Oliver P. Brewer                   (b. 1871 - d. 19..)
27 May 1931 - 22 Jan 1936  Vacant
22 Jan 1936                William Wirt Hastings              (b. 1866 - d. 1938)
23 Jan 1936 - 1941         Vacant
1941 - 1949                Jesse Bartley Milam                (b. 1884 - d. 1949)
1949 - 1975                William Wayne Keeler               (b. 1908 - d. 1987) 
1975 - 1985                Ross O. Swimmer                    (b. 1943)
1985 - 1995                Wilma Pearl Mankiller (f)          (b. 1945 - d. 2010)
1995 - 1999                Joe Byrd                           (b. 1954)
14 Aug 1999 - 14 Aug 2011  Chad "Corntassel" Smith            (b. 1950)
14 Aug 2011 - 19 Oct 2011  S. Joe Crittenden (acting)         (b. 1944)
19 Oct 2011 -              Bill John Baker                    (b. 1951?)

Cherokee Indian Agents
177. - 1779                Alexander Cameron 
1779 - 178.                Thomas Brown 
c.1785                     Joseph Martin
1794 - 1799                John McKee 
Eastern Cherokee Indian Agents

1801 - 28 Jan 1823         Return Jonathan Meigs              (b. 1734 - d. 1823)
1823 - 1824                Joseph McMinn                      (b. 1758 - d. 1824)
1824 - 1832                Hugh Montgomery
1832 - 1833?
              William H. Cleghorn
Western Cherokee Indian Agents
1809? - 1813               Samuel Treat
1813 - 1817                William Lewis Lovely               (d. 1817)
1817 - 1820                Reuben Lewis                       (b. 1777 - d. 1844)
1820 - 1823                David Brearly
Dec 1823 - 1830            Edward W. Duval
1830 - 1835                George Vashon 
Cherokee Indian Agents
1836 - 1841                Montfort Stokes                    (b. 1762 - d. 1842)
1841 - 1846                Pierce Mason Butler                (b. 1798 - d. 1847)
1846 - 13 Jan 1848         James McKissick
Jan 1848 - Mar 1848        Gustavus Loomis (acting)
1848 - May 1849            Richard C.S. Brown
29 May 1849 - 21 Sep 1850  William Butler, Jr.                (d. 1850)
24 Sep 1850 -  8 Dec 1850  William G. Belknap (acting)
31 Oct 1850 -  4 Apr 1861  George Butler
Apr 1861 - Jun 1861        John Crawford 
                             (for the Confederate States Jun 1861 - 186.)
Jun 1861 - 31 Aug 1862     Charles W. Chatterton              (d. 1862)
1862 - 1866                James Harlan (acting to 1863)
1866 - 1867                John P. Humphreys
1867                       E.C. Cleaveland 
1867                       William Touples
1867 - 1868                J.J. Henderson
1868 - 1869                William B.D. Davis
1869 - 1870                John Craig 
1870 - 1874                John Buttrick Jones                (b. 1824 - d. 1876)
1874 - 1914                the Muskogee Union Agents 


Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribe of Oklahoma

[Cheyenne and
              Arapaho Tribe of Oklahoma]


Chickasaw Nation of Oklahoma

[Chickasaw Nation of
                Oklahoma flag]

17 Jan 1837 - 22 Jun 1855  Component part (District) of the Choctaw Nation.
 1 Jul 1861                Treaty of alliance with the Confederate States of America.
28 Apr 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.
24 Apr 1906                End of national self-government.
1971                       Restoration of tribal self-government.

Minko (hereditary chiefs)
17.. - 1784                Payamataha                               (d. 1784)
                           - jointly with - 
17.. - 1784                Mincohouma (Mingo Houma) 
1784 - 1794                Taski Etoka 
1794 - 1819                Chinubbee                                (d. 1819)
1819 - 1820?               Chehopieschee
1820 - 1822                Ishtehotopa
Chiefs of the Chickasaw District, Chiefs of the Chickasaw People
1838 -  7 Jan 1839         George Colbert                           (b. 1764 - d. 1839)
1839 - 1844                ....
1844 - 1846                Isaac Alberson (Samuel Seeley)           (d. 1849/51)
1846 - 1848                James McLaughlin                         (b. c.1784 - d. 185.)
1848 - 1850                Edmund Pickens                           (b. 1789 - d. 1868)
1850 - 1856                Daugherty Winchester Colbert             (b. 1810 - d. 1880)
Governors
1856 - 1858                Cyrus H. Harris (1st time)               (b. 1817 - d. 1888)
1858 - 1860                Daugherty Winchester Colbert (1st time)  (s.a.)
1860 - 1862                Cyrus H. Harris (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1862 - 1866                Daugherty Winchester Colbert (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (in Texas exile Feb 1864 - 16 Jul 1865)
1864                       Horace Pratt (acting)
1866                       Jackson Kemp (acting)
1866 - 1870                Cyrus H. Harris (3rd time)               (s.a.)
1870 - 1871                William P. Brown                         (b. 1820 - d. 1884)
1871 - 1872                Thomas J. Parker                         (d. 1890)
1872 - 1874                Cyrus H. Harris (4th time)               (s.a.)
1874 - 1878                Benjamin Franklin Overton (1st time)     (b. 1836 - d. 1884)
1878 - 1880                Benjamin Crooks Burney                   (b. 1844 - d. 1892)
1880 -  8 Feb 1884         Benjamin Franklin Overton (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1884 - 1886                Jonas Wolfe (1st time)                   (b. 1828 - d. 1900)
1886 - 1888                William Malcom Guy                       (b. 1845 - d. 1918)
1888 - 1892                William Leander Byrd                     (b. 1844 - d. 1915)
1892 - Jun 1894            Jonas Wolfe (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
Jun 1894 - Oct 1894        Tecumsah A. McClure (acting)             (b. c.1830 - d. ....)
Oct 1894 - Aug 1896        Palmer Simeon Mosely (1st time)          (b. 1851 - d. 1908)
Aug 1896 - 1898            Robert Maxwell Harris                    (b. 1850 - d. 1927)
1898 - 1902                Douglas Henry Johnston (1st time)        (b. 1858 - d. 1939)
1902 - 1904                Palmer Simeon Mosely (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1904 - 26 Apr 1906         Douglas Henry Johnston (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1906                       Peter Maytubby                           (b. 1837 - d. 1907) 
1906 - 26 Jun 1939         Douglas Henry Johnston (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1939 - 23 Feb 1963         Floyd Ernest Maytubby                    (b. 1893 - d. 1963) 
May 1963 - Oct 1963        E.B. "Hugh" Maytubby                     (b. 1892 - d. 1970) 
1963 - 1987                Overton James                            (b. 1925)
1987 -                     Bill Anoatubby                           (b. 1945)

Chickasaw Indian Agents
1794 - 1796                John McKee
1797 - 1806                Samuel Mitchell 
1806 - 1808                William Hill
1808 - 1809                Thomas Wright
 8 Jul 1809 -  3 Jun 1812  James Neelly (or Neeley)
1812 - 1814                James Robertson
1814 - 1818                William Cocke 
Apr 1818 - 1820            Henry Sherburne
Jan 1820 - 1823            Robert C. Nicholas
Dec 1823 - 1829            Benjamin F. Smith 
1829 - 1830                John Allen (acting)
1830 - 1837                Benjamin Reynolds
 9 Mar 1837 - 1851         A.M.M. Upshaw 
1851 - 1852                Kenton Harper 
1852 - 1856                Andrew J. Smith 
1856 - 1874                the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indian Agents
1874 - 1914                the Muskogee Union Agents


Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma

[Choctaw
                          Nation of Oklahoma flag 1861-1864]
     1861 - 1864  Pro-Confederate States flag
[Modern
                          Oklahoma Choctaw Flag]
        Modern Choctaw of Oklahoma Flag

1834 - 1838                Governed by the chiefs of the Moshulatubbee District,
                             the Oklafalaya District, and the Pushmataha District.
1838 - Oct 1857            Governed by the chiefs of the Moshulatubbee District,
                             the Apukshunnubbee District, the Pushmataha District,
                             and the Chickasaw District (s.a.).
 1 Jul 1861                Treaty of alliance with the Confederate States of America.
28 Apr 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.
24 Apr 1906 - Aug 1971     End of national self-government.
Aug 1971                   Restoration of tribal self-government.

