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Zimbabwe
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
12 Sep 1890 - 4 Nov 1893;
1 Oct 1923 - 11 Nov 1968 (dual-flag);
12 Dec 1979 - 17 Apr 1980
[Flag
                                    of the British South Africa Company
                                    1890-1923]
4 Nov 1893 - 30 Sep 1923
British South Africa Company Flag 
[Southern Rhodesia, 1924-1964
                                    (Zimbabwe)]
11 Aug 1924 - 8 Apr 1964
 
[Southern Rhodesia (Alternate
                                    version] 1924-1964 (Zimbabwe)]
11 Aug 1924 - 8 Apr 1964 Variant
 
 
[Federation of Rhodesia and
                                    Nyasaland 1954-1963]
24 Aug 1954 - 31 Dec 1963
  Federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland
 
[Southern Rhodesia 1964-1968
                                    (Zimbabwe)]
8 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1968
 
 
[Rhodesia 1968-1979
                                    (Zimbabwe)]
11 Nov 1968 - 2 Sep 1979 
[Zimbabwe-Rhodesia 1979
                                    (Zimbabwe)]
2 Sep 1979 - 12 Dec 1979 (de facto to 18 Apr 1980)
[Zimbabwe]
Adopted 18 Apr 1980
Map of Zimbabwe Hear National Anthem
"Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe"
"Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe"
(Blessed Be The Land of Zimbabwe)
Adopted 18 Apr 1994
Former National Anthem
"Ishe Komborera Africa"
(God Bless Africa)
(18 Apr 1980-18 Apr 1994)
Constitution
(22 May 2013)
-----------------------------------
Rhodesian Constitutions
(1923, 1961, 1965, 1970, 1979)
Capital: Harare
(Salisbury 1901-1981,
 
Mashonaland: Fort Salisbury
12 Sep 1890-1901;
Matabeleland: Bulawayo
1881-1890)
Currencies: Real Time Gross
 Settlement (RTGS) Dollar from
20 Feb 2019;
2009-26 Jun 2019 South African Rand (ZAR), US Dollar  (USD), Botswana Pula (BWP), & Euro (EUR); 1980-
12 Apr 2009 Zimbabwean

Dollar (ZWD);
1940-1956

Southern Rhodesia Currency
Board Pound (RHSP);
1901-1940 British Pound (GBP)
National Holiday: 18 Apr (1980)
Independence Day
Population: 14,546,314 (2019)
GDP: $34.27 billion (2017)
Exports: $4.35 billion (2017)
Imports: $45.47 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other African 11%, 
white 1%, mixed and Asian 1%, other 10.5% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 29,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2019)
Religions: Protestant 74.8% (includes Apostolic 37.5%, Pentecostal
21.8%, other 15.5%), Roman Catholic 7.3%, other Christian 5.3%,
 traditional 1.5%, Muslim 0.5%, other 0.1%, none 10.5% (2015)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfCFTA, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, C (applicant), COMESA, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Zimbabwe
Index
Chronology

11 Feb 1888                Cecil Rhodes' (b. 1853 - d. 1902) company imposes a
                             protectorate
over the Ndebele Kingdom (Matabeleland)
                             via the Rudd
Concession, contested by the Ndebele.
30 Oct 1888                Regions collectively named "Zambesia" by the British,
                         
   "Charterland" or "the BSAC territories" also in use.
29 Oct 1889 -  1 Oct 1923  Under British South Africa Company (BSAC) administration.
13 Sep 1890                Lieut. Edward Tyndale-Biscoe (b. 1864 - d. 1841) of the
                            
settler Pioneer Column, which arrived on 12 Sep 1890,
                             raises the Union Jack flag on the kopje over Fort
                            
Salisbury and claims Mashonaland for U.K.
 9 May 1891                Mashonaland and Matabeleland are declared British
                             Protectorates.
23 Jan 1894                South Zambesia created from Mashonaland and the
                             Matabeleland protectorates.
 3 May 1895                South Zambesia and North Zambesia (Zambia) united as
                             the Rhodesia Protectorate.
24 Jan 1901                Mashonaland and Matabeleland united as Southern Rhodesia;
                             administered by British South Africa Company.
27 Oct 1922                Referendum supports responsible government over joining
                             South Africa, 59%-40.6%.
 
