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About World

Updates Alphabetical Index Material Needed Contributors Bibliography

International Orgs.
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Welcome to World!

       World is an online encyclopedia of the leaders of nations and territories.  The goal of this site is to provide researchers with detailed lists of leaders, chronologies, flags, national anthems and maps to give an in-depth portrait of polities past and present.

      This site would not be possible without the help of Bob Hilkens, author of States and Regents of the World, Alexander Kunde, Juan Jorge Schaffer, John McMeekin, Dr. John DaGraca (author of Heads of State and Government), Jaume Ollé, Daniel Trigaux, Paris Renesis, Jānis Lasmanis, Andre Labrie, Henry Soszynski author of Genealogical Gleanings, and Oleg Schultz author of Archontology, in addition to the many contributors cited in the contributors page. I would like to thank everyone very much for their help and commitment to making this site more complete and accurate.

     World is updated frequently and the editor welcomes and appreciates comments, corrections and additions.  This site will always be a work in progress, there will always be more information to collect, new countries and provinces to add, and leaders to include.  Items are that still needed on the Help Needed page, please have a look and contribute if you have access to any of this data.  If you would like to use any material on this site for any reason or link to this site contact me to obtain permission. Finally, any financial contributions, via secure PayPal, will help to maintain this site,
pay for internet access and research materials.

     Below is explanation of the abbreviations, conventions, noble titles as well as a visual explanation of layout of a typical country page.

        -Ben Cahoon



DATES: All dates since 1700 are given in the Gregorian calendar ("new style") as opposed to Julian ("old style") dates or other calendar systems, unless otherwise noted. The introduction of the Gregorian calendar, proclaimed by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, was not universally accepted and took centuries for nations to pass legislative acts for switching to the New Style. Transfers occurred after 1582 in: Austria (1584), Transylvania (1590), Duchy of Prussia (1612),  Denmark-Norway and Brandenburg  (1700), Switzerland (1701), Tuscany (1750), Great Britain and colonies (1752), Sweden (1753),  Japan (1873), China (1912 confirmed 1929), Albania (1913), Bulgaria (1916), Russia (1918), Yugoslavia (1919), Greece (1923), Romania (1924), and Turkey (1927) (click here for more on this topic).

(?)  The question mark is used where an exact year of the beginning or end of a term is approximately known, The question mark is also used to indicate dates at which the person is known to have been in office, e.g., "1924? - 1925?" means the term began in 1924 or earlier and ended in 1925 or later or if the identity of the person is in question "Ralph Dryer?".

(f)  Indicates a female ruler when a title is non-gender specific. Therefore, (f) would follow a female President  "Tarja Halonen (f)", of Finland or former after British Prime minister "Margaret Thatcher (f)".  This abbreviation does not follow the names of Queen Elizabeth II, Empress Catherine II, Grand Duchess Charlotte, or Abbess Maria von Retchburg for example, because these titles explicitly convey the holders gender.

c. = Circa,  i.e. the approximate year. This is used when historical records are uncertain or in conflict.

bf. = Before, af. = After.  These are used where slightly more than an approximate date is indicated.

b. = year Born, d. = year Died; 

s.a. = See Above, s. b. = See Below.  Please note that some given birth years may be questionable, as different sources often give contradictory information. In cases where birth or death year are unclear, the date is followed by a question mark (i.e., "1923?"), however,  this does not mean that the year is guaranteed to be 100% correct when there is no question mark. When only a birth year is given, it should not be taken for granted that the person is indeed still alive, i.e. (b. 1898) with no death date.

est.  = Estimate(d).

a.k.a = Also Known As

(....)  = When date(s) or name(s) are unknown the ellipsis is used.

N/A  = data Not Available or unknown.

N.S. = New Style (Gregorian calendar date)

O.S. = Old Style (Julian Calendar date)

Abbreviations for the Months: Jan = January; Feb = February; Mar = March; Apr = April; May;
Jun = June; Jul = July; Aug = August; Sep = September; Oct = October; Nov = November; 
Dec = December

Abbreviations of International 
Organizations and Agreements


Organization or Agreement
Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa; Banque Arabe pour le Developpement Économique en Afrique (BADEA), est.18 Feb 1974, operations began Mar 1975 (18 members).
Arctic Council, est. 18 Sep 1996
Arab Cooperation Council, est.16 Feb 1989, inactive from 1991, dissolved 1994 (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, North Yemen).
Agency for the French-Speaking Community; est. 1970, from Dec 1998 OIF.
African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States, est. 1975, 5 Apr 2020 renamed Organization of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (OACPS).

Association of Caribbean States; Asociación de Estados del Caribe; Association des États de la Caraïbe, est. 24 Jul 1994.

Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization; Organización del Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica (OTCA), est. 1995.
Asian Development Bank, est. 1966
African Development Bank; Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD), est. 1964
African Continental Free Trade Area of the African Union, signed 21 Mar 2018, effective 30 May 2019.
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, est.16 May 1968 (22 members).
Australia Group, est. Jun 1985 (also abbreviation of the Andean Group 1969-1992) (43 members).

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, est.25 Dec 2015, opened 16 Jan 2016.
Arab League, also known as League of Arab States (LAS), est. 1945

see Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los
de Nuestra América), est.14 Dec 2004 (10 members).
Arab Monetary Fund, est. 27 Apr 1976, operations began 1977 (22 members, Syria suspended from 16 Nov 2011).
Arab Maghreb Union, est. 1989
Antarctic Treaty, est. 1961
Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty, est.1 Sep 1951 (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 Aug 1986).
Arab Organization for Agricultural Development (AOAD), est. 1970 commenced operations 1972 functioning under the umbrella of League of Arab States (22  members).

Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), est.1990 (39 members, 5 observers).
Asian Parliamentary Assembly (APA), est.Sep 1999 (43 members, 14 observers);
originally named Association of Asian Parliaments for Peace (AAPP) 1999-2006.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, est.1989
(Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction), known informally as the Ottawa Treaty, the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention, or often simply the Mine Ban Treaty, signed 3 Dec 1997, entered into force 1 Mar 1999.

Arab Satellite Communications Organization, est.1976 (21 members, Syria suspended from 12 Nov 2011).
ASEAN Regional Forum, est. 25 Jul 1994 (27 members).

see: ADB (Asian Development Bank)
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, est 1967

Asian and Pacific Council, 1966-1973 (Australia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Republic of China [Taiwan], New Zealand, The Philippines, South Korea, South Vietnam and Thailand; with Cambodia, Indonesia and Laos as observers).
African Union, est. 2001, formerly OAU 1963-2001.
Australia, United Kingdom, and United States Agreement, trilateral security pact signed 15 Sep 2021 (Australia, U.K, (U.S.).
Baltic Assembly, est. 8 Nov 1991 (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania).

Baltic Free Trade Area, 1 Apr 1994 - 1 May 2004, dissolved when all states entered the EU (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania).
Central Bank of West African States; Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de
, est.4 Apr 1959 (8 members).
Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI); Banco Centroamericano
de Integración Econ
ómica (BCIE), est. 8 May 1961 (15 members).
Development Bank of Central African States; Banque de Développement
des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale, est. 3 Dec 1975, operations began 3 Jan 1977
 (6 members).
Bank of Central African States; Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale, est.22 Nov 1972 (6 members).
Benelux Economic Union (Benelux Economische Unie/Union Économique Benelux), signed 3 Feb1958, entered into force 1 Nov 1960; superseded Benelux Customs Union (signed 5 Sep 1944, effective from 1 Jan 1948); new Benelux Treaty signed on 17 June 2008 under a new name: the Benelux Union (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands).
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation,
est. 6 Jun 1997 (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand).
Bank for International Settlements, est. 26 Feb 1930

Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa. BRIC est.16 Jun 2009; BRICS est.24 Dec 2011 with addition of South Africa.
Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization, est. 25 Jun 1992
Biological (Biologic) and Toxin Weapons Convention, est. 26 Mar 1975.
The Commonwealth, formerly the known as the British Commonwealth, est. 1931.
Central American Common Market, est. 13 Dec 1960, disrupted from 1969, re-instated in 1991 (8 members).

Central Asian Economic Cooperation, est.1994 as Central Asian Economic Union,
in 1998 CAEC, from 2002 named Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (OCAC); in 2005 CAEC merged into EAEC.
Council of Arab Economic Unity, est. 3 Jun 1957; effective 30 May 1964
(18 members).

Central American Free Trade Agreement (or CAFTA-DR), est. 2 Aug 2005 (U.S., Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua).
Andean Community of Nations, Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN), formerly
known as the Andean Group (AG), est. 1969 and Andean Common Market (Ancom), as CAN from 1992.
Central American Parliament; Parlamento Centroamericano (or Parlacen), est. 1991
Caribbean Community and Common Market, est. 1973
Council of the Baltic Sea States, est. 5 Mar 1992.
Customs Cooperation Council, est. 15 Dec 1950 - 1994, from 1994 WCO.

Convention on Cluster Munitions, opened for signature 3 Dec 2008, entered into force on 1 Aug 2010.
Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States (Türk Dili Konuşan Ülkeler İşbirliği Konseyi), 3 Oct 2009-12 Nov 2021, renamed Organization of Turkic States (OTS) (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey and Uzbekistan).
Community of Democracies, est.27 Jun 2000 by the Warsaw Declaration "to
respect and uphold core democratic principles and practices" (31 members).
Caribbean Development Bank, est. 2 Jan 1970

Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations (also commonly known as the Commonwealth of Unrecognized States, rarely as CIS-2), est.14 Jun 2006 by former Soviet states with limited international recognition (Abkhazia, Artsakh, South Ossetia, and Transnistria).
Council of Europe, est. 1949

European Commission of the Danube (Commission Européenne du Danube) 30 Mar 1856-1948; succeed by the Danube Commission (DC).
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS); Communauté Économique des Etats d’Afrique Centrale (CEEAC) est.18 Oct 1983, inactive 1992 - 1999.

