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Nigeria
 
[Nigeria Colony and
                                    Protectorate Ensign 1900-1914]
1 Jan 1900 - 1 Jan 1914
 
[British Nigeria Blue Ensign,
                                    1914-1953]
1 Jan 1914 - 1953
 
[British Nigeria Blue Ensign,
                                    1953-1960]
1953 - 1 Oct 1960
 
[Flag of
                                    Nigeria]
Adopted 1 Oct 1960
[State
                                    Flag of Nigeria]
State Flag

Map of Nigeria
Hear National Anthem
"Arise Oh Compatriots,
Nigeria's Call Obey"
Adopted 1 Oct 1978
Hear Former Anthem
"Nigeria We Hail Thee"
(1 Oct 1960-1 Oct 1978)
Constitution
 (29 May 1999)
----------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1954, 1960, 1963, 1979)
Capital: Abuja
(Lagos 1914-12 Dec 1991)
Currency: Naira (NGN);
1959-1973 Nigerian Pound
 (NGP); 1914-1962 British West
 African Pound (XWAP)
National Holiday: 1 Oct (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 203,452,505 (2018)
GDP: $1.12 trillion (2017)
Exports: $1.15 billion (2017)
Imports: $32.67 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%,
Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%,
Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.7% (2018)
note: Nigeria is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups.
Total Active Armed Forces: 80,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 576 ships (2018)
Religions: Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%,
other Christian 35.3%, other 0.6% (2018)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfCFTA, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, C, CCM (signatory), CD, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OST, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WAMZ, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nigeria Index
Chronology

30 Jun 1849                Bight of Biafra British protectorate.
 1 Feb 1852                Bight of Benin British protectorate.
 6 Aug 1861                Bights of Biafra and Benin a united protectorate.
 6 Aug 1861                Lagos and adjacent area annexed by Britain.      
 5 Jun 1885                Niger Districts Protectorate (of United African Co)
13 Jan 1886                Lagos a separate colony.
10 Jul 1886                Niger River Delta Protectorate (of Royal Niger Co.)
13 May 1893                Niger Coast Protectorate
 1 Jan 1900                British Nigerian colonies.
 1 Jan 1900                Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria.
28 Feb 1906                Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria
 1 Jan 1914                Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
1951                       Regions granted semi-responsible government.
 1 Oct 1954                Federation of Nigeria (autonomous).

 1 Oct 1960                Independence from U.K. (Federation
                             of Nigeria).
 1 Oct 1963                Federal Republic of Nigeria
24 May 1966                Republic of Nigeria
 1 Sep 1966                Federal Republic of Nigeria
30 May 1967 - 12 Jan 1970  Secession of Biafra (not recognized).

Nigeria
(since 1914)
States
(since 1967)
Provinces
and Regions
(1914-1967)
Traditional
States
Northern Nigeria
(1885-1914)
Southern Nigeria
(1852-1914)
Niger Territories
(1879-1900)
Lagos Colony
(1861-1906)
Biafra
(1967-1970)

 

Niger Territories

[Royal Niger
                          Company flag 1887-1899 (Nigeria)]
2 Jun 1887 - 31 Dec 1899  Royal Niger Company Flag
[Royal Niger
                          Company ensign 1888-1900 (Nigeria)]
1 Feb 1888 - 31 Dec 1899 R.N.C. Ensign
Headquarters: Asaba
Population: N/A

Jul 1879                   United African Company (U.A.C.) formed by merger of the West
                             Africa Co. Ltd., The Central African Co. Ltd., and The United
                             African Co. Ltd.
to exploit resources in the Niger River area.
 
6 Jun 1882                Renamed National African Company Limited (N.A.C.) formed to take
                             over the U.A.C.
 
5 Jun 1885                British protectorate over Niger Districts.
10 Jul 1886                The Royal Niger Company Chartered and Limited (R.N.C.), granted a
                             royal charter to replace the N.A.C.
(Niger Territories).
10 Jul 1887                British protectorate, R.N.C. formally given right to administer
                             the region by the U.K. 

31 Dec 1899               
Royal Niger Company surrenders its charter to U.K. government.
 
1 Jan 1900                Company transfers its territories to U.K., which are divided
                             between Northern
Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria
                             Protectorate.