1 Oct 1923                British Colony of Southern Rhodesia (with self-government)
                            
(by U.K.-BSAC agreement
of 29 Sep 1923).
 1 Aug 1953 - 31 Dec 1963  Part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
                             (Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and
                             Nyasaland).
 4 Jul 1964 - 12 Dec 1979  Zimbabwe war of liberation (Rhodesian Bush War).
24 Oct 1964                Renamed Rhodesia
(not recognized by U.K.).
11 Nov 1965                Unilateral declaration of independence from
                             U.K. as Rhodesia (not recognized by U.K.).
 2 Mar 1970                Rhodesia becomes a republic.
 1 Jun 1979                Zimbabwe Rhodesia (interim state).
12 Dec 1979                Return to colonial status as Southern Rhodesia
                             (Zimbabwe Rhodesia is in local official use).

18 Apr 1980                Independence from Britain (Zimbabwe).
17 Apr 1991                Republic of Zimbabwe
22 May 2013                Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe
(since 1980)
Traditional
States
 Mashonaland
(1890-1901)
Matabeleland
(1896-1901)
Southern Rhodesia
(1884-1965)
Rhodesia
(1965-1979)
Zimbabwe-
Rhodesia
(1979-1980)
Federation of
Rhodesia and
Nyasaland

(1953-1963)
 
 

Mashonaland

Resident Commissioner of Mashonaland
29 Jun 1890 - 18 Sep 1891  Archibald Ross Colquhoun            (b. 1848 - d. 1914)
Administrators
18 Sep 1891 -  2 May 1896  Leander Starr Jameson               (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
 8 Oct 1893 - 22 Jan 1894  Andrew Henry Farrell Duncan         (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
                             (acting for Jameson)
 2 May 1896 - 24 Jul 1897  Albert Henry George Grey, Earl Grey (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
24 Jul 1897 - 24 Jan 1901  Sir William Henry Milton            (b. 1854 - d. 1930)
                             (acting to 5 Dec 1898)


Matabeleland

Administrator
Nov 1896 - Mar 1901        Arthur Lawley                       (b. 1860 - d. 1932)
                             (acting 5 Dec 1898) 


Southern Rhodesia

Chief magistrates of South Zambesia
23 Jan 1894 - May 1894     Andrew Henry Farrell Duncan        (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
                             (acting)
May 1894 -  9 Sep 1894     Leander Starr Jameson              (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
Administrators of the Rhodesia Protectorate
 9 Sep 1894 - 28 Oct 1894  Leander Starr Jameson (1st time)   (s.a.)
28 Oct 1894 -  1 Apr 1895  Francis William Rhodes (acting)    (b. 1851 - d. 1905)
 1 Apr 1895 - Jun 1895     Leander Starr Jameson (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Jun 1895 -  2 May 1896     Joseph Vincent (acting)            (b. 1861 - d. 1914)
 2 May 1896 - 24 Jul 1897  Albert Henry George Grey,          (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
                             Earl Grey 
24 Jul 1897 - 24 Jan 1901  Sir William Henry Milton           (b. 1854 - d. 1930)
                             (acting to 4 Dec 1898)
Administrators
24 Jan 1901 -  2 Nov 1914  Sir William Henry Milton           (s.a.)
 2 Nov 1914 - 24 Dec 1914  Francis James Newton (acting)      (b. 1857 - d. 1948)
24 Dec 1914 - 30 Sep 1923  Sir Francis Drummond Percy Chaplin (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
15 Oct 1919 - 14 Dec 1919  Clarkson Tredgold                  (b. 1865 - d. 1938) 
                             (acting for Chaplin)
10 Sep 1920 - 10 Dec 1920  Ernest Montagu (1st time)          (b. 1862 - d. 1952) 
                             (acting for Chaplin)
15 Nov 1922 - 10 May 1923  Ernest Montagu (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Chaplin)
21 Sep 1923 - 23 Sep 1923  Percy Donald Leslie Flynn          (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
                             (acting for Chaplin)
Governors