Central European Free Trade Agreement, est. 21 Dec 1992 by the Visgrad Group,
re-founded 19 Dec 2006 (7 members; 8 former members left to join EU).
Central European Initiative, est. 11 Nov 1989 (as Quadrilateral Initiative 1989-91, 27 July 1991 became the Hexagonal Initiative, present name adopted Jul 1992)(17 members; Belarus suspended from 25 Mar 2022).

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, est.3 Dec 2011 successor to the Rio Group and the Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development (CALC)
(33 members; Brazil suspended its participation 16 Jan 2020-5 Jan 2023).
Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa, Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale (CEMAC), est.16 Mar 1994, effective Jun 1999; formerly 1 Jan 1966 -16 Mar 1994 Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) (6 members).

Community of Sahel-Saharan States; Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens,
est. 4 Feb 1998.
Central Treaty Organization, also know as Middle East Treaty Organization or MENTO 1955-1979.
Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries; Communauté Économique 
des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL), est. 20 Sep 1976, dormant 1994 and collapsed 1998, re-launched 17 Apr 2007 (Burundi, Congo [formerly Zaire], Rwanda).

European Organization for Nuclear Research; Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire, 15 Feb 1952-29 Sep 1954 as Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research) (CERN), est. 29 Sep 1954 (23 members  and 10 associate members).

Common Economic Space, 1 Jan 2012-31 Dec 2014, customs union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, also called EURASEC Customs Union; is replaced by Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) on 1 Jan 2015.

Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), signed 19 Nov. 1990, entered into force 17 Jul 1992. (30 parties; Russia suspended role 14 Jul 2007, then halted participation from 11 Mar 2015).

Conference of Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia, est.14 Sep 1999 (28 members).
Commonwealth of Independent States, est. 1991

Common Monetary Area or Common Monetary Area, est.1986, replaced the
(South African) Rand Monetary Area; also called Multilateral Monetary Area (MMA) from Feb 1992 (South Africa, Lesotho, Namibia, and Eswatini [Swaziland]).
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; also known as "Comecon", 25 Jan 1949-28 Jun 1991, members: Afghanistan (observer), Albania, Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer), East Germany, Hungary, Laos (observer), Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua (observer), Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, South Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia (associate) .
Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom); 22 Nov 1949-31 Mar 1994 (members: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, West Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, U.K., U.S.). CoCom members established a new organization, the Wassenaar Arrangement, with expanded membership in 1996 that focuses on non-proliferation export controls as opposed to East-West control of advanced technology.
see CMEA
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, est. 8 Dec 1994; formerly PTA
Colombo Plan, est. 1951
Community of Portuguese Language CountriesComunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa (CPLP), est. 1996

Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP),  TPP11, replaced the Trans-Pacific Partnership, signed 8 Mar 2018, effective 30 Dec 2018 (10 parties).
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; from 1 Jan 1995 OSCE
South American Community of Nations; Comunidad Sudamericana de Naciones/
Comunidade Sul-Americana de Nações (CSN),  est. 8 Dec 2004, renamed
16 Apr 2007 to Union of South American Nations (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas/União Sul-Americana de Nações) (UNASUR), inactive from 2018.

Collective Security Treaty Organization, est. 7 Oct 2002; formerly the CIS Collective
Security Treaty (signed 15 May 1992).
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, opened for signature 10 Sep 1996, has not yet into force.

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization, preparatory commission for CTBT established 17 Mar 1997 .

Chemical Weapons Convention, signed 13 Jan 1993, entered into force 29 Apr 1997.
D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation (Developing-8), est.15 Jun 1997 (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Turkey).

Development Bank of Southern Africa, est. 1 Sep 1983, reconstituted as a wholly South African national venture 25 Apr 1997.
Danube Commission est.18 Aug 1948 as successor to the European Commission of the Danube River (Commission Européenne du Danube) (CED) 1856-1918 and International Danube Commission (IDC) 1921-1940.

Dutch Language Union (Nederlandse Taalunie)(NTU), est. 1980, effective 1 Apr 1984.
East African Community, est. 1967, dissolved 1977, re-activated 1996.
East African Development Bank, 1 Dec 1967-1977, re-est.1980 (4 members).

Eurasian Economic Community, "Eurasec", 2001-31 Dec 2014, replaced by Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU).
Eurasian Economic Union,  est.1 Jan 2015, replaced the EAEC.
Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, est.29 May 1997; successor to the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) 8 Nov 1991 - 1997 (50 members; NATO suspended all practical co-operation with Russia from 1 Apr 2014).
East Asia Summit with ASEAN, est.14 Dec 2005 (18 members).
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, est. 1991

European Central Bank, est.1 Jun 1998.

Eastern Caribbean Central Bank, est. 1 Oct 1983, replaced the Eastern Caribbean Currency Authority (ECCA) 1965-1983 (8 members).
Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCB countries using East Caribbean dollar)
(8 members).
Economic Cooperation Organization, est. 1985
Economic Community of West African States; Communauté Économique des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO), est. 1975.

Economic Community of Southern Africa, 21 Nov 1988 - 26 Apr 1994
(Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, South Africa, Transkei and Venda).
European Free Trade Association, est. 1960
European Investment Bank, est .1 Jan 1958
Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (global standard for the good governance
of oil, gas and mineral resources. It seeks to address the key governance issues in
the extractive sectors), est.17 Jun 2003 (57 countries).
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (Environmental Modification Treaty), est. 5 Oct 1978.

Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (also called European Economic and Monetary Union, or European Monetary Union)(20 members).

European Space Agency, est. 31 May 1975 (22 members, 5 associates).
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), adopted 16 Dec 1966, enters into force 3 Jan 1976.
European Union, evolved from the European Community (EC), est. 1958, EU from 1993.
see Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC)
European Atomic Energy Community, est.1 Jan 1958; merged into European Communities from 1 Jul 1967, but maintains its legally distinct nature (all EU members, plus associates Switzerland and U.K.)

European Telecommunication Satellite Organization, est. 30 Jun 1977 (from 2 Jul 2001, Eutelsat S.A. continues as a private company) (49 members).
Food and Agriculture Organization, est. 1945
Financial Action Task Force (Groupe d'action financière), est. 1989 by G-7 to develop and promote policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing (37 members, plus European Commission and GCC).

Franc Zone (also known as Conference des Ministres des Finances des Pays de la
Zone Franc
), est.1964 to form union among African countries whose currencies are linked to French Franc (16 members).
"Group of 3", est.13 Jun 1994 (effective 1 Jan 1995), ended 2014 (Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela [Venezuela withdrew 19 Nov 2006]).

"Group of 5", 15 Nov 1975-27 Jun 1976 (France, W. Germany, Italy, UK, US) note - with the addition of Japan and then from 27 Jun 1976 Canada, it was known as the G-7; meanwhile from 2005 the Group of 5 refers to Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa.
"Group of 6", also known as Groupe des Six Sur le Desarmement (not to be confused with the Big Six), est.22 May 1984 by non-nuclear countries seeking to achieve nuclear disarmament (its members were Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania).

"Group of 7", est. 27 Jun 1976 (formerly as "G-8" 20 Jun 1997-24 Mar 2014).
"Group of 8", est. 20 Jun 1997, formally from 15 May 1998, (G-7, plus EU and Russia), from 24 Mar 2014 as G-7 again with the suspension of Russia.
"Group of 9", est.1965 but failed and subsequently dissolved (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Yugoslavia).
"Group of 10", also known as the "Paris Club", est. Oct 1962 (11 members).
"Group of 11", originally known as the "Cartagena Group" (Grupo de Cartagena), est. Jun 1984 by largest debtor nations of Latin America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Rep., Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela); from 20 Sep 2006 also developing countries aimed at easing their debt burden (Jordan, Croatia, Ecuador, Georgia, El Salvador, Honduras, Indonesia, Morocco, Pakistan, Paraguay, and Sri Lanka).
"Group of 15", est.Sep 1989, byproduct of the NAM; name persists despite increased membership. To promote economic cooperation among developing nations; to act as the main political organ for the NAM (17 members).
"Group of 19" (held several sessions 1975-1977).

"Group of 20" of industrial nations, which superseded the Group of 33, which had itself superseded the G-22, est. 26 Sep 1999; and also known as the G-20 of developing nations; est. Sep 2003 (20 members).
"Group of 24", est. 1 Aug 1989, est. to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America within the IMF (29 members).
"Group of 30", est. 1978 (30 members).
"Group of 33", superseded the Group of 22 in 11 Mar 1999 (33 members).
"Group of 77", est.15 Jun 1964 to promote economic cooperation among developing countries; name persists in spite of increased membership (134 members). 

Greater Arab Free Trade Area, signed 1 Jan 1998, effective 1 Jan 2005 (18 members).
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; est. 1948, from 1 Jan 1995 WTO
Gulf Cooperation Council, also known as the Cooperation Council for the 
Arab States of the Gulf, est.1981

General Confederation of Trade Unions, est. 16 Apr 1992 (10 members).
Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova group of states GUUAM est. 10 Oct 1997; Uzbekistan  withdrew in 5 May 2005, from then named GUAM; from 22 May 2006 renamed Organization for Democracy and Economic Development  - GUAM (4 members). 
Inter-American Development Bank (Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo) (BID), est. 1959
International Atomic Energy Agency, est. 1957
International Bank for Economic Co-operation, est. 22 Oct 1963 (as an arm of the CMEA to 28 Jun 1991)(6 members) (Bulgaria [from 1963], Cuba [from 1974], Czechoslovakia [1963-1992], Czech Rep. [1993-2023], East Germany [1963-1990], Hungary [1963-1992], Mongolia, Poland [1963-2023], Romania [from 1963], Russia (from 1992], Slovakia [1993-2023], Soviet Union [1963-1991], Vietnam [from 1977]).
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, also known as 
the World Bank, est.1945
International Civil Aviation Organization, est.1947
International Chamber of Commerce, est. 23 Jun 1920.
International Criminal Court, est. 2002
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 7 Dec 1949-31 Oct 2006 (148 countries); from 3 Nov 2006 merged into ITUC.
International Court of Justice also called the World Court; formerly PCIJ (1922-1946)
International Criminal Police Commission; est. 1923, from 1956 renamed  
International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol/ICPO)
International Committee of the Red Cross (Comité International de la Croix-Rouge)
est.17 Feb 1863.
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, began in 1863, formally from 1928.