Presidents of the Royal Niger Company
Jul 1886 - 25 Feb 1895     Henry Austin Bruce, Baron Aberdare    (b. 1815 - d. 1895)
Mar 1895 -  1 Jan 1900     Sir George Taubman Goldie             (b. 1846 - d. 1925)

Agent Generals of United African Company; 1882-1886 National African Company;
from 10 Jul 1886,
Royal Niger Company
Jul 1879 - 1888            David MacIntosh (McIntosh)            (b. 1844 - d. 1888)
                             (and from Jul 1884, British vice-consul on the Niger)
15 Nov 1888 -  1 Jan 1900  Joseph Flint                          (b. 1851 - d. 1925)


Northern Nigeria
 
[Royal Niger
                            Company flag 1887-1899 (Nigeria)]
2 Jun 1887 - 31 Dec 1899  Royal Niger Company
[Northern
                            Nigeria Protectorate 1900-1914]
1 Jan 1900 - 1 Jan 1914
Capital: Lokoja
Population: 9,269,000 (1911)

 5 Jun 1885                Niger Districts Protectorate (under United African Company).
10 Jul 1886                Niger River Delta Protectorate (under Royal Niger Company).
 1 Jan 1900                Protectorate of Northern Nigeria formed from part of
                             Niger Territories.
 1 Jan 1914                Part of British Nigeria Colony and Protectorate as
                             northern province.

Director
 5 Jun 1885 - 10 Jul 1886  Sir George Taubman Goldie          (b. 1846 - d. 1925)
Governors
10 Jul 1886 -  1 Jan 1900  the Presidents of Royal Niger Company
High Commissioners of the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria
 1 Jan 1900 - Jun 1906     Frederick John Dealtry Lugard      (b. 1858 - d. 1945)
                             (from 1 Jan 1901, Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard) 
1901                       William Wallace (acting for Lugard)(b. 1856 - d. 1916)
1902                       Thomas Lethbridge Napier Morland   (b. 1856 - d. 1925)
                             (acting for Lugard)
1903
                       William Wallace (acting for Lugard)(s.a.)
1906                       Arthur Willoughby George Lowry Cole(b. 1860 - d. 1915)
                             (acting for Lugard)
Jul 1906 - Apr 1907        Sir William Wallace (acting)      
(s.a.)
Apr 1907 -  7 May 1908     Edouard Percy Cranwill Girouard    (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
Governors of the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria
 
7 May 1908 - 28 Sep 1909  Edouard Percy Cranwill Girouard    (s.a.)
1908                       Sir William Wallace                (s.a.)
                             (
acting for
Girouard)
28 Sep 1909 - 1912         Sir Henry Hesketh Bell             (b. 1864 - d. 1952)

1911                       Charles Lindsay Temple             (b. 1871 - d. 1929)
                             (acting for Bell)
1912                       Herbert Symonds Goldsmith          (b. 1873 - d. 1945)
                             (acting for Bell)
1912                       Charles Lindsay Temple             (s.a.)
                             (acting for Bell)
Oct 1912 - 31 Dec 1913     Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard  (s.a.)


Southern Nigeria

[Oil Rivers
                          Protectorate 1885-1896 (Nigeria)]1885 - 5 Jun 1896
 

[Niger
                          Coast Protectorate enisgn 1896-1900
                          (Nigeria)]
5 Jun 1896 - 1 Jan 1900
 

[Southern Nigeria Protectorate Ensign
                          1900-1906 (Nigeria)]
1 Jan 1900 - 16 Feb 1906

[Southern Nigeria Colony
                        and Protecorate ensign 1906-1914]
16 Feb 1906 - 1 Jan 1914



Capital: Lagos
(Calabar 1904-1914;
Old Calabar 1885-1904;
[[Bight of Biafra- Bonny 1849-1885; Bight of Benin-
Lagos 1852-1867])
Population: 7,855,749 (1911)

30 Jun 1849                Bight of Biafra (also called Bight of Bonny)(south-eastern
                             Nigeria) declared a British protectorate.

 1 Feb 1852                Bight of Benin (south-western Nigeria) declared a British
                             protectorate.

16 Jul 1884                British protectorate over Brass, Bonny, Opobo, Aobh, and
                             Old Calabar (excluding Lagos).
 
5 Jul 1885                Bights of Biafra and Benin united as Oil Rivers Protectorate. 
 1 Aug 1891                Effective British consular administration established.

13 May 1893                Protectorate extended and renamed Niger Coast Protectorate.
 1 Jan 1900                United with parts of the Niger Territories to form the
                             Protectorate of Southern Nigeria.
 
