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Comoros 
 
[France]
24 Jun 1886 - 13 Jul 1963
   
[1963-1975
                            Comoros flag]
13 Jul 1963 - 12 Nov 1975
   
[1975-1978
                            Comoros flag]
12 Nov 1975 - 24 May 1978
   
[1978-1992
                            Comoros flag]
24 May 1978 - 7 Jun 1992
   
[1992-1996
                            Comoros flag]
7 Jun 1992 - 3 Oct 1996
 
[Comoros flag
                            1996-2002]
3 Oct 1996 - 21 Jan 2002
   
[Flag of Comoros]
Adopted 21 Jan 2002
   


Map of Comoros
Hear National Anthem
"Udzima wa ya Masiwa"
(The Union of the Great Islands)
Adopted 1978
Former National Anthem
1975-1978
Constitution
(21 Jan 2002; in French)
Capital: Moroni
(Dzaoudzi 1887-1962;
Chingoni 1841-1887)
Currency: Comorian Franc
(KMF); 1945-75 Madagascar-
Comores CFA Franc (XMCF);
 
1925-1945 Madagascar Franc
 (MGG)
National Holiday: 6 Jul (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 821,164 (2018)
GDP: $1.32 billion (2017) 
Exports: $18.9 million (2017)
Imports: $207.8 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: Comorian (a mixture of Bantu, Arab, Malay,
and Malagasy peoples) 97.1%, Makoa 1.6%, French 0.4%,
Arab 0.1%, other (Antalote, Cafre, Oimatsaha, Sakalava)
0.8% (2000)
Total Police Force: 500 (2012)
Merchant marine: 203 ships (2017)
Religions: Sunni Muslim (official) 98.3%, Christian 0.4%,
other and none 1.2%
(2015)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AOSIS, APM, AU, CAEU (candidate), CCM, CEN-SAD, COMESA, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ESCR (signatory), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA (applicant), IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIC, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Comoros Index
Chronology
1503                       Comoros discovered by Portuguese explorers.
25 Apr 1841                France annexes Mayotte (ratified 13 Jun 1843)
                             (Mayotte protectorate).
1886                       Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Ndzuwani (Anjouan), 
                             and Mwali (Mohéli) become French protectorates.
 5 Sep 1887                Renamed Protectorate of the Comoros.
 9 Apr 1908                Comoros a dependent territory of Madagascar.
25 Jul 1912                Annexed by France (joined with Mayotte as Mayotte 
                             and Dependencies); subordinated to Madagascar
                             (de facto 23 Feb 1914).
16 Jun 1940 - 25 Sep 1942  Administration loyal to Vichy France (from May 1943,
                             under Free French).
25 Sep 1942 - 13 Oct 1946  British occupation (see Madagascar), French
                             administration continues.
27 Oct 1946                Comoros overseas territory of France.
22 Dec 1961                Autonomy (Comoros).
 6 Jul 1975                Independence declared (Comoros)(not recognized
                             in Mayotte).
  9 Jul 1975                Comorian State
31 Dec 1975                France recognizes independence of Comoros.
13 May 1977                Comorian Republic
23 May 1978                Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros.
 3 Aug 1997 - 14 Apr 2002  Secession of Anjouan (Ndzuwani)(not recognized).
11 Aug 1997 - 1998         Secession of Mohéli (Mwali)(not recognized).
21 Jan 2002                Union of Comoros.             
Grande Comore
  • Bambao
  • Itsandra
  • Mitsamihuli
  • Bajini
  • Hambu
  • Washili
  • Hamahame
  • Mbude
  • Hamamvu
  • Mbaku
  • La Dombe
  • Anjouan
    Moheli
     

    Administrators
    24 Jun 188625 Jul 1912  the Administrators of Mayotte
    25 Jul 1912 - 21 Feb 1913
      Gabriel Samuel Garnier-Mouton      (b. 1864 - d. 1914)
    21 Feb 1913 - 23 Feb 1914  Honoré Lucien Cartron              (b. 1867 - d. 1937)
    23 Feb 1914 - 13 Oct 1946  province of Madagascar
    Administrators-superior
    24 Oct 1946 - 31 Dec 1948  Eugène Alain Charles Louis Alaniou (b. 1896 - d. 1969)
    31 Dec 1948 - Dec 1950     Roger Marie Adolphe Emmanuel Rémy  (b. 1897 - d. 1992)
                                 (acting)
    Dec 1950 - 21 Apr 1956     Pierre Léonard Alphonse Coudert    (b. 1900 - d. 1970)
    21 Apr 1956 - 30 Jun 1959  Georges Victor Maurice Arnaud      (b. 1919 - d. 1971)
                                 (acting to 11 Feb 1958)
    30 Jun 1959 - 14 Dec 1960  Georges Gabriel Joseph Savignac    (b. 1917 - d. 1987)
                                