Chiefs of Moshulatubbee District
1834 - 1836                Moshulatubbee                      (
b. c.1778 - d. 1838)
1836 - 1838                Joseph Kincaid
1838 - 1842                John McKinley
1842 - 1846                Nathaniel Folsom                   (b. 1811 - d. 18..)
1846 - 1850                Peter Folsom                       (d. 1885)
1850 - 1854                Cornelius McCurtain                (b. 1803 - d. 1871)
1854 - Oct 1857            David McCoy
Chief of Oklafalaya District

1834 - 1838                Thomas LeFlore                     (b. 1792 - d. c.1850)
Chiefs of Apukshunnubbee District
1838 - 1842                James Fletcher
1842 - 1850                Thomas LeFlore                     (s.a.)
1850 - Oct 1857            George Washington Harkins          (b. 1810 - d. 1861)
Chiefs of Pushmataha District
1834 - 1838                Nitukechi (1st time)               (d. 1846)
1838 - 1841                Pierre Juzan                       (b. 1805 - d. 1841)
1841 - 1846                Isaac Folsom
1846                       Nitukechi (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1846 - 1850                Silas D. Fisher
1850 - 1854                George Folsom
1854 - Oct 1857            Nicholas Cochnauer
Governors
Oct 1857 - 1858            Alfred Wade                        (b. 1811 - d. 1878)
1857 - Oct 1859            Tandy C. Walker                    (b. 1814 - d. 1877)
Oct 1859 -  1 Oct 1860     Basil LeFlore                      (b. 1810 - d. 1886)
Principal chiefs
 1 Oct 1860 -  6 Oct 1862  George Hudson                      (b. 1808 - d. 1865)
 6 Oct 1862 -  3 Oct 1864  Samuel Garland                     (b. 1803 - d. 1870)
 3 Oct 1864 -  1 Oct 1866  Peter Perkins Pitchlynn            (b. 1806 - d. 1881)
 1 Oct 1866 -  3 Oct 1870  Allen Wright                       (b. 1826 - d. 1885)
 3 Oct 1870 -  5 Oct 1874  William J. Bryant 
 5 Oct 1874 -  7 Oct 1878  Coleman Cole                       (b. c.1800 - d. 1886)
 7 Oct 1878 - Feb 1880     Isaac Levi Garvin                  (b. 1832 - d. 1880)
Feb 1880 -  6 Oct 1884     Jackson Frazier McCurtain          (b. 1830 - d. 1885)
                             (acting to 3 Oct 1880)
 6 Oct 1884 -  3 Oct 1886  Edmund McCurtain                   (b. 1842 - d. 1890)
 3 Oct 1886 -  1 Oct 1888  Thompson McKinney                  (b. c.1837 - d. 1889)
 1 Oct 1888 -  6 Oct 1890  Benjamin Franklin Smallwood        (b. 1829 - d. 1891)
 6 Oct 1890 -  1 Oct 1894  Wilson Nathaniel Jones             (b. 1831 - d. 1901)
 1 Oct 1894 -  5 Oct 1896  Jefferson Gardner                  (b. 1847 - d. 1906)
 5 Oct 1896 -  1 Oct 1900  Green McCurtain (1st time)         (b. 1848 - d. 1910)
 1 Oct 1900 -  6 Oct 1902  Gilbert W. Dukes                   (b. 1849 - d. 1919)
 6 Oct 1902 - 1910         Green McCurtain (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1910 - 1918                Victor Locke, Jr.                  (b. 1876 - d. 1929)
1918 - 1922                William Finley Sample              (b. 1883 - d. 1969)
1922 - 25 Sep 1929         William Henry Harrison             (b. 1876 - d. 1929)
1929 - 1936                Ben H. Dwight                      (b. 1890 - d. 1953)
1937 -  1 Aug 1948         William A. Durrant                 (b. 1866 - d. 1948)
1948 - 1975                Harry J.W. Belvin                  (b. 1900 - d. 1986)
26 Aug 1975 - 13 Jan 1978  C. David Gardner                   (b. 1940 - d. 1978)
Chiefs
Apr 1978 - 1997            Hollis E. Roberts                  (b. 1943 - d. 2011)
 9 Jun 1997 -              Gregory E. Pyle                    (b. 1949) 

Choctaw Indian Agents
1799 - 1802                John McKee (1st time)
1802 - 1814                Silas Dinsmoor 
1814 - 1821                John McKee (2nd time)
1821 - 1822                William Ward (1st time)
1822 - 182.                Edmund Fulsom 
1825 - 1831                William Ward (2nd time)
1832 - 1835                F.W. Armstrong 
1835 - 1846                William Armstrong 
1846 - 1850?               Samuel Rutherford
 9 Sep 1850 - 1851         John Drennen
1851 - 1854                William Wilson
1854 - 1856                Douglas H. Cooper
Choctaw and Chickasaw Indian Agents
1856 - 1861                Douglas H. Cooper
1861 - 1862                Richard P. Pulliam
1862 - 1866                Isaac Coleman 
Dec 1866 - 1870            Martin W. Chollar
1870 - 1873                Theophilus D. Griffith
1873 - 1874                Albert Parsons
1874 - 1914                the Muskogee Union Agents


Citizen Potawatomi Nation

[Citizen Potawatomi Nation
                (Oklahoma)]


Comanche Nation

Comanche Nation (Oklahoma)
                   Adopted c.1991


1869                       Comanche Reservation established.
 5 Jun 1901                Indian land allotments were completed.
19 Nov 1966                Constitution adopted.
 9 Jan 1967                Comanche Nation of Oklahoma federally recognized.

Chairmen
1964 - 1976                Lee Motah                          (b. 1911 - d. 1981)
1976 - 1978?               James M. Cox                       (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
c.1980                     Kenneth Saupitty (1st time)
c.1981 - 1988?             Bernard Kahrahrah                  (b. 1938)
Jul 1988 - 1990            Kenneth Saupitty (2nd time)
1990 - 1996                Wallace Coffey (1st time)
1996 - 1999                Keith Yackyonney
1999 - 2003                Johnny Wauqua (1st time)           (b. 1945 - d. 2012)
2003 - 2009                Wallace Coffey (2nd time)
Jul 2009 - Apr 2011        Michael Burgess
2011 - Jun 2012            Johnny Wauqua (2nd time)           (s.a.)
Jun 2012 -                 Wallace Coffey (3rd time)

Delaware Nation

Delaware Nation (Delaware
                of Western Oklahoma)

 5 Jul 1958                Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma federally recognized.
Nov 1999                   Name changed to Delaware Nation.

Presidents
c.1987                     Richard Snake                          (b. 1938 - d. 1999)
c.1991 - 1994              Charles Keechi
1994 - 2001                Lawrence S. Snake
2001 - 2004                Bruce Gonzalez
2004 - 12 Nov 2006         Edgar L. French                        (b. 1934 - d. 2006)
Dec 2006 -                 Kerry Holton                           (b. 1949)


Eastern Shawnee of Oklahoma

[Eastern Shawnee Tribe of
                Oklahoma (U.S.)]

Jul 1831                   Shawnee of Ohio relocated to Oklahoma.
1832                       United Nation of Senecas and Shawnees
1867                       Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma
26 Jun 1936                Federal recognition.

Chiefs
1936 - 1941                Walter L. Blue Jacket
1941 - 1966                Thomas A. Captain
1966 - 1970                Julian B. Bluejacket                   (b. 1910 - d. 1970)
1970 - 1974                Clyde Leroy Bluejacket                 (b. 1903 - d. 1985)
1974 - 1978                Jim Greenfeather
1978 - 1996                George J. Captain                      (b. 1922)
c.2000 - 2006              Charles D. Enyart 
 6 Dec 2006  -             Glenna J. Wallace (f)


Fort Sill Apache

[Fort Sill Apache
                (Oklahoma)]


Iowas of Oklahoma

Iowa Nation of Oklahoma

22 Sep 1937                Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma, federal recognition. Constitution adopted
                             (ratified by tribe 23 Oct 1937).