1 May 1906                Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria (incorporating Lagos)
                             (by Order in council of 16 Feb 1906).
 1 Jan 1914                Part of British Nigeria Colony and Protectorate 

                             as Southern provinces.

British Consuls of the Bight of Benin (at Lagos)
May 1852 - 21 Jul 1853     Louis Frazer (vice consul)             (b. 1819 - d. 1883)
21 Jul 1853 - 17 Apr 1859  Benjamin Campbell                      (b. 1802? - d. 1859)
18 Apr 1859 - 25 Nov 1859  Edward Francis Lodder (acting)         (b. 1836 - d. 1894)
25 Nov 1859 - 16 Jun 1860  George Brand                           (b. 1816 - d. 1860)
16 Jun 1860 - 13 Dec 1860  Henry Hand (acting)                    (d. 1861?)
21 Dec 1860 - 17 May 1861  Henry Grant Foote                      (b. 1821? - d. 1861)
17 May 1861 - 29 Jan 1862  William McCoskry (acting)
29 Jan 1862 - 1867         the administrators of Lagos
1867 -  5 Jul 1885         the consuls for the Bight of Biafra
British Consuls of the Bight of Biafra
(Bonny)(from 1867, and Bight of Benin)(at Fernando Poo)
(also British Superintendents of Port Clarence [Fernando Póo] to 1855)
30 Jun 1849 - 10 Jun 1854  John Beecroft                          (b. 1790 - d. 1854)

10 Jun 1854 - 22 Sep 1855  James William Bishop Lynslager (acting)(b. 1810 - d. 1864)
22 Nov 1855 -  6 Jun 1861  Thomas Joseph Hutchinson               (b. 1820 - d. 1885)
Sep 1861 - Sep 1864        Sir Richard Francis Burton             (b. 1821 - d. 1890)
17 Oct 1864 - 1873         Charles Livingstone                    (b. 1821 - d. 1873)
                             (acting to 3 Dec 1864)
 
3 Dec 1870 - 31 Mar 1872  David Hopkins (acting for Livingstone) (b. 1838 - d. 1879)
18 Aug 1873 - 1877         George Hartley                  

11 Jul 1877 - 1878         Henry Chaster Tait (acting)            (b. 1844 - d. 1928)
Jan 1878 - 13 Sep 1879     David Hopkins                         
(s.a.)
13 Sep 1879 -  5 Jun 1885  Edward Hyde Hewett                     (b. 1830 - d. 1891)
Consuls-general of the Oil Rivers Protectorate
 5 Jun 1885 -  1 Jan 1891  Edward Hyde Hewett                     (s.a.)
1887 - 1888                Henry "Harry" Hamilton Johnston        (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
                             (acting for Hewett)
 1 Jan 1891 - 28 Jul 1891 
Henry Lionel Gallwey (acting)          (b. 1859 - d. 1949)
                             (from 1911, Henry Lionel Galway) 
Commissioners and Consuls-general of the Oil Rivers Protectorate
28 Jul 1891 -  1 Jan 1896  Claude Maxwell MacDonald               (b. 1852 - d. 1915)
                             (from 4 Aug 1892, Sir Claude Maxwell MacDonald)   
 6 Sep 1892 - 15 Feb 1893  Ralph Denham Rayment Moor              (b. 1860 - d. 1909)

                             (acting for MacDonald) 
 
1 Jan 1896 - 31 Dec 1899  Ralph Denham Rayment Moor              (s.a.)
                             (from 22 Jun 1897, Sir Ralph Denham Rayment Moore)
Aug 1896 - Oct 1896        Henry Lionel Gallwey (acting for Moor) (s.a.)
Oct 1896 -  4 Jan 1897     James Robert Phillips (acting for Moor)(b. c.1864 - d. 1897)
Feb 1898 - Dec 1898
        Henry Lionel Gallwey (acting for Moor) (s.a.)
High Commissioners of the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria
 1 Jan 1900 - Jul 1903     Sir Ralph Denham Rayment Moor          (s.a.)
Mar 1900 - Nov 1900        Henry Lionel Gallwey (acting for Moor) (s.a.)
Jul 1903 - 1903            Leslie Probyn (acting)                 (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
1903 -  6 Apr 1904        
Widenham Francis Widenham Fosbery      (b. 1869 - d. 1935)
                             (acting)
 