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, est.14 Oct 1966 by  World Bank (158 contracting states).
International Development Association, est.1960 by World Bank (174 members).
Islamic Development Bank, est.1976

International Danube Commission, 23 Jul 1921-Dec 1940 successor to European Commission of the Danube; succeeded by Danube Commission (DC) in 1948.
International Energy Agency (Agence internationale de l'énergie), est. 15 Nov 1974, in the framework of OECD (31 members, 5 accessions, 11 associations).
International Fund for Agricultural Development, est. 1974
International Finance Corporation, est. 24 Jul 1956 by World Bank (186 members).
International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (1920-1968), from 4 Oct 1968 WCL.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; 1919-1991 LORCS.

Inter-Governmental Authority on Development, formerly Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD), est. 1986.

International Hydrographic Organization; 1921 - 22 Sep 1970 International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB), est.1921.

International Investment Bank, est.10 Jul 1970, operational from 1 Jan 1971 (an arm of the CMEA to 28 Jun 1991)(7 members)(Bulgaria [from 1970], Cuba [from 1974], Czechoslovakia [1970-1992], Czech Republic [1993-2023], Hungary [1970-2000, from 2015], East Germany [1970-1990], Mongolia, Poland [1970-2000], Romania [from 1971], Russia [from 1991], Slovakia [1993-2023], USSR [1970-1991], Vietnam [from 1977]).

International Labour Organization, est. 1919

International Monetary Fund, est. 1945

International Maritime Organization (from 1982), 1958-1982 Intergovernmental 
Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO).

International Meteorological Organization. est.1873, renamed 1947 World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

International Mobile Satellite Organization; abbreviated as Inmarsat to 15 Apr 1999.

International Mobile Satellite Organization, est. 16 Jul 1979; IMSO from 15 Apr 1999 (Inmarsat continues as a private company).

Indian Ocean Commission; Commission de l'Océan Indien (COI), est. 1982

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, est. 20 Aug 1964;
ITSO from 18 Jul 2001 (Intelsat continues as a private company).

Interkosmos (Intercosmos), former space program part of the work of CMEA "Comecon," 1970-1991, as Roscosmos 1992-1994 (participants: Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, France, Hungary, India, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Syria, USSR, and Vietnam).

International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO); formerly International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) (1923-1956)

International Organization of Space Communications, est.15 Nov 1971, formerly named International Organization and System of Space Communications 1971-20 Sep 1976.

International Olympic Committee (Comité International Olympique) est.1894.

International Organization for Migration; 1952-1980 Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM); 1980-1989 Intergovernmental Committee for 
Migration (ICM).
Indian Ocean Rim Association, est.2012, in 1997-2012 as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative (23 members).
Indo-Pacific Economic Framework, est.23 May 2022 (14 members)(Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, U.S., and Vietnam).

Inter-Parliamentary Union; formerly named Inter-Parliamentary Bureau for 
Permanent Arbitration 1892-1922.

International Renewable Energy Agency, est.2010

International Seabed Authority, est.16 Nov 1994 by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) entry into force (formerly abbreviated ISBA).

see: IDB (Islamic Development Bank)

Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, from 30 Jan 2020 renamed Islamic World Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization while retaining the abbreviation ISESCO; est. May 1982.

International Standards Organization or International Organization for Standardization (members, subscribers and correspondents), est. Feb 1947; formerly the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA) 1926-1942.

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization; abbreviated as Intelsat
until 18 Jul 2001.

International Telecommunication Union, est. 1865

International Trade Union Confederation, est. 1 Nov 2006, formerly ICFTU and WCL (338 affiliated unions in 168 countries).

International Union of Official Travel Organizations, (1947-1975), from 1975 WToO


Latin American and Caribbean Economic System; Sistema Económico Latinoamericano y del Caribe (SELA), est. 17 Oct 1975 (26 members).

Latin American Integration Association; Asociación Latinoamericana de 
Integración (ALADI), est. 12 Aug 1980 (13 members).

Latin American Parliament (Parlatino); Parlamento Latinoamericano, est.1965.

Lake Chad Basin Commission, est. 22 May 1965 (6 members).

League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (1919-1991); from 1991 IFRCS

Latin Union; Unión Latina; Union Latine; Unione Latina; União Latina; 
Uniunea Latin; Unió Llatina; est.1954.

Southern Cone Common Market; Mercado Común del Sur/Mercado Comun do Sul, est. 1991

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency; est.12 Apr 1988 by World Bank (182 members).

Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Moon Treaty), signed 5 Dec 1979, entered into force 11 Jul 1984 (18 parties).
Melanesian Spearhead Group, est.1986 (4 states, 1 party, 1 associate).

Missile Technology Control Regime, est.16 Apr 1987 (35 partners).

North Atlantic Assembly, 1966-1999, renamed NATO Parliamentary Assembly.

North American Free Trade Agreement/Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN)/Accord de Libre-Échange Nord-Américain (ALÉNA); entered into force 1 Jan 1994 - 30 Jun 2020 (members: Canada, US, Mexico). Replaced by the USMCA.

Non-Aligned Movement, est. 1961

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, est. 1949

NATO Parliamentary Assembly, est.1 Jan 1999, formerly named the NAA.

Nordic Council, est. 1953
New Development Bank, est. Jul 2015, also known as the BRICS Development Bank.

Nuclear Energy Agency, also known as OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, est. 1 Feb 1958 (until 20 Apr 1972 named European Nuclear Energy Agency [ENEA]) (34 members).

Nordic Investment Bank, est. 1 Jun 1976 (8 members).

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, est. 5 Mar 1970

Nuclear Suppliers Group, originally known as the London Suppliers Club, est. Nov 1975 (48 participants).

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty; in full the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests
in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, also called the Limited
Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) or Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT); signed 5 Aug 1963,
entered into force 10 Oct 1963.
Organization of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (OACPS), est.1975 ,until 2020 named African, Caribbean and Pacific States (ACP).

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, est. 9 Jan 1968 (11 members)

Organization of American States; 1910-1948  as Pan-American Union.

Organization of African Unity; est. 1963, from 9 Jul 2002 African Union (AU)

Common African and Malagasy Organization; 1960-1965 as Organisation Africaine et Malgache de Coopération Économique (OAMCE) (dissolved 1985).

Organization of Central American States, 1951-1973; Organización de Estados
Centroamericanos (ODECA).


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1948-1961 named
Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC).

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, est. 1981

Organization of the Islamic Conference, est. 1969

International Organization of the Francophonie; Organisation Internationale de la
Francophonie (OIF); 1970 - Dec 1998 as ACCT.

Organization for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the
Caribbean; Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL), est. 25 Apr 1969 (33 members).

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, est. 1997

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, est. 1960

Treaty on Open Skies (OS), implementing body Open Skies Consultative Commission, signed 24 Mar 1992 and entered into force 1 Jan 2002 (33 parties,
[U.S. withdrew 22 Nov 2020, Russia withdrew 7 Jun 2021]).

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe; 1973-1 Jan 1995 CSCE

Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Outer Space Treaty); signed 27 Jan 1967, entered into force 10 Oct 1967 (112 parties).

see ACTO
Organization of Turkic States (Türk Devletleri Teşkilatı), est.12 Nov 2021, formerly CCTS (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan).

Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico), est. 6 Jun 2012 (4 members, 4 associates).

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, est.1949

Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean, est. 2006
Paris Club

Paris Club (Club de Paris), est. 1956; forum for debtor countries to negotiate rescheduling of debt service payments or loans (22 members).

Central American Parliament: see under CAP.

Latin American Parliament: see under LAP.

Pacific Community, to 6 Feb 1997 SPC.

Permanent Court of Arbitration, est. 29 Jul 1899

Permanent Court of International Justice (1922-1946), from 1946 ICJ

PetroCaribe, est. 29 Jun 2005 (18 members).

NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP), est. 10 Jan 1994 (20 members; NATO suspended all practical co-operation with Russia from 1 Apr 2014).
Pacific Islands Development Forum, est.4 Sep 2015 (13 members and the Pacific Islands Association of Non-Government Organization (PIANGO), Pacific Islands Private Sector Organization (PIPSO).

Pacific Islands Forum, to 27 Oct 2000 SPF.

Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa (1981-1994), from
8 Dec 1994 COMESA.

Regional Cooperation for Development, 1962-1979 (Iran, Pakistan, Turkey), in 1985
suceeded by ECO.

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, signed 15 Nov 2020, effective 1 Jan 2022 (13 parties).
Red Cross

see the ICRC.

Rio Group, formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, 18 Dec 1986-3 Dec 2011, successor is CELAC.

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, est. 1985

South Asia Co-operative Environment Program, est.9 Feb 1982 (8 members).

Southern African Customs Union, est. 11 Dec 1969 (5 members).

Southern African Development Community, est. 1992, founded as Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) in 1980.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization, est. 2001

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, 1955-1977 (Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, The Philippines, United Kingdon, United States, with South Vietnam as observer).

Southeast European Cooperative Initiative, 6 Dec 1996 - 7 Oct 2011, successor SELEC.

