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Roman Empire
 

[Rome
                          Traditional Flag - SPQR]
Rome Traditional Flag

 
[Western Roman
                          Empire flag]
Western Roman Empire Flag
 

Maps of the Roman Empire
Capital: Rome (Roma)
(Gallic Empire - Colonia Agrippina 260-261, Augusta Treverorum  261-674;
Western - Constantinople
  [Constantinopolis] 303-395,
Rome 395-303, Ravenna 402-473,
 Mediolanum
286-402;
Eastern - Nicomedia 286-330,
Constantinople [Constantinopolis]
 395-1453)

Currency (from 50 BC):
Aureus and
Denarius
Population: 223 million
(2nd Cent. AD est.)

56,800,000 (25 BC est.)
Roman
Empire
Chronology

c.753 BC                   Rome, and the Roman kingdom (Regnum Romanum), founded
                             according to
legend by Romulus (d. c.716 BC).
509 BC                     Roman Republic (Res Publica Romana); overthrow of the
                             last King (Rex Romae) Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
                             (d. 495 BC).
501 BC - 501 BC            Titus Lartius Flavus elected first Dictator (magister
                            
populi) of Rome to defeat the forces of Octavius
                             Mamilius (d. 498 BC) son-in-law of last King of
                             Rome.
437 BC - 435 BC            Rome defeats the Etruscan Veii in the Veientine War.

18 Jul 390 BC              Sack of Rome by the Senone Gauls under Brennus.
290 BC                     Last Samnite resistance is crushed by Rome.
264 BC                     Etruscan lands annexed by Rome.
241 BC                     Sicilia (Sicily) annexed to Rome (Syracuse falls in
                             212 BC).
238 BC                     Sardinia and Corsica annexed by Rome.
222 BC                     Rome conquers Gallia Cisalpina (Cisalpine Gaul).

 2 Aug 216 BC              Battle of Cannae, the Carthaginians under Hannibal
                             Barca, decisively defeat a larger army of Romans
                             under the Consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus (d. 160
                             BC) and
Gaius Terentius Varro (d. 200 BC).
210 BC - 207 BC            Hispania (Iberia) conquered for Rome by Scipio
                             Africanus (b. 236/235 BC - 183 BC).
197 BC                     Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior (Iberia)

                             provinces organized by Rome.
22 Jun 168 BC              Roman Republic defeats and annexes Macedonia.
146 BC                     Romans defeat the Achaean League, destroying the
                             city-state of Corinth. Epirus and Achaia annexed
                             by Rome.
Spring 146 BC              Rome finally defeats Carthage at the Battle of
                             Carthage.
135 BC - 132 BC            First Servile War slave revolt, particularly in
                             Sicily led by Eunus (d. 132 BC).
c.134 BC - c.44 BC         Crisis of the Roman Republic, period of political

                             instability and social unrest.
133 BC                     Pergamon annexed to Rome as Provincia Asia (province
                             of Asia).
121 BC                     Gallia Narbonensis (Gaul of Narbonne) becomes a Roman

                             province.
100 BC - 104 BC            Second Servile War slave revolt in Sicily, led by
                             Athenion and Tryphon.
91 BC - 88 BC              Rome defeats former Italian allied cities in the

                             Social War (Bellum Sociale).
74 BC                      Bithynia annexed by Rome (later as Bithynia et
                             Pontus).

73 BC - 71 BC              Third Servile War slave revolt led by Spartacus
                             (Spártakos)(b. c.111 BC - d. 71 BC).

71 BC                      Third Servile War - Roman slaves in rebellion are
                             decisively defeated by Roman forces near Petelia.
                             Their leader Spartacus (Spártakos) is killed.
64 BC                      Syria annexed by Rome.
58 BC                      Cyprus annexed by Rome.
58 BC - 51 BC              Gaul conquered by Julius Caesar.
10 Jan 49 BC               Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon River (the frontier
                             boundary of Italy) with a single legion, the Legio
                             XIII Gemina, igniting a civil war, which he wins
                             becoming Dictator in Oct 49 BC and in 1 Jan 44 BC
                             Consul.
46 BC                      Odrysia (client kingdom c.30-46 BC) incorporated into
                             Rome as provincia
Thracia (province of Thracia).
46 BC                      Eastern Numidia annexed as Roman province of Africa
                             Nova (New Africa). In 40 BC Western Numidia is
                             annexed
with East Numidia as Africa Proconsularis.
15 Mar 44 BC               Assassination of Julius Caesar (b. 100 BC - d. 44 BC)
 2 Sep 31                  Gaius Octavianus (Octavian) defeats the combined
                             forces of Marcus Antonius (Marc Antony) and Queen
                             Cleopatra VII of Egypt at the Battle of Actium.
30 BC                      Egypt is annexed by Rome as province of Aegyptus.
c.29 BC                    Moesia annexed by Rome (divided into Moesia Superior
                             and Moesia Inferior in 87 AD).

