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Benin
 
            22 Jun 1894 - 16 Nov 1959 
 
[Benin flag]
           16 Nov 1959 - 30 Nov 1975; 
               Re-adopted 1 Aug 1990
People's
                            Republic of Benin flag 1975-1990]
           30 Nov 1975 - 1 Aug 1990
 
Map of Benin
Hear National Anthem
"L'Aube Nouvelle"
(The Dawn of a New Day)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 30 Jul 1960
Constitution
(2 Dec 1990)
Capital: Porto-Novo
(to 1927 Abomey)
Seat of Government: Cotonou 
Currency:  Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XOF)
National Holiday: 1 Aug (1960)
National Day
Population: 9,877,292 (2013)
GDP: $16.65 billion (2013)
Exports: $1.10 billion (2013)
Imports: $1.83 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Fon and related 39.2%, Adja and related 15.2%,
 Yoruba and related 12.3%, Bariba and related 9.2%, Peulh and
 related 7%, Ottamari and related 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa and related 4%,
 Dendi and related 2.5%, other 1.6% (includes Europeans),
 unspecified 2.9% (2002)
Total Active Armed Forces: 7,250 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010) 
Religions: Catholic 27.1%, Muslim 24.4%, Vodoun 17.3%,
Protestant 10.4% (Celestial 5%, Methodist 3.2%, other Protestant
 2.2%), other Christian 5.3%, other 15.5% (2002)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BCEAO, BTWC, CEMAC, CEN-SAD, CCM (signatory), CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Benin Index
Chronology

1650 - 1807                English Fort William at Ouidah.
1671 - 1797                French Fort St. Louis at Ouidah.
23 Feb 1863 -  2 Jan 1865  Porto-Novo a French protectorate.
19 May 1868                Cotonou a French protectorate.
14 Apr 1882                Porto-Novo a French protectorate.
 5 Aug 1885 - 22 Dec 1887  Portugal declares a protectorate over Dahomey 
                             (with no effect).
1886                       French Establishments in the Gulf of Benin
                             (Établissements Français du Golfe de Benin).

 3 Dec 1892                French annex Whydah (Ouidah).
22 Jun 1893                Porto-Novo a French colony.
20 Jan 1894                Dahomey a French protectorate.
22 Jun 1894                Dahomey colony, including Porto Novo.
17 Oct 1899                Part of French West Africa (see Senegal).
24 Jun 1911                Dahomey colony and Dependencies
16 Jun 1940 - 13 Nov 1942  Administration loyal to Vichy France
                             (after 13 Nov 1942 Free French).
27 Oct 1946                Dahomey an overseas territory of France.
 4 Dec 1958                Autonomy (Republic of Dahomey).
 1 Aug 1960                Independence from France (Republic of Dahomey).
 
2 Dec 1975                People's Republic of Benin
 1 Mar 1990                Republic of Benin

Traditional
States
Forte São João
Baptista
de Ajudá

(1680-1961)
English
Fort William

(1650-1812)
French Fort
St. Louis

(1671-1797)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Secretary of the Popular Revolutionary (Communist) Party of Benin (PRBP)
30 Nov 1975 - 28 Feb 1990  Mathieu Kérékou                   (b. 1933 - d. 2015)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 8 Dec 1989)