Secretariat for Multilateral Cooperation in Southern Africa, Nov 1982 - 1994
(Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, South Africa, Transkei and Venda).

Southeast European Cooperation Process, est. 6 Jul 1996 (13 members).

Ibero-American Cooperation SecretariatSecretaría de Cooperación
Iberoamericana (SEGIB), est. 2005

see: Latin American Economic System (LAES).

Southeast European Law Enforcement Center, est. 7 Oct 2011, successor of SECI (11 members).
Socialist International, est.3 Jun 1951, successor to the Labour and Socialist International.

Central American Integration System (CAIS); Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (SICA), est. 13 Dec 1991.

indicates that country has signed an agreement, charter, or treaty, but has not yet formally ratified it.

South Pacific Commission; from 6 Feb 1997 Pacific Community.

South Pacific Forum; from 27 Oct 2000 Pacific Islands Forum (PIF).
Union State of Belarus and Russia/Soyuznoye Gosudarstvo Rossii i Belorussii, est. 26 Jan 2000 (2 members).

Central African Customs and Economic Union; Union Douanière et Économique
de l'Afrique Centrale; 1 Jan 1966-16 Mar 1994, from 16 Mar 1994 CEMAC.

United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property/Bureaux Internationaux Réunis pour la Protection de la Propriété Intellectuelle (BIRPI)
(1893-1970); from 1970 WIPO.

United Nations, est. 1945

Union of South American Nations (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas/União de
Nações Sul-Americanas
), est. 16 Apr 2007, effected 23 May 2008 as successor to CSN.

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, est. 10 Dec 1982, entered into
force 16 Nov 1994.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, est. 30 Dec 1964

United Nations Development Programme, est. 22 Nov 1965; from 1965 - 1985 United Nations Industrial Development Program (UNIDP).

United Nations Environment Programme, est. 15 Dec 1972

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, est. 1946

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), signed 14 Jun 1992, entered into force 21 Mar 1994.
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change, signed 11 Dec 1997, entered into force 16 Feb 2005.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Paris Agreement; signed 12 Dec 2015, entered into force 4 Nov 2016.

United Nations Population Fund, est. 11 Jul 1967, (36 members selected on a rotating basis from all regions), formerly United Nations Fund for Population Activities under the administration of the United Nations Development Fund 1967-1987.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; signatories to 28 Jul 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees.

United Nations Children's Fund, est. 1946

United Nations Industrial Development Organization, est. 1967

United Nations Industrial Development Programme, est.17 Nov 1966; from 1985 UNDP.

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East,
est. 8 Dec 1949

United Nations Security Council, est. 24 Oct 1945, permanent members - (5) China, France, Russia, U.K., U.S.

World Tourism Organization, est. 1975, until 1 Dec 2005 abbreviated WToO.

Universal Postal Union, est. 9 Oct 1874
United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement/Tratado entre México, Estados Unidos y Canadá (T-MEC)/Accord Canada–États-Unis–Mexique (ACEUM), signed 30 Nov 2018, effective 1 Jul 2020 replaces NAFTA.
The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies ("Wassenaar Arrangement"), a multilateral export control regime formed to replace COMCOM, est. 12 Jul 1996 (42 participants).

West African Development Bank; Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement/
Banco de Desenvolvimento do Oeste Africano (BOAD), est. 14 Nov 1973 (8 members).

West African Economic and Monetary Union; Union Économique et Monétaire 
Ouest-Africaine (UEMOA), est. 10 Jan 1994 (8 members).

West African Monetary Zone, est. 20 Apr 2000, group of countries within ECOWAS that plan to introduce a common currency, the Eco (6 members).

World Confederation of Labor; until 4 Oct 1968 International Federation of Christian
Trade Unions (IFCTU), 9 Jun 1920-1940, 1945-31 Oct 2006 (105 national organizations); from 1 Nov 2006 merged into ITUC.

World Customs Organization, est. 15 Dec 1950 as CCO, renamed WCO 1994.

Western European Union, 6 May1955 - 30 Jun 2011.

World Food Council, 17 Dec 1974 - 20 Dec 1993, functions absorbed by FAO and WFP.

World Food Program (36 members selected on a rotating basis from all regions), est. 1961

World Federation of Trade Unions, est. 3 Oct 1945 (130 participating nations).

World Health Organization, est.1948

World Intellectual Property Organization, est. 1970

World Meteorological Organization, est. 1947;  formerly 1873-1947 as International Meteorological Organization (IMO).

Warsaw Pact, also known as Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), 1955-1991.

World Trade Organization (abbreviation of Warsaw Treaty Organization 1955-1991)

World Tourism Organization, est. 1975, from 1 Dec 2005 abbreviated UNWTO.

Zangger Committee, originally known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Exporters Committee, created to establish guidelines for the export control provisions of the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), est.1971 (39 members).

