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Jamaica
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
to 1875
 
[Jamaica colonial flag,
                                    1875-1906]
1875 - 1906
 
[Jamaica colonial flag,
                                    1906-1957]
1906 - 8 Apr 1957
 
[Jamaica colonial flag
                                    1957-1962]
8 Apr 1957 - 6 Aug 1962
 
[Flag of
                                    Jamaica]
Adopted 6 Aug 1962

 Map of Jamaica
 Hear National Anthem
"Jamaica, Land We Love"
 Text of National Anthem
Adopted 19 Jul 1962
Constitution
(6 Aug 1962)
Capital: Kingston
(Spanish Town 1692-1872;
Port Royal 1655-1692;
Santiago de la Vega 1535-1655;
Sevilla la Nueva 1510-1523)
Currency: Jamaican Dollar
(JMD); Jamaican Pound
(JMP) 1900-1969
National Holiday:
1st Monday  in Aug (1962)
Independence Day
Population: 2,812,090 (2018)
GDP: $26.06 billion (2017)
Exports: $1.29 billion (2017)
Imports: $5.15 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: black 92.1%, mixed 6.1%, East Indian 0.8%,
 other 0.4%, unspecified 0.7% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 2,830 (2010)
Total Police Force: 8,600 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 43 ships (2018)
Religions: Protestant 64.8% (includes Seventh Day Adventist
 12.0%, Pentecostal 11.0%, Other Church of God 9.2%,
New Testament Church of God 7.2%, Baptist 6.7%, Church of
God in Jamaica 4.8%, Church of God of Prophecy 4.5%,
Anglican 2.8%, United Church 2.1%, Methodist 1.6%, Revived
1.4%, Brethren 0.9%, and Moravian 0.7%), Roman Catholic
 2.2%, Jehovah's Witness 1.9%, Rastafarian 1.1%, other 6.5%,
none 21.3%, unspecified 2.3% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, Caricom, CCM (signatory), CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OST, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Jamaica
Chronology

 5 May 1494                Discovered by Columbus and claimed for Spain,
                             named San Iago (Santiago).
1510                       Spanish colony (Santiago); subordinated 
                             to Santo Domingo.
11 May 1655                English occupation.
18 Jul 1670                Ceded by Spain to England by the Treaty 
                             of Madrid; English colony (Jamaica).
11-13 Oct 1865             Morant Bay rebellion.
11 Jun 1866                Crown colony
20 Nov 1944                Granted semi-responsible government.

 5 May 1953                Self rule granted. 
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Part of the Federation of the West Indies 
                             (see Trinidad and Tobago).
 6 Aug 1962                Independence from Britain (Jamaica).

Accompong
Maroons
Windward
Maroons

 
 
 
 
 

Governors
1510 - 1514                Juan de Esquivel                   (b. c.1480 - d. c.1519)
1514 - 1523                Francisco de Garay                 (d. 1523)
1523 - 1526                Pedro de Mazuelo
1526                       Juan de Mendegurren
1526 - 1532                Alvaro Canelas
1532 - 1533                Manuel de Rojas (1st time)
1533 - 1534                Gil González Dávila (acting)
                             (Gil González de Ávila)
1534 - 1539                Manuel de Rojas (2nd time)
1539 - 1544                Pedro Cano (1st time)
1544 - 1556                Francisco de Pina
1556 - 1558                Juan González de Hinojosa
1558 - 1565                Pedro Cano (2nd time)
1565 - 1567                Blas de Melo
1567 - 1575                Juan de Gaudiel
1575 - 1577                Hernán Manrique de Rojas
1577                       Iñigo Fuentes
1577 - 1578                Rodrigo Núñez de la Peña
1578 - 1582                Lucas del Valle Alvarado (1st time)
1582 - 1583                Pedro Lopez (acting)
1583 - 1586                Lucas del Valle Alvarado (2nd time)
1586                       Delgado
1586 - 1591                Diego Fernández de Mercado
1591 - 1596                Lucas del Valle Alvarado (3rd time)
1596                       García del Valle
1596 - 1606                Fernando Melgarejo de Córdoba
1607 - 1611                Alonso de Miranda
1611 - 1614                Pedro Espejo Barranco
1614 - 1620                Andrés González de Vera
1620 - 1625                Sebastián Lorenzo Romano
1625 - 1632                Francisco Terril
1628                       Hieronimo Salcedo (in opposition)
1631 - 1637                Juan Martínez Arana
                             (in opposition to 1632)
1637 - 1639                Gabriel Peñalver Angulo
1639 - 1640                Jacinto Sedeño Albornoz (1st time)
1640 - 1643                Francisco Ladrón de Zegama
1643 - 1645                Alcades
1645 - 1646                Sebastián Fernández de Gamboa
1646 - 1650                Pedro Caballero
1650                       Jacinto Sedeño Albornoz (2nd time)
1650 - 1651                Francisco de Proenza (1st time)
1651 - 1655                Juan Ramírez de Arellano
1655 - 1656                Francisco de Proenza (2nd time)
25 Oct 1656 - 1657         Cristóbal Arnaldo de Isasi
                             (in opposition to English rule)
English Commissioners
(serving jointly)
10 May 1655 - 25 Jun 1655  William Penn                       (b. 1621 - d. 1670)
10 May 1655 -  4 Jul 1655  Robert Venables                    (b. c.1613 - d. 1687)
25 Jun 1655 - 30 Jan 1657  William Goodsonn                   (b. 1610 - d. c.1680)
 4 Jul 1655 - 21 Oct 1655  Richard Fortescue                  (d. 1655)
 
