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British Antarctic Territory
 
[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
21 Jul 1908 - 30 May 1969
 
[British
                            Antarctic Terr. State ensign]
Adopted 30 May 1969 State Ensign
 
[British
                            Antarctic Terr. civil ensign 1998-1999]21 Apr 1998 - 25 Jan 1999 Civil Ensign
 

[British
                          Antarctic Terr. civil ensign]
Adopted 25 Jan 1999 Civil Ensign
 



Map of British
Antarctic Territory
 Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen"
 Text of National Anthem
 Constitution Order
(1 Jul 1989)
Capital: London
Chief Stations: Halley VI
(from 1956, Haley VI in 2013);

Rothera (from 1975); Signy
(from 1947)
Currency: British Pound
 (GBP) 
National Holiday:
2nd Sat. in Jun (1926)

Birthday of Queen Elizabeth II
Population: Uninhabited
Seasonal Research Staff
Summer (Dec.-Feb.): 196
Winter (Jun.-Aug.): 44
 (2017)
 Total Active Armed Forces: N/A
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.K.
Merchant marine: None (2017)
Number of Year-round
Stations
: 2

Summer-only Stations: 1
(2017)
GDP: N/A
International Organizations/Treaties: UPU
British
Antarctic
Territory
Chronology
 

16 Feb 1819                First sighting of the Antarctic Peninsula and South
                             Shetland Islands by British Capt. William Smith
                             (b. c.1790 - d. 1847).
16 Oct 1819                South Shetland Islands named by Capt. William Smith
                             (s.a.), discovered by him on 19 Feb 1819.
16 Nov 1820                Palmer Land discovered by American Capt. Nathaniel
                             Brown Palmer (b. 1799 - d. 1877).
22 Nov 1821                Scottish Capt. Michael McCleod, of the Beaufoy,
                             sights the South Orkney Islands.
 6 Dec 1821                South Orkney Islands claimed for U.K. by Capt.
                             George Powell (b. 1794 - d. 1824)(renamed South
                             Orkney Islands and reclaimed in Feb 1822).
21 Feb 1832                Graham Land in Antarctica annexed for U.K. by
                             Capt. John Biscoe (b. 1794 - d. 1843).  
1839 - 1843                Ross expedition of the Antarctic, led by Capt. James
                             Clark Ross (b. 1800 - d. 1862), aboard HMS Erebus
                             and HMS Terror. It explored what is now called the
                             Ross Sea and the Ross Ice Shelf.
1901 - 1904                British National Antarctic Expedition (Discovery
                             Expedition) led by Capt. Robert Falcon Scott
                             (b. 1868 - d. 1912). 
1902 - 1904                Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (SNAE) led by
                             William Speirs Bruce (b. 1867 - d. 1921).
 1 Apr 1903 - 22 Feb 1904  First permanent scientific station established in
                             the Antarctic, at Laurie Island, South Orkneys by
                             the Scottish National Antarctic expedition under
                             William Speirs Bruce (s.a.), then sold to Argentina.
 1 Sep 1908                Antarctica south of 50° between 20° W and 80°W
                             longitude (Graham Land), South Shetland Islands,
                             and South Orkney Islands, along with South Georgia
                             and South Shetland Islands, incorporated by U.K.
                             as the Falkland Islands Dependencies (by Letters
                             Patent of 21 Jul 1908 effective on publication in
                             the Falklands). 
28 Mar 1917                Falklands Islands Dependencies extent specified as
                             "all islands and territories whatsoever" between
                             20°-50°W and S of 50°S as well as between 50°-80°
                             W and S of 58°S claimed as part of Falklands (by
                             Letters Patent for the Further Definition and
                             Administration of Certain Islands and Territories
                             as Dependencies of the Colony of the Falkland
                             Islands).
1925                       South Orkney Islands are claimed by Argentina.
 6 Nov 1940                South Shetland Islands claimed by Chile (not
                             recognized by U.K.)
 8 Feb 1942                South Shetland Islands claimed by Argentina (not
                             recognized by U.K.)
1943 - 1945                U.K. dispatches covert naval missions to
                             Antarctica as "Operation Tabarin" which established 
                             the first permanent British scientific bases.
1945                       Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey established
                             within the Colonial Office.
Oct 1948                   Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey transferred to
                             Office of Falklands Governor in Stanley, Falklands.
Jun 1950                   Falkland Islands Dependencies Scientific Bureau
                             organized in London.
24 Nov 1957 -  2 Mar 1958  First successful land traverse of Antarctica by
                             British Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic expedition
                             (CTAE) under Vivian Fuchs (b. 1908 - d. 1999)
                             covers Weddell Sea to Ross Sea via the South Pole. 
 1 Jan 1962                British Antarctic Survey headquarters in London.
 3 Mar 1962                British Antarctic Territory created (South Shetland
                             Islands, South Orkney Islands, and Graham Land)
                             as a separate dependency (by British Antarctic
                             Territory Order in Council 1962, S.I. 1962 No.
                             400 of 26 Feb 1962).
18 Dec 2012                Southern portion named Queen Elizabeth Land by U.K.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Leaders of the British Naval Expeditions
1943 - 1944                Operation Tabarin I
                          