17 Jan 27 BC               Roman Empire (Imperium Romanum), Octavian is granted
                             the titles augustus ("illustrious one"), majestic,
                             and
princeps ("first [head]"), by the Senate.
c.Sep 9 AD                 At Battle of the Teutoburg Forest an alliance of
                             Germanic tribes decisively destroys three Roman
                             legions.
18 AD                      Cappadocia (client kingdom 95 BC - 18 AD) annexed by
                             Rome.
40 AD                      Mauretania (client kingdom 33 BC - 40 AD) annexed by
                             Rome (divided in 44 into Mauretania Tingitana and
                             Mauretania Caesariensis).

43 AD - 80 AD              Britannia (south of Firth of Forth) invaded annexed
                             by Rome.
44 AD                      Judea (client kingdom 63 BC - 44 AD) annexed by Rome.
60 AD - 61 AD              Celtic Queen Boudicca's (Boadicea)(d. 61) revolt in
                             Roman Britannia destroying Camulodunum (modern
                             Colchester), Verulamium (Saint Albans) and

                             Londinium
(London).
62 AD                      Pontus annexed by Rome (eastern half of kingdom of
                             Pontus survived as a client kingdom 62-66 AD).

18 Jul 64 AD               Great Fire of Rome, which Nero blames on the
                             Christians.
Aug 66 - 16 Apr 73         First Jewish–Roman War (Great Revolt) in Judea.
24 Aug 79 AD               Mount Vesuvius (Mons Vesuvius) volcano erupts 
                             destroying the cities of
Pompeii, Herculaneum,
                             Oplontis and
Stabiae. Killing thousands including
                             Gaius Plinius Secundus (Pliny "the Elder")(b. 23/24
                             - d. 79).
80 AD                      Rome is partially destroyed by fire.
22 Mar 106 AD              Nabatea annexed by Rome as the province of Arabia
                             Petraea.
106 AD                     Dacia (former client kingdom 88-106) organized as
                             Dacia Traiana province
of Rome.
115 AD - 117 AD            Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia annexed by Rome.
115 - 117                  Second Jewish–Roman War (Kitos War), Jewish revolts
                             in Cyrene (Cyrenaica), Cyprus, Egypt, Judea, and
                             Mesopotamia.
Aug 132 - Aug 135          Third Jewish–Roman War (Simon Bar Kokhba revolt)
                             in Judea.
198 - 226                  Mesopotamia is re-conquered by Rome (as Provincia
                             Mesopotamia).
Spring 260                 Emperor Valerian is defeated in the Battle of Edessa
                             by Sasanian Emperor Shapur I and held hostage until
                             his death.
Sep 260 - Feb/Mar 274      Gallic Empire (
Imperium Galliarum) in rebellion in
                             the territories of Germania, Gaul, Britannia, and
                             (for a time) Hispania.
267 AD                     Heruli, a Germanic tribe, invades Macedonia, Achaea,
                             and Thessaly
sacking Athens, Corinth, and Sparta.

269 - Aug 272              Palmyrene Empire under Zenobia (f) and Vaballathus

                             occupies Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, Egypt,
                             and parts of Asia Minor.
c.271                      Dacia is abandoned.
286 - Sep 296              Britannic Empire (Imperium Britanniarum) in rebellion
                             in Britannia and Northern Gaul under Carausius and
                             Allectus.
 
1 Mar 293 - Jul/Aug 313   Tetrarchy era, administrative division of the Roman

                             Empire into four parts.
28 Oct 312                 Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Emperor Constantine I
                             defeats Emperor Maxentius.
Feb 313                    Emperor Constantine I decrees official toleration of
                             Christianity and other religions by the Edict of
                             Milan (Edictum Mediolanense).
11 May 330                 Emperor Constantine I moves the capital of the Roman
                             Empire to Constantinople (Constantinopolis/
                             Konstantinoúpolis), formerly named Byzantium
                             (Byzántion), officially called New Rome (Nova Roma
                             [Néa Rómi]).
22 May 337 - 340           Empire divided into three parts by the sons of
                             Emperor Constantine I following his death.
376                        Fleeing the Huns, the Goths crossed the Danube River
                             and enter the Eastern Empire as political refugees.
                             In 382, the Goths are made foederati of the Empire.
 9 Aug 378                 Gothic rebels defeat Roman forces and kill Emperor
                             Valens at the
Battle of Adrianople.
 1 Jan 379 - 17 Jan 395    Emperor Theodosius I re-unites the Empire, but at his
                             death the Empire is divided by his sons (Arcadius,
                             in the East, and Honorius, in the West).  
27 Feb 380                 Christianity is adopted as the state religion by
                             Emperors Theodosius I, Gratian, and Valentinian II
                             in the Edict of Thessalonica (the Cunctos populos).
17 Jan 395                 Roman Empire is divided de jure into the Eastern
                             Roman (Byzantine) Empire, at Constantinople, and
                             Western Roman Empire, at Rome.
c.400                      Pannonia and Vindobona lost to the Huns.
402                        Ravenna becomes the capital of the Western Roman
                             Empire.
31 Dec 406                 Crossing of the Rhine by a mixed group of barbarians