Chairmen
c.2001                     Lawrence Murray
2004 - 2006                E. Bernadette Huber (f)
2006 - 17 Jul 2009         Christie L. Modlin (f)
17 Jul 2009 - 2013         Janice Rowe-Kurak (f)
2013 -                     Gary Pratt



Kaw Nation

[Kaw Nation (New Mexico)]

23 Jul 1959                Kaw Indian Tribe of Oklahoma federally recognized.
31 Jul 1990                Renamed Kaw Nation.

Paramount chiefs

1867 - 1873                Allegawaho                         (b. c. 1820 - d. c.1897)
1873 - 1908
               Washungah                          (b. 18.. - d. 1908)
1908 - 1922                Vacant
Nov 1922 - 1934            Lucy Tayiah-Eads "Little Dear" (f) (b. 1888 - d. 1961)
1934 - 1935                Ernest E. Thompson
1935 - 1958                Council dissolved
Chairmen of the Business Committee
1958 - 1975                Tom Dennison
1975 - 19..                Jesse Mehojah                      (b. 1913 - d. 1995)
1982 - 1986?               Maurice M. Chouteau
1987 - 1990                William Mehojah                    (b. 1917 - d. 2000)
1990 - 2002                Wanda Stone (f)
2002 -                     Guy Munroe



Kickapoo Nation

[Kickapoo Nation (Oklahoma)]

Kialegee Tribal Town

[Kialegee Tribal
              Town (Oklahoma)]

Kiowa of Oklahoma

[Kiowa of Oklahoma]

Lenni Lenape (Eastern Delaware)

[Lenni
              Lenape or the Delaware (Oklahoma)]


Miami Tribe of Oklahoma

[Miami Tribe of Oklahoma
                (U.S.)]

1846                       Tribe removed from Great Lakes region to Kansas.
1867                       Tribe removed to Oklahoma.
16 Aug 1939                Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, federal recognition.
10 Oct 1939                Constitution ratified.

Chiefs
1812 - 1841                Jean-Baptiste Richardville         (b. 1761 - d. 1841)
1841 - 1846                Francis La Fontaine                (b. 1810 - d. 1847)
                             (last chief of the united Miami tribes)
1846 - 18..                Ozandiah
18.. - 1857                Big Legs (= Nah-We-Lan-Quah)
1857 - 1860                John Ozandiah
1860 - 1867                Nopshingah
1867                       John Big Leg (= Wanzoppeah)
1867                       Lumkekumwah
1867 - 1871                John B. Roubidoux (= Acheponquah)
c.1874 - 1886              Thomas Miller
1886 - 1888                David Geboe
1888 - 1890                Charles S. Walsh
189. - 1910                Gabriel Godfrey (Godfroy)          (b. 1834 - d. 1910)
                             (from 1895 first chief federally recognized since La Fontaine)
1910 - 1963                Harley T. Palmer                   (b. 1882? - d. 1966)
Sep 1963 -  4 Aug 1974     Forest D. Olds                     (b. 1911 - d. 1974)
1974 - 1982                Floyd E. Leonard (1st time)        (b. 1925 - d. 2008)
1982? - 1989?              Lewis I. Moore
1989 -  7 Mar 2008         Floyd E. Leonard (2nd time)        (s.a.)
2008 -                     Thomas E. Gamble                   (b. 1950)


Modoc of Oklahoma

[Modoc of
                  Oklahoma]
                       Adopted 1978

Nov 1873                   Displaced from Oregon to Oklahoma (formerly a part of Klamath).
23 Jun 1874                Reservation set aside.
1891                       Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1906, all were
                             citizens). The allotment leads to Indians becoming minority
                             without opening of the reservation to the non-Indian settlement.
13 Aug 1954 – 15 May 1978  Tribe terminated by the U.S.
15 May 1978                Modoc Indian Tribe of Oklahoma, federal recognition restored.
1995                       Gaming compact.
1999                       Self-governance agreement.

Chiefs
1870 – 1873                Kintpuash "Captain Jack"           (b. c.1837 – d. 1873)
1873 – 1874                Scarface Charley (1st time)        (b. c.1851 – d. 1896)
1874 – 1880                Bogus Charley                      (d. 1880)
c.1890                     Scarface Charley (2nd time)        (s.a.)
bf.1907 – 1954             General Council
1954 – 1967                abolished
Chairmen
1967 – 19..                Bert Hayman
bf.1972- 1973              Vernon Walker
1973 – 1978                Bill G. Follis
Chief
1978 -                     Bill G. Follis



Muskogee Nation (Creek) of Oklahoma

[Muskogee
                            (Creek) flag 19th Century flag]  
                  19th Century flag
[Muskogee
                            (Creek) confederate flag]
   1861 - 1865?  Pro-Confederate States flag
[Muskogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma
                            flag]
        Muskogee Nation of Oklahoma flag

1836 - Dec 1867            Divided into the Lower Towns and the Upper Towns.
 1 Jul 1861                Lower Creeks sign treaty of alliance with the Confederate States.
14 Jun 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.
24 Apr 1906                End of national self-government.
1971                       Restoration of tribal self-government.

Principal chiefs of the Lower Towns
1836 - 1837                Heneha Micco
1837 - 1859                Roderick McIntosh "Roley McIntosh"
1859 - 1863                Motey Canard "Motey Kinnard"       (b. c.1790 - d. 186.)
1863 - Dec 1867            Samuel Checote                     (b. 1819 - d. 1884)
Principal chiefs of the Upper Towns
1836 - 18..                Nehathlucco Hopoie "Little Doctor"
1861 - 27 Mar 1863         Hupuihilth Yahola "Opothle Yahola" (b. c.1780 - d. 1863)
                            (in opposition to Confederate sympathizers;
                             from Dec 1861 in Kansas exile)
18.. - 18..                Tamarthla Micco
18.. - 1859                Tuckabatchee Micco (1st time)
1859 - 1863                Echo Harjo
1863 - 1865                Tuckabatchee Micco (2nd time)
1865 - Dec 1867            Oktarharsars Harjo "Sands"         (d. 1872)
                            (already proclaimed 5 Aug 1861)
Principal chiefs
Dec 1867 - Dec 1875        Samuel Checote (1st time)          (s.a.)
Dec 1875 -  5 Dec 1876     Lochar Harjo                       (d. 1879)
 5 Dec 1876 -  6 Dec 1879  Ward Coachman                      (b. 1823 - d. 1884)
 6 Dec 1879 -  5 Dec 1883  Samuel Checote (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 5 Dec 1883 - Dec 1887     Joseph Moses Perryman              (b. 1833 - d. 1896)
Dec 1887 - 25 Nov 1895     Legus C. Perryman                  (b. 1838 - d. 1922)
25 Nov 1895 -  5 Dec 1895  Hotulke Emarthla "Edward Bullet"
 5 Dec 1895 - Dec 1899     Isparhecher                        (b. 1858 - d. 1902)
Dec 1899 - 1907            Pleasant Porter                    (b. 1840 - d. 1907)
1907 - 1917                Moty Tiger                         (b. 1840 - d. 1921)
1917 -  2 Dec 1920         George Washington Grayson          (b. 1843 - d. 1920)
                             "Wolf Warrior"
1921 - 1923                Washington Grayson                 (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
1923 - 1928                George W. Hill
1928 - 1935                Vacant
1930  (1 day)              Henry Harjo
1930 - 1931                Vacant
1931  (1 day)              Peter Ewings
1931 - 1935                Vacant
1935 - 1939                Roley Canard (1st time)
1939 - 1943                Alex Noon 
1943 - 1951                Roley Canard (2nd time)
1951 - 1955                John Davis
1955 - 1957                Roley Buck
1957 - 1961                Turner Bear                        (b. 1904 - d. 1972)
1961 - 1971                Waldo E. "Dode" McIntosh           (b. 1891 - d. 1992) 
1971 - 1991                Claude A. Cox 
1991 - 1995                Bill Fife 
1996 - 2003                R. Perry Beaver                    (b. 1938 - d. 2014)
2004 - 2012                A.D. Ellis
 7 Jan 2012 -              George Philip Tiger                (b. 1950)