 1 Oct 1923 - 15 Jun 1928  Sir John Robert Chancellor         (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
15 Jun 1928 - 24 Nov 1928  Murray Bisset (acting)             (b. 1876 - d. 1931)
24 Nov 1928 -  1 May 1934  Sir Cecil Hunter-Rodwell           (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
 1 May 1934 -  8 Jan 1935  Sir Alexander Fraser Russell       (b. 1876 - d. 1952)
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 8 Jan 1935 -  8 Jan 1942  Sir Herbert James Stanley          (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 8 Jan 1942 - 10 Dec 1942  Sir Alexander Fraser Russell       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
10 Dec 1942 - 26 Oct 1944  Sir Evelyn Baring                  (b. 1903 - d. 1973)
26 Oct 1944 - 20 Feb 1945  Sir Robert James Hudson (1st time) (b. 1885 - d. 1963)
                             (acting)
20 Feb 1945 -  2 Feb 1946  Sir William Eric Campbell Tait     (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
 2 Feb 1946 - 19 Jul 1946  Sir Alexander Fraser Russell       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting) 
19 Jul 1946 - 14 Jan 1947  Sir Robert James Hudson (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
14 Jan 1947 - 21 Nov 1953  Sir John Noble Kennedy             (b. 1893 - d. 1970)
21 Nov 1953 - 26 Nov 1954  Sir Robert Clarkson Tredgold       (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
                             (acting)
26 Nov 1954 - 28 Dec 1959  Sir Peveril Barton Reiby Wallop    (b. 1898 - d. 1985)
                             William-Powlett 
28 Dec 1959 - 17 Nov 1965  Humphrey Vicary Gibbs              (b. 1902 - d. 1990)
                            (from 1 Jan 1960, Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs)
                            (continues to 24 Jun 1969, unrecognized by Smith regime)

Premiers
 1 Oct 1923 - 28 Aug 1927  Sir Charles Patrick John Goghlan   (b. 1863 - d. 1927)  RP
 2 Sep 1927 -  5 Jul 1933  Howard Unwin Moffat                (b. 1869 - d. 1951)  RP
Prime ministers
 5 Jul 1933 - 12 Sep 1933  George Mitchell                    (b. 1867 - d. 1937)  RP
12 Sep 1933 -  7 Sep 1953  Godfrey Martin Huggins             (b. 1883 - d. 1971)  PR; 1934
                            (from 1 Jan 1941, Sir Godfrey Martin Huggins)          UP;1953 FP
 7 Sep 1953 - 17 Feb 1958  Reginald Stephen Garfield Todd     (b. 1908 - d. 2002) URP;1957 UFP
17 Feb 1958 - 17 Dec 1962  Sir Edgar Cuthbert Fremantle       (b. 1905 - d. 1971)  UFP
                             Whitehead 
17 Dec 1962 - 13 Apr 1964  Sir Winston Joseph Field           (b. 1904 - d. 1969)  DP;1962 RF
13 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1965  Ian Douglas Smith                  (b. 1919 - d. 2007)  RF


Chairmen of British South Africa Company
(in London)
Oct 1889 -  3 Jan 1913     James Hamilton, Duke of Abercorn   (b. 1838 - d. 1913) 
1913 - 26 Nov 1917         Leander Starr Jameson              (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
26 Nov 1917 - Oct 1920     Philip Lyttelton Gell (acting)     (b. 1852 - d. 1926)
Presidents of the British South Africa Company (in London)
Oct 1920 - 1923            Philip Lyttelton Gell              (s.a.)

1923 - 18 Apr 1925         James Rochfort Maguire             (b. 1855 - d. 1925)
Managing director in South Africa
Oct 1889 - Jun 1896        Cecil John Rhodes                  (b. 1853 - d. 1902)                

Party abbreviations: DP = Dominion Party (UFP opposition, anti-federation, pro-white minority rule, 1960 renamed Federal Dominion party, 1953-1962, successor RF); FP = Federal Party (center-right, pro-federation, 1953-1957, merged with URP as UFP); RF = Rhodesian Front (conservative, Rhodesian nationalist, pro-white minority rule, republican, merger of DP and RF, Mar 1962-1981, renamed Republican Front); RP = Rhodesian Reform Party (1923-1934, merged with RP as UP, in 1962 merged with DP as RF); UFP = United Federal Party (center-right, pro-federation, in 1963 renamed Federal Party, 1958-1963); UP = United Party (merger of RP and Rhodesian Party, 1934-1953, renamed URP); URP = United Rhodesia Party (conservative, 1953-1958, merged with FP as UFP)