  National and Local Holidays

National Holiday(s)
Afghanistan Independence Day, 19 August (1919); and Mujahideen
Victory Day, 28 Apr (1992)
Albania Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
Algeria Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
American Samoa US Independence Day, 4 Jul (1776); and Flag Day, 17 April (1900)
Andorra Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Angola Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Anguilla Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967); Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948)
Antigua and Barbuda Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Argentina May Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Armenia Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Aruba Anthem & Flag Day (Aruba Day), 18 March (1976); and King's Day, 27 April
Australia Australia Day, 26 January (1788); ANZAC Day 25 April (1915)
Austria National Day, 26 October (1955)
Azerbaijan Republic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic
of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918); note - Artsakh Republic Day, 2 September (1991) in Nagorno-Karabakh
Bahamas, The Independence Day, 10 July (1973)
Bahrain National Day, 16 December (1971)
Bangladesh Independence Day, 26 March (1971);
Barbados Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Belarus Independence Day, 3 July (1944);
Belgium National Day, 21 July (1831) (ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I)
Belize Independence Day, 21 September (1981)
Benin National Day, 1 August (1960)
Bermuda Bermuda Day, 24 May
Bhutan National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)
Bolivia Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
King's Day, 27 April; and  Bonaire Day, 6 September (1499)
Bosnia and Hercegovina Statehood Day, 25 November (1943); note - Republika Srpska celebrates Saint Stephen's Day, 9 January.
Botswana Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Brazil Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
British Antarctic Territory
Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948)
British Virgin Islands Virgin Islands Day, 1 July (1956); Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948)
Brunei Darussalam National Day, 23 February (1984)
Bulgaria Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
Burkina Faso Republic Day, 11 December (1958)
Burma Independence Day, 4 January (1948)
Burundi Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Cambodia Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Cameroon Republic Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)
Canada Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Cape Verde Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Cayman Islands Constitution Day, first Monday in July (1959); Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948)
Central African Republic Republic Day, 1 December (1958)
Chad Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Chile Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
China National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949)
Christmas Island Australia Day, 26 January (1788); Territory Day, first Monday in October (1958)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australia Day, 26 January (1788); and Act of Self-Determination Day, 6 April (1984)
Colombia Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Comoros Independence Day, 6 July (1975)
Congo (Kinshasa) Independence Day, 30 June (1960)
Congo (Brazzaville) Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
Cook Islands Constitution Day, 4 August (1965)
Costa Rica Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Côte d'Ivoire Independence Day, 7 August (1960)
Croatia Independence Day, 8 October (1991)
Cuba Liberation Day, 1 January (1959)
Curaçao Day 2 July (1984); and King's Day, 27 April
Cyprus Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as Independence Day
Czech Republic Restoration of the Czech Independence Day, 1 January (1993); Independent Czechoslovak State Day, 28 October (1918)
Denmark Constitution Day, 5 June (1849) 
Djibouti Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Dominica Independence Day, 3 November (1978)
Dominican Republic Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
East Timor (Timor-Leste) Restoration of Independence Day, 20 May (2002); and
Proclamation of Independence Day, 28 November  (1975)
Ecuador Independence Day, 10 August (1809)
Egypt Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
El Salvador Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Equatorial Guinea Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
Eritrea Independence Day, 24 May (1993)
Estonia Independence Day, 24 February (1918)
Ethiopia Derg Downfall Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
European Union Europe Day (commemorates the declaration by Robert Schuman proposing the creation of a European coal and steel community), 9 May (1950)
Falkland Islands Liberation Day, 14 June (1982); Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948)
Faeroe Islands Saint Olav's Day/National Day, 29 July (1030)
Fiji Fiji (Independence) Day, 10 October (1970)
Finland Independence Day, 6 December (1917) - in Aland Islands also Aland's Autonomy Day, 9 June (1922)
France Fête Nationale ("Bastille Day"), 14 July (1789)
French Guiana
Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); and Slavery Abolition Day, 10 June  (1848)
French Polynesia Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); and Internal Autonomy Day, 29 June (1984)
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)
Gabon Independence Day, 17 August (1960)
The Gambia Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Georgia Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note -  23 July (1992) in Abkhazia; 12 December (1990) in South Ossetia
Germany Day of German Unity, 3 October (1990)
Ghana Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Gibraltar National Day, 10 September (1967); ; Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948)
Greece Independence Day, 25 March (1821)
Greenland Longest Day, 21 June; and Greenland Flag Day, 21 June (1985)
Grenada Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); and Slavery Abolition Day, 27 May (1848)
Guam US Independence Day, 4 Jul (1776); and Discovery Day, first Monday in March (1521)
Guatemala Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Guernsey Liberation Day, 9 May (1945); 10 May (1945) in Sark; Homecoming Day, 15 December (1945) in Alderney
Guinea Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
Guinea-Bissau Independence Day, 24 September (1973)
Guyana Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
Haiti Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Honduras Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Hong Kong National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July (1997) is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Hungary Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August
Iceland Independence Day, 17 June (1944)
India Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Indonesia Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Iran Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)
note: additional holidays celebrated widely in Iran include Revolution Day, 11 February (1979); Noruz (New Year's Day), 21 March; Persian Constitutional Revolution, 5 August (1925); and various Islamic observances that change in accordance with the lunar-based hejira calendar
Iraq Republic Day, 14 July (1958); and National Iraqi Day, 3 October (1932); note - 21 March, Newroz Festival in Kurdistan Region
Ireland Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March (461)
Isle of Man Tynwald Day, 5 July
Israel Independence Day, 14 May (1948)
Italy Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
Jamaica Independence Day, 6 August (1962)
Japan Birthday of Emperor NARUHITO, 23 February (1960)
Jersey Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Jordan Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
Kazakhstan Independence Day, 16 December (1991)
Kenya Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
Kiribati Independence Day, 12 July (1979)
Korea, North Founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), 9 September (1948); Day of the Sun, 15 April (1912); note - Birthday of KIM IL SUNG
Independence Day, 17 February (2008)
Korea, South Liberation Day, 15 August (1945)
Kuwait National Day, 25 February (1950)
Kyrgyzstan Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Laos Republic Day, 2 December (1975)
Latvia Proclamation Day of the Republic, 18 November (1918)
Lebanon Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Lesotho Independence Day, 4 October (1966)
Liberia Independence Day, 26 July (1847)
Libya Independence Day, 24 December (1951)
Liechtenstein Assumption Day, 15 August
Lithuania Restoration of the State Day, 16 February (1918)
Luxembourg National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June
Macau National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December (1999) is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Macedonia Independence Day, 18 September (1991); Ilinden Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day
Madagascar Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Malawi Independence Day (Republic Day), 6 July (1964)
Malaysia Independence Day/Malaysia Day, 31 August (1957)
Maldives Independence Day, 26 July (1965)
Mali Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Malta Independence Day, 21 September (1964)
Marshall Islands Constitution Day, 1 May (1979)
Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); and Slavery Abolition Day, 22 May (1848)
Mauritania Independence Day, 28 November (1960)
Mauritius Independence Day, 12 March (1968)
Mayotte Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); and Slavery Abolition Day, 27 April (1848)
Mexico Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
Micronesia, Federated States of Constitution Day, 10 May (1979)
Moldova Independence Day, 27 August (1991); note - Day of the Republic, 2 September (1990) in Transdniester
Monaco The Sovereign Prince's Day, 19 November (1857)
Mongolia Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Montenegro National Day, 13 July (1878)
Montserrat Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948); Emancipation Day, 7 August (1834)
Morocco Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
Mozambique Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Namibia Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Nauru Independence Day, 31 January (1968)
Nepal Republic Day, 29 May (2008)
The Netherlands King's Day, 27 April (Birthday of King WILLEM ALEXANDER in 1967)
New Caledonia Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); and New Caledonia Day, 24 September (1853)
New Zealand Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840)
Nicaragua Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Niger Republic Day, 18 December (1958)
Nigeria Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Niue Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840); Constitution Day, 19 October (1974)
Norfolk Island Australia Day, 26 January (1788); and Bounty Day, 8 June (1856)
Northern Mariana Islands US Independence Day, 4 July (1776); and Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)
Norway Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Oman Birthday of Sultan HAITHAM, 13 October (1954)
Pakistan Independence Day, 14 August (1947); note - Azad Kashmir Day, 24 October (1947) in Azad Kashmir
Palau Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)
Palestinian Authority
Independence (National) Day, 15 November (1988)
Panama Independence Day, 3 November (1903)
Papua New Guinea Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Paraguay Independence Day, 14 May 1811 (observed 15 May annually)
Peru Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Philippines Independence Day, 12 June (1898);
Pitcairn Islands Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948);  Bounty Day, 23 January (1790)
Poland Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
Portugal Portugal Day (Day of Portugal), 10 June (1580)
Puerto Rico US Independence Day, 4 July (1776); and Puerto Rico Constitution Day, 25 July (1952)
Qatar Independence Day, 3 September (1971)
Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); and Slavery Abolition Day, 22 December (1848)
Romania Union Day, 1 December (1918, note - union of Romania and Transylvania 
Russia Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
King's Day, 27 April; Saba Day, 6 December (1985)
Rwanda Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); St. Barthelemy Day, 24 Aug (1572)
Saint Eustatius
King's Day, 27 April; and Statia Day, 16 November (1776)
Saint Helena Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948); Saint Helena Day, 21 May (1502)
Saint Kitts and Nevis Independence Day, 19 September (1983)
Saint Lucia Independence Day, 22 February (1979)
Saint-Martin (French)
Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); and Slavery Abolition Day, 27 May (1848)
Saint Maarten (Dutch)
Sint Maarten Day, 11 November (1493); King's Day, 27 April
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); and Assumption Day, 15 August
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Independence Day, 27 October (1979)
Samoa Independence Day, 1 June (1962);
San Marino Founding of the Republic, 3 September (AD 301)
São Tome and Principe Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Saudi Arabia Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)
Senegal Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Serbia National Day, 15 February (1804); and Day of Serb
Unity, Freedom and the National Flag, 15 Sep (1918)
Seychelles National Day, 29 June (1976)
Sierra Leone Independence Day, 27 April (1961)
Singapore National Day, 9 August (1965)
Slovakia Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Slovenia Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Solomon Islands Independence Day, 7 July (1978)
Somalia Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960), Independence Day in Somaliland
South Africa Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)
South Georgia
and the South
Sandwich Islands

Birthday of King CHARLES III second Saturday in June (19248); and Possession Day, 17 January (1775)
South Sudan
Independence Day, 9 July (2011)
Spain National Day, 12 October (1492)
Sri Lanka Independence Day, 4 February (1948)
The Sudan Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Suriname Independence Day, 25 November (1975)
Swaziland Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Sweden National Day, 6 June (1523)
Switzerland Swiss National Day, 1 August (1291)
Syria Independence Day, 17 April (1946)
Taiwan (Republic of China) National Day, 10 October (1911)
Tajikistan Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Tanzania Union Day, 26 April (1964); note - Revolution Day, 12 January (1964) is also celebrated in Zanzibar
Thailand Birthday of King VAJIRALONGKORN, 28 July (1952)
Togo Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Tokelau  Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840); and Tokehega Day, 3 September (1983)
Tonga Emancipation Day/Independence Day, 4 June (1862/1970)
Trinidad and Tobago Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Tunisia Independence Day, 20 March (1956)
Turkey Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
Turkmenistan Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
Turks and Caicos Islands  Emancipation Day, 1 August (1834); and Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)
Tuvalu Independence Day, 1 October (1978)
Uganda Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Ukraine Independence Day, 24 August (1991); note - 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence (from Soviet Russia) and the day the short-lived Western and Greater (Eastern) Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day.
United Arab Emirates Independence Day, 2 December (1971)
United Kingdom Birthday of King CHARLES III, second Saturday in June (1948)
United States Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Uruguay Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Uzbekistan Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Vanuatu Independence Day, 30 July (1980)
Vatican City
(Holy See)

Election Day of Pope FRANCIS, 13 March (2013)
Venezuela Independence Day, 5 July (1811)
Vietnam Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Virgin Islands (US) US Independence Day, 4 Jul (1776); and Transfer Day, 27 March (1917)
Wallis and Futuna Bastille Day, 14 July (1789); Territory Day, 29 July (1961)
Western Sahara
Independence Day, 29 February (1976); note - mostly controlled by Morocco which celebrates Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
Yemen Unification Day, 22 May (1990)
Zambia Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Zimbabwe Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Antarctica Antarctica Day, 1 December (1959) [unofficial]

Explanation of Page Layout

World HOME >     <= Link to return to homepage.


[Afghanistan Flag
Nov 1987 - Apr 1992 
[Afghanistan Flag Apr - Dec
Apr 1992 - 2 Dec 1992
[Afghanistan flag
  2 Dec 1992 - 27 Jan 2002
[Afghanistan (Transitional
      Adopted 27 Jan 2002
    Current and historical flags are shown
 below each country/territory. Dates indicate
 period of use or adoption.

Map of Afghanistan
Hear National Anthem
Adopted 2002, 1992-1999
(No Anthem 1999-2002)
Former Anthem
(1978-99, 2002)
Text of National Anthem
(1992-99, 2002)
Former Anthem
(1973 - 1978)
(16 Jan 2004)
Former Constitutions
(1923, '63,'76, '87,'90)
External Link to Map
External Link to National
(Name in local language
and English translation)
External Link to Text
of National Anthem 
and Date of Adoption
 (Text maybe in English
or Local Language)
External Constitution Link
date of adoption.
(Text maybe in English
or another Language)
Capital: Kabul
(Herat 1818-1819)
Currency: Afghani (AFA)
National Holiday
19 Aug (1919)
Independence Day
Population: 29,928,987 (2005) 
Current National Capital (s)
or administrative center
(Historical capitals with dates)
Current Legal Currency
with ISO abbreviation
Date of National Holiday and
name of the celebration
Current or historical
population estimates with year 
of census/estimate.
GDP: $21.5 billion (2003)
Exports: $446 million (2003)
Imports: $3.75 billion (2003)
Ethnic groups: Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, 
Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, 
others 4% (2004)
GDP:  the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
or value of all final goods and services produced 
within a nation in a given year.  GDP estimates are
derived from purchasing power parity (PPP).
Exports:  the total exports
in US dollar amount in a year
Imports:  the total imports
in US dollar amount in a year.
Ethnic Groups: provides a rank
ordering of ethnic groups starting with the 
largest and normally includes the percent 
of total population, with year of census/estimate.
Total Armed Forces: 13,000 (2004)
International Security Force 4, 900 (2002)
 Nuclear Weapons: (2003): None
Merchant marine: None (2002)
Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 19%,
other 1% (2004)
   Total Armed Forces: Total active duty military personnel, 
includes all branches of service or denotes None or if another polity 
is responsible for defense; if no military then police force size is given.
Declared/Undeclared Nuclear Power (date): Notes if a state
possesses nuclear weapons, date at which it became a 
nuclear power and current estimate of total number 
of nuclear weapons in the national inventory.
  Merchant marine:  Defined here as all ships engaged in the carriage of
goods or all commercial non-military vessels excluding tugs, 
 fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs; A merchant ship is a vessel
that carries goods against payment of freight.
  Religions:  provides a rank 
ordering of religions by adherents starting 
with the largest group and sometimes includes
the percent of total population, with year of 
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APM, BTWC, CP, CTBT, ECO, ENMOD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO (observer), WToO
International Organizations/Treaties: the abbreviations for this polities major international and intergovernmental
organization participation. The list of abbreviation descriptions is found below.  Many of these organizations are covered on
the International Organizations pages.  Whenever possible current membership is determined from an organization's website.
Afghanistan Index
Country index provides a key to  the data on each page.