French Agent in Porto-Novo
23 Feb 1863 -  2 Jan 1865  Marius Denis Célestin Daumas
French Consuls in Cotonou
1878 - 1881                Albert Richard Ardin d'Elteil      (b. 1843 - d. 1894)
1881 - 1883                Victor Bareste                     (b. 1835 - d. 1889)
Residents in Porto-Novo
Jun 1882 - 1882            Bonaventure Colonna de Leca        (b. 1841 - d. 1882) 
1883                       Henri Guilman
1883 - 1884                Daniel Germa
1884 - Jul 1884            Léopold Maignot
Ju1 1884 - 1886            Charles Disnematin-Dorat           (b. 1826 - d. 1898)
1886                       Émmanuel Roget                     (b. 1856 - d. 1903)
1886 - 1887                Jean-Marie Bayol                   (b. 1849 - d. 1905)
1887 - 16 Jun 1887         Gentian Antonin Maire Péréton   
16 Jun 1887 - 11 Jul 1888  Victor Marie Paul Ballot           (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
                             (1st time)
11 Jul 1888 - 1889         Paul Alphonse Frédéric Marie de    (b. 1846 - d. 1915)
                             Beeckman -Administrator
1889 - 19 Oct 1889         Louis Frédéric Émil Tautain        (b. 1855 - d. 1905) 
19 Oct 1889 - 22 Dec 1891  Victor Marie Paul Victor Ballot    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Lieutenant-governor
22 Dec 1891 - 22 Jun 1894  Victor Marie Paul Victor Ballot    (s.a.)
Governors 
22 Jun 1894 -  3 Jul 1899  Victor Marie Paul Victor Ballot    (s.a.)
 3 Jul 1899 -  8 Oct 1899  Jean-Baptiste Fonssagrives         (b. 1862 - d. 1910)
                             (acting)
 8 Oct 1899 - 26 Nov 1900  Pierre Hubert Auguste Pascal       (b. 1861 - d. 1946)
                             (acting)
26 Nov 1900 -  5 May 1906  Victor Théophile Liotard           (b. 1858 - d. 1916)
30 Jun 1902 - Oct 1902     Charles Emmanuel Joseph Marchal    (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
                             (acting for Liotard)
 1 Sep 1903 - 15 Jan 1904  Eugène Louis Frédéric Décazes      (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
                             (acting for Liotard)
15 Jan 1904 - 28 Jun 1904  Antoine Julien Oscar Penel         (b. 1843 - d. 1908)
                             (acting for Liotard)
 5 May 1906 -  9 Jun 1906  Joseph Étienne Gabriel Lhuerre     (b. 1855 - d. 1923) 
                             (acting)
 9 Jun 1906 -  8 Mar 1908  Charles Emmanuel Joseph Marchal    (s.a.) 
                             (acting to 16 Jul 1906)
 8 Mar 1908 - 22 Sep 1908  Marie Antoine Edmond Gaudart       (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
                             (acting)
22 Sep 1908 -  9 Oct 1908  Charles Désiré Auguste Brunet      (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
                             (acting)
 9 Oct 1908 - 25 Apr 1909  Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne         (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
25 Apr 1909 -  6 Mar 1911  Henri Jules Jean Baptiste Malan    (b. 1869 - d. 1912)
29 Jun 1909 - 10 Feb 1910  Raphaël Valentin Marius Antonetti  (b. 1872 - d. 1938)
                             (acting for Malan)
 6 Mar 1911 - 24 Jun 1911  Raphaël Valentin Marius Antonetti  (s.a.)
24 Jun 1911 -  9 May 1912  Émile Joseph Merwart               (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
Lieutenant-governors
 9 May 1912 -  7 Apr 1917  Charles Henri Adrien Noufflard     (b. 1872 - d. 1936)
                             (acting to 11 Jul 1912)
 7 Apr 1917 - 29 Aug 1928  Gaston Léopold Joseph Fourn        (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
                             (acting to Jul 1919)
 1 May 1921 - 28 Feb 1922  Pierre Aimable Chapon-Baissac      (b. 1876 – d. af.1934)
                             (acting for Fourn)
 1 Apr 1924 - 26 Nov 1924  Alphonse Paul Albert Choteau       (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
                             (acting for Fourn)
29 Aug 1928 -  4 Apr 1929  Lucien Eugène Geay (acting)        (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
 4 Apr 1929 -  8 Feb 1931  Dieudonné François Joseph Marie    (b. 1879 - d. 1976)
                             Reste                         
 8 Feb 1931 -  7 Jan 1932  Théophile Antione Pascal Tellier   (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 7 Jan 1932 -  2 Aug 1932  Louis Placide Blacher              (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
 2 Aug 1932 - 22 Jul 1933  Louis Aujas (acting)               (b. 1876 - d. 1962)
22 Jul 1933 - 24 Aug 1934  Jules Marcel de Coppet             (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
24 Aug 1934 - 15 Feb 1935  Jean Hyacinthe de Santi (acting)   (b. 1899 - d. 1944) 
15 Feb 1935 - 12 Jan 1937  Maurice Léon Bourgine              (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
22 Sep 1935 - 1936         Jean Hyacinthe de Santi            (s.a.) 
                             (acting for Bourgine)
12 Jan 1937 -  7 Aug 1937  Henri Étienne Martinet (1st time)  (b. 1896 - d. 1941)
                             (acting)
 7 Aug 1937 -  7 Apr 1938  Ernest Gayon (acting)
 7 Apr 1938 -  1 Jun 1938  Henri Étienne Martinet (2nd time)  (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
 1 Jun 1938 - 27 Aug 1940  Armand Léon Annet                  (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
27 Aug 1940 - 18 Sep 1940  Pierre Jean André Saliceti         (b. 1893 - d. 1946)
                             (acting)
18 Sep 1940 - 26 Aug 1943  Léon Hippolyte Truitard            (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
26 Aug 1943 - 21 May 1946  Charles André Maurice Assier       (b. 1889 - d. 1952) 
                             de Pompignan
21 May 1946 - 13 Oct 1946  Robert Legendre (acting)           (b. 1891 - d. 19..)
Governors
13 Oct 1946 - 14 Jan 1948  Robert Legendre (acting)           (s.a.)
14 Jan 1948 - 13 Jan 1949  Jean Georges Chambon               (b. 1896 - d. 1965)
13 Jan 1949 - 19 Sep 1949  Jacques Alphonse Boissier          (b. 1910 - d. 1967)
19 Sep 1949 - Nov 1951     Claude Valluy (acting)
Nov 1951 - 21 Jun 1955     Charles Henri Bonfils              (b. 1908 - d. 2001)
21 Jun 1955 - 21 Mar 1958  Marc Casimir Biros                 (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
21 Mar 1958 - 15 Jul 1958  Bernard Hepp (acting)              (b. 1919 - d. 1986)
15 Jul 1958 -  4 Dec 1958  René Tirant (acting)               (b. 1907 - d. ....)
High commissioner
 4 Dec 1958 -  1 Aug 1960  René Tirant                        (s.a.)
Presidents
 1 Aug 1960 - 27 Oct 1963  Hubert Maga (1st time)             (b. 1916 - d. 2000) RDD;1960 PDU
                            (Chief of State to 31 Dec 1960)
27 Oct 1963 - 28 Oct 1963  Provisional Government
                           - Hubert Maga                      (s.a.)               RDD
                           - Sourou Migan Marcellin Apithy    (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  PR
                           - Justin Ahomadegbé-Tomêtin        (b. 1917 - d. 2002)  UDD
28 Oct 1963 - 25 Jan 1964  Christophe Soglo (1st time)        (b. 1909 - d. 1983)  Mil
                             (Head of Provisional Government)
25 Jan 1964 - 27 Nov 1965  Sourou Migan Marcellin Apithy      (s.a.)               PDD
27 Nov 1965 - 29 Nov 1965  Justin Ahomadegbé-Tomêtin          (s.a.)               PDD
                             (1st time) (acting) 
29 Nov 1965 - 22 Dec 1965  Tahirou Congacou (acting)          (b. 1913 - d. 1976)  PDD
22 Dec 1965 - 19 Dec 1967  Christophe Soglo (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Mil
19 Dec 1967 - 20 Dec 1967  Jean-Baptiste Hachéme                                   Mil
                             (president of Revolutionary Committee)
20 Dec 1967 - 21 Dec 1967  Iropa Maurice Kouandété (1st time) (b. 1932 - d. 2003)  Mil
                             (Chief of State) 
21 Dec 1967 - 17 Jul 1968  Alphonse Amadou Alley              (b. 1930 - d. 1987)  Mil
                             (Chief of State) 
17 Jul 1968 - 10 Dec 1969  Émile Derlin Henri Zinsou          (b. 1918 - d. 2016)  Non-party
10 Dec 1969 - 12 Dec 1969  Iropa Maurice Kouandété (2nd time) (s.a.)               Mil
                             (Chief of Staff of the Army)
12 Dec 1969 -  7 May 1970  Paul-Émile de Souza                (b. 1931 - d. 1999)  Mil 
                             (president of Directory)
 7 May 1970 -  7 May 1972  Hubert Maga (2nd time)             (s.a.)               RDD
                             (president of Presidential Council)
 7 May 1972 - 26 Oct 1972  Justin Ahomadegbé-Tomêtin          (s.a.)               ADD
                             (president of Presidential Council)
                             (2nd time)
26 Oct 1972 -  4 Apr 1991  Mathieu Kérékou¹ (1st time)        (s.a.)    Mil;1975 PRPB;1990 PRB
 4 Apr 1991 -  4 Apr 1996  Nicéphore Dieudonné Soglo          (b. 1934)            PRB
 4 Apr 1996 -  6 Apr 2006  Mathieu Kérékou (2nd time)         (s.a.)               FARD 
 6 Apr 2006 -  6 Apr 2016  Thomas Yayi Boni                   (b. 1952)            Non-party
 6 Apr 2016 -              Patrice Athanase Guillaume Talon   (b. 1958)            Non-party