Creek Indian Agents
1790 - 1796                James Seagrove
1796 - Jun 1816            Benjamin Hawkins
1816 - 1821                David Brady Mitchell
1821 - 1836                John Crowell (for Eastern Creek)
1827 - 1830                David Brearley (for Western Creek)
1830 - 1834                John Campbell (for Western Creek) 
1834 - 1836                Leonard Tarrant (for Western Creek) 
29 Aug 1836 -  8 Mar 1837  Francis Audrain
 8 Mar 1837 - 23 Feb 1838  John W.A. Sanford
23 Feb 1838 - 16 May 1842
 James Logan (1st time)
16 May 1842 -  8 Jun 1844
 James L. Dawson 
 8 Jun 1844 -  5 Apr 1849
 James Logan (2nd time)
 5 Apr 1849 - 1854
        Philip H. Raiford
18 Apr 1853 - Jul 1861
     William H. Garrett 
                             (to 1863? for the Confederate States) 
1861 - Jul 1861            William Quesenbury
16 Jul 1861 - 1865            George A. Cutler
May 1863 - 1865            Israel G. Vore
                             (for the Confederate States) 
 9 Jun 1865 - 1869
        James W. Dunn (acting to May 1866)
15 Jul 1869 - 1871         F.A. Field
23 Jan 1871 - Apr 1873     Francis S. Lyons
 9 Apr 1873 - 1874         Edward S. Roberts (acting)
 
Muskogee Union Agents
1874                       John Buttrick Jones (acting)       (b. 1824 - d. 1876) 
1874 - 1876                George W. Ingalls                  (b. 1838 - d. 1920)
1876                       J.J. Upham
1876 - 1879                Sylvester W. Marston
1879 - 1885                John Q. Tufts
1885 - 1889                Robert Latham Owen                 (b. 1856 - d. 1947)
1889 - 1893                Leo E. Bennet                      (b. 1857 - d. ....)
1893 - 1899                Dew Moore Wisdom                   (b. 1836 - d. ....)
1899 - 1905                J. Blair Shoenfelt                 (b. 1859 - d. 19..)
1905 - 1914                Dana H. Kelsey



Osage Nation

[Osage Nation (Oklahoma)]

1881                       Constitution adopted.
28 Jun 1906                Osage Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma federally recognized.
11 Mar 2006                Renamed Osage Nation.

Grand Tsi-shu (Sky) chiefs

17.. - c.1795              Arrow Going Home Claremore I       (d. c.1795)
c.1795 - c.1796            Town Maker Claremore II
c.1796 - 1808              White Hair I                       (d. 1808)
1808 - bf.1822             White Hair II
bf.1822 - 1833             (George?) White Hair III           (d. 1833)
1833 - Jan 1852            George White Hair IV               (b. c.1802 - d.1852)
1833 - 12 Mar 1861         Iron Hawk White Hair V             (b. 1813 - d. 1861)
1861 - 24 Dec 1869         Little White Hair                  (d. 1869)
Grand Hun-ka (Earth) chiefs
17.. - 1794                Ko-she-se-gra I (Tracks Far Away I)(d. 1794)
                             (= Jean Lafon)
1794 - bf.1820             Ko-she-se-gra II
                             (Tracks Far Away II)        
bf.1820 - Dec 1824         Ko-she-se-gra III
"Mad Buffalo"    (d. 1824)
                             (Tracks Far Away III)
18.. - 18..                Pawnee-no-pa-she I [Star Chief I)
18.. - Dec 1869            Joseph "Joe" Pawnee-no-pa-she II
                             (Star Chief II)
(= Governor Joe)  (b. 1837 - d. 1883)
Governor
D
ec 1869 - 1882           
Joseph "Joe" Pawnee-no-pa-she II   (s.a.)
                            (= Governor Joe)  
Principal Chiefs
1882 - 1883                Governor Joe                       (s.a.) 
1883 - 188.                Strike Axe
188. - 1900                James Bigheart                     (b. 1838 - d. 1908)
1900 - 1906                direct administration by US agents
28 Jun 1906 - 1908         Ne-kah-wah-she-tun-kah (1st time)  (b. 1839 - d. 1923)
Jun 1908 - 1910            Peter Cassi Bigheart               (b. 1838 - d. 1915)
Jun 1910 - 1912            A.H. Brown

Jun 1912 - 1913            Bacon Rind (Wah-tse-mon-in)        (b. 1860 - d. 1932)
1913 - 1914                Fred Lookout (1st time)            (b. 1865 – d. 1949)
Jun 1914 - 1916            A-she-gah-hre
Jun 1916 - 1918
           Fred Lookout (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Jun 1918 - 1920            Charles Brown
Jun 1920 - 1922            Arthur Bonnicastle
Jun 1922 -  3 Aug 1923
    Ne-kah-wah-she-tun-kah (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Aug 1923 - Jun 1924        Paul Red Eagle
Jun 1924 - 28 Aug 1949     Fred Lookout (3rd time)            (s.a.)
1949 - 1954                John Oberly
1954 - 1970                Paul Warren Pitts
1970 - 1982                Sylvester J. Tinker                (b. 1903 - d. 1991)
1982 - 1990                George E. Tallchief
1990 - 2002                Charles O. Tillman, Jr
2002 - 2010                James Ronan Gray
 4 Aug 2010 -  2 Jul 2014  John D. Red Eagle
 2 Jul 2014 -              Geoffrey M. Standing Bear          (b. 1953)


Otoe-Missouria

[Otoe-Missouria
                Tribe (Oklahoma)]


Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma

Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma

30 Nov 1938                Ottawa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma, federal recognition.  
 3 Aug 1956
- 15 May 1978  Federal recognition terminated.

Chiefs
.... - May 2011            John R. Ballard
May 2011 -                 Ethel E. Cook (f)  

Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma

Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma
                        Adopted 1977

1875                       Most of the Pawnee are moved to Oklahoma.
26 Nov 1937                Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma, federal recognition granted.
 6 Jan 1938                Constitution ratified.

Presidents
1936 - 1983                ....
1983 - 1985                Lawrence Goodfox, Jr. (1st time)     (b. 1924 - d. 1994)
1985 - 1987                Robert L. Chapman (1st time)
1987 - 1989                Lawrence Goodfox, Jr. (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1989 - 1993?               Robert L. Chapman (2nd time)
1993 - 1995                Alexander Harold Matthews            (b. 1929 - d. 2008)
1995 - 1997                Elizabeth Blackowl (f)
c.2000                     Robert L. Chapman (3rd time)
2003 - 2005                George E. Howell (1st time)
2005 - 2007                Ronald J. Rice
2007 - 2011                George E. Howell (2nd time)
21 May 2011 -              Marshall Gover


Peoria of Oklahoma

[Peoria Tribe of Indians of
                Oklahoma]

30 May 1854                Kaskaskia, Peoria, Piankeshaw and Wea Indians united into
                             a single tribe (Confederated Peoria).
1867                       Relocated to Oklahoma.
16 Aug 1939                Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, federally recognized.
10 Oct 1939                Constitution ratified.
 2 Aug 1956 - 15 May 1978  Federal recognition terminated.

Chiefs
c.1939 - 1947              George W. Skye                      (d. 1947)
1947 - 1972                Guy Willis Froman                   (b. 1902 - d. 1994)
1972? - Sep 1986           Rodney Arnette                      (d. 1986)
Sep 1986 - Mar 1987        Wallis O. McNaughton                (b. 1922 - d. 2006)
                             (interim)
Mar 1987 - 1994            Louis E. Myers                      (b. 1915 - d. 1994)
                             (acting to 1988)
1994 - 1998                Don Giles
1998 - Jun 2000            Ronald "Ron" Froman                 (b. 1940 - d. 2006)
2001 -                     John P. Froman

Quapaw Tribe of Oklahoma (O-Gah-Pah)

Quapaw (Ogahpah) Tribe of
                Oklahoma (U.S.)
                       Adopted 1970s

1818                       Quapaw cede all claims from the Red River to beyond the Arkansas
                             and east of the Mississippi to the U.S.
1834                       Removal to Indian Territory.
1920                       Quapaw Agency.
19 Aug 1956                Governing resolution adopted.
20 Sep 1957                Quapaw Tribe of Oklahoma federally recognized.