                             (including the Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Alans,
                             Gepids, Herules, Saxons, Burgundians, Alemanni,
                             and Pannonians).
Dec 406                    Constantine III withdrew the remains of the army in
                             Britannia in reaction to Germanic invasion of Gaul.
Sep/Oct 409                The Buri, Suevi, Vandals, and Alans move into

                             Hispania.
24-27 Aug 410              Visigoths, led by Alareiks (Alaric I), sack Rome.
410                        Romano-Britons expel Constantine III's government
                             from Britain. Emperor Honorius tells the civitates
                           
(cities) of Britannia "to see to their own defense,"
                             the rule of local Romano-Britons begins.
418                        Visigoths settle in southern Gaul as foederati.
429 - 431                  Vandals establish an independent kingdom in Roman
                             Africa.
440 - 452                  The Huns, under Attila (b. c.406 - d. 453), threaten
                             Rome are paid off and then attack.

c.445                      Malta occupied by the Vandals.
20 Jun 451                 Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I
                             defeat the Huns under Attila at Battle of the
                             Catalaunian Plains (Campus Mauriacus).
452                        Huns sack cities in northern Italy (razing Aquileia
                             18 Jul 452), but leave
Italian peninsula without
                             attacking Rome following
an embassy including Pope
                             Leo I.
 2-16 Jun 455              Vandals and Alani, led by Genseric (Gaiseric), sack
                             Rome.
28 Feb 456 - 18 Aug 472    Flavius Ricimer (b. 405 - d. 472), a Romanized
                             Germanic general, effectively rules the remaining
                             territory of the Western Roman Empire as magister
                             militum
.
456 - 466                  Vandals occupy Sardinia.
457 – 461                  Emperor Majorian briefly reconquers most of Hispania.
464 - 486                  Syagrius (b. 430 - d. 487), magister militum per
                            
Gallias, rules Northern Gaul from Novidunum
                             (Soissons) as Romanorum Rex of the last Roman rump
                             state in the West.
468                        Vandals occupy Sicily.
469                        Vandals occupy Corsica (and Sardinia to c.474).
472                        Visigoths capture Tarraco (Tarragona), ending Roman
                             rule in Hispania Tarraconensis.
28 Aug 475 - 28 Aug 476    Orestes (d. 479) magister militum takes control of                              Ravenna and appoints his son, Romulus Augustus, as
                             Emperor on 31 Oct 475.

 4 Sep 476                 Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor in the West, is
                             forced to abdicate by Odovacar (see under Italy),
                             head of the Germanic foederati in Roman pay, who
                             becomes Italian king (rex Italicum) at Ravenna.
                             The Senate sends Eastern Emperor Zeno the imperial
                             regalia of the Western Empire.
25 Apr 480                 Julius Nepos, the last Emperor pretender in the West,
                             is assassinated in Dalmatia.

Eastern Roman Empire
(395-1453)
Italy 476-1004


 

 
 
 
 
 


Emperors¹
17 Jan 27 BC-19 Aug 14 AD  Augustus (= Gaius Octavianus)          (b. 63 BC - d. 14 AD)
                             (
Augustus Caesar)
18 Sep 14
- 16 Mar 37      Tiberius                               (b. 42 BC - d. 37 AD)
                             (
Tiberius Caesar Augustus)
18 Mar 37 - 24 Jan 41      Gaius "Caligula"                       (b. 12 - d. 41)
                             (Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus "Caligula")
25 Jan 41 - 13 Oct 54      Claudius                               (b. 10 BC - d. 54 AD)

                            
(Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus)
13 Oct 54 -  9 Jun 68      Nero                                   (b. 37 - d. 68)

                            
(Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus)
13 Oct 54 -  2 Mar 59      Julia Agrippina (f) -Regent (de facto) (b. 15 - d. 59)
68                         Gaius Julius Vindex (in rebellion)     (b. c.25 - d. 68)
May 68                     Lucius Clodius Macer (in rebellion)    (d. 68)
Jun 68                     Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus (usurper)     (b. c. 35 – d. 68)
 8 Jun 68 - 15 Jan 69      Galba                                  (b. 3 BC - d. 69 AD)