2 Apr 1904 - 30 Apr 1906  Walter Egerton                         (b. 1858 - d. 1947)

                             (from 9 Nov 1905, Sir Walter Egerton) 
13 Jan 1905 - 23 Feb 1905  Widenham Francis Widenham Fosbery      (s.a.)
                             (acting for Egerton)
24 Feb 1905 -  3 Apr 1905  Algernon John Bernard Harcourt         (b. 1863 - d. 1940)
                             (acting for Egerton)
 9 May 1905 - 30 Jul 1905  James Jamieson Thorburn                (b. 1864 - d. 1929)
                             (acting for Egerton)
 3 Aug 1905 - 27 Sep 1905  Frederick Seton James                  (b. 1870 - d. 1934)
                             (acting for Egerton)
28 Sep 1905 - 22 Dec 1905
  Widenham Francis Widenham Fosbery      (s.a.)
                             (acting for Egerton)
 
1 Jan 1906 - 11 Feb 1906  James Jamieson Thorburn                (b. 1864 - d. 1929)
                             (acting for Egerton)

Governors
and Administrators of the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria
 
1 May 1906 - 27 Feb 1912  Sir Walter Egerton                     (s.a.)
10 Jun 1906 -  5 Aug 1906  Widenham Francis Widenham Fosbery      (s.a.)
                             (acting for Egerton)
 3 Oct 1912 - 31 Dec 1913  Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard      (s.a.)


Lagos
[Flag of
                            British West Africa Settlements 1870-1888]
1870 - 1888
 
[Lagos
                            colonial ensign 1888-1906 (Nigeria)]
1888 - 30 Apr 1906
 
Capital: Lagos
Population: 72,703 (1911)
 6 Aug 1861                Lagos and adjacent area ceded to the U.K.              
 5 Mar 1862                British colony as Lagos; local dynasty continues
                            (see under Nigerian traditional states)
                            (subordinated to Sierra Leone 1866-1874, and
                             then to the Gold Coast 1874-1886).
22 Aug 1862                Lagos Settlement
19 Feb 1866 - 24 Jul 1874  Lagos a territory of British West Africa.
24 Jul 1874 - 13 Jan 1886  Part of Gold Coast Lagos colony.
13 Jan 1886                Lagos a separate colony.
18 Oct 1887                Lagos protectorate in hinterland
                             (Colony and Protectorate of Lagos).

 
1 May 1906                Incorporated into Southern Nigeria Colony (as Western Province)
                             (by Order in council of 16 Feb 1906).

Governors of the Settlement of Lagos
 
6 Aug 1861 - 22 Jan 1862  William McCoskry (acting)
                            
(= Ajele Apongbon)
22 Jan 1862 - Apr 1865     Henry Stanhope Freeman              (b. 1831? - d. 1865)

1863 – 25 Jul 1863         William Rice Mulliner (acting)      (b. 1834 - d. 1863)
Aug 1863 - 24 Mar 1866     John Hawley Glover                  (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
                             (acting to 21 Apr 1865) 
Administrators of the Settlement of Lagos
Mar 1866 - Apr 1866        John Hawley Glover                  (s.a.)
Apr 1866 - Nov 1866        Charles George Edward Patey         (b. 1813 - d. 1881)

                             (acting)
Nov 1866 - Aug 1870        John Hawley Glover (1st time)       (s.a.)
Aug 1870 - 1870            Henry Towry Miles Cooper            (b. 1838 - d. 1877)
                             (acting for Glover)
1870                       William Henry Simpson               (b. 1830 - d. 1872)
                             (acting for Glover)
1870 -
1871                John Hawley Glover (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1871                       Josiah Gerard                      
(d. 1872)
                             (acting for Glover)
1871 - Jun 1
872            John Hawley Glover (3rd time)       (s.a.)
Mar 1872 - Jun 1872        John Pope Hennessy                  (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
                             (acting for Glover)
Jun 1872 - Dec 1872        Henry William John Fowler (interim) (b. 1842 - d. 1893)

Dec 1872 - Aug 1873        George Berkeley                     (b. 1819 - d. 1905)
Aug 1873 - Oct 1873        Charles Cameron Lees (1st time)     (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
                             (acting)
Oct 1873 - Jun 1874        George Cumine Strahan               (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
Jun 1874 - Sep 1874        John Shaw (acting)                  (b. 1838 - d. 1899)
Lieutenant Governors Administering the Government of Lagos
Sep 1874 - Jun 1875        Charles Cameron Lees (2nd time)     (s.a.)