- James William Slessor Marr       (b. 1902 - d. 1965)
                              (in command of all shore staff)
                              (at Port Lockroy)

                           - William Roberts Flett            (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
                             
(at Deception Island)
                            (for summer and winter 1944 appointed as Magistrates)
1944 - 1945               
Operation Tabarin II
                          
- Andrew Taylor (at Hope Bay)      (b. 1907 - d. 1933)
                              (in command of all shore staff)
                           - Gordon Joseph Lockley            (b. 1915 - d. 1972)
                              (at Port Lockroy)
                           - Alan William Reece               (b. 1921 - d. 1960)
                              (at Deception Island)
                           (for summer and winter 1945 appointed as Magistrates)
High Commissioners
(in Stanley; also governors of the Falkland Is.)
16 Mar 1962 - 11 May 1964  Edwin Porter Arrowsmith            (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
                             (from 13 Jun 1959, Sir Edwin Porter Arrowsmith)
11 May 1964 -  9 Oct 1964  Willoughby Harry Thompson (acting) (b. 1919 - d. 2018)
 9 Oct 1964 - 27 Sep 1970  Cosmo Dugal Patrick Thomas Haskard (b. 1916 - d. 2017)
                             (from 23 Oct 1964, Sir Cosmo Dugal Patrick Thomas Haskard)
27 Sep 1970 -  8 Jan 1971  John Ashley Jones (acting)         (b. 1921 - d. 2016)
 8 Jan 1971 - 20 Jan 1975  Sir Ernest Gordon Lewis            (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
27 Jan 1975 -  2 Dec 1976  Sir Neville Arthur Irwin French    (b. 1920 - d. 1996)
16 Dec 1976 - 31 Jan 1980  Sir James Roland Walter Parker     (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
27 Feb 1980 - 16 Oct 1985  Rex Masterman Hunt                 (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
16 Oct 1985 - Nov 1988     Gordon Wesley Jewkes               (b. 1931)
Commissioners (in London; from 13 Jul 1998 also commissioners British Indian Ocean Territory)
 8 Nov 1988 - 30 Jun 1989  William Hugh Fullerton             (b. 1939)
 1 Jul 1989 - 11 Dec 1989  Charles Richard Lucien de Chassiron(b. 1948)
12 Dec 1989 - 15 May 1992  Merrick Stuart Baker-Bates         (b. 1939)
15 May 1992 - 20 Feb 1995  Peter Marcus Newton                (b. 1942)
20 Feb 1995 - 25 Jul 1997  Anthony "Tony" James Longrigg      (b. 1944)
25 Jul 1997 - 23 Apr 2001  John Branford White                (b. 1946)
23 Apr 2001 - 12 Jan 2004  Alan Edden Huckle                  (b. 1948)
12 Jan 2004 - 31 Jul 2006  Anthony "Tony" Campbell Crombie    (b. 1956)
31 Jul 2006 - 27 Mar 2008  Robert Leigh Turner                (b. 1958)

23 Jun 2008 - 17 Oct 2012  Colin Roberts                      (b. 1959)
17 Oct 2012 -  9 Dec 2016  Peter Richard Hayes                (b. 1963)
10 Dec 2016 - 30 Jun 2017  John Kittmer                       (b. 1967)
 1 Jul 2017 -  7 Aug 2017  Alex Cameron (acting)
 