1 Oct 1655 - 24 May 1656  Robert Sedgwick                    (b. c.1611 - d. 1656)
24 May 1656 - 14 Dec 1656  Edward D'Oyley (Doyley)(1st time)  (b. 1617 - d. 1675)
14 Dec 1656 -  2 Sep 1657  William Brayne                     (d. 1657)

 2 Sep 1657 -  1 Jun 1661  Edward D'Oyley (Doyley)(2nd time)  (s.a.)
Governors
 
1 Jun 1661 - 11 Aug 1662  Edward D'Oyley (Doyley)            (s.a.)
11 Aug 1662 - 28 Oct 1662  Thomas Hickman Windsor, Baron      (b. c.1627 - d. 1687) 
                             Windsor
28 Oct 1662 -  2 May 1664  Sir Charles Lyttelton (acting)     (b. 1628 - d. 1716)
 
2 May 1664 - 21 May 1664  Thomas Lynch (acting)              (b. 1630 - d. 1684)
21 May 1664  - 4 Jun 1664  Edward Morgan (acting)             (b. c.1610 - d. 1665) 
 
4 Jun 1664 -  1 Jul 1671  Sir Thomas Modyford (Modiford)     (b. c.1620 - d. 1679) 
Lieutenant-governors
25 Jun 1671 -  7 Mar 1675  Sir Thomas Lynch (1st time)        (s.a.)
 
7 Mar 1675 - 14 Mar 1675  Sir Henry Morgan (1st time)        (b. 1635 - d. 1688)
                             (acting)
14
Mar 1675 - 14 Mar 1678  John Vaughan, Lord Vaughan         (b. 1640 - d. 1713)
14 Mar 1678 - 19 Jul 1678  Sir Henry Morgan (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (acting)
19 Jul 1678 - 27 May 1680  Charles Howard, Earl of Carlisle   (b. 1629 - d. 1685)
27 May 1680 - 24 Aug 1682  Sir Henry Morgan (3rd time)        (s.a.)
                             (acting)
24 Aug 1682 - 24 Aug 1684  Sir Thomas Lynch (2nd time)        (s.a.)
24 Aug 1684 - 20 Dec 1687  Hender Molesworth (acting)         (b. c.1638 - d. 1689)
20 Dec 1687 -  6 Oct 1688  Christopher Monck, Duke of         (b. 1653 - d. 1688)
                             Albemarle
 
6 Oct 1688 -  2 Aug 1690  Sir Francis Watson (acting)        (d. 1692)
Governors
 
2 Aug 1690 - 16 Jan 1692  William O'Brien, Earl of Inchiquin (b. 1640 - d. 1692)
16 Jan 1692 - 22 Aug 1692  John White (acting)
22 Aug 1692 -  9 Mar 1693  John Bourden (acting)
 
9 Mar 1693 - 22 Jan 1702  Sir William Beeston                (b. 1636 - d. 1702) 
                             (acting to 1699)
22 Jan 1702 -  5 Apr 1702  William Selwyn                     (b. 1655 - d. 1702)
 
5 Apr 1702 -  4 Dec 1702  Peter Beckford (acting)            (b. 1643 - d. 1710)
 4 Dec 1702
- 11 Jul 1711  Thomas Handasyde                   (b. c.1645 - d. 1729)
                             (acting to 25 Mar 1704) 