    (acting)
    14 Dec 1960 - 27 Feb 1962  Louis Joseph Édouard Saget         (b. 1915 - d. 2010)
    High Commissioners
    27 Feb 1962 - 22 May 1962  Louis Joseph Édouard Saget         (s.a.)
    22 May 1962 - 15 Feb 1963  Yves de Daruvar                    (b. 1921 - d. 2018)
    15 Feb 1963 - 26 Jul 1966  Henri Joseph Marie Bernard         (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
    26 Jul 1966 - Nov 1969     Antoine Padoua Colombani           (b. 1919 - d. 2007)
    Nov 1969 - 1973            Jacques Mouradian                  (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
    1973 - 1974                Georges Poulet                     (b. 1914 - d. 2008)
    1974 - Jul 1975            Henri Charles Beaux                (b. 1922)
    President of the Council of Government
     6 Jul 1975 -  7 Jul 1975  Ahmed Abdallah                     (b. 1919 - d. 1989)  UDC
    Head of State
     7 Jul 1975 -  3 Aug 1975  Ahmed Abdallah                     (s.a.)               UDC

    President of the National Council of the Revolution
     
    4 Aug 1975 - 10 Aug 1975  Said Mohamed Jaffar                (b. 1918 - d. 1993)  FNU
    President of the National Executive Council, Head of State
    10 Aug 1975 -  3 Jan 1976  Said Mohamed Jaffar                (s.a.)               FNU

    Head of State
     3 Jan 1976 - 13 May 1977? Ali Soilihi Mtsachioi              (b. 1937 - d. 1978)  RDPC

    President
    13 May 1977? - 13 May 1978 Ali Soilihi Mtsachioi              (s.a.)               RDPC
    Presidents of the Political-Military Directory
    13 May 1978 - 23 May 1978  Saïd Atthoumani                                         FNU

    23 May 1978 - 22 Jul 1978  Ahmed Abdallah                     (s.a.)               UDC
                               + Mohamed Ahmed                    (b. 1917 - d. 1984)  UDC
    Presidents of the Directory
    22 Jul 1978 - 25 Oct 1978  Ahmed Abdallah                     (s.a.)               UDC
                               + Mohamed Ahmed (to 3 Oct 1978)    (s.a.)               UDC
    President
    25 Oct 1978 - 26 Nov 1989  Ahmed Abdallah                     (s.a.)               UCP

    26 Nov 1989 - 27 Nov 1989  Haribon Chebani (interim)                               UCP
    27 Nov 1989 - 29 Sep 1995  Saïd Mohamed Jaffar (1st time)     (b. 1918 - d. 2006)  UCP;1993 RDR
                                 (interim to 20 Mar 1990)
    Chairman of the Transitional Military Committee
    29 Sep 1995 -  2 Oct 1995  Ayouba Combo (Ayuba Kombo)         (b.c.1952 - d. 2010) Mil

    Heads of State
     
    2 Oct 1995 -  5 Oct 1995  Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (1st time)(b. 1936 - d. 1998)  UNDC
                               + Saïd Ali Kemal                   (b. 1938)            CHUMA
     5 Oct 1995 - 26 Jan 1996  Mohamed Caabi El-Yachroutu         (b. 1948?)           RDR
                                 (acting)
    Presidents
    26 Jan 1996 - 25 Mar 1996  Saïd Mohamed Jaffar (2nd time)     (s.a.)               RDR
    25 Mar 1996 -  6 Nov 1998  Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (2nd time)(s.a.)          UNDC:Oct 1996 RND
     6 Nov 1998 - 30 Apr 1999  Tadjidine ben Saïd Massoundi       (b. 1933 - d. 2004)  Non-party
                                 (interim)
    Chief of Staff of the National Development Army
    30 Apr 1999 -  6 May 1999  Azali Assoumani                    (b. 1959)            Mil
    Heads of State
     6 May 1999 - 21 Jan 2002  Azali Assoumani (1st time)         (s.a.)               Mil

    21 Jan 2002 - 26 May 2002  Hamada Madi "Boléro" (interim)     (b. 1965)            PRC
    Presidents
    26 May 2002 - 26 May 2006  Azali Assoumani (2nd time)         (s.a.)               CRC
    26 May 2006 - 26 May 2011  Ahmad Abdallah Mohamed "Sambi"     (b. 1958)            BC
    26 May 2011 - 26 May 2016  Ikililou Dhoinine                  (b. 1962)            BC
    26 May 2016 -             
    Azali Assoumani (3rd time)         (s.a.)               CRC
    13 Feb 2019 -  2 Apr 2019  Moustadroine Abdou                 (b. 1969)            CRC
                                 (acting for Assoumani)