Rhodesia
 
[Southern
                          Rhodesia 1964-1968 (Zimbabwe)]
11 Nov 1965 - 11 Nov 1968
[Rhodesia
                          1968-1979 (Zimbabwe)]
11 Nov 1968 - 2 Sep 1979 
[Zimbabwe-Rhodesia 1979 (Zimbabwe)] 2 Sep 1979 - 12 Dec 1979

[Flag of the United
                        Kingdom]
12 Dec 1979 - 17 Apr 1980

Map of Rhodesia Hear National Anthem
"Rise O' Voices of Rhodesia" Adopted 26 Aug 1974 
Former National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen"
(11 Nov 1965-2 Mar 1970)
Constitutions
(11 Nov 1965; and
 2 Mar 1970
)
Capital: Salisbury Currency: 1970-1980
 Rhodesian Dollar
(RHD);
1964-1970 Rhodesian Pound
(RHP)

National Holidays:
1965-1979: 11 Nov (1965)
Independence Day
----------------------
1895-1979: 5 Jul (1853)
Rhodes's Day
(Cecil Rhodes's birthday)
Population: 6,930,000 (1978)
GDP: $3.15 billion (1974) Exports: $650 million (1973)
Imports: $541 million (1973)
Ethnic groups: Bantu tribes (black) 96%, Caucasian 3%, 
colored and Asian 1%
Total Armed Forces: 9,550 (1977)
Reserve Forces: 58,000
Merchant marine: None (1978)
Religions: Christian 75% (mostly Protestant, Roman
Catholic 9%)
Jewish (6,000) and Muslim
International Organizations/Treaties: GATT, IOC (suspended 1972, expelled 1975), ITU (revoked 1966), IUOTO (expelled 1969), UIBPIP, UPU (suspended 1970), WHO (associate; in suspense), WMO (member territory 1950-64, from 1965)

11 Nov 1965                Unilateral declaration of independence from U.K. as 
                             Rhodesia¹ (not recognized by U.K.).
 2 Mar 1970                Rhodesia becomes a republic.
 1 Jun 1979                Zimbabwe Rhodesia (interim state)
12 Dec 1979                Return to colonial status as British colony of Southern
                             Rhodesia (Zimbabwe Rhodesia is in local official use).
18 Apr 1980                Independence from Britain (Zimbabwe).

Queen
11 Nov 1965 -  2 Mar 1970  Government carried on in the name                            
                           of the non-consenting Queen of

                           the United Kingdom
                          
Officer Administering the Government and Commander-in-Chief in and over Rhodesia¹
17 Nov 1965 -  2 Mar 1970  Clifford Walter Dupont              (b. 1905 - d. 1978)  RF
                             (acting to 20 Dec 1965)
Presidents in and over Rhodesia and Commanders-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Rhodesia
 2 Mar 1970 - 31 Dec 1975  Clifford Walter Dupont              (s.a.)               RF
                             (acting to 16 Apr 1970)
 
1 Jan 1976 - 14 Jan 1976  Henry Breedon Everard (1st time)    (b. 1897 - d. 1980)  RF
                             (acting) 
14 Jan 1976 - 31 Aug 1978  John James Wrathall                 (b. 1913 - d. 1978)  RF
31 Aug 1978 -  1 Nov 1978  Henry Breedon Everard (2nd time)    (s.a.)               RF
                             (acting) 
 1 Nov 1978 -  5 Mar 1979  Jack William Pithey (acting)        (b. 1903 - d. 1987)  RF
 5 Mar 1979 -  1 Jun 1979  Henry Breedon Everard (3rd time)    (s.a.)               RF
                             (acting)
President in and over Zimbabwe Rhodesia
 1 Jun 1979 - 12 Dec 1979  Josiah Zion Gumede                  (b. 1919 - d. 1989)  UANC

Governor
12 Dec 1979 - 17 Apr 1980  Christopher John Soames,            (b. 1920 - d. 1987)
                             Baron Soames 

Prime ministers
11 Nov 1965 -  1 Jun 1979  Ian Douglas Smith                   (b. 1919 - d. 2007)  RF
 1 Jun 1979 - 11 Dec 1979  Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa             (b. 1925 - d. 2010)  UANC

 ¹The Officer Administering the Government was designated by the Constitution of Rhodesia of 1965 as representative of Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Queen of Rhodesia. Elizabeth II did not accept the legality of the existence of Rhodesia as a polity, and no specific local style was adopted for the monarch.