Jun 1875 - Feb 1876        John d'Auvergne Dumaresq (1st time) (b. 1830 - d. 1878)
                             (acting)
Feb 1876 - Mar 1876        Charles Cameron Lees (3rd time)     (s.a.)
Mar 1876 - Dec 1876        John d'Auvergne Dumaresq (2nd time) (s.a.)
Jan 1877 - Nov 1877        Charles Cameron Lees (4th time)     (s.a.)
Nov 1877 -  9 Apr 1878     John d'Auvergne Dumaresq (3rd time) (s.a.)

                             (acting)
 
6 Apr 1878 - 29 Apr 1878  Frank Simpson (acting)              (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
30 Apr 1878 - 16 Aug 1878  Malcolm Janson Brown (acting)
17 Aug 1878 - Sep 1879     Cornelius Alfred Moloney (1st time) (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
                             (acting)
Sep 1879 - Oct 1879        Herbert Taylor John Ussher          (b. 1836 - d. 1880)
Oct 1879 - Dec 1880        C
ornelius Alfred Moloney (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Dec 1880
- Dec 1880        William Brandford Griffith          (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
1880                       Charles Dennett Turton (acting)     (b. c.1840 - d. 1913)
Dec 1880 - May 1881        Cornelius Alfred Moloney (3rd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)

May 1881 - Oct 1882        William Brandford Griffith          (s.a.)

                             (1st time)
Oct 1882 - Apr 1883        Cornelius Alfred Moloney (acting)   (s.a.)
Apr 1883 - Aug 1883        Sir Samuel Rowe (acting)            (b. 1835 - d. 1888)
Aug 1883 - Mar 1884        William Brandford Griffith          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

Mar 1884 - Aug 1884        Robert Murray Rumsey (acting)       (b. 1849 - d. 1922)
Aug 1884 - Feb 1885        Robert Knapp Barrow (acting)        (b. 1838 - d. 1888)
Feb 1885 - May 1885        William Brandford Griffith          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
May 1885 - May 1885        Charles Pike (acting)               (b. 1840? - d. 1891)
May 1885 - Jan 1886       
Frederick Evans (acting)            (b. 1848 - d. 19..)
Governors and Commanders-in-chief of the Colony of Lagos
13 Jan 1886 - 1889         C
ornelius Alfred Moloney (1st time) (s.a.)
                            
(from 1 Jan 1890, Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney)
1889 - 1890                George Chardin Denton (acting)      (b. 1851 - d. 1928)

1890 - 1891                Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney        (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
Sep 1891 - Oct 1896        Sir Gilbert Thomas Carter           (b. 1848 - d. 1927)

Oct 1896 - 1896            Frank Rohrweger (acting)            (b. 1859 - d. ....)
1896 - Apr 1897            William Brandford Griffith (acting) (b. 1858 - d. 1939)
23 Apr 1897 - May 1899     Henry Edward McCallum               (b. 1852 - d. 1919)

1898 - 1899                George Chardin Denton               (s.a.)
                             (acting for McCallum)
May 1899 - 1902            Sir William MacGregor (1st time)    (b. 1847 - d. 1919)

1900 - 1901                George Chardin Denton               (s.a.)
                             (acting for MacGregor)
1902                       Henry Fenwick Reeve (acting)       
(b. 1857 - d. 1946)
1902 - 1903                Charles Herbert Harley Moseley      (b. 1857 - d. 1933)
                             (1st time)(acting)
1903 - Jan 1904
            Sir William MacGregor (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Jan 1904 - Sep 1904        Charles Herbert Harley Moseley      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
16 Sep 1904 - 30 Apr 1906  Walter Egerton                      (b. 1858 - d. 1947)

                             (from 9 Nov 1905, Sir Walter Egerton)



Nigeria

 1 Jan 1914                Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
 1 Oct 1954                Federation of Nigeria
 1 Oct 1960                Independence
 1 Oct 1963                Federal Republic of Nigeria
24 May 1966                Republic of Nigeria
 1 Sep 1966                Federal Republic of Nigeria 

Governor-general and Commander-in-chief
 1 Jan 1914 -  8 Aug 1919  Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard  (s.a.)
Governors and Commanders-in-chief
 8 Aug 1919 - 13 Nov 1925  Sir Hugh Charles Clifford          (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
13 Nov 1925 - 17 Jun 1931  Sir Graeme Thomson                 (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
17 Jun 1931 -  1 Nov 1935  Sir Donald Charles Cameron         (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
 1 Nov 1935 - May 1943     Sir Bernard Henry Bourdillon       (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
 1 Jul 1940 - 1942         Sir John Evelyn Shuckburgh         (b. 1877 - d. 1953)
                            
(did not take office)
19 May 1942 - 13 Jul 1942  Sir Alan Cuthbert Maxwell Burns    (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
                            
(acting for
Bourdillon)
May 1943 - 18 Dec 1943     Sir Alan Cuthbert Maxwell Burns    (s.a.)
                            