    Vice President of the Government Council
    13 Aug 1957 -  1 Jan 1962  Mohamed Ahmed                      (s.a.)               UNR
    Presidents of the Government Council
     1 Jan 1962 - 16 Mar 1970  Said Mohamed Cheikh                (b. 1904 - d. 1970)UDSR;1968:UDC
     2 Apr 1970 - 16 Jul 1972  Said Ibrahim Ben Ali               (b. 1911 - d. 1975)  RDPC
    16 Jul 1972 - 26 Dec 1972  Saïd Mohamed Jaffar                (s.a.)               RDPC
    26 Dec 1972 -  6 Jul 1975  Ahmed Abdallah                     (s.a.)               UDC
     6 Jul 1975 -  6 Jan 1976  Vacant
    Prime ministers

     
    6 Jan 1976 - 22 Dec 1978  Abdallah Mohamed                   (b. 19.. - d. 2000)  UDC
    22 Dec 1978 -  8 Feb 1982  Salim Ben Ali                      (b. 1918 - d. 2002)  UCP
     8 Feb 1982 - 31 Dec 1984  Ali Mroudjae                       (b. 1939 - d. 2019)  UCP
    31 Dec 1984 -  7 Jan 1992  Post abolished
     7 Jan 1992 - 15 Jul 1992  Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim           (s.a.)               RND
     1 Jan 1993 - 26 May 1993  Ibrahim Abderamane Halidi          (b. 1954)            UDD
    26 May 1993 - 19 Jun 1993  Said Ali Mohamed                   (b. 1946)            RND
    20 Jun 1993 -  2 Jan 1994  Ahmed Ben Cheikh Attoumane         (b. 1938)            RDR
     2 Jan 1994 - 14 Oct 1994  Mohamed Abdou Madi                 (b. 1956)            RDR
    14 Oct 1994 - 29 Apr 1995  Halifa Houmadi                     (b. 1948)            RDR
    29 Apr 1995 - 27 Mar 1996  Mohamed Caabi El-Yachroutu         (s.a.)               RDR 
    27 Mar 1996 - 27 Dec 1996  Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde       (s.a.)               Non-party
    27 Dec 1996 -  9 Sep 1997  Ahmed Abdou                        (b. 1936)            RND 
     7 Dec 1997 - 30 May 1998  Nourdine Bourhane                  (b. 1958)            Non-party
    30 May 1998 - 22 Nov 1998  Vacant
    22 Nov 1998 - 30 Apr 1999  Abbas Djoussouf                    (b. 1942 - d. 2010)  FRN
    30 Apr 1999 -  2 Dec 1999  Vacant 
     2 Dec 1999 - 29 Nov 2000  Bianrifi Tarmidi                   (b. 1958)            Non-party
    29 Nov 2000 - 15 Apr 2002  Hamada Madi "Boléro"               (s.a.)               PRC
    15 Apr 2002                Post abolished

    Territorial Disputes: Claims French-administered Mayotte and challenges France's and Madagascar's claims to Banc du Geyser, a drying reef in the Mozambique Channel; in May 2008, African Union forces were called in to assist the Comoros military recapture Anjouan Island from rebels who seized it in 2001.

    Party abbreviations: BC = Baobab Coalition (presidential coalition, supports Sambi & Dhoinine, est.2009); CRC = Convention pour le Renouveau des Comores (Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros, social democratic, federalist, Assoumani personalist, est.Sep 2002); FNJ = Front National pour la Justice (National Front for Justice, moderate Islamist, est.c.1989); FRN = Forum pour le Redressement National (Forum for National Recovery, anti-RDR alliance of parties, federalist, est.Jan 1994); PCP = Parti Comorien du Peuple (Comorian People's Party, pro-Sambi, est.2012); PRC = Parti Républicain des Comores (Republican Party of the Comoros, est.1998); RDR = Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Renouveau (Rally for Democracy and Renewal, est.1993); RND = Rassemblement National pour le Développement (National Rally for Development, conservative traditionalist, former UNDC, est.Oct 1996); Mil = Military;
    - Former parties: CHUMA = Chama cha Uwananya na Upradzima/Parti de la Fraternité et de l'Unité des îles (Fraternity and Unity Party of the Islands); FNU = Front National Uni (United National Front, anti-Abdallah, 1974-1978?); FNUK-Unikom = Front National Uni des Komores-Uni Komoro (United National Front of Comoros-Union Komoro, anti-Soilih, est.1982); PUIC = Parti pour l'Indépendance et l'Unité des Comores (Party for Independence and Unity for the Comoros, formed by RDPC and UDC in 1973); RDPC = Rassemblement Démocratique des Peuples Comoriens (Democratic Assembly of the Comorian Peopleconservative-progressive, called 'Les Blancs' [Whites], 1968-1982); UCP = Union Comorienne pour le Progrès (Comorian Union for Progress, "Udzima", 1982-1993, only legal party 1982-91, merged into UNDC); UDC = Union Démocratique des Comores (Comoros Democratic Union, called 'Les Verts' [Greens], conservative, 1968-1982); UDD = Union des Démocrates pour le Développement (Union of Democrats for Development); UDSR = Union Démocratique et Socialiste de la Résistance (Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance, French liberal, socialist, 1945-1964); UNDC = Union Nationale pour la Démocratie aux Comores (National Union for Democracy in Comoros, 1992-1996, then RND); UNR = Union pour la Nouvelle République (Union for the New Republic, French Gaullist, conservative, 1956-1967)