Chiefs

18.. - 1874                Lame Chief                            (b. c.1800 - d. 1874)
1874 - 1918                Tall Chief (Louis Angel)              (b. c.1840 - d. 1918)
1918 - 1926                Peter Clabber
1927 - 1929                John Quapaw (Pa Zhanke)               (d. 1929)

Apr 1929 - Aug 1956        William Victor Griffin                (b. 1873 - d. 1958)
                             (Geh-Hu-He Jinka)
Chairmen
Aug 1956 - 1968            Robert A. Whitebird, Sr.              (b. 1913 - d. 2005)
1968? - 1972               John McKibben                         (b. 1914 - d. 1992)
24 Jan 1972 - 1973         Jake Whitecorn
1973? - 1974               John D. Redeagle
1974 - 1989?               Jesse McKibben                        (b. 1927 - d. 2009)
1990? - 1994               J.R. Mathews
1994 - 1996                Grace M. Goodeagle (f)
1996 - 2000                Edgar "Ed" Rodgers                    (b. 1946 - d. 2004)
2000 - 2002                Tamara Martin Summerfield (f)         (b. 1971)
2002 -                     John L. Berrey

Sac and Fox Nation of Oklahoma

Sac and Fox Nation of
                Oklahoma

1867 - 1891                Sac and Fox Reservation
27 Oct 1937                Sac and Fox Nation of Oklahoma federally recognized.

 7 Dec 1937                Constitution ratified.

Principal Chiefs
1937 - 1939                ....
1939 - 1951                Don Whistler                      (b. 1894 - d. 1951)
1951 - 1954?               Amos Black?                       (d. 1954)
1954 - 1957                Emery Foster
1957 - 1963                Rex Whistler                      (b. 1903 - d. 1971)
1965 - 1973                Elmer Manatowa                    (b. 1933 - d. 2012)
Aug 1973 - Aug 1975        Dora S. Schexnider (f)(1st time)  (b. 1939)
1975? - 1980?              Alvin S. Falls
1980 - 1987                John "Jack" R. Thorpe             (b. 1937 - d. 2011)
1987 - 1995                Elmer Manatowa
1995 - 1997                Dora S. Young (f)(2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (= Dora S. Schexnider)
Nov 1997 - 2003            Don W. Abney
2003 - 2007                Kay Rhoads (f)
14 Sep 2007 -              George Thurman

Seminole Nation of Oklahoma

[Seminole
                          Confederate flag]
   1861 - 1865  Pro-Confederate States flag
[Seminole Nation of Oklahoma Flag]
         Modern Seminole of Oklahoma Flag

 1 Jul 1861                Treaty of alliance with the Confederate States of America
                             divided the Seminole nation.
21 Mar 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.
24 Apr 1906 - 1935         End of national-self government.
1970                       Tribal government reorganized (Seminole Nation of Oklahoma).

Principal chiefs
1826 – Nov 1833            John Hicks "Tuckose Emathla"       (b. c.1774 – d. 1833)
1833 - Jan 1841            Mikanopi                           (d. 1849)
Jan 1841 - c.1849          Miconnutcharsar "Jim Jumper"       (d. c.1849)
c.1849 - 1865              John Jumper (1st time)             (b. c.1820 - d. 1896)
                            (pro-Confederate chief 1861 - 1865;
                             continues in rebellion to 1875)
1866 - Mar 1881            John Chupco                        (b. c.1821 - d. 1881)
                            (pro-U.S. chief; in Kansas exile
                             1861 - 1865)
Mar 1881 - 1882            Hulputta Che
Jul 1882 - 1885            John Jumper (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1885 - 1901                John Frippo Brown -Governor        (b. 1842 - d. 1919)
                             (1st time)
1901 - 1905                Hulputta Micco                     (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
1905 - 1919                John Frippo Brown (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (Governor to 26 Apr 1906)

1919 - 1922                Interregnum
Chiefs
1922 - 21 Jun 1935         Alice Brown Davis (f)              (b. 1852 - d. 1935)

1935 - 1936                Chilli Fish
1936 - 1942                George Jones
1942 - 1944                Willie Haney
1944 - 1948                Jeffie Brown 
Jun 1948 – Aug 1948        Wattie Gibbs
1948 - Dec 1952            George Harjo                       (b. 1886 - d. 1952) 
Dec 1952 - Jul 1954        Marci Cully                        (b. 1910 - d. ....)
1955 - 1959                Philip Walker
1960 - 1969                John A. Brown 
1969 - 1972                Terry Walker
1972 - 1973                Floyd L. Harjo                     (b. 1911 - d. 2001)
1973 - 1977                Edwin Tanyan (1st time)            (b. 1925 - d. 1996)
1977 - 1978                Richmond Tiger
1978 - 1981                Tom Palmer
1981 - 1985                James N. Milam                     (b. 1929 - d. 2005)
1985 - 1989                Edwin Tanyan (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1989 - 2001                Jerry G. Haney
 1 Sep 2001 - Sep 2005     Kenneth Edward Chambers
Sep 2005 - Sep 2009        Enoch Kelley Haney                 (b. 1940)
 5 Sep 2009 -              Leonard M. Harjo                   (b. 1958?)

Seminole Indian Agents
 3 Mar 1821 - Sep 1821     Jean Peniθres
28 Sep 1821 - May 1822     John R. Bell
 8 May 1822 - 1830         Gad Humphrey 
Mar 1830 - 1833            John Phagan 
29 Aug 1833 - 28 Dec 1835  Wiley Thompson                     (d. 1835)
1836 - 1838?               William S. Pope
1838? - 1842               ....
19 Jan 1842 - Oct 1842     John McKee
29 Oct 1842 - Jun 1845     Thomas L. Judge
Jun 1845 - Apr 1853
        Marcellus Duval 
26 Apr 1853 - Apr 1854     Bryant H. Smithson 
20 Apr 1854 - Nov 1857     Josiah W. Washbourne
 5 Nov 1857 - 1861         Samuel Morton Rutherford

                             (1861 - 186. for the Confederate States) 
13 Jul 1861                William P. Davis (did not serve)
 7 Jan 1862 - 1865         George C. Snow 
1862 - 1865                Joseph Samuel Murrow               (b. 1835 - d. 1929)
                             (for the Confederate States)
18 Mar 1865 - Jun 1869
     George A. Reynolds 
23 Jun 1869 - Oct 1870     Theodor A. Baldwin
24 Oct 1870 
- 1874        Henry F. Breiner
1874 - 1914                the Muskogee Union Agents



Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma

Seneca-Cayuga of Oklahoma

26 Jun 1936                Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma federally recognized.

Chiefs

c.1937 - c.1942            Thomas Armstrong
1951 -  6 Apr 1957         David Charloe
1957 - 1961?               Hayden Spicer
Jun 1961 - 1963            Richard Whitetree
1963? - c.1972             Vernon Crow
c.1975 - c.1988            James H. Allen
c.1991 - c.1999            Terry Whitetree
c.1999 - c.2001            Jerry Dilliner
Jun 2001 - 2007            Leroy Howard
2007 - Jun 2008            Paul Spicer
 7 Jun 2008 -              LeRoy Howard


Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma (Loyal Shawnee)

[Shawnee Tribe of
              Oklahoma (Loyal Shawnee)]
                        Adopted 1986

 3 Jan 2001                Granted separate federal recognition from Cherokee.

 
Chairmen
1994 - 1999                Don Greenfeather
                   (b. 1946)
Sep 1999 - Feb 2001        James Squirrel
2001? -                    Ron Sparkman



Thlopthlocco Creek Tribal Town

[Thlopthlocco Creek
              Tribal Town (Oklahoma)]

Tonkawa

[Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma]

United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee 

(flag of United Keetoowah
                Band of Cherokee, Oklahoma)

29 Apr 1859                Keetoowah Society in Oklahoma organized.
 9 Jun 1939                Society reorganized as United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians.
10 Aug 1946                Federal recognition granted.
 3 Oct 1950                Constitution ratified.