 
Vice President of the Government Council
25 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958  Sourou Migan Marcellin Apithy      (s.a.)               PR; PND
Prime ministers
26 Jul 1958 - 22 May 1959  Sourou Migan Marcellin Apithy      (s.a.)               PPD
                            (to 4 Dec 1958, president of the government council;
                             then president of the provisional government)
22 May 1959 - 31 Dec 1960  Hubert Maga                        (s.a.)              RDD;1960 PDU
31 Dec 1960 - 25 Jan 1964  Post abolished
25 Jan 1964 - 29 Nov 1965  Justin Ahomadegbé-Tomêtin          (s.a.)               PDD
29 Nov 1965 - 21 Dec 1967  Post abolished
21 Dec 1967 - 17 Jul 1968  Iropa Maurice Kouandété            (s.a.)               Mil
17 Jul 1968 - 12 Mar 1990  Post abolished
12 Mar 1990 -  4 Apr 1991  Nicéphore Dieudonné Soglo (interim)(s.a.)               Non-party
 9 Apr 1996 - 14 May 1998  Adrien Houngbédji                  (b. 1942)            PRD 
14 May 1998 - 28 May 2011  Post abolished
28 May 2011 - 11 Aug 2013  Pascal Irénée Koupaki              (b. 1951)            UDBN
11 Aug 2013 - 18 Jun 2015  Post abolished
18 Jun 2015 -  6 Apr 2016  Lionel Zinsou                      (b. 1954)            FCBE
 6 Apr 2016 -              Post abolished

