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Traditional States in the 
Central African Republic

States: Bangassou - Dar al-Kuti - Rafai - Zemio

Note
:
The sultans ruled large conquered populations in the north and east of the present-day Central African Republic (CAR). They included the famous slave-trader al-Sanusi, eventually killed in battle with the French in 1911, and the sultans Labassou, Zemio, and Hetman, heads of conquering dynasties. The Banda in the central part of the CAR generally had no grands chefs and have been called "anarchistic" because of their various subgroupings and divisions. The Mandjia and Baya in the west and the riverine peoples along the Oubangui and Mbomou in the south had no grands chefs either. They had leaders of different kinds, however, for the settlement of disputes or to lead men in battle against an enemy, or as heads of kinship groupings. 

Dar al-Kuti

c.1830                     Omar Djougoultoum an exiled Baghirmi prince, 
                             founds Belad al-Kuti south of the Aouk River.
c.1830 - 1890              Tributary of Dar Runga (itself under Wadai).
1890                       Sultanate of Dar al-Kuti and Dar Rounga is established 

                             by conqueror Rabah.
28 Aug 1897                French protectorate over Dar al-Kuti.
17 Dec 1912                Sultanate suppressed by the French.

Sultans
c.1830 - c.1870            Umar al-Baghirmi Jugultum
                             (
Omar Djougoultoum)
c.1870 – 1890              Muhammad Kobur                     (b. c.1832 - d. 1892)
1890 - 12 Jan 1911         Muhammad al-Sanusi                 (b. c.1850 - d. 1911)
Jan 1911 - 17 Dec 1912     Abduallah Kamun (Kamoun)



Bangassou

c.1700                     Bandia warriors establish a kingdom in the Ubangi River region.
c.1790                     Ndounga of the Bandia clan becomes ruler over the Nzakara.

c.1876                     Sultanate of Bangassou.
14 Jun 1890 - 14 Aug 1894  Congo Free State protectorate over the Sultanate of Bangassou.
14 Aug 1894                French suzerainty over the Sultanate of Bangassou, under
                             the 12 Jul 1894 France-Congo Free State agreement.
23 Feb 1909                French protectorate over the Sultanate of Bangassou.
1917                       Sultanate suppressed by the French.

Chiefs 
.... - ....                Ngoungou               
17.. - 17..                Ngbanda           
17.. - 17..                Koube              
17.. - 17..                Ngoubéngué
c.1780 - c.1800            Ndounga 
c.1800 - c.1830            Mbilinga 
c.1830 - c.1860            Gbandi (Boendi)                    (d. c.1860)
c.1860 - c.1878            Mbali-Gbandi (Mbardi-Gandi)        (d. c.1878)
Sultans
c.1878 -  8 Jun 1907       Bangassou                          (b. c.1850 - d. 1907)
 8 Jun 1907 - 18 Feb 1917  Labassou                           (d. 1917)
                             (acting to 23 Feb 1909)
Jun 1907 - 23 Feb 1909     Bangassou-Kété (in opposition)
Feb 1917 - 1918            Banzanga                           (d. 1918/20)
1918 - 1932                Kélenga                            (d. 1932)
1932 - 1936                Antoine Gounga                     (d. 1942)
1936 - 1966                Amiel Sayo                         (b. 1885 - d. 1966)



Rafai

c.1800                     Kassanga founds a Bandia kingdom in the Chinko (Shinko) River valley.
c.1885                     Sultanate of Rafai
1886                       Rafai occupied the chiefdom of Djabir.
 7 Apr 1892 - 31 Mar 1909  Congo Free State protectorate over the Sultanate of Rafai.

 9 Feb 1895                French forces occupy Rafai city and Rafai North of the Mbomou River,
                             according to the 12 Jul 1894 France-Congo Free State agreement.
31 Mar 1909                French protectorate over the Sultanate of Rafai.

29 Oct 1939                Sultanate suppressed by the French.

Rulers
c.1800 - 18..              Kassanga
18.. - 18..                Tossi (Tosi)
18.. - 18..                Sangou
c.1830 - 18..              Bayangi (Baingui) 
Sultans
c.1885 - 15 Jun 1900       Rafai                              (b. c.1855 - d. 1900)
15 Jun 1900 - 29 Oct 1939  Hetman                             (b. 1876 - d. 1939)
1939 - 1966                Auguste Fatrane                    (b. c.1907 - d. 1978)



Zemio


c.1830                     Nounga of Vungara kingdom founds a Zande state (later named Zemio)
                             between the Chinko (Shinko) and
the Uele (Ouelle) Rivers.
c.1872                     Named Sultanate of Zemio.
11 Dec 1894 - 12 Apr 1909  Congo Free State protectorate over the Sultanate of Zemio.
10 Jul 1895                French forces occupy Zemio city and Zemio North of Mbomou River,
                             according to the 12 Jul 1894 France-Congo Free State agreement.
12 Apr 1909                French protectorate over the Sultanate of Zemio.

1923                       Sultanate suppressed by the French.

Rulers
c.1830 - c.1835            Nounga
18.. - c.1855              Zangabirou                         (d. c.1858)
c.1855 - c.1872            Tikima                             (d. c.1872)
Sultans
c.1872 - 12 Oct 1912       Zemio (= Zémio-Ikpiro)             (b. c.1841 - d. 1912)
12 Oct 1912 - Oct 1920     Zemio-Mbomou (= Zémio-M'Bomou)     (d. 1921)
Oct 1920 - 1923            Momi (= Inguipa)






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