(acting)
18 Dec 1943 - 14 Oct 1947  Sir Arthur Frederick Richards      (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
14 Oct 1947 - 15 Apr 1948  George Beresford-Stooke (acting)   (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
15 Apr 1948 -  1 Oct 1954  Sir John Stuart Macpherson         (b. 1898 - d. 1971)
Queen¹
 1 Oct 1960 -  1 Oct 1963  the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general and Commanders-in-chief
(representing the British monarch as head of state from 1 Oct 1960)

 1 Oct 1954 - 15 Jun 1955  Sir John Stuart Macpherson         (s.a.)               Non-party
15 Jun 1955 - 15 Nov 1960  Sir James Wilson Robertson         (b. 1899 - d. 1983)  Non-party
15 Nov 1960 -  1 Oct 1963  Nnamdi Chukwuemeka Azikiwe         (b. 1904 - d. 1996)  NCNC
President
and Commander-in-chief
 1 Oct 1963 - 16 Jan 1966  Nnamdi Chukwuemeka Azikiwe         (s.a.)               NCNC
Head of the Federal Military Government, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces
15 Jan 1966 - 17 Jan 1966  Patrick Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu    (b. 1937 – d. 1967)  Mil
                             (head of Supreme Council of Revolution
                             of Nigerian Armed Forces, in rebellion)
16 Jan 1966 - 24 May 1966  Johnson Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi-   (b. 1924 - d. 1966)  Mil
                             Ironsi
Heads of the National Military Government, Supreme Commanders of the Armed Forces
24 May 1966 - 29 Jul 1966  Johnson Thomas Umunnakwe
Aguiyi-   (s.a.)               Mil
                             Ironsi
29 Jul 1966 -  1 Aug 1966  Vacant
 1 Aug 1966 -  1 Sep 1966  Yakubu Cinwa Dan-Yumma Gowon
       (b. 1934)            Mil
Heads of the Federal Military Government, Supreme Commanders of the Armed Forces
(from 17 Mar 1967, Head of the Federal Military Government, Commander-in-Chief
of the Armed Forces)

 1 Sep 1966 - 29 Jul 1975  Yakubu Cinwa Dan-Yumma Gowon
       (s.a.)               Mil
29 Jul 1975 - 13 Feb 1976  Murtala Ramat Mohammed             (b. 1938 - d. 1976)  Mil

14 Feb 1976 -  1 Oct 1979  Olusegun Fajinmi Okikiolakan Aremu (b. 1937)            Mil
                             Obasanjo
President
and Commanders-in-chief of the Armed Forces
 1 Oct 1979 - 31 Dec 1983  Shehu Usman Aliyu Shagari          (b. 1925 - d. 2018)  NPN
Head of the Federal Military Government, Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces
31 Dec 1983 - 27 Aug 1985  Muhammadu Buhari                   (b. 1942)            Mil
President, Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces
27 Aug 1985 - 26 Aug 1993  Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida         (b. 1941)            Mil
Head of the Interim National Government
26 Aug 1993 - 17 Nov 1993  Ernest Adegunle Oladeinde Shonekan (b. 1936)            Non-party
Heads of State and Commanders-in-chief of the Armed Forces
17 Nov 1993 -  8 Jun 1998  Sani Abacha                        (b. 1943 - d. 1998)  Mil
 9 Jun 1998 - 29 May 1999  Abdulsalam Abubakar                (b. 1942)            Mil
Presidents, Commanders-in-chief of the Armed Forces
29 May 1999 - 29 May 2007  Olusegun Fajinmi Okikiolakan Aremu (s.a.)               PDP
                             Obasanjo
29 May 2007 -  5 May 2010  Umaru Musa Yar'Adua                (b. 1951 - d. 2010)  PDP
                             (incapacitated by illness from 9 Feb 2010)
 9 Feb 2010 - 29 May 2015  Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan    (b. 1957)            PDP
                             (acting for Yar'Adua to 5 May 2010)
29 May 2015 -             
Muhammadu Buhari                   (s.a.)               APC
 6 Jun 2016 - 20 Jun 2016  Yemi Osinbajo (1st time)           (b. 1957)            APC
                             (acting for absent Buhari)
19 Jan 2017 - 13 Mar 2017 
Yemi Osinbajo (2nd time)           (s.a.)               APC
                             (acting for absent Buhari)
 7 May 2017 - 19 Aug 2017  Yemi Osinbajo (3rd time)           (s.a.)               APC
                             (acting for absent Buhari)