                            
(Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus)
15 Jan 69 - 16 Apr 69      Otho
                                  (b. 32 - d. 69)
                            
(Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus)
17 Apr 69 - 20 Dec 69      Vitellius                              (b.
15 - d. 69)
                            
(Aulus Vitellius Germanicus)
21 Dec 69 - 23 Jun 79      Vespasian                              (b. 9 - d. 79)

                            
(Vespasianus Caesar Augustus)
23 Jun 79 - 13 Sep 81      Titus                                  (b. 39 - d. 81)

                            
(Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus)
1
4 Sep 81 - 18 Sep 96      Domitian                               (b. 51 - d. 96)
                            
(Domitianus Augustus)
c.1-24 Jan 89              Lucius A
ntonius Saturninus (usurper)   (d. 89)
18 Sep 96 - 27 Jan 98      Nerva                                  (b. 30 - d. 98)

                            
(Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus)
28 Jan 98 -  8 Aug 117     Trajan                                 (b. 53 - d. 117)

                             (
Nerva Traianus Augustus)
10 Aug 117 - 10 Jul 138    Hadrian                                (b. 76 - d. 138)

                             (
Traianus Hadrianus Augustus)
10 Jul 138 -  7 Mar 161    Antoninus Pius                         (b. 86 - d. 161)

                            
(Titus Aelius Caesar Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius)
 7 Mar 161 - Mar 169       Lucius Verus -
Co-ruler                 (b. 130 - d. 169)
                            
(Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus)
 7 Mar 169 - 17 Mar 180    Marcus Aurelius                        (b. 121 - d. 180)

                             (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus
)
 3 May 175 - Jul 175       Gaius Avidius Cassius (usurper)        (b. c.130 – d. 175)
                             (in rebellion, in Egypt, Arabia and Syria Palestina)
27 Nov 176 - 31 Dec 192    Commodus (co-ruler to 17 Mar 180)      (b. 161 - d. 192)

                            
(Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus)
 1 Jan 193 - 28 Mar 193    Pertinax                               (b. 125 - d. 193)

                            
(Publius Helvius Pertinax Augustus)
28 Mar 193 -  1 Jun 193    Didius Julianus                        (b. c.133 - d. 193)

                            
(Marcus Didius Severus Julianus Augustus)
 
9 Apr 193 – May 194       Pescennius Niger                       (b. c.135 - d. 194)
                             (
Gaius Pescennius Niger Augustus)
                             (in rebellion, in Byzantium, Egypt and Syria Palestina)
14 Apr 193 -  4 Feb 211    Septimius Severus                      (b. 145 - d. 211
)
                             (Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus)
fall 195 - 19 Feb 197      Clodius Albinus                        (b. c.150 - d. 197)
                             (Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus)
                             (in rebellion, in
Britannia, Gaul and Hispania)
 3 May 198 -  8 Apr 217    Antoninus "Caracalla"                  (b. 188 - d. 217)

                             (Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus
"Caracallus")
                             (co-ruler to 4 Feb 211)  
fall 209 - 19 Dec 211      Geta -
Co-ruler                         (b. 189 - d. 211)
                             (
Publius [or Lucius] Septimius Geta Augustus)
11 Apr 217 -  8
Jun 218    Macrinus                               (b. c.165 - d. 218)
                             (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Pius Felix Augustus)
May 217 - 218              Diadumenian
-Co-ruler                  (b. 208 - d. 218)
                            
(Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus Pius Felix Augustus)
 8 Jun 218 - 11 Mar 222    Elagabalus [Heliogabalus]              (b. c.201 - d. 211)

                             (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
c.221                      Seleucus (usurper)                     (c. 221)
                             (possibly Julius Antonius Seleucus
                             or Marcus Flavius Vitellius Seleucus)
11 Mar 222 - 19 Mar 235    Severus Alexander                      (b. 208 - d. 235)

                             (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Pius Felix Augustus)
227                        Seius Sallustius (usurper)             (b. c.180 - d. 227)
                             (Lucius Seius Herennius Sallustius)
232 - summer 232           Taurinius (or Taurinus) (in revolt)    (d. 232)
20 Mar 235 - Jun 238       Maximinus I
"Thrax"                    (b. c.173 - d. 235)
                            
(Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus "Thrax")
235                        Titius Quartinus (usurper)             (d. 235)
235                        Gaius Petronius Magnus (usurper)       (d. 235)
22 Mar 238 - 12 Apr 238    Gordian I -
Co-ruler                    (b. c.159 - d. 238)
                             (Marcus Antoninus Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus)
22 Mar 238 - 12 Apr 238    Gordian II
-Co-ruler                   (b. c.192 - d. 238)
                             (Marcus Antoninus Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus)
22 Apr 238 - 29 Jul 238    Pupienus Maximus
-Co-ruler             (b. c.165 - d. 238)
                             (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Augustus)
22 Apr 238 - 29 Jul 238 
   Balbinus -Co-ruler                     (b. c.178 - d. 238)
                             (Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Pius Felix Augustus)
22 Apr 238 - 11 Feb 244   
Gordian III  (co-ruler to 219 Jul 238) (b. 225 - d. 244)
                             (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Felix Augustus)
240                        Sabinianus (in revolt, in Africa)
                             (Marcus Asinius Sabinianus Augustus)
Feb 244 - Sep 249          Marcus Julius Philippus
"Arabus"       (b. c.204 - d. 249)
                             (Marcus Julius Phillipus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus
"Arabus")
247 - 249                 
Marcus Julius Severus                  (b. 237 - d. 249)
                             Philippus -Co-ruler
                             (Marcus Julius Severus Philippus
Augustus)
24. - 24.                  Marcus Silbannacus (usurper)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul?)
240's                      Sponsianus (usurper?)
                             (in rebellion, in Pannonia?)
Dec 248 - Apr 249          Marinus Pacatianus (Pacatian) (usurper)(d. c.248)
                             (Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus)
                             (in rebellion, in Moesia)
c.249                      Iotapianus (Jotapian) (usurper)        (d. c.249)
                             (Marcus Fulvius Rufus Jotapianus Augustus)
                             (in rebellion, in Syria)
Sep/Oct 249 - Jun 251      Trajan Decius                          (b. c.201 - d. 251)

                             (Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
c.250                      Julius Valens Licinianus               (d. c.250)

                             (in rebellion, in Rome)

251 - Jun 251              Herennius Etruscus -
Co-ruler           (b. c.227 - d. 521)
                             (Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius Augustus)
Jun 251 - late 251         Hostilian                              (b. 230? - d. 521)

                             (Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus Augustus)
Jun 251 - Aug 253          Trebonianus Gallus (co-ruler to 251)   (b. 206 - d. 253)

                            
(Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
251 - Aug 253              Volusianus [Volusian] -
Co-ruler        (d. 253)
                             (Gaius Vibius Volusianus)
late 251                   Titus Julius Priscus (usurper)         (d. 251)
253 - 254                  Uranius Antoninus (usurper)            (d. 254)
                             (
Lucius Julius Aurelius Sulpicius Severus Uranius Antoninus)
                             (in rebellion, in Syria)
Jun 253 - Sep 253          Aemilianus [Aemilian]                  (b. 207/13 - d. 253)

                            
(Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
Oct 253 - spring 260       Valerian [Valerianus]                  (b. c.193 - d. 260/64)

                            
(Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
22 Oct 253 - Sep 268       Gallienus [Gallien] (co-ruler to 260)  (b. c.218 - d. 268)

                            
(Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
260                       
Saloninus -Co-ruler                    (b. c.242 - d. 260)
                             (Saloninus Valerianus Augustus)
260                        Ingenuus (
usurper, in Pannonia)        (d. 260)
c.260                      Regalianus (usurper, Pannonia)         (d. 260)
                             (P.C. Regalianus)
Sep 260 - 269              Postumus (in rebellion, in Gaul)       (d. 269)
                             (Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)

260 - 261                  Macrianus Major (usurper, in Syria)    (d. 261)
                             (Fulvius Macrianus)
                           - jointly with following two -
260 - 261                  Macrianus Minor (
usurper, in Syria)    (d. 261)
                             (Titus Fulvius Iunius Macrianus)
260 - 261
                  Quietus (usurper, in Syria)            (d. 261)
                             (Titus Fulvius Junius Quietus)
261                        Piso "Thessalicus" (usurper, in Achaea)(d. c.261) 
261                        Valens "Thessalonicus"                 (d. c.261)

                             (
usurper, in Achaea) 
261 - Nov? 261             Balista
(in rebellion, in Syria)       (d. c.261)
261                        Mussius Aemilianus (usurper, in Egypt) (d. 261/62)
                             (Lucius Mussius Aemilianus)
262                        Memor (in rebellion, in North Africa)  (d. c.262)
268                        Aureolus (usurper, in North Italy)     (d. 268)
Sep 268 - Jan 270          Claudius II "Gothicus"                 (b. 213 - d. 270)

                             (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Pius Felix Invictus Augustus "Gothicus")
c.Feb 269 - c.Jun 269      Laelianus                              (d. 269)
                             (Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (in rebellion, in Germania)
269                        Marius                                 (d. 269)
                             (Marcus Aurelius Marius Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (in rebellion, in
Germania)
c.fall 269 - c.271         Victorinus                             (d. 271)