11 Jul 1711 - 25 Jul 1716  Lord Archibald Hamilton            (b. 1673 - d. 1754)
25 Jul 1716 - 26 Apr 1718  Peter Heywood                      (b. 1653 - d. 1725)
26 Apr 1718 - 22 Dec 1722  Sir Nicholas Lawes                 (b. 1652? - d. 1731)
22
Dec 1722 -  4 Jul 1726  Henry Bentnick, Duke of Portland   (b. 1682 - d. 1726)
 
4 Jul 1726 - 29 Jan 1728  John Ayscough (1st time)(acting)   (d. 1735)
29 Jan 1728 - 31 Mar 1734  Robert Hunter                      (b. c.1675 - d. 1734)
31 Mar 1734 - 30 Sep 1735  John Ayscough (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
30 Sep 1735 - 29 Dec 1735  John Gregory (1st time)(acting) 
29 Dec 1735 - 12 Feb 1736  Henry Cunningham                   (b. c.1678 - d. 1736)
12 Feb 1736 - 29 Apr 1738  John Gregory (2nd time)(acting)
29 Apr 1738 - 19 Sep 1752  Edward Trelawny                    (b. 1699 - d. 1754)
19 Sep 1752 - 27 Jan 1756  Charles Knowles                    (b. 1704 - d. 1777)
27 Jan 1756 -  3 Apr 1759  Sir Henry Moore (1st time)(acting) (b. 1713 - d. 1769)
 
3 Apr 1759 - 27 Jul 1759  George Haldane                     (b. 1722 - d. 1759)
27 Jul 1759 - 20 Jan 1762  Sir Henry Moore (2nd time)(acting) (s.a.)
20 Jan 1762 -  2 Jun 1766  William Henry Lyttelton            (b. 1724 - d. 1808)
 
2 Jun 1766 - 30 Sep 1768  Roger Hope Elletson (acting)       (b. c.1727 - d. 1775)
30 Sep 1768 - 11 Dec 1772  Sir William Trelawny               (b. c.1722 - d. 1772)
11 Dec 1772 -  5 Jan 1774  John Dalling (1st time)(acting)    (b. c.1731 - d. 1798)
 
5 Jan 1774 - 15 Jun 1777  Sir Basil Keith                    (b. c.1734 - d. 1777)
15 Jun
1777 - 25 Nov 1781  John Dalling (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                            
(acting to 13 Feb 1778)
25 Nov 1781 -  7 Jul 1784  Archibald Campbell                 (b. 1739 - d. 1791) 

                            
(acting to 15 Jan 1783)
 7 Jul 1784 - 17 Mar 1790  Alured Clarke                      (b. 1745 - d. 1832)

17 Mar 1790 - 17 Nov 1791  Thomas Howard, Earl of Effingham   (b. 1746 - d. 1791)
17 Nov 1791 - 29 Apr 1795  Adam Williamson (acting)           (b. 1736 - d. 1798)
                             (from 18 Nov 1794, Sir Adam Williamson)
29 Apr 1795 - 29 Jul 1801  Alexander Lindsay, Earl of         (b. 1752 - d. 1825)
                             Balcarres
29 Jul 1801 - 20 Feb 1806  Sir George Nugent                  (b. 1757 - d. 1849)
21 Feb 1806 - 26 Mar 1808  Sir Eyre Coote                     (b. 1762 - d. 1824)
26 Mar
1808 - 26 Jun 1811  William Montague, Duke of          (b. 1771 - d. 1843)
                             Manchester (1st time)
26 Jun 1811 - 13 Jun 1813  Edward Morrison (acting)           (b. c.1759 - d. 1843)
14 Jun 1813 - 30 Jul 1821  William Montague, Duke of          (s.a.)
                             Manchester (2nd time)
31 Jul 1821 - 22 Dec 1822  Henry Couran (acting)              (b. 1767 - d. 1829)
22 Dec 1822 -  2 Jul 1827  William Montague, Duke of          (s.a.)
                             Manchester (3rd time)
 
3 Jul 1827 - 19 Feb 1829  Sir John Keane (acting)            (b. 1781 - d. 1844)
19 Feb 1829 - 11 Jun 1832  Somerset Lowry-Corry,              (b. 1774 - d. 1841)
                             Earl of Belmore
13 Jun 1832 - 26 Jul 1832  George Cuthbert (1st time)(acting) (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
26 Jul 1832 - 15 Mar 1834  Constantine Henry Philips,         (b. 1797 - d. 1863)
                             Earl of Mulgrave
15 Mar 1834 - 29 Mar 1834  George Cuthbert (2nd time) (acting)(s.a.)
29 Mar 1834 -  7 Apr 1834  Sir Amos Godsell Robert Norcott    (b. 1777 - d. 1838)
                             (acting) 