 ¹Kérékou announced he changed his first name to Ahmed on his conversion to Islam on 28 Sep 1980, but officially denied. 

Territorial Disputes: Talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved.

Party abbreviations: FARD = Front d'Action pour le Rénouveau et le Développement (Action Front for Renewal and Development, centrist, est.1994); FCBE = Forces Cauris pour un Bénin Emergent (Cowry Forces for an Emerging Benin, pro-Yayi Boni, est.2006); PRB = Parti de la Renaissance du Bénin (Party for the Rebirth of Benin, liberal, est.1992); PRD = Parti du Rénouveau Démocratique (Democratic Renewal Party, Houngbédji personalist, est.1990); UDBN = Union pour le Développement du Bénin Nouveau (Union for the Development of New Benin, est.2010); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ADD = Alliance Démocratique Dahoméen (J. Ahomadegbé personalist, UDD successor, est.Dec 1965); PDD = Parti Démocratique Dahoméen (Dahomey Democratic Party, mainly Yoruba-Nago & Fon-Adja, merger of PR and UDD, 1963-22 Dec 1965); PDU = Parti Dahoméen de l'Unité (Unity Party of Dahomey, merger of PND and RDD, 1960-1963); PND = Parti des Nationalistes du Dahomey (Nationalist's Party of Dahomey, S.M. Apithy personalist, Yorua and Nago based, 1960, merged into PDU); PPD = Parti Progressiste Dahoméen (Dahomean Progressive Party, anti-Ahomadegbé, merger of PR and MDD, 1958-1959, dissolved); PR = Parti Républicain Dahoméen (Republican Party of Dahomey, S.M. Apithy personalist, merged into PDU, 1951-1958, 1959-1963, renamed PND); PRPB = Parti de la Révolution Populaire du Bénin (Benin People's Revolutionary Party, Marxist-Leninist communist, abandons Marxism 8 Dec 1989, 1975-90 only legal party, 1975-1990); RDD = Rassemblement Démocratique Dahoméenn (Democratic Rally of Dahomey, northern based, H. Maga personalist, 1957-1965); UDD = Union Démocratique du Dahoméenne (Dahomey Democratic Union, Fon Adja-based, J. Ahomadegbé personalist, 1955-1961)   