                             (Marcus Piavonius Victorinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)

Jan 270 - Sep? 270         Quintillus                             (b. c.212 - d. 270)

                            
(Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Invictus Pius Felix Augustus)
Sep? 270 - Sep 275         Aurelian                               (b. 214 - d. 275)

                            
(Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
c.271                      Victoria (Vitruvia) (f) (acting)       (d. c.271?)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul)
c.271                      Domitianus (Domitian II)               (d. c.271)
                             (in rebellion, 'usurper' in Gaul)
271?                       Felicissimus (in rebellion, in Rome)   (d. 271?)
c.271                      Septimius (or Septiminius)             (d. c.271)
                             (in rebellion, in Dalmatia)
c.272                      Urbanus (in rebellion, in Dalmatia)
272                        Vaballathus                            (b. c.259 – d. 274)
                             (Lucius Julius Aurelius Septimius Vaballathus Athenodorus)
                             (Palmyrene usurper, in Egypt and Syria)
273                        Firmus (
in rebellion, in Egypt)        (d. 273)
271 - Feb/Mar 274         
Tetricus I (in rebellion, in Gaul)     (d. 274)
                             (Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus Felix Invictus Augustus)
273 - Feb/Mar 274          Tetricus II
                             (Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus)
                             (co-ruler in rebellion, in Gaul)
273/
274                    Faustinus
                             (usurper a
gainst Tetricus, in Gaul)
25 Sep 275 - Jun 276       Tacitus                                (b. c.200 - d. 276)

                            
(Marcus Claudius Tacitus Pius Felix Augustus)
Jun 276 - Sep? 276         Florianus [Florian]                   
(b. 232 - d. 276)
                            
(Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Augustus)
Sep? 276 - Sep/Oct 282     Probus                                 (b. c.232 - d.
282)
                            
(Marcus Aurelius Probus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
280                        Bonosus
                               (d. 280)
                             (in rebellion, in Belgica and Gaul)
280 - c.281                Proculus                               (d. c.281)
                             (in rebellion, in Gaul and Britannia)
280                        Julius Saturninus                      (d. 280)
                             (Sextus Julius Saturninus)
                             (in rebellion, in Egypt and Syria)
Sep/Oct 282 - Jul/Aug 283  Carus                                  (b. c.230 - d. 283)

                             (Marcus Aurelius Carus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
282
- 20 Nov 284           Numerianus [Numerian]                  (b. 254 - d. 284)
                            
(Marcus Aurelius Numerianus Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (co-ruler to Jul/Aug 283)

283 - 285/86               Sabinus Julianus                       (d. 285/86)
                             (Marcus Aurelius Sabinus Julianus)
                             (usurper, in Pannonia)
283 - 285                  Carinus (co-ruler to 20 Nov 284)       (b. c.250 - d. 285)

                             (Marcus Aurelius Carinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
20 Nov 284 -  1 May 305    Diocletian [Diocles]                   (b. 244 - d. 312)

                             (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
                             (in opposition to Carin
us to 285)
c.285 - 286                Amandus (
in rebellion, in Gaul and Iberia)
                             (Gnaeus Silvius Amandus)
c.286                      Aelianus (in rebellion, in Gaul)
 
1 Mar 286 -  1 May 305    Maximianus I "Herculius" (1st time)    (b. c.250 - d. 310)
                             [Maximian] -Co-ruler
                            
(Gaius Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
286 - 293                  Carausius                              (d. 293)
                            
(Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius)
                            
(in rebellion, in
Britannia and northern Gaul)
c.286 - 293                Julianus (Iulianus)
(usurper, in Italy) (d. 293)
293 - Sep 296              Allectus                               (d. 296)
                             (Gaius Allectus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
                             (in rebellion, in Britannia and northern Gaul)
c.Jun 296? - Dec 297       Domitius Domitianus (Domitian III)     (d. 297)
                             (
in rebellion, in Egypt)
c.Dec 297 - Mar 298        Aurelius Achilleus                     
(d. 298)
                             (in rebellion, in Egypt)
c.303                      Eugenius (usurper, in Syria)           (d. c.303)
 1 May 305 - 25 Jul 306    Constantius I "Chlorus"                (b. c.250 - d. 306)

                            
(Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius Augustus "Chlorus")
 1 May 305 - May 311       Galerius                               (b. c.250 - d. 311)

                            
(Galerius Valerius Maximianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
 1 May 305 - Mar/Apr 307   Severus II -
Co-ruler                   (b. 250 - d. 307)
                            
(Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus)
25 Jul 306 - 22 May 337    Constantine I (
=Konstantínos "ó Mégas")(b. 272 - d. 337)
                             (Flavius Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
28 Oct 306 - 11 Nov 308    Maximianus I "Herculius" (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (in dissidence)
28 Oct 306 - 28 Oct 312    Maxentius                          
   (b. c.279 - d. 312)
                             (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
                             in competition with Severus, then Galerius then Constantine;

                             jointly with his father Maximianus to 11 Nov 308)
11 Nov 308 - 18 Sep 324    Licinius I                             (b. c.263 - d. 324)
                             (Gaius Valerius Licinius Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
                             (to 311 in the west, with Galerius in the east;

                             311–313 in the west, with Maximinus in the east;
                             from 313 in the east, with Constantine in the west,
                             in 314 and 324 in competition with him)
310 - c.Jul 310            Maximianus I "Herculius" (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                             (in dissidence)
 
1 May 311 - Jul/Aug 313   Maximinus II "Daia"                    (b. c.270 - d. 313)
                             (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
                             (in east, in competition with Licinius)

308 - 309                  Lucius Domitius Alexander              (d. c.311)
                             (in revolt, in Africa)

Dec? 316 -  1 Mar 317      Valerius Valens -Co-ruler              (d. 317)

                             (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Valens Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (co-ruler with Licinius)

Jul 324 - 18 Sep 324       Martinianus [Martinian] -Co-ruler      (d. 325)
                             (Marcus Martinianus Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (nominally in the west, with Licinius in the east)

333/34                     Calocaerus (usurper, in Cyprus)        (d. 334)
18 Sep 335 – May 337
      Dalmatius (Delmatius) -Co-ruler        (d. 337)
                             (Flavius Dalmatius)
                             (in of Thracia, Achaea and Macedonia)
22 May 337 - 340           Constantine II                         (b. 317 - d
. 340)
                             (Flavius Claudius Constantinus Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (in the west under his father Constantine I;
                             337 – 340 joint emperor with Constantius II and
                             Constans, over Gaul, Hispania, and Britannia; in
                             340 in failed competition with Constans)
22 May 337 -  3 Nov 361    Constantius II                         (b. c.321 - d. 361)
                             (Flavius Iulius Constantius Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (13 Nov 324 – 22 May 337 co-ruler under his father, Constantine I
                             337 – 340 co-ruler in Asian provinces & Egypt with Constantine II
                             and Constans; 340 – 350: co-ruler ruled Asian provinces
                             and Egypt with Constans)
22 May 337 - Feb 350       Constans I                             (b. c.323 - d. 350)
                             (Flavius Julius Constans Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (337–350, jointly with Constantine II until 340 and Constantius II)

18 Jan 350 - 11 Aug 353    Magnentius (usurper)                   (b. c.303 - d. 353)
                            
(Flavius Magnus Magentius Augustus)
 1 Mar 350 - 25 Dec 350    Vetranio                               (d. c.356)

                            
(Vetranio Pius Felix Augustus)
 3 Jun 350 - 30 Jun 350    Julius Nepotianus (usurper, in Rome)   (d. 350)
                             (Flavius Julius Popilius Nepotianus Constantinus)
 6 Nov 350 - 26 Jun 363    Julian                                 (b. 331/32 - d. 363)

                            
(Flavius Claudius Julianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus)
350 - 18 Aug 353           Magnus Decentius
(usurper, in Gaul)    (d. 353)
11 Aug 355 -  7 Sep 355    Silvanus (usurper, in Germania)        (d. 355)
                             (Claudius Silvanus)    
26 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364    Jovian                                
(b. 331 - d. 364)
                             (Flavius Jovianus Pius Felix Augustus)
26 Feb 364 - 17 Nov 375    Valentinian I                          (b. 321 - d. 375)

                            
(Flavius Valentinianus Pius Felix Augustus)
28 Mar 364 -  9 Aug 378    Valens                                 (b. 328 – d. 378)

                             (Flavius Valens Augustus)
                             (in the east, with his brother Valentinian I in the west; 

                             from 17 Nov 375 in the east, with his nephews Gratian
                             and Valentinian II as emperors of the west)
26 Sep 365 - 27 May 366    Procopius                              (b. c.325 – d. 366)
                             (usurper, in Constantinople)  
366                        Marcellus (
usurper, in Bithynia)       (d. 366)
24 Aug 367 - 25 Aug 383    Gratian                                (b. 359 - d. 383)

                             (Flavius Gratianus Augustus)
                             (to 17 Nov 375 junior in the west under his father;

                             17 Nov 375 – 9 Aug 378 senior in the west, with his
                             brother as junior; 9 Aug 378 – 19 Jan 379 senior of
                             the whole empire, with his brother; from 19 Jan 379
                             senior in the west with his brother)
c.372 - 375                Firmus (usurper, in North Africa)      (d. 375)
22 Nov 375 - 15 May 392    Valentinian II                        
(b. 371 - d. 392)
                             (Valentinianus Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (co-emperor for the west with Gratian)