Following the presentation of flags and information is a chronology.
When necessary, links to other national/polity pages are given.

1504                       Divided between the Moghul Empire (Kabul)
                             and Persia (Herat) with Kandahar alternating
                            between the two nations. <= Links to

1708                       Mir Wais in rebellion frees Qandahar from
Jun/Jul 1747               Independence (Emirate [or Empire] of
under Kabul whose supremacy
                             is contested from
Herat, Ghazni, Qandahar,
                             and Peshwar.

 7 Aug 1835 -  6 Jan 1842  British occupation.
1859                       British take Baluchistan, and Afghanistan
12 Oct 1879 - 1881         British occupation. <=dates of occupation listed.
12 Oct 1879 -  8 Aug 1919  British protectorate.
 2 Oct 1881                State of Afghanistan
1885                       Russia annexes the Panjdeh Oasis.
 8 Aug 1919                Independence proclaimed (from 22 Nov 1921,
                             recognized by Britain).
 9 Jun 1926                Kingdom of Afghanistan < = Name of polity noted.
17 Jul 1973                Republic of Afghanistan <= polity name changes.
30 Apr 1978                Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
27 Dec 1979 - 15 Feb 1989  Occupied by the Soviet Union.
30 Nov 1987                Republic of Afghanistan
28 Apr 1992                Islamic State of Afghanistan 
                            (from 27 Sep 1996, largely retaining
                             international recognition).
26 Oct 1997                Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban regime
                             not internationally recognized).
13 Nov 2001                Islamic State of Afghanistan
19 Jun 2002                Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan

(from 1881)

 Link to nation skipping other data
Link to regions, predecessor polities
or other data:
Links to additional regions or data:
 1849 Map of

When necessary additional notes are provided below.

Note: Before 1881 there were essentially four rulers' capitals: Kabul, Herat, Qandahar, and Peshawar (the last now in Pakistan). All the rulers belong to the Abdali tribal group, whose name was changed to Dorrani on the accession of Ahmad Shah. They  belong either to the Saddozay segment of the Popalzay clan (typically with the style padshah [king]) or to the Mohammadzay segment of the Barakzay clan (typically with the style amir, in full Amir al-Mo´menin [Leader of the Faithful], which is also the style of the current Taliban leader). The Mohammadzay also furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counselors, who served occasionally as regents, identified with the epithet Mohammadzay.


Dates of Rule                               Complete name of Ruler & "nick name"   (birth year - death year)
Jul 1747 - 16 Oct 1772     Ahmad Shah "Dorr-e Dorran"          (b. c.1723 - d. 1773)
16 Oct 1772 - 18 May 1793  Timur Shah 
1823 - 1826                Soltan Mohammad Khan 
                             Mohammadzay -Regent  <= Style if not the same as heading
1826 - 1836                Dost Mohammad Khan 
                             Mohammadzay -Regent                            (b. 1793 - d. 1863)
1836 -  2 Aug 1839         Dost Mohammad Khan (1st time)      (s.a.)  <= Same as Above
                            (British prisoner 1840-1842) <=additional information about
                                                                                                           ruler or title is listed below the name.
 8 May 1839 -  5 Apr 1842  Shoja` al-Molk Shah (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1841 - Apr 1842            Mohammad Zaman Khan Mohammadzay -Regent
                             (in rebellion)
29 Jun 1842 - 12 Oct 1842  Fath Jang Khan
 2 Jul 1880 -  3 Oct 1901  Abdor Rahman Khan 
                             (after Oct 1881 Emir of a united Afghanistan)

Wazir-i-azam (prime ministers)
1801 - 1817                Sardar Fath `Ali Khan              (b. 1778 - d. 1818)
1818 - 1819                Dost Muhammad Khan (1st time)      (s.a.)
1823                       Muhammad Azim Khan 
1823                       Habibullah Khan
1826 - 18..                Dost Muhammad Khan (2nd time)      (s.a.)

If additional leaders of a protectorate area, commanders or occupation authorities are noted,
in this case the British residents are listed.

British Residents
1837 -  2 Nov 1841         Sir Alexander Burnes               (b. 1805 - d. 1841)
 7 Aug 1839 - 23 Dec 1841  William Hay McNaghten              (b. 1793 - d. 1841)
Dec 1841 -  6 Jan 1842     Eldred Pottinger
 6 Jan 1842 - 24 Jan 1879  None
24 Jul 1879 -  3 Sep 1879  Louis Napoleon Cavagnari           (b. 1841 - d. 1879)

Regional or Territorial Division


Jul 1747 - 1797            See Kabul  < = Interruption in local rule noted in bold type.
1797                       Mahmud Shah (1st time)
1797 - 1818                See Kabul
1818 - 1819                Mahmud Shah (2nd time)
27 Jul 1857 - 26 May 1863  Soltan Ahmad Khan
Mar 1880 -  2 Oct 1881     Mohammad Ayyub Khan


De facto leaders are listed at the top of the entry.  These are rulers who officially occupy none of listed posts, but control or have major influence over the polity.

Political Party abbreviations are noted either in a column opposite the birth and death years. Explanation of the abbreviations are listed at the bottom of the page. Party orientations are my interpretation and are not official platforms. 

De facto Ruler (Amir al-Mo´menin) < = Foreign language titles/styles are in italics
27 Sep 1996 - 13 Nov 2001  Mullah Mohammad Omar              (b. 1962)         
                            (chosen 3 Apr 1996)

Leaders of communist parties also listed above the polity entry, as these were often the de facto leaders.

General Secretaries of the People's Democratic (Communist) Party
27 Dec 1979 -  4 May 1986  Babrak Karmal 
 4 May 1986 -  Jun 1990    Mohammad Najibullah               (b. 1947 - d. 1996) PC-Parcham

22 Jul 1880 -  3 Oct 1901  Abdor Rahman Khan                 (b. 1844 - d. 1901)
 9 Jun 1926 - 14 Jan 1929  Amanullah Shah                    (s.a.)
19.. - 17 Oct 1929           .... < = Exact dates or names are unknown, ellipsis used.
                           (in rebellion, at Khost)
17 Oct 1929 -  8 Nov 1933  Mohammad Nader Shah
 8 Nov 1933 - 17 Jul 1973  Mohammad Zahir Shah               (b. 1914)
17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978  Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan         (b. 1909 - d. 1978) 
28 Jun 1992 - 27 Sep 1996  Burhanuddin Rabbani3              (b. 1940)            JIA
                           (continues in rebellion from 27 Sep 1996,
                            largely retaining international recognition; < = additional notes about the
                            forces controlling parts of northern Takhar) condition/extent of a rulers power
Heads of the Supreme Council3
27 Sep 1996 - 16 Apr 2001  Mullah Mohammad Rabbani           (b. 1955 - d. 2001)   T
16 Apr 2001 - 13 Nov 2001  Mawlawi Abdul Kabir (acting) 
17 Nov 2001 - 22 Dec 2001  Burhanuddin Rabbani               (s.a.)               JIA/NA

Prime minister of Turkey
1990 - 1992                Tansu Ciller (f) <= (f) designates a female leader when the office title 
                                                                                              is not gender specific 

   Footnotes regarding titles, status of leaders, translation notes, or other data.  Official non-English styles/tiles
are listed in italics.

 1Title Padshah-i Afghanistan (Dari language); De Afghanistan Bacha (Pashto language, official from 1937).

 Flags of communist or fascist parties, rebellious, secessionist, or ethnic groups listed below the footnotes.
[Qandahar Rebellion Flag
                              1929-1930 (Afghanistan)]
            (1929 - 1930) 
   Qandahar Rebellion Flag
Notes on current territorial disputes are listed above political parties. 
Territorial Disputes: former "Pushtunistan" issue with Pakistan, border dispute with Tajikistan.

An explanation of political party abbreviations: The interpretation of parties political orientation is the editors unofficial designation and does not necessarily represent a parties "official" platforms.  If the polity has no political parties or groups are illegal the note "No Political Parties Exist/Allowed" will be given.

Party abbreviations: HW = Hizb-i-Wahdat-i-Islami (Party of Islamic Unity); 
JIA = Jamaat-i-Islami Afghanistan (Islamic Association of Afghanistan, extreme Islamist); 
Mil = Military;
- Former parties: PC-Khalq = Communist Party-Khalaq (1973-78–Khalq ["Flag"] faction);
PC-Parcham = Afghan People's Democratic Party (Communist party, imposed by USSR 1978-87);
T = Taliban (Koran Students, dictatorial, extreme Islamist) 

    Autonomous subdivisions, alternate governments or secessionist polities are listed below the main polity entry.