7 Aug 2017 -              Benjamin "Ben" Robert Merrick


Base Leaders of the Falklands Islands Dependencies Survey (on Stonington Island)
Jul 1945 - 1946            Edward "Ted" W. Bingham            (b. 1901 - d. 1993)

1946 - 1947                Kenelm Somerset Priaulx Pierce     (b. 1917 - d. 1995)
                             Butler
1947 - 1948                Vivian Ernest Fuchs                (b. 1909 - d. 1999)
Directors of the Falklands Islands Dependencies Survey
(in London)
Oct 1948 - 1957            Edward "Ted" W. Bingham            (s.a.)
1958 -  1 Jan 1962
        Sir Vivian Ernest Fuchs            (s.a.)
Directors of the British Antarctic Survey
 1 Jan 1962 - 10 Sep 1973  Sir Vivian Ernest Fuchs            (s.a.
)
1973 - May 1987            Richard Maitland Laws              (b. 1926 - d. 2014)
Heads of Polar Regions Section 
in Foreign and Commonwealth Office
(in London)
 5 Feb 1944 - 1975         Brian Birley Roberts               (b. 1912 - d. 1978)
1975 -  3 Jul 1989
         John Arnfield Heap                 (b. 1932 - d. 2006)
Administrators of the British Antarctic Territory
(in London)
(heads of the Polar Regions Unit in Foreign and Commonwealth Office)
 3 Jul 1989 - 1992         John Arnfield Heap                 (s.a.)
10 Mar 1992 - Dec 2006     Michael G. Richardson
 1 Jan 2007 - 2008         Jane Rumble (f)
Deputy Commissioner of the British Antarctic Territory (in London)
(heads of the Polar Regions Department in Foreign and Commonwealth Office)
2008 -                     Jane Rumble (f)
Administrators
(in London)
(deputy heads of the Polar Regions Department)
22 May 2008 - 2011         Robert Bowman
2011 - 14 Feb 2016         Henry Burgess
15 Feb 2016 -              Stuart Doubleday


Magistrates of the South Shetland IslandsΉ

1910 - 1911                Albert Newing                      (b. 1891 - d. 1957)
1911 – 1912                Edward Beveridge Binne (1st time)  (b. 1884 – d. 1956)
1912 - 1913                Edward Beveridge Binne (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1913 – 1914                Arthur George Bennett (1st time)   (b. 1880 - d. 1954)
Nov 1914 – 1915            William Barlas (1st time)          (b. 1888 - d. 1941)
1915 – 1916               
James Innes Wilson (1st time)      (b. 1882 - d. 1940)
1916 – 1917                James Innes Wilson (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1917 – 1918                Arthur George Bennett (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1918 – 1919                Arthur George Bennett (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1919 – 1920                Sidney Herbert Riches (1st time) 
1920 – 1921                James Erik Hamilton (1st time)     (b. 1891 - d. 1957)
1921 – 1922                Arthur George Bennett (4th time)   (s.a.)
1922 - 1923                Arthur George Bennett (5th time)   (s.a.)
1923 – 1924                James Erik Hamilton (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1924 – 1925                Sidney Herbert Riches (2nd time) 
1925 – 1926                Arthur George Bennett (6th time)   (s.a.)
1926 - 1927                Arthur George Bennett (7th time)   (s.a.)
1927 – 1928                William Barlas (2nd time)          (s.a.)     
1928 – 1929                Gregor Brechin (1st time)          (b. 1891 – d. 1964)
1929 – 1930                Gregor Brechin (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1930 - 1931                Gregor Brechin (3rd time)          (s.a.)

 Ήfrom 1910 to 1931, the government of the Falkland Islands posted a separate magistrate for the South Shetland Islands stationed on Deception Island during the whaling season in austral summer.

Territorial Disputes: British Antarctic claim overlaps Argentine and Chilean claims. British Antarctic claim is recognized by Australia, France, New Zealand, and Norway, but it is not recognized by the United Nations, Argentina, Chile, U.S., Russia or by most other countries.






© Ben Cahoon