Party abbreviations: RF = Rhodesian Front (Rhodesian nationalist, pro-white minority rule, successor to the Dominion Party, Mar 1962-1981); UANC = United African National Council (African nationalist, 1974-1996)


Zimbabwe


18 Apr 1980                Independence from U.K. (Zimbabwe).
17 Apr 1991                Republic of Zimbabwe
22 May 2013                Zimbabwe

Presidents
18 Apr 1980 - 31 Dec 1987  Canaan Sodindo Banana              (b. 1936 - d. 2003)  ZANU 
31 Dec 1987 - 21 Nov 2017  Robert Gabriel Mugabe              (b. 1924 - d. 2019)  ZANU-PF
21 Nov 2017 - 24 Nov 2017  Phelekezela Mphoko                 (b. 1940
)            ZANU-PF
                             ([nominally] acting, did not take office)
24 Nov 2017 -              Emmerson Dambudzo Mnangagwa        (b. 1946
)            ZANU-PF

Prime ministers
18 Apr 1980 - 31 Dec 1987  Robert Gabriel Mugabe              (s.a.)               ZANU 
31 Dec 1987 - 11 Feb 2009  Post abolished
11 Feb 2009 - 11 Sep 2013  Morgan Richard Tsvangirai          (b. 1952 - d. 2018)  MDC
11 Sep 2013                Post abolished

Territorial Disputes: Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration.

Party abbreviations: MDC = Movement for Democratic Change (social-democratic, reformist, est.1999); ZANU-PF = Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (democratic socialist, African nationalist, authoritarian, est.1987);
- Former parties: ZANU = Zimbabwe African National Union (African militant, democratic socialist, African nationalist, merged into ZANU-PF, 1963-1987)



Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
 
[Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
                      1954-1963]
24 Aug 1954 - 31 Dec 1963
Map of the Federation of
Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen" 
Text of National Anthem
(1953-1963)
Constitution Order
(3 Sep 1953, as
amended 1 Sep 1959)
Capital: Salisbury
Administrative Capital: Zomba
Currency: 1956-1965 Rhodesia
&
Nyasaland Pound (RHFP);
 1953-1956
Southern Rhodesia
Currency Board Pound (RHSP)
National Holiday: 1 Aug (1953)
Federation Day
Population: 8,510,000 (1961)
GDP: £380.9 million (1958)
Exports: £206.8 million (1961)
Imports: £155 million (1961)
Ethnic groups: African majority; European and
other 297,000
(1959)
Total Armed Forces: 4,520 (1957)
Merchant marine: None (1961)
Religions: Christian  (mostly Protestant, Roman Catholic),
 Jewish (6,000) and traditional beliefs
International Organizations/Treaties: FAO (associate), GATT, IOC, IOM, ITU, IUOTO, UIBPIP, UNHCR, WHO (associate), WMO

 1 Aug 1953                The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
                             (Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland
                             also called the Central African Federation).
31 Dec 1963                The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland dissolved.

Governors-general
 4 Sep 1953 - 24 Jan 1957  John Jestyn Llewellin, Baron       (b. 1893 - d. 1957)
                             Llewellin of Upton 
24 Jan 1957 - Feb 1957     Sir Robert Clarkson Tredgold       (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
                             (1st time)(acting) 
Feb 1957 - 17 Jun 1957     Sir William Lindsay Murphy (acting)(b. 1887 - d. 1965)
17 Jun 1957 -  8 Oct 1957  Sir Robert Clarkson Tredgold       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting) 
 
8 Oct 1957 -  7 May 1963  Simon Ramsay, Earl of Dalhousie    (b. 1914 - d. 1999)

 
7 May 1963 - 31 Dec 1963  Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs (acting) (b. 1902 - d. 1990)

Prime ministers
 7 Sep 1953 -  2 Nov 1956  Sir Godfrey Martin Huggins         (b. 1883 - d. 1971)  FP
                            (from 17 Feb 1955, Godfrey Martin
                             Huggins, Viscount Malvern)
 2 Nov 1956 - 31 Dec 1963  Sir Roland "Roy" Welensky          (b. 1907 - d. 1991)  FP;1957 UFP

Party abbreviations: FP = Federal Party (center-right, pro-federation, 1953-1957, merged with United Rhodesia Party as UFP); UFP = United Federal Party (center-right, pro-federation, in 1963 renamed Federal Party, 1958-1965)







© Ben Cahoon