Prime ministers
30 Aug 1957 - 15 Jan 1966  Abubakar Tafawa Balewa             (b. 1912 - d. 1966)  NPC;1964
                             (from 1 Jan 1960, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa)         + NNA
15 Jan 1966 - 17 Jan 1966  Zanna Bukar Dipcharima (acting)    (b. 1917 - d. 1969)  NPC
Chairman of the Transitional Council
 4 Jan 1993 - 26 Aug 1993  Ernest Adegunle Oladeinde Shonekan (s.a.)               Non-party

  ¹Full style:
(a) 1 Oct 1960 - 1 Jun 1961: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) 1 Jun 1961 - 1 Oct 1963: "By the Grace of God Queen of Nigeria and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Disputes: Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including Jun 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved

Party abbreviations (political parties banned 1966-1979, 1983-1989): APC = All Progressives Congress (progressive, merger of ACN, ANPP, CPC, and APGA dissidents, est.6 Feb 2013); APP = All People's Party (coalition of associations, 1998-2003, then ANPP); PDP = People's Democratic Party (social conservative, est.1998); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: NNA = Nigerian National Alliance (northern based electoral coalition, incl. NPC and Nigerian National Democratic Party and others, 1964-1966); NPN = National Party of Nigeria (coalition, 1978-1983); NPC Northern People's Congress (northern autonomist, Hausa/Fulani dominated, 1951-1966); NCNC = National Council of Nigerian Citizens (Igbo dominated, until 1959 named National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons, 1944-1966); UPN = Unity Party of Nigeria (social democratic, seen pro-Yoruba, 1978-1983)



Biafra

[Flag of
                          Republic of Biafra 1967-1970 (Nigeria)]30 May 1967 - 12 Jan 1970
Map of Biafra
Hear National Anthem
"Land of the Rising Sun"
Text of National Anthem
(1967-1970)
Constitution
  (30 May 1967)
Capital: Enugu
(Umuahia 1967-69,
Owerri 1969-70)
Currency: 1968-1970
Biafran Pound (BIAP)
National Holiday: 30 May (1967)
Independence Day
Population: 13,500,000 (1967)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Igbo (Ibo) 70%, Ibibio, Ijaw,
Ogoja, Ekoi, Efik, and others
Total Armed Forces: 100,000 (1968)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, traditional beliefs
International Organizations/Treaties: None

30 May 1967                Secession of the Eastern Region of Nigeria as Republic of Biafra
                             (not widely recognized internationally¹).
10-26 Jul 1967             Nigerian federal troops take Ogoja, Nsukka and Bonny Island. 
 9 Aug 1967 - 20 Sep 1967  Midwest Region occupied by Biafra, and Republic of Benin declared
                             on 19 Sep 1967
(see Edo under federal states).

28 Sep 1967                Enugu captured, new capital Unuahia.

24 May 1968                Port Harcourt captured.
22 Apr 1969                Unuahia captured, last capital Owerri.
 9 Jan 1970                Owerri captured.
12 Jan 1970                Re-integration into Nigeria.
15 Jan 1970                Biafran forces formally surrender.

Head of State and Military Governor of the Republic of Biafra
30 May 1967 - 15 Jan 1970  Chukwuemeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu        (b. 1933 - d. 2011)  Mil
 8 Jan 1970 - 15 Jan 1970  Philip Efiong                      (b. 1924 - d. 2003)  Mil
                             (acting for
Odumegwu-Ojukwu)

 ¹recognized only by: Tanzania (13 Apr 1968), Gabon (8 May 1968), Ivory Coast (9 May 1968), Zambia (20 May 1968), and Haiti (22 Mar 1969).


Republic of Benin: see Edo under Federal states






© Ben Cahoon