Forte de São João Baptista de Ajudá (Fortress of Saint John the Baptist of Whydah)

[Portugal]
                to 1 Aug 1961
 
Map of  São João Baptista
de Ajudá
Hear National Anthem
"A Portugesa"
(The Portuguese)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1910
Constitution
Capital: São João Baptista
de Ajudá
Currency: Portuguese 
Escudo (PTE)
National Holiday: 10 Jun (1580)
Portugal Day
Population: 2 (1961)
 5 (1921)
GDP: $N/A (1960)
Exports: $N/A (1960)
Imports: $N/A (1960)
Ethnic groups: Portuguese 100%
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Defense was the responsibility of Portugal
Merchant marine: None (1960)
Religions: Roman Catholic 100%
International Organizations/Treaties: None

1680                       Portuguese governor of São Tomé and Príncipe establishes
                             a fort in the city of Hweda (in English: Whydah, French:
                             Ouidah, Portuguese: Ajudá).
17.. - 1721                Abandoned.
1721                       Fort re-established and named Forte de São João Baptista de Ajudá; 
                             subordinated to Brazil until 1821.
1730 - ...                 Under Companhia de Cacheu e Cabo Verde rule.
 7 Sep 1822 - 1844         Under the sovereignty of Brazil.
18 Apr 1861 -  6 Mar 1865  Occupied by French missionaries (expelled on 12 Apr 1865).
 6 Mar 1865                Fort reclaimed by the Portuguese; subordinated to the governors 
                             of São Tomé and Príncipe.
1869 - 1872?               Abandoned.
 1 Aug 1961                Occupied and annexed by Dahomey (Benin).
1975                       Annexation formally recognized by Portugal.
 