Noble Titles and Styles

   European Noble Titles and Styles

   Altgrave (German. Altgraf): An exclusively German usage, granted to nobles of the status of Counts with
       holdings in  mountainous regions, particularly along passes, where they were vested with the right to garrison
      such points, and levy  tolls for access and passage. See also Burgrave, Landgrave, Margrave, Rhinegrave,
   Archduke: (French Archiduc; Ger. Erzherzog; Irish Ard Diuc; Italian Arciduca; Spanish Arzoduque;
     Polish Arcyksiaze): The title of sovereignty used exclusively by legitimate members of the Austrian Habsburgs 
      and Lorraine-Habsburgs, from 1359; a duke of  higher rank than Grand Dukes or simple Dukes. 
   Ardrigh, Ardri, Ardry (Ir.): High King, the theoretical (and sometimes actual) ruler of the entire Irish
   Ban (Slavonic): A term usually found in Hungary and the Balkans, in the context of describing district or 
      provincial governors; it often had a hereditary implication, and could be approximately equivalent to Duke or 
   Baron (Fr., Sp., and Polish  Baron; Ger. Freiherr; Ir. Barun; It. Barone; Portuguese Barão; Russian Baron;
     Swedish Friherre): 
      The lowest grade of nobility; the word derives from a Gothic term meaning "Man"  i.e. my representative, my servant, 
      one who exerts himself on my behalf.  Originally, Barons were the holders of  Royal lands, castellans and companions
      of the King who assisted in maintaining order in the provinces. The German term translates roughly as "free warrior". 
   Burgrave (Ger. Burggraf, Polish Burgrabia): A title encountered exclusively in Germany, where it refers to a person
      with the status of Count whose domain was primarily an urban territory. Some sources equate it as an equivalent title 
      to the Anglo-French Viscount
   Count (in England Earl/Countess; Fr. Comte; Ger. Graf; Ir. Iarla, Coimhid, Cunta; It. Conte; Port. Conde
      Sp. Conde; Polish Hrabia; Russian Graf; Lithuanian Grafas; Danish/Swed. Greve): The Anglo-Saxon term
      translates literally as "Elder", "Senior", and refers to a chief  counselor of  the realm. The term came to be used to refer
      to close friends and companions of  Royalty,  and  was eventually institutionalized as such, somewhat superseding, but
      not replacing, Barons. The Scandinavian Jarl,  which came to be transliterated in English as "Earl" has exactly the same
     sense: a companion or supporter of royalty. Earl recalls the Scandinavian term, a Countess is a female Earl, and
     and Graf entered the language as Reeve, a manorial steward or overseer; "Reeve" has become archaic with the
     disappearance of manorial feudalism, but it may be noted that Kings began to appoint Bailiffs to enforce Royal
     prerogatives on a local level, and these "shire-reeves" (sheriffs) still exist today. 
   Count Palatine (in England Palatine Earl; Ger. Pfalzgraf; Ital. Conte Palatino; Polish Hrabia Palatyn): 
      In a general sense, Palatine nobles are those invested not only with the honors and privileges usual to their rank, but 
      also with certain sovereign or  semi-sovereign  rights as well, especially those involving the administration of justice. This
      is the case both in the north of England and within Germany,  where this form is most usually encountered. In the specific
     sense of the German usage, the Counts Palatine of the Rhine became the senior Counts of the Empire.
   Duke (Fr. Duc; Ger. Herzog; Ir. Diuc; It. Doge, Duce; Lat. Dux; Port. Duque; Serbian Herceg; Sp. Duque
      Pol. Diuk): The highest grade of  nobility, and sometimes a sovereign title. Most of the above mentioned 
      terms derive from the Latin Dux, meaning a leader or commander, especially in a military sense, i.e.. a general or 
   Earl: see explanation of the title "Count".
   Elector (Ger. Kurfürst): In the restricted sense of the German usage, "Elector" refers to the any of the great 
      nobles of the Medieval and Renaissance Kingdom of Germany who held the right to elect successive Holy 
      Roman Emperors; the term became in effect a kind of senior nobility in and of itself.  In fact, one electorate
     (Hesse-Cassel) insisted on retaining the title even after the Holy Roman Empire was abolished. 
   Emperor (Fr. Empereur; Ger. Kaiser; It. Imperatore; Lat. Augustus, Caesar, Imperator; Russian Tsar
      Sp. Emperador; Polish Cesarz): Technically, a ruler of sovereigns, a king of kings. Most of the above terms derive
      from the Latin Imperator, meaning "One who requires, demands, or obligates".  Imperator Octavian Caesar in 27 BCE. 
      His family name provides the source for the remaining terms.'
   Genannt (abbreviated as "gen."): Simply means in German "called."  In Germany this occurred very often
      when someone changed his name for one reason or the other - i.e. a certain military named Jastrzembski in
      1911 was allowed to change his name into Falkenhayn and thus was called General Falkenhayn or to be 
      more correct General von Jastrzembski genannt (gen.) Falkenhayn.
   Gentry (Fr. Gens de Qualite; Ger. Landadel; Ir. Daoine Uaisle; Lat. Gentis; Sp. Gentil; Polish Szlachcic): 
     A Gentleman is not necessarily mild-mannered, he is gentle because he is a member of a Gens, a distinguished lineage 
     or family.
   Grand Duke (Fr. Grand Duc; Ger. Grossherzog): A title created in early modern times to distinguish certain
      sovereign Dukes from simple Dukes of various nobility's. Today a single Grand Duchy remains: Luxembourg. 
   Hetman (Ger. Hauptmann; Pol./Ukrainian Hetman): In a general sense, a Hetman is a clan or tribal leader 
      and/or military commander. The title is most usually a reference to Cossack leaders of the Ukraine: in fact, it 
      has been used to identify Ukrainian Sovereigns on those occasions when dissident Cossacks attempted the 
      establishment of a separate State. Its  military sense has also been used extensively in Moldavia during the
      17th and 18th centuries.  In Poland Hetman Wielki Koronny = Great Hetman of the Crown and  Field Hetman of 
      the Crown = Hetman Polny Koronny; in Lithuania Hetman Wielki Wielkiego Ksiêstwa Litewskiego.
   King (Albanian: Mbret; Danish Konge; Dutch Koning; Fr. Roi; Ger. Koenig; Greek Basileus; Hungarian
      Kiraly; It. Re; Ir. Ri(gh); Latin Rex; Pol. Krol; Port. Rei; Norwegian Konge; Romanian Regele; Serb. Kralj;
      Polish Krol; Sp. Rey; Swed. Konung):  All of these terms mean essentially the same thing; national ruler or sovereign
      leader of a particular people. 
   Kniaz (Rus. Knyaz'; Serb. Knez): An archaic title meaning "Prince", but often mistranslated as "Duke". 
      The Kniazy were rulers of the various Russian states existing during the Middle Ages. They had differing
      levels of authority;  technically a Kniaz was a sub-Prince, the highest level were called Veliky Knyaz, Great 
      Prince (also translated poorly, as Grand Duke). 
   Knight ( Ir. Curadh, Ridire; Fr. Chevalier; Ger. Ritter; Lat. Equites; Port. Cavaleiro; Sp. Caballero; 
      Polish Rycerz):  A knight is, technically, simply someone who owes military service to a feudal lord, and is wealthy 
      enough to own a horse. Most of the above terms are variations on "Horseman" or "Rider"; the Anglo-Saxon term 
      has the sense of  "Youth", "Aide-de-Camp", or "Military Retainer" (almost exactly the same status as later came to be 
      described by the term "Squire"). 
   Landgrave (Ger. Landgraf): A title found in Germany, referring to a Count who has jurisdiction over
       primarily rural regions. Related titles: Altgrave, Burgrave, Margrave, Rhinegrave, Wildgrave
   Leader (Ger. Führer; Ital. Duce; Lat.Dictator; Polish Naczelnik; Rom. Conducator; Serb. Vozd
      Sp. Caudillo): Not a noble title per se, these terms nevertheless are important references to political rulers. They each 
     have the sense of Overall Commander, Ruler (especially: Military Ruler), "Boss". 

   Leath-Ri (Ir.): Literally "Half-King", the particular style for a member of a joint rulership. 