Head Captains
1859 - 1887                Bud Gritts
                            (secretary to 14 Feb 1876)
1887 - 1905                Rabbit Bunch
Presidents
1905 - 1920                Richard Wolf
1920 - 1928                Price Cochran
1928 - 1934                Levi B. Gritts
1934 - 1939                Gabriel Terrapin
Principal Chiefs
1939 - 1946                John Hitcher

1946 - 1954                Jim Pickup  
1954 - 1960                Jeff Tindle
1960 - 1967                Jim Pickup
1967 - 1979                William Glory
1979 - 1983                James L. Gordon
1983 - 1991                John Hair
1991 - 1995                John Ross, Jr.
1996 - 2000                Jim Henson
2000 - 2004                Dallas Proctor
2005 -                     George G. Wickliffe



Wichita and Affiliated Tribes

[Wichita and Affiliated Tribes
              (Oklahoma)]


Wyandotte of Oklahoma

Wyandotte Tribe of
                Oklahoma

17 Jul 1937                Wyandotte Tribe of Oklahoma, federal recognition.
 
1 Aug 1956 - 15 May 1978  Wyandotte Tribe of Oklahoma's federal recognition terminated.

1995                       Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma acquires self-governance status
                             from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Principal Chiefs
1850 - 1851                George I. Clarke (2nd time)     (d. 1858)
1852                       James Washington
1853                       John D. Brown
1853 - 1855                Tauromee (2nd time)             (d. 1870)
1856                       George I. Clarke (3rd time)     (s.a.)
1857                       Matthew Mudeater
1858                       George I. Clarke (4th time)     (s.a.)
1858                       Silas Armstrong (1st time)      (d. 1865)
1858/59                    John Sarahess
1859/60                    Matthew Mudeater (1st time)
Aug 1865 - Dec 1865        Silas Armstrong (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1868 - 15 Jan 1870         Tauromee (3rd time)             (s.a.)
1870                       John Kayrahoo
1870                       John W. Greyeyes
1873                       Thomas Punch
1875                       Matthew Mudeater (2nd time)
c.1880                     Irvin P. Long (1st time)
1880 - 1882                Nicholas Cotter
1882 - 1883                Irvin P. Long (2nd time)
1886                       James Clark
1912                       Silas Armstrong II
1936                       Allen Johnson, Jr.
1936 - 1942                Leonard N. Cotter (1st time)
1944 - 1947                Sam Long
1947 - 1948                Mont Cotter (1st time)
1948 - 1954                Leonard N. Cotter (2nd time)
1954 - 1962                Lawrence Zane
1963 - 1976                Leonard N. Cotter (3rd time)
1976 - 1978                Mont Cotter (2nd time)
1978 - 1983                Phillip Peacock
Sep 1983 - 31 May 2011     Leaford Bearskin                 (b. 1921 - d. 2012)
 1 Jun 2011 -              Billy Friend



Oregon

Burns Paiute

[Burns Paiute Tribe
                of the Burns Paiute Indian Colony of Oregon]

1937                       Reservation set aside.
1953 – 1978                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
16 Nov 1967                Burns Paiute Indian Colony, recognition by the U.S. confirmed.
bf.1995                    Burns Paiute Tribe of the Burns Paiute Indian Colony of Oregon.

Chief
1884 – 1935                "Captain Louie"                  (b. c.1845 – d. 1935)
Chairmen
1937 – 19..                ....
c.1967                     Truman Teeman                    (b. 1940 – d. 2011)
c.1984                     Vernon Shake Spear
bf.1990 - af.1992          Larry Richards
bf.1993 - 1995             Herbert W. Hawley
1995 – 1996                Albert Teeman (1st time)
1996 – 2001                Wanda Johnson (f) (1st time)
2001 – 2003                Albert Teeman (2nd time)
2003 – 2004                Dean Adams (1st time)
2004 – 2006                Barbara Sam (f)
2006 – 2007                Dean Adams (2nd time)
2007 – 2009                Wanda Johnson (f) (2nd time)
2009 – 2011                Diane L. Teeman (f)
2011 – 2013                Charisse Soucie (f)
2013 -                     Charlotte Roderique (f)


Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Confederated

[Coos, Lower Umpqua and
              Siuslaw Confederated (Oregon)]
                       Adopted 2009

13 Aug 1956                Terminated by the U.S. as a part of Siletz.
17 Oct 1984                Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians
                             of Oregon, recognized by the U.S., remains under jurisdiction
                             of state courts and law enforcement.
2003                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
c.1929                     George B. Wasson
1936 – 19..                Howard Barrett, Sr. (1st time)   (d. 1957)
c.1941                     James Siestreem
bf.1947 - 1957             Howard Barrett, Sr. (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1957 – 1971                George Barton
1971 – 19..                William P. Brainard (1st time)   (b. 1932 – d. 2003)
c.1980                     Richard E. Jordan, Jr. (1st time)
c.1981                     Russell J. Anderson
198. – 1984                Richard E. Jordan, Jr. (2nd time)
1984 – 1985                William P. Brainard (2nd time)   (s.a.)
bf.1989 - af.1990          Richard E. Jordan, Jr. (3rd time)
bf.1992 - 1994             Henry Stephen Brainard
1994 – 1998                Gregory A. Norton
1998 – 2000                Richard Clarkson
2000 – 2001                Wanda Williford (f)
2001 – 2007                Ronald Brainard
2007 – 2009                Brian Garcia
2009 -                     Robert Garcia


Coquille
 

[Coquille Indian Tribe
                (Oregon)]

13 Aug 1956                Terminated by the U.S. as a part of Siletz.
28 Jun 1989                Coquille Indian Tribe, recognized by the U.S., remains under
                             jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1995                       Gaming compact.
1998                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
c.1984                     James I. Metcalf (1st time)
c.1989                     Wilfred C. Wasson
bf.1991 - 1992             James I. Metcalf (2nd time)
1992 – 2012                Edward L. Metcalf
2012 -                     Brenda Meade (f)



Cow Creek Umpqua

[Cow Creek Umpqua
                (Oregon)]

1910 – 1918                Roseburg agency.
13 Aug 1956                Terminated by the U.S as a part of Grand Ronde.
29 Dec 1982                Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians, recognized by the U.S.;
                             remains under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1992                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
19.. – 1983                Charles Jackson
1983 – 2010                Sue M. Shaffer (f)
2010 -                     Daniel Courtney



Grand Ronde Confederated Tribes

[Grand Ronde Confederated
              Tribes (Oregon)]

1850 – 1956                Grand Ronde (to 1856, Rogue River; from 1909, Salem) agency.
1853 - 1855                Treaties with the U.S.
30 Jun 1857                Grand Ronde Reservation established.
13 May 1936                Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community (consisting of
                             24 tribes).
1953                       Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
13 Aug 1956 – 22 Nov 1983  Tribe terminated by the U.S.

1995                       Self-governance agreement, gaming compact.

Chairmen
bf.1934 - 193.             ....
c.1936                     Abraham J. Hudson
bf.1937 - af.1940          Edgar Simmons
c.1951                     Celia Smith (f)
c.1954                     Reibach
1956 – 1983                abolished
c.1983                     Harold D. Mercier                (b. 1930 – d. 2011)
bf.1986 - 1996             Mark A. Mercier
1996 – 2001                Kathryn Harrison (f)             (b. 1924)
2001 – 2006                Cheryle A. Kennedy (f)(1st time) (b. 1948)
2006 – 2007                Christopher Mercier
2007 – 2012                Cheryle A. Kennedy (f)(2nd time) (s.a.)
2012 -                     Reynold L. Leno                  (b. 1950)


Klamath

[Klamath tribe
                (Oregon)]

1854 – 1961                Klamath (to 1856, Southeastern) agency (1856–1861 closed).

14 Oct 1864                Treaty with the U.S. (ratified 2 Jul 1866), Klamath Reservation
                             established.
23 Dec 1929                Klamaths, Modoc, and Yahooskin Band of Snake Indians, Klamath
                             Reservation, Oregon - first constitution adopted.
15 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.

1953                       Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
12 Aug 1961 – 27 Aug 1986  Tribe terminated by the U.S.