 
7 Apr 1834 -  2 Sep 1836  Howe Peter Browne, Marquess        (b. 1788 - d. 1845)
                             of Sligo 
 
2 Sep 1836 - 22 Sep 1839  Sir Lionel Smith                   (b. 1778 - d. 1842)
26 Sep 1839 - 19 May 1842  Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe    (b. 1785 - d. 1846)
19 May 1842 - 25 May 1846  James Bruce, Earl of Elgin and     (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
                             Kincardine
25 May 1846 - 21 Dec 1846  George Henry Frederick Berkeley    (b. 1785 - d. 1857)
                             (acting)
Feb 1847 - Oct 1853        Sir Charles Edward Grey            (b. 1785 - d. 1865)
Oct 1853 - May 1856        Sir Henry Barkly                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
May 1856 - 24 Jul 1857     Edward Wells Bell (acting)         (b. 1789 - d. 1807)
24 Jul 1857 - 25 Mar 1862  Charles Henry Darling              (b. 1809 - d. 1870)
25 Mar 1862 - 12 Dec 1865  Edward John Eyre                   (b. 1815 - d. 1901)
                             (acting to May 1864)
12 Dec 1865 - 16 Jul 1866  Sir Henry Knight Storks (acting)   (b. 1811 - d. 1874)
 
5 Aug 1866 - 25 Jan 1874  Sir John Peter Grant               (b. 1807 - d. 1893)
25 Jan 1874 -  4 Apr 1874  William Alexander George Young     (b. 1827 - d. 1885)
                             (acting)
 
4 Apr 1874 - 10 Mar 1877  Sir William Grey                   (b. 1818 - d. 1878)
10 Mar 1877 - 10 Aug 1877  Edward Everard Rushworth (acting)  (b. 1818 - d. 1877)
10 Aug 1877 - 23 Aug 1877  James Robert Mann (acting)         (b. 1823 - d. 1915)
24 Aug 1877 - 20 Apr 1883  Sir Anthony Musgrave (1st time)    (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
 
8 Oct 1879 -  4 Jun 1880  Edward Newton (acting for Musgrave)(b. 1832 - d. 1897)
20 Apr 1883 -  4 May 1883  Somerset M. Wiseman Clarke         (b. 1803 - d. 1905)

                            
(acting)
 
4 May 1883 - 21 Dec 1883  Dominic Jacotin Gamble (acting)    (b. 1823 - d. 1887)
21 Dec 1883 -  2 Jan 1889  Sir Henry Wylie Norman             (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
10 Dec 1885 - 29 Mar 1886  Somerset M. Wiseman Clarke         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Norman)
 2 Feb 1887 - 27 Mar 1887  William Clive Justice              (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
                             (acting for Norman)
 2 Jan 1889 -  9 Mar 1889  William Clive Justice (acting)     (s.a.)

 
9 Mar 1889 - 18 Jan 1898  Sir Henry Arthur Blake             (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
18 Jan 1898 - 11 Feb 1898  Henry Jardine Hallowes (acting)    (b. 1838 - d. 1926)
11 Feb 1898 - 25 May 1904  Sir Augustus William Lawson        (b. 1842 - d. 1907)
                             Hemming 
25 May 1904 - 15 Sep 1904  Sydney Haldane Olivier (1st time)  (b. 1859 - d. 1943) 
                             (acting)
15 Sep 1904 - 30 Sep 1904  Hugh Clarence Bourne (1st time)    (b. 1858 - d. 1909)
                             (acting)
30 Sep 1904 - 15 May 1907  Sir James Alexander Swettenham     (b. 1846 - d. 1933)
15 May 1907 - 16 May 1907  Hugh Clarence Bourne (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
16 May 1907 - 18 Jan 1913  Sydney Haldane Olivier (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Apr 1908 -  4 Jun 1908     Hugh Clarence Bourne               (s.a.)
                             (acting for Oliver)
18 Jan 1913 -  7 Mar 1913  Philip Clark Cork (acting)         (b. 1854 - d. 1936)

 7 Mar 1913 - 11 May 1918  Sir William Henry Manning          (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
11 May 1918 - 11 Jun 1918  Robert Johnstone (acting)          (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
11 Jun 1918 - 16 Jun 1924  Sir Leslie Probyn                  (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
 
4 Sep 1922 - 14 Nov 1922  Herbert Bryan (acting for Probyn)  (b. 1865 - d. 1950)
16 Jun 1924 - 29 Sep 1924  Herbert Bryan (1st time)(acting)   (s.a.)