Directors
1680 - ....                Jacinto de Figueiredo Abreu 
.... - 1721                abandoned
1721 - 1728                Francisco Pereira Mendes 
1728 - 1743                João Basílio
1743 - 1746                Martinho de Cunha Barbosa
1746                       Francisco Nunes Pereira (usurper) 
1746                       Frei Francisco do Espírito Santo
                             (interim) 
1746 - 1751                Félix José de Gouveia (1st time) 
1751                       Luis Coelho de Brito
1751 - 1759                Teodósio Rodrigues da Costa 
1759                       António Nunes de Gouveia (interim)
1759 - 1762                Félix José de Gouveia (2nd time) 
1764 - 1767                José Gomes Gonzaga Neves
1768 - 1781                Bernardo Azevedo Coutinho
1782 - 1797                Francisco António da Fonseca e     (b. 1745 - d. ....)
                             Aragão (acting to 22 Jul 1784)
1797 - 1799?               Manuel Bastos Varela Pinto Pacheco
1800? - 1801               José Ferreira de Araujo
1801 - 1803                José Joaquim Marques da Graça
1804                       Jacinto José de Sousa              (d. 1804)
1805 - 1844                Francisco Félix de Sousa           (b. 1754 - d. 1849) 
                             (acting to 1818)
Governors
1844 - 1845                Joaquim José Libanio               (d. 1845) 
1845 -  4 May 1849         Francisco Félix de Souza           (s.a.) 
1849 - 18..                Quaresma 
1851                       Francisco Celestino Elesperch      (d. 1851)
1851 - 1852                Isidoro Félix de Souza             (b. 1802 - d. 1858) 
1852 - 1853                João Justino da Costa 
1853 - May 1857            José Pinheiro de Souza 
May 1857 - Nov 1858        Francisco "Chico" Félix de Souza   (b. 1824 - d. 1880)
Jun 1859 - 18 Apr 1861     Claudio Lancastre
18 Apr 1861 -  6 Mar 1865  French missionary leaders
                           - Francesco Borghero               (b. 1830 - d. 1892)
                             (superior of the apostolic vicariat;
                              6 May 1861 - 12 Jan 1865)
                           - Philibert Courdioux              (b. 1838 - d. 1898)
                             (superior-delegate of Borghero)
1865 - 1868                José Maria Borges de Sequeira 
1868 - 1869                Vital de Bettencourt Vasconcellos  (b. c.1820 - d. 1870) 
                             Corte Real do Canto 
1869 - 1872?               abandoned 
1872 - 187.                António Joaquim da Fonseca         (b. 1839 - d. 1872) 
187. - 1878                Augusto Fructuoso Figueiredo de    (b. 1851 - d. 1921)                               Barros 
1878 - 1879                Lourenço da Rocha 
1879 - 1881                António José Machado               (b. 1852 - d. ....) 
1881 - 1883                .... 
1883 - 1885                Fernando Gonçalves 
1885                       Bernardo Francisco Luís da Cruz 
1885                       José Gomes de Souza 
1885 - 1886                Francisco Rego 
1886 - 1887                António Domingues Cortez da Silva  (b. 1849 - d. 1904) 
                             Curado 
1887 - 1888                Manuel Francisco Rodrigues 
                             Guimaräes
1888                       Vicente da Rosa Rolim (1st time)   (b. 1848 - d. 1940)  
1888 - 1890                Manuel José Ferreira dos Santos 
                             (1st time) 
1890                       Carolino Acácio Cordeiro 
1890 - 1893                Vicente da Rosa Rolim (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1893 - 189.                Manuel José Ferreira dos Santos 
                             (2nd time) 
1897 - 1898                Campos 
1898 - ....                Nunes da Aguiar 
1900 - 190.                António Mendes da Costa 
190. - 1905                João de Deus Pires (1st time)      (b. 18.. - d. 1900)
1905 - 1906                Joaquim Luís de Carvalho 
1906 - 1909                João de Deus Pires (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1909 - 1911                Sebastião Lousada 
1911                       Cândido João de Barros 
1911 - 1912                Guilherme Spínola de Melo          (b. 1876 - d. 19..)
1912 - 1913                Eduardo Germack Possolo            (b. 1886 - d. 19..)
1913 - 191.                Vicente da Rosa Rolim (3rd time)   (s.a.)
191. - 1918                ....
1918                       Vicente da Rosa Rolim (4th time)   (s.a.)
1919 - 1920                José Bento de Oliveira Viegas
1921 - 1928                Viriato Henrique dos Anjos Garcez 
1928 - 1931                Joaquim Sinel de Cordes            (b. 1890 - d. 1936)
1932 - 1938                Miguel Maria Pupo Correia (1st time)
1938 - 1941                José Pimenta Segurado Avelar       (b. 1893 - d. 1941) 
                             Machado
1941 - 1942                Jean Louis Bourjac 
                             (self-proclaimed; not recognized by Portugal)
1942 - 1944                José de Vasconcelos e Sá Guerreiro (b. 1899 - d. 19..)
                             Nuno (1st time) (interim)
1944 - 1946                Carlos Alberto de Serpa Soares     (b. 1908 - d. 1983)
1946                       José de Vasconcelos e Sá Guerreiro (s.a.)
                             Nuno (2nd time) 
1946 - 1951                Miguel Maria Pupo Correia (2nd time)
Administrators
1951 - 1954                António João Teles Pereira de
                             Vasconcelos
1954 - 1956                Ernesto António Pereira Enes       (b. c.1910 - d. ....)
Intendant
1956 -  1 Aug 1961         António Agostinho Saraiva Borges



English Whydah:  Fort William

1681                       English Fort William at Ouidah (English spelling: Whydah).
May 1716 - 20 Oct 1720     Factory leased to William Baillie and Johnson.
Feb 1812                   Abandoned.