27 Aug 1986                Klamath Indian Tribe of Oregon
1994                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Klamath Tribes

Head chiefs of Klamath (largest tribe of the reservation)
bf.1850 - 1869             Lileks (La Lakes)
1869 – 1874                Allen David (Boos-ki-you)           (b. c1825 – d. af1904)
1874 – 1904                Henry Blow (Lol-to-bux)             (b. 1824 – d. 1904)
Head chief of Modoc (second largest tribe of the reservation)
bf.1846 - 1892             Schonchin                           (b. c.1797 – d. 1892)

Chairmen

18.. – 1908                General Council
1908 – 19..                ....
c.1911                     Eugene Isaacs
c.1922                     Seldon E. Kirk (1st time)
c.1929                     Wade Crawford
c.1947                     Jesse L. Kirk, Sr.                   (b. 1894 – d. 19..)
1958 – 1961                Seldon E. Kirk (2nd time)
1961 – 1975                abolished
1975 – af.1982             Elnathan U. Davis                    (b. 1922 – d. 1991)
c.1984                     Elwood Miller
c.1986                     Charles E. Kimbol, Sr. (1st time)    (b. 1934)

c.1989                     Lynn Schonchin, Sr.
19.. – 1992                Charles E. Kimbol, Sr. (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1992 – 1994                Tom J. Ball

1994 – 1996                Marvin Garcia
1996 – 2000                Jeff C. Mitchell
2000 – 2007                Allen Foreman
2007 – 2010                Joseph S. Kirk
2010 – 2013                Gary D. Frost, Sr.
2013 -                     Don Gentry


Siletz Confderated Tribes

Confderated Tribes of Siletz
                Indians (Oregon)
                    Adopted 1995/96

1853 - 1855                 Treaties with the U.S.
1854 – 1925                 Siletz (to 1856, Port Orford) agency.
 9 Nov 1855                 Coast Reservation established (in 1865 divided into Siletz and
                              Alsea Reservations).
1894                        Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1920, the majority
                              were citizens).
1895                        Reservation opened to the non-Indian settlement.
30 Jun 1933                 Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation (consisting of 27
                              tribes), first constitution adopted.
 6 Apr 1935                 Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1953                        Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
13 Aug 1956 – 18 Nov 1977   Tribe terminated by the U.S.
18 Nov 1977                 Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Indians of Oregon, federal
                              recognition restored.
1994                        Self-governance agreement.
2000                        Gaming compact.

Head chief of the Confederated Tribes

1870 – 1900                 George Harney (Ohlatha)             (b. 1837 – d. 1900)

Chairmen
1921 – 19..                 ....
c.1940                      Coquelle Thompson, Jr.      
bf.1950 – 1956              Elmer Logan
1956 – 1973                 abolished
1973 – 1985                 Arthur S. Bensell
1985 -                      Delores A. Pigsley (f)


Umatilla Confederated Tribes

[Umatilla Indian Reservation Confederated Tribes
                (Oregon)]

1851                        Eastern Oregon (from 1861, Umatilla) Indian Agency established.
  9 Jun 1855                Three confederated tribes under the U.S protection; the Umatilla
                              Indian Reservation established.
1887                        Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1920, the majority
                              were citizens).
15 Jun 1935                 Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
 4 Nov 1949                 Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation.
1953 – 1981                 Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1994                        Gaming compact with the state.
2005                        Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Head chiefs of Cayuse (largest tribe of the confederacy)
1835 – 1843                 Tawatoy "Young Chief I" (1st time)  (b. c.1805 - d. 1853)
1843 – 1848                 Hezekiah
                             (Pahkatos Qohqoh "Five Crows")     (b. c.1800 – d. af.1857)
1848 – 1853                 Tawatoy "Young Chief I” (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1853 – 1859                 Weatenatenamy "Young Chief II"      (d. 1859)
1859 – 1861                 "Young Chief III"
1861 – 1862                 Howlish Wampo (1st time)            (d. 1880)
1862 – 1868                 Tintinemetsa                        (d. 1868)
1868 – 1880                 Howlish Wampo (2nd time)            (s.a.)
c.1890                      "Young Chief IV"
Head chiefs of Walla Walla (2nd largest tribe of the confederacy)
bf.1834 – 1856              Pyopyo Maqsmaqs "Yellow Bird"       (b. c.1790 – d. 1856)
185. – 1863                 Pierre (1st time)
1863 – 18..                 Xumlay (1st time)                   (b. c.1820 – d. 1891)
c.1871                      Pierre (2nd time)
bf.1873 - 1891              Xumlay (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
Chairmen
c.1929                      General Council
bf.1949 - 19..              ....
c.1951                      Louis McFarland
c.1967                      David S. Hall
1974 – 1980                 Les Minthorn (1st time)
bf.1982 - 1985              Elwood H. Patawa (1st time)
1985 – 1987                 Ken Hall
1987 – 1993                 Elwood H. Patawa (2nd time)
1993 – 1997                 Donald G. Sampson
1997 – 2001                 Antone C. Minthorn (1st time)
2001 – 2003                 Gary I. Burke (1st time)
2003 - 2009                 Antone C. Minthorn (2nd time)
2009 – 2011                 Elwood H. Patawa (3rd time)
2011 – 2013                 Les Minthorn (2nd time)
2013 -                      Gary I. Burke (2nd time)


Warm Springs Confederated Tribes

[Warm Springs, Wasco,
                  & Northern Paiutes Tribes (Oregon)]

25 Jun 1855                Under the U.S. protection (Confederated Tribes of the Middle
                             Oregon); the Warm Springs Indian Reservation established.
1861                       Warm Springs Indian Agency established.
1887                       Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1920, all were
                             citizens).
23 Apr 1938                Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation.
1995                       Gaming compact with the state.   

Head chiefs of Tenino
(largest tribe of the confederacy, title of chief: Miyuux)
c.1855                     Alexis
bf.1873 - af.1890          Lee Queahpama
1931 – 1942                Frank Queahpama                  (d. 1942)
                             [not the last head chief]
Head chiefs of Wasco
((2nd largest tribe of the confederacy, title of chief: Icta'mx)
bf.1855 - af.1875          Mark
c.1890                     Philip Pianoose
bf.1937 - 1942             George Meachem                   (d. 1942)
                             [not the last head chief]
Chairmen
bf.1929 - 19..             ....
bf.1937 – 1938             Jerry Brunoe
1938 – 18 Jul 1942         George Meachem                   (s.a.)
 3 Aug 1942 – 1944         Isaac McKinley
1944 – 1947                Charles Jackson (1st time)
1947 – 1953                Alex Miller, Sr. (1st time)
1953 – 1956                Sam Jackson
1956 – 1959                Alex Miller, Sr. (2nd time)
1959 – 1962                Charles Jackson (2nd time)
1962 – 1965                Edwin Scott 
1965 – 1968                Olney Patt, Sr. (1st time)
1968 – 1971                Grant Waheneka 
1971 – 1974                Olney Patt, Sr. (2nd time)
1974 – 1977                Zane Jackson (1st time)
1977 – 1980                Eugene Greene, Sr. 
1980 – 1983                Delbert Frank, Sr. 
1983 – 1992                Zane Jackson (2nd time)
1992 – 1995                Raymond Calica, Sr. 
1995 – 1996                Bruce Brunoe, Sr. 
1996 – 1998                Joseph Moses
1998 – 13 Jun 2003         Olney Patt, Jr.
13 Jun 2003 – 2004         Garland Brunoe
2004 – 2010                Ronald Suppah, Sr. 
2010 – 2013                Stanley B. Smith, Jr.
2013 -                     Eugene Greene, Jr.



Pennsylvania

None Recognized

Rhode Island

Narragansett Indian Tribe

Narragansett Indian Tribe
                (Rhode Island)

1636                       Ally (later subject) of the English.
1682                       Reservation set aside.
1880                       Narragansett de-tribalized by Rhode Island.
Dec 1934                   Narragansett Tribe of Indians incorporated.
11 Apr 1983                Narragansett Indian Tribe of Rhode Island granted federal
                             recognition, remains under jurisdiction of state courts and law
                             enforcement.