29 Sep 1924 -  7 Jun 1925  Sir Samuel Herbert Wilson          (b. 1873 - d. 1950)
 
7 Jun 1925 - 23 Aug 1925  Sir Herbert Bryan (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)
24 Aug 1925 -  5 Oct 1925  Arthur Mudge (acting)              (b. 1871 - d. 1958)
 6 Oct 1925 - 27 Apr 1926  Arthur Selborne Jelf (1st time)    (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
                             (acting)

27 Apr 1926 -  9 Nov 1932  Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs         (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
 9 Nov 1932 - 21 Nov 1932  Arthur Selborne Jelf (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)

21 Nov 1932 - 10 Apr 1934  Sir Alexander Ransford Slater      (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
10 Apr 1924 - 24 Oct 1934  Sir Arthur Selborne Jelf (3rd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)

24 Oct 1934 -  2 Jun 1938  Sir Edward Brandis Denham          (b. 1876 - d. 1938)
 2 Jun 1938 - 19 Aug 1938  Charles Campbell Woolley (acting)  (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
19 Aug 1938 - 28 Jul 1943  Sir Arthur Frederick Richards      (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
28 Jul 1943 - 29 Sep 1943  William Henry Flinn (acting)       (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
29 Sep 1943 -  7 Apr 1951  Sir John Huggins                   (b. 1891 - d. 1971)
 7 Apr 1951 - 18 Nov 1957  Sir Hugh Mackintosh Foot           (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
18 Dec 1957 -  6 Aug 1962  Sir Kenneth William Blackburne     (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
Queen¹
 6 Aug 1962 -              the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 6 Aug 1962 - 30 Nov 1962  Sir Kenneth William Blackburne     (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1962 - 28 Feb 1973  Sir Clifford Clarence Campbell     (b. 1892 - d. 1991)
28 Feb 1973 - 27 Jun 1973  Sir Herbert George Holwell Duffus  (b. 1908 - d. 2002)
                             (acting)     
27 Jun 1973 - 31 Mar 1991  Florizel Augustus Glasspole        (b. 1909 - d. 2000)
                             (from 17 Apr 1981, Sir Florizel Glasspole) 
31 Mar 1991 -  1 Aug 1991  Edward Zacca (acting)              (b. 1931)
 1 Aug 1991 - 15 Feb 2006  Sir Howard Felix Hanlan Cooke      (b. 1915 - d. 2014)
15 Feb 2006 - 26 Feb 2009  Kenneth Octavius Hall              (b. 1941)
                             (from 9 Oct 2007, Sir Kenneth Octavius Hall)
26 Feb 2009 -              Patrick Linton Allen               (b. 1951)
                             (from 26 Mar 2009, Sir Patrick Linton Allen)

Leader of Government Business
1945 -  5 May 1953         William Alexander Bustamante       (b. 1884 - d. 1977)  JLP
Chief ministers

 5 May 1953 -  2 Feb 1955  William Alexander Bustamante       (s.a.)               JLP
 2 Feb 1955 -  4 Jul 1959  Norman Washington Manley           (b. 1893 - d. 1969)  PNP
Premiers
 4 Jul 1959 - 29 Apr 1962  Norman Washington Manley           (s.a.)               PNP
29 Apr 1962 -  6 Aug 1962  Sir William Alexander Bustamante   (s.a.)               JLP
Prime ministers