Governors (initially called Factors)
May 1681 - Aug 1681        John Thorne
                             (at Offra 1681-83)
Aug 1681 - Jul 1682        Vacant
Jul 1682 - 1684            John Winder
1684 - 1688                John Carter
1688 - 1690                Petley Wyborne                     (d. 1690)
1690 - Apr 1692            John Wortley
Apr 1692 - 1693            Edward Jacklin
1693                       John Pratt
1693 -  8 Feb 1694         Francis Smith                      (d. 1694)
Feb 1694 - 1699            Josiah Pearson

170. - 1704                Peter Duffield
Feb 1704 - 1709            Richard Willis                     (d. 1709)
1709 - 1712                William Hicks
Mar 1712 - May 1713        Agents
                           - Hilliard
                           - Green
May 1713 - Mar 1715        Agents
                           - J. Errington
                           - L. Green
Mar 1715 - May 1716        Agents
                           - R. Mason 
                           - D. Welsh
                           - W. Bramston
May 1716 - Oct 1720        William Baillie
                           + Johnson
Oct 1720 - Dec 1720        John Stevenson
Jan 1721 - Feb 1724        Ambrose Baldwyn
Feb 1724 - Mar 1727        Tinker
1727 - 1728                Abraham Duport
1728 - 1729                Thomas Wilson
Jul 1729 - Nov 1729        Charles Testefole                  (d. 1729)
Nov 1729 - Jan 1730        Robert Urquhart
Jan 1730 - Dec 1730        Edward Dean
Jan 1731 - Jun 1731        Robert Poulter
Jun 1731 - Mar 1733        Edward Dean
Mar 1733 - Jul 1734        Charles Whitaker
Jul 1734 - 1734            John Wyat (acting)
Nov 1734 - Apr 1735        William Whetstone Rogers
Aug 1735 - 1737/38?        Alexander Spalding
Jun 1738 - Mar 1739        Stephen Lushington
Apr 1739 - 1745            Isaac Gregory
1745 - Dec 1745            Arthur Graham
Jan - Dec 1746             Henry Turner
1747 - Jul 1750            William Devaynes (1st time)  
Jul 1750 - Jan 1751        Andrew Johnson                     (d. 1751)
Jan 1751 - Sep 1751        Robert Livingstone
Sep 1751 - Nov 1752        William Devaynes (2nd time)
Nov 1752 - Nov 1753        William Withers
Nov 1753 - Aug 1762        William Devaynes (3rd time)
Aug 1762 - Feb 1767        William Goodson                    (d. 1767)
Feb 1767 - Apr 1767        Richard Burgess
Apr 1767 - 1770            Archibald Dalzel                   (b. 1740 - d. 1811)
Aug 1770 - Sep 1770        Erasmus Williams
Oct 1770 - Jun 1803        Lionel Abson                       (b. 17.. - d. 1803)
Jun 1803 - Mar 1804        Henry Edward James (acting)
Mar 1804 - Jun 1807        Henry Hamilton
Jul 1807 - Feb 1812        Frederick James  


French Ouidah:  Fort St. Louis

1671 - 1797                French Fort St. Louis at Ouidah.

Directeurs at Fort St. Louis (Juda)
1671 - 1690's              ....
c.1690's - 1704            abandoned
1704 - 170.                Gommat (or Gommet)
1707 - 1710                Derigouyn
1710 - 1712                Chamois
1712 - Nov 1715            Du Coulombier
Nov 1715 - 1722            Bouchel
1722? - 1727?              Levesque
1727 - 1729                Houdoyer-Dupetitval                (d. 1729)
23 Jul 1729 - 1730         Gallot (interim)
1730 - 1731                Mallet de la Mine
1732                       Lavigne                            (d. 1732)
1732 - 1734                Julien du Belay                    (d. 1734)
1734 - 1737                Delisle                            (d. 1737)
1737 - 1742                Laurent
1742                       Levens
1742 - 21 Aug 1747         Levet
Sep 1747 - Mar 1751        Druno de la Court
Mar 1751 - 1755            Jacques Guestard (1st time)        (d. 1774)
1755 - c.1758              Dubourdieu
1763 - 1764                Antoine Pruneau de Pommegorge      (b. 1720 - d .1812)
1764 -  5 Jul 1764         Remillat
Jul 1764 - Sep 1765        Cuillie
1765 - 1774                Jacques Guestard (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1774 - 1775                de Warel        
1775 - 1786                Joseph Ollivier de Montaguère      (d. c.1793)
Jan 1787 - Jul 1789        Pierre Simon Gourg
1789 - 1797                Louis Deniau de la Garenne
1797                       Pierre Bonon





© Ben Cahoon