Grand Chiefs
c.1524                     Tashtasuck
c.15..                     Canonicus I
bf.1615 - 1647             Canonicus II                     (b. c.1565 – d. 1647)
1647 – 1676                Canonchet                        (d. 1676)
Chiefs
1676 – 1679                Ninigret I                       (d. 1679)
1679 – 1686                Weunquesh (f)                    (d. 1686)
1686 – 1723                Ninigret II (Anquawas)           (d. 1723)
1723 – 1735                Charles Augustus Ninigret        (d. 1735)
1735 – 1746                George Augustus Ninigret         (d. 1746)
1746 – 1769                Thomas Ninigret                  (b. 1736 – d. 1769)
1746 – 175.                Sarah George-Ninigret (f) -Regent
1769 – 1777                Esther Ninigret-Sachem (f)       (d. 1777)
1777 – 1779                George Sachem                    (b. 1757 – d. 1779)
1779 – 1792                Tribal Council (elected annually)
Governors
1792 – 1850                ....
Presidents     
1850 – 18..                ....
bf.1879 – 1896             Gideon L. Ammons                 (b. 1811 – d. 1899)
1896 – 1901                George Ammons                    (d. 1923)
1901 – 1934                Abolished
Chief Sachems
1934 – 19..                Philip H. Peckham "Night Hawk"
19.. - 1964                ....

1964 – 1986                George Watson                    (b. 1899 – d. 1986)
1986 – 1988                David K. Mars
1988 – 1990                Walter Babcock
1990 – 1996                George Hopkins                   (b. 1915 - d. 1996)
1997 -                     Matthew Thomas "Seventh Hawk"

South Carolina

Catawba Indian Nation
(Catawba Tribe of South Carolina)


[Catawba Indian Tribe of South
              Carolina]



South Dakota

Cheyenne River Sioux 

[Cheyenne River Sioux - South Dakota (U.S.)]

 2 Mar 1889                Cheyenne River Indian Reservation established.
27 Dec 1935                Cheyenne River Reservation Sioux Tribe of Indians, f
ederal
                             recognition.

Chairmen
1936 - 1942                Luke Gilbert
1942 - 1946                Samuel Charger
1946                       Iron Lightning
1946 - 1950                Albert LeBeau, Sr.
1950 - 1958                Frank Ducheneaux
1958 - 1962                Anthony A. Rivers II
1962                       Andrew LeBeau 
1962 - 1970                Frank Ducheneaux
1970 - 1974                Theophile Traversie                   (b. 1934 - d. 2007)
1974 - 1978                Wayne L. Ducheneaux (1st time)        (b. 1936 - d. 2012)
1978 - 1982                Melvin Garreau, Sr. 
1982                       Kenneth West
1982                       Lanny LaPlant
1982                       Robert Chasing Hawk
1982 - 1986                Morgan Garreau
1986 - 1990                Wayne L. Ducheneaux (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1990 -  7 Dec 2002         Gregg Bourland                        (b. c.1957)
 7 Dec 2002 - 2006         Harold Frazier
2006 -  7 Dec 2010         Joseph Brings Plenty, Sr.             (b. c.1970)
 7 Dec 2010 -              Kevin C. Keckler


Crow Creek Sioux

[Crow Creek Sioux
              Tribe (South Dakota)]

1868                       Crow Creek Reservation established.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
26 Apr 1949                Constitution adopted.


Chairmen

1946 - 1954                Vernon L. Ashley                      (b. 1916)
195. - 19..                Annie Thompson (f)
c.1961                     Robert G. Philbrick                   (b. 1911 - d. 1992)
May 1965 - 1968?           Ansel Carpenter                       (b. 1933)
1968? - c.1973             Robert G. Philbrick (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1973 -  1 Jul 1977         Elnita Rank (f)
Jul 1977 - 19..            Ambrose McBride (acting)
c.1980 - c.1984            Robert G. Philbrick (3rd time)        (s.a.)
c.1985                     Wallace Wells                         (b. 1949 - d. 2008)
c.1990                     Donald McGhee
May 1992 - May 1998        Duane Big Eagle (1st time)            (b. 1946)
1998 - 2000                Harold Miller
2000 - 2002                Roxanne Sazue (f)                     (b. 1961)
2002 - 2006                Duane Big Eagle (2nd time)            (s.a.)
2006 - 2008                Lester Thompson, Jr.
2008 - 2010                Brandon J. Sazue (1st time)
May 2010 - Aug 2011        Duane Big Eagle (3rd time)            (s.a.)
Aug 2011 - 2012            Wilfred Keeble (acting)
Jun 2012 -                 Brandon J. Sazue (2nd time) 

Flandreau Santee Sioux 

[Flandreau Santee Sioux
                  (South Dakota)]
                       Adopted 1994

24 Apr 1936                Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe of South Dakota federally
                             recognized.

Tribal Presidents
1937 - 1938                George Eastman
1938                       John Allen 
1938 - 1940                Jess Wakeman 
1940 - 1941                Benjamin Jones 
1941 - 1948                Alexander Wakeman 
1948 - 1953                Francis Wakeman 
1953 - 1956                Richard Wakeman, Sr. 
1956 - 1963                George Allen, Sr. 
1963                       Felix Heminger
1963 - 1972                Gordon Jones, Sr. 
1972 - 1974                Agnes Ross (f)
1974 - 1979                Richard P. Allen 
1978 - 1979                Andrew Weston 
1979 - 1983                Kenneth Allen 
1983 - 1985                Carolyn Sorensen (f)
1985 - 1987                Elmer Weston 
1987 - 1990                Judith Peterson (f)
1990 - 1992                Lee Taylor 
1992 - 1989                William Schumacher
1989 - 2002                Thomas Ranfranz 
2002 - 2004                Leonard Eller 
2004 - 2006                Mark Allen
2006 -                     Anthony Reider



Lower Brule Sioux

[Lower Brule Sioux Tribe
              (Oklahoma)]


Oglala Sioux

[Oglala Sioux]
                  Adopted 9 Mar 1962

17..                       Seven Fires Confederacy
1825                       Under U.S. protection (Great Sioux Nation).
29 Apr 1868                Great Sioux Reservation created by Treaty of Fort Laramie.
 2 Mar 1889                Divided into five reservations, the largest being the
                             Pine Ridge Reservation.
18 Jun 1934                Oglala Sioux Tribe federally recognized.

Chief
1865 - 1909                Makhpiya-Luta "Red Cloud"      (b. 1822 - d. 1909)
1909 - 1934                ....
Presidents
1934 - 1936                Robert Bad Wound
1936 - 1942                Frank G. Wilson (1st time)
1942 - 1946                James H. Red Cloud
1946 - 1948                James Roan Eagle 
1948 - 1950                William Fire Thunder
1950 - 1952                Harry Conro
1952 - 1954                Charles Under Baggage
1954 - 1956                Moses Two Bulls
1956 - 1960                Frank G. Wilson (2nd time)
1960 - 1962                Johnson Holy Rock, Sr. (1st time)
1962 - 1964                Enos Poor Bear, Sr. (1st time)
1964 - 1966                William Whirlwind Horse
1966 - 1968                Johnson Holy Rock, Sr. (2nd time)
1968 - 1970                Enos Poor Bear, Sr. (2nd time)
1970 - 1972                Gerald One Feather
1972 - 1976                Richard "Dick" Wilson
1976 - 1978                Albert W. Trimble
1978 - 1980                Elijah Whirlwind Horse
1980 - 1982                Stanley Looking Elk
1982 - 1984                Joe American Horse (1st time)
1984 - 1986                Newton Cummings
1986 - 1988                Joe American Horse (2nd time)
1988 - 1990                Paul Iron Cloud
1990 - 1992                Harold Dean Salway (1st time)
1992 - 1994                John Yellow Bird Steele        (b. 1948)
                             (1st time)
1994 - 1996                Wilbur Between Lodges
1996 - 1998                John Yellow Bird Steele        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1998 - 2000                Harold Dean Salway (2nd time)
2000                       Wilbur Between Lodges (2nd time)
                             (acting)
2000 -  2 Nov 2004         John Yellow Bird Steele        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 2 Nov 2004 - 29 Jun 2006  Cecilia J. Fire Thunder (f)    (b. 1946)
                             (suspended from 31 May 2006)
30 Jun 2006 - 2006         Alex White Plume               (b. 1952)
                             (president pro tem)
2006 - 2008                John Yellow Bird Steele
                             (4th time)
2008 -  7 Dec 2