 6 Aug 1962 - 23 Feb 1967  Sir William Alexander Bustamante   (s.a.)               JLP
Feb 1964 - 23 Feb 1967     Donald Burns Sangster              (b. 1911 - d. 1967)  JLP
                             (acting for Bustamante)
23 Feb 1967 - 11 Apr 1967  Donald Burns Sangster              (s.a.)               JLP
                             (from 6 Apr 1967, Sir Donald Burns Sangster) 
11 Apr 1967 -  2 Mar 1972  Hugh Lawson Shearer                (b. 1923 - d. 2004)  JLP
 2 Mar 1972 -  1 Nov 1980  Michael Norman Manley (1st time)   (b. 1924 - d. 1997)  PNP
 1 Nov 1980 - 10 Feb 1989  Edward Philip George Seaga         (b. 1930 - d. 2019)  JLP
10 Feb 1989 - 30 Mar 1992  Michael Norman Manley (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PNP
30 Mar 1992 - 30 Mar 2006  Percival Noel James Patterson      (b. 1935)            PNP
30 Mar 2006 - 11 Sep 2007  Portia Simpson Miller (f)(1st time)(b. 1945)            PNP
11 Sep 2007 - 23 Oct 2011  Bruce Golding                      (b. 1947)            JLP
23 Oct 2011 -  5 Jan 2012  Andrew Holness (1st time)          (b. 1972)            JLP
 5 Jan 2012 -  3 Mar 2016  Portia Simpson Miller (f)(2nd time)(s.a.)               PNP
 3 Mar 2016 -              Andrew Holness (2nd time)          (s.a.)               JLP

  ¹Full style:
(a) 6 Aug 1962 - 31 Aug 1962: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) from 31 Aug 1962: "By the Grace of God of Jamaica and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Disputes: U.S. Bajo Nuevo Bank (Petrel Islands) are claimed by Jamaica, Colombia and possibly Honduras; also possibly claims U.S. Serranilla Bank.

Party abbreviations: JLP = Jamaica Labour Party (conservative, center-right, nationalist, est.8 Jul 1943); PNP = People's National Party (social-democratic, center-left, est.1938)


Accompong Maroons

1655                       Tainos and Africans freed by the Spanish during English invasion
                             take to remote parts of the island.
 1 Mar 1739                Limited self-government for Jamaican Leeward Maroons established
                             by peace treaty with U.K. (and the Windward Maroons 23 Jun 1739)
.
 3 Aug 1942                Draft Maroon constitution (State of the Leeward Maroons).
 
6 Aug 1962                Part of independent Jamaica (political and legal status of the
                             Maroon communities not addressed).

Colonel-in-chiefs (at Cudjoe's Town to c.1750 then Accompong)
1739 - 1750/64?            Cudjoe (Kojo)                      (b. c.1690 - d. 1750/64?)
                             (leader from 1720)
1750/64? - c.1773          Accompong                          (d. c.1773)
17.. - 17..                Crankey (= Sampson Dela Roche)     (b. c.1713 - d. 18..)
                           + Muncko (= Alexander Forbes)      (b. c.1733 - d. 18..)
                             (appointed by British superintendent)
... - ...                  John James (?)

17.. - 1795                Chambers (?)
1810 - 1815                John Foster                        (b. c.1743 - d. 18..)
1815 - 1818                Robert Austin                      (b. c.1749 - d. 18..)
18.. - 18..                Robert James McLeod                (b. c.1823 - d. 18..)
18.. - 18..                H.E. Wright
1870 - 1896                Henry Octavius Rowe
                (b. 1835 - d. ....)
Dec 1896 - 1897            Robert J. Wright       
Jul 1897 - 1897            Isaac Miles                        (b. 1827 - d. 1906)
1897 - 1920                Henry Ezekiel Wright               (b. 1853? - d. 1921)
1920 - 1938                Henry Augustus Rowe (1st time)     (b. 1856? - d. 1961)
1938                       Walter James Robertson (1st time)  (b. 1871? - d. 1971)
                             (acting)
Aug 1938 - 1943?           Thomas James Cawley
(1st time)     (b. 1907? - d. 1971)  
1943? - 1948               Henry Augustus Rowe (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1948 - 1951                Henry Mann O. Rowe                 (b. 1903 - d. 2006)
1951 - 1957                Thomas James Cawley (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1957 - 1967                Walter James Robertson (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1967 - 1982                Martell (Martin Luther) Wright
                            
(1st time)
1982 - 1987                Harris N. Cawley (1st time)
1987 - 1993                Martell (Martin Luther) Wright
                            
(2nd time)
1993                       Harris N. Cawley (2nd time)
1993 - 1998                Meredie Rowe
1998 - 2009                Sidney Peddie                      (b. 1937 - d. 2014)
2009 -                     Ferron Harris Williams             (b. 1955)


Windward Maroons

Colonels (at Moore Town)
1952 - 1964                Ernest Downer                      (d. 1973)
1964 - 1995                Collin Lloyd George Harris         (b. 1917)
1995 -                     Wallace Sterling







© Ben Cahoon