 1 Jan 379 - 17 Jan 395    Theodosius I                           (b. 347 - d. 395)
                             (Flavius Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (emperor in the east to 15 May 392)

Jan 383 -  1 May 408       Arcadius (= Arkádios)                  (b. 377 - d. 408)
                             (Flavius Arcadius Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (co-ruler to 17 Jan 395, from 17 Jan 395 emperor in the east,

                             with his brother Honorius emperor in the west)
383 - 28 Aug 388           Magnus Maximus                         (b. c.335 - d. 388)
                             (Magnus Maximus Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (in rebellion to 384, then emperor in Britannia and Gaul)    

384 - 28 Aug 388           Victor -Co-ruler                       (d. 388)
                             (Flavius Victor Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (co-ruler with
his father Magnus Maximus in Britannia and Gaul)
22 Aug 392 -  6 Sep 394    Eugenius (usurper in the west)         (d. 394)
                             (Flavius Eugenius Pius Felix Augustus)
23 Jan 393 - 15 Aug 423    Honorius                               (b. 384 - d. 423)

                             (Flavius Honorius Pius Felix Augustus)
                             (co-ruler
to 17 Jan 395)
spring 407 - 18 Sep 411    Constantine III                        (b. 361 - d. 411)
                             (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)
                             (usurper to 409, then co-emperor with Honorius and Constans II)
407 - c.18 Sep 411         Constans II (= Custennin) -Co-ruler    (b. 379 - d. 411)
                             (to 409 under Constantine III; from 409 with Constantine III
                             against Honorius)
409 - 410                  Priscus Attalus (1st time)             (d. af.416)
                             (usurper, in Rome)
411 - 413                  Jovinus (usurper, in Gaul)             (d. 413)
412 - 413                  Sebastianus
(usurper, in Gaul)         (d. 413)
                            (co-ruler with Jovinus)
414 - 415                  Priscus Attalus (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                             (usurper, in Burdigala [Bordeaux])
 8 Feb 421 -  2 Sep 421    Constantius III
-Co-ruler              (b. c.370 - d. 421)
                             (Flavius Constantius Augustus) 
15 Aug 423 - 20 Nov 423    Vacant
20 Nov 423 -
May 425       Joannes (Iohannes)(in rebellion)       (d. 425)
23 Oct 424 - 16 Mar 455    Valentinian III                        (b. 419 - d. 455)
                             (Flavius Placidus Valentinianus)
17 Mar 455 - 31 May 455    Petronius Maximus                      (b. c.396 - d. 455)
                             (Flavius Petronius Maximus)
31 May 455 -  9 Jul 455    Vacant
 9 Jul 455 - 17 Oct 456   
Avitus                                 (b. c.380 - d. 457?)
                             (Marcus Maecilius Flavius Eparchius
Avitus)
17 Oct 456 -  1 Apr 457    Vacant
 1 Apr 457 -  2 Aug 461    Majorian                               (b. c.420 - d. 461)
                             (Julius Valerius Majorianus)
 2 Aug 461 - 19 Nov 461    Vacant
19 Nov 461 - 15 Aug 465    Libius Severus                
        (b. c.420 - d. 465)
                             (Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius Augustus)
15 Aug 465 - 12 Apr 467    Vacant
12 Apr 467 - 11 Jul 472    Anthemius                              (b. c.420 - d. 472)
                             (Procopius Anthemius Augustus)
470                        Romanus (usurper, in Rome)             (d. 470)
11 Jul 472-23 Oct/4Nov 472 Olybrius                               (b. c.431 - d. 472)
                             (Anicius Olybrius Augustus)
Oct/Nov 472 -  3 Mar 473   Vacant
 3 Mar 473 - Jun 474       Glycerius                
              (b. c.420 - d. 474)
                             (Flavius Glycerius Augustus)
Jun 474 - 28 Aug 475       Julius Nepos                 
         (b. c.430 - d. 480)
                             (Flavius Julius Nepos Augustus)
                             (continues ruling in Dalmatia to 25 Apr 480)
28 Aug 475 - 31 Oct 475    Vacant
31 Oct 475 -  4 Sep 476    Romulus Augustus                       (b. c.460 - d. c.480)
                             (Romulus Augustulus)

 ¹Style of the rulers:
(a) 27 BC - 275 AD: Princeps Senatus ("First [Head] of the Senate");
(b) 275 AD - 4 Sep 476 AD: Imperator Caesar ("Emperor, Caesar")






© Ben Cahoon