   Lord (Fr. Seigneur; Ger. Herr; Ir. Tiarna, Tighearna; It. Signore; Polish Senior/Pan; Port. Senhor; Rom. Dom;
      Sp. Señor): This is an imprecise term which can mean various things depending on context. Usually it means "One of 
      noble birth, a holder of a title of nobility".  In Great Britain though, it can also have the sense of rural gentry, one of gentle 
      birth who,  without  possessing a patent of nobility, nevertheless owns a manorial estate.  Most of the above terms derive
      from the Latin Senior, an elder or master. The German term means "Warrior". 
   Margrave (Eng. Marquess/Marquise, Marchioness, Margravine; Fr. Marquis; Ger. Markgraf; Dutch Markies,
       Ir. Marcas; It. Marchese; Port. Marquês; Polish Margrabia/ Markiz; Sp. Marqués) Originally this term referred
        to counts who held frontier districts. Since such regions tended to be larger than average, and heavily militarized, March
        lords slowly accumulated greater status than theirs, and now are the second grade of nobility, ranking below Dukes but
       above Counts. Note see also; Altgrave, Burgrave, Landgrave, Rhinegrave, Wildgrave.
   Page (Fr. Page; Ger. Page; Ital. Paggio; Lat. Paginus; Polish Paz; Sp. Paje): All these terms derive from the Latin, 
     which means "A boy, a child servant". Pages were institutionalized as the first step in becoming a Knight; a child of roughly
      7 to 14 who was set to learning the fundamentals of life in a castle. 
   Prince (Fr. Prince; Ger. Fürst, Prinz; Ir. Flaith, Mal, Prionsa; Hung. Fejedelem; Lat.Princeps; Port. Príncipe;
      Polish Ksiaze; Sp. Príncipe; Lithuanian Kunigaikstis, Rus. Knyaz'; Serb. Knez; Welsh Brenin) This term has 
      any of a number of definitions depending on context. Usually, "Prince" refers to a member of a Royal Family who is not
      the sovereign. Often, especially when used as "Crown Prince", it refers to the immediate heir to the throne.  It is also a 
      sovereign title, and as such there are several Principalities still  in existence today. In German nobility, a Prince was a
      grade of nobility located below Dukes but above Margraves. The term derives from the Latin, which means simply "First,
      Chief, the Boss" The Roman Empire was, in fact, described by its citizens as "the Principate". 
   Rhinegrave (Ger. Rheingraf): An exclusively German usage, denoting nobles of Count status with holdings
      on the Rhine River, and vested with the privilege of levying tolls for passage along the river. See as also:
      Altgrave, Burgrave, Landgrave, Margrave, Wildgrave.
   Ruire (Irish): Petty King; Lord of a minor or dependent regality. 
   Squire  (Ger. Gutsherr, Junker; Ir. Scuibheir; Ital. Scudiero; Polish Giermek; Port. Morgado; Sp. Escudero ):
      Usually this refers to the servant of a knight, a young person of roughly 14 to 21 who is learning the business of being a 
     knight. It, and similar terms in other languages have been applied to landed gentry, owners of large estates who do not 
     hold patents of nobility. The term derives ultimately to a phrase (Esquyer, Escutier)in Anglo-Norman meaning 
    "Shieldbearer", and a variant of that has also remained in the language: Esquire. 
   Tanaiste, Tanist (Ir.): Successor-designate to a chieftaincy or royalty. Utilized today as the Irish term for
      Deputy Prime Minister. 
   Taoiseach (Ir.): Clan elder, chieftain. Utilized today as the Irish term for Prime Minister. 
   Viscount (Fr. Vicomte; Ger. Vicomte; Ir. Biocun; It. Visconte; Lat. Vice Comes; Port. Visconde;
      Polish Wicehrabia; Sp. Vizconde):  A title meaning,  essentially, "Vice Count", an assistant or deputy Count. It is
      now the fourth grade of nobility, situated between Counts/Earls on the one hand, and Barons on the other. 
   Voivode (Rus. Voyevoda; Serb. Vojvod; Polish Wojewoda): An old Slavonic title, usually encountered in the Balkans.
      Its original sense was a military one, meaning field commander in an army. By extension, it became the title of 
      district or provincial governors, and evolved in some areas a quasi-hereditary status close to that of Prince or
     Duke. The Bulgarian Voin, "Warrior". In a slightly altered context, it has also come to be applied as a term 
     describing the clan leader of a Gypsy ("Roma") band or extended family. In Poland used as "Governor"
   Wildgrave (Ger. Wildgraf): A German usage, referring to a noble of the status of Count, who held 
      jurisdiction over wilderness, waste ground, forests, and uninhabited districts. They had certain legal privileges
      which made them, in effect, foresters and gamekeepers. 
   Zupan (Slavonic): Most usually found in the Balkans, the original meaning of this term was the "Leader of 
      a Zupa", a clan or grouping of extended families. These associations of families (remnants of which can still be
      recognized today in various Slavic nations) were among the earliest political organizations found among 
      Slavonic peoples. As the term evolved, it became a usage for certain types of provincial governors and minor
      nobles. In Poland a Zupan was the chief of Royal Salt Mines.

     Non-Western Noble Titles and Styles
  Atabeg (Turkic): Originating within the Seljuq hegemony of western Asia in the 12th century, it generally refers
     to a governor of provincial stature. The term was utilized sporadically after the end of Seljuq rule. 
  Begam (Begum)(India, Pakistan): Lady of rank (Muslim). 
  Bey (Turkish): A title within the Ottoman Empire. Depending on context, it could mean a military commander
     of roughly regimental level, or it could mean the Governor of a district or small province. Sometimes
     title was hereditary.
  Beylerbey (Turkish): A military commander of very senior rank, or the governor of a major province or region. 
  Bwana (Swahili):  Lord, a noble or important personage. 
  Caliph (Arabic: Khalifa, "successor"): The theoretical leader of all Islam; at times this has been in effect an 
  Daimyao (Japanese): Provincial ruler, governor of a region, and/or leader of a noble clan. 
  Diwan (India, Pakistan): Royal court; chief revenue officer of the province; chief minister. 
  Efendi (Turkish): A noble or important person; similar in many respects to Bwana or Sahib.
  Emir/Amir (Arabic): Roughly, the ruler of a small State; approximately equivalent to the European Prince or
  Huang Ti/Huang Di (Chinese): The Emperor of China. Vietnamese form of Huang Di is Hoang De.
  Kakhan (Mongol, and Central Asian): Also Qaghan, Kakan, Kagan, etc. A supreme Khan, an emperor. 
  Khan (Mongol, and Central Asian): Originally a clan leader among the Mongols, it has become a term used
     for "King, ruler of a state" in many parts of the Middle East. Kakhan was the leader of many tribes or nations.
  Maharajadhiraj (India): An Emperor; king of Kings. 
  Maharajah (India): Hindu ruler of an Indian state (also Maharana', Maharao; Maharawal) (Compare Maha to 
     Greek Mega). 
  Maharani (India):  Hindu woman ruler; or wife of a Maharajah
  Malik (Arabic): A King, the ruler of a State. 
  Mir (Persian, Pashtun, etc.): A local ruler or clan elder, used especially for the chiefs of Sind. 
  Moi (Hawaiian): A King, the Ruler of an island. 
  Nabob, Nawab (India): Governor, provincial leader. 
  Negusa Negest (Amharic): Literally, "King of Kings"; the Emperor of Ethiopia.
  Padishah (Persian, and Turkic): A supreme Shah - one of the titles held by the Ottoman Sultan. 
  Pasha (Turkish): A title within the Ottoman Empire. Depending on context, it could mean a General officer in
     the military, of roughly divisional or corps level, or it could mean the Governor of a province.
  Rajah (India): A King, the ruler of a State. given to Hindus of rank, or by heredity when descended from a prince
     (Comparable with Celtic Rig, Latin Rex) .

  Rani (India): Queen or princess (Hindu). 

  Rao (India): Title of distinction conferred by the ruler on one of his nobles (Rajput). 

  Ras (Amharic): A military title, equivalent to Field Marshal; often translated as Duke in regards to Ethiopian
  Rawal (India):  Title of distinction, as Rao
  Sahib (India): Lord, master, important or noble personage. 
  Shah (Persian): A King, the ruler of a State. It is often taken to mean "Emperor", but technically that is 
     "Shahanshah", King of Kings. 
  Sheik (Arabic): A person of noble lineage, and/or a clan or tribal leader. 
  Sirdar (Persian, Afghani, Pakistani, India): A title of nobility, roughly equivalent to that of a European Count.
  Sidar Bahadur (Persian, Afghan, Pakistani, India): Literally "Exalted" or "Victorious" Sirdar; a title of
     nobility very roughly equivalent to the European Margrave
  Sultan (Arabic): A leader of a State or many States; a King or Emperor. 
  Taifa (Spanish): The ruler of a state, especially one of the post-Abbassid successor states in Muslim Spain. The term
    is based on the (Andalusian dialect) Arabic Muluk at-Tawa'if meaning roughly Junta Leader, or King of a Faction. 
  Tenno (Japanese): The ultimate leader of the Japanese people, commonly translated as "Emperor". 
  Thakur (India): Chief  a Rajput landlord (Rajputana).
  Tui (Tonga): King, ruler of the nation. 
  Vizier, Wazir (Arabic, Turkish): A title encountered in many places around the Muslim world; it is usually, though not
     always, non-hereditary. Usually it refers to a high-ranking Officer of State; typically the equivalent of a 
     European Prime Minister or chief financial or treasury officer. 
  Wali (Turkey, India): Ruler; also a title within the Ottoman Empire. Usually it refers to province or district governor. 
     Sometimes the post was hereditary.
  Wazir (India, Arabia, Turkey, Africa): Chief minister at a Muslim court. 
  Wang (Chinese, Korean, etc.): A Chinese term for kings; the Ruler of the State. Often adopted by
     neighboring states within Chinese cultural influence, or specifically granted the term by Chinese diplomats or
     overlords. Vietnamese equivalent is Vuong.

Currency Codes 

   The International Standards Organization (ISO)  has created codes for currencies and for countries.  The ISO has established two- and three letter codes for almost every country in the world, as well as some geographic territories (such as islands).  The ISO currently provides three letter currency codes for most of the world's currency. These codes combine the two letter alphabetic codes (US for United States) for each country with the first letter of the currency (D for Dollar) to create the code for the US Dollar (USD). ISO three letter currency codes are used whenever one has already been established by the ISO.

    The ISO does not provide codes for all currencies. The reason for this is that the money issuing authority within that country must apply to the ISO for a new currency or country code. Currencies may not have currency codes for several reasons. First, some countries, such as Somaliland or Transdniester that are not internationally recognized, do not have country or currency codes. Second, countries may not apply for new codes when they introduce a new currency. Third, the ISO has not set up any historical currency codes for currencies that no longer exist.

    Some non-ISO codes used here are those Dr. Bryan Taylor of Global Financial Data, Inc.  The created codes are based on the ISO system of both three letter codes and four-letter codes for currencies. The three letter codes are provided for currencies that have been issued by countries that are still in existence or have had a two letter code assigned to them by the ISO. The Rhodesia Pound has been given the symbol RHP because Rhodesia was assigned the symbol RH by the ISO, but the Katanga Franc has been assigned the symbol KATF because Katanga never received any ISO codes. Four letter codes are provided for the currencies of  “dead” countries. Hence, the Confederate States of America (CSA) Dollar has been given the code CSAD to indicate that the Confederate States no longer exists.   Finally the ISO uses an “X” when a currency is used across international borders. The West African Franc has been assigned the symbol XOF by the ISO and the SDR the symbol XDR. Consequently, XEAS is used for the East Africa Shilling.

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