    Ngazidja (Grande Comore)

     
    [Flag of Ngazidja
                          Sultan (Comoros) 1886-1911]
    1886 - 1911
    [Flag of Grand
                          Comore (Comoros) from 2002]
    Adopted 7 Apr 2002
    Map of Grande Comore
    Capital: Moroni Local Anthem
    "Uwatwaniya Ndo
    Djukumu"

    Population:
    369,600 (2012)

    233,533 (1991)
    Constitution
    (7 Apr 2002-20 Mar 2010;
    in French)

    1886                       The ruler of Bambao unifies the island (the local rulers
                                 retaining their titles) into the State of Ngazidja.
    24 Jun 1886                Ngazidja a French protectorate.
     6 Jan 1892                Local sultanates suppressed.
    1911                       Annexed by France (officially ratified 23 Feb 1914).
     6 Jul 1975                Part of independent Comoros.
     7 Apr 2002                New constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                                 Grande Comore as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros
                                 (Autonomous Island of Grand Comore).

    Note: Some rulers of Bambao and of Itsandra acquired the paramount-ruler style tibe
    These are marked (tibe #), where # indicates the order in which they held it.

    Bambao

    Sultans (also styled mfalme [plural wafalme])
    .... - ....                Ngoma Mrahafu
    .... - ....                Mwasi Pirusa
    .... - ....                Fum Mbavu Inkwaba
    .... - ....                Mwenye Mji wa Mwenye Mambo
    .... - ....                Inye wa Mantsi
    .... - ....                Mwenye Mji wa Mwanze
    .... - ....                Tambavu mna Muhame wa Saidi
    .... - ....                Tambavu Inkwaba
    .... - ....                Fum Nau wa Kori Dozi (tibe i)
    .... - ....                Mwenye Mji wa Mvunza Panga
    .... - ....                Mla Nau (tibe ii)
    .... - ....                Fozi Wa
    .... - ....                Suja Oma Inkwaba
    .... - ....                Nyau wa Faume (f)
    .... - ....                Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba (1st time)
    .... - ....                Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (1st time)  (b. c.1793 - d. 1875) 
                                 (tibe iv)
    .... - ....                Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba (2nd time)
    .... - ....                Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (2nd time)  (s.a.)
    .... - ....                Saidi Bakari
    .... - 1875                Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (3rd time)  (s.a.)
    .... - ....                Mwenye Mambo
    .... - ....                Ju Mamba
    .... - ....                Mohamed bin Ahmed (1st time)
    18.. - 18..                Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (4th time)  (s.a.)
                                 (tibe x)
    18.. - 18..                Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (1st time)
    1874?                      Mohamed bin Ahmed (2nd time)
    18.. - 18..                Mwenye Mji (1st time)
    18.. - 18..                Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (2nd time)
    18.. - 18..                Saidi Bakari bin Ahmed (1st time)
    18.. - 18..                Mwenye Mji (2nd time)
    18.. - 18..                Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (3rd time)
    18.. - 18..                Saidi Bakari bin Ahmed (2nd time)
    18.. - 1886                Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar (tibe xv) (b. c.1856 - d. 1915)


    Itsandra

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Fey Owa Mbaya
    .... - ....                Fey Mwenza
    .... - ....                Fey Jumbe
    .... - ....                Ju Mwamba Pirusa
    .... - ....                Zombe Ilingo
    .... - ....                Nguzo wa Inehili
    .... - ....                Tibe wa Kanzu
    .... - ....                Mkongo
    .... - ....                Mna Musa Hibu
    .... - ....                Muhammadi Saidi
    .... - ....                Mvunza Panga
    .... - ....                Fey Beja wa Wabeja (f)
    .... - ....                Fum Nau wa Kori Dozi (tibe i)
    .... - ....                Fey Fumu (1st time) (tibe iii)
    .... - ....                Bwana Fumu (1st time) (tibe v)
    .... - ....                Fey Fumu (2nd time) (tibe vi)
    .... - ....                Bwana Fumu (2nd time) (tibe vii)
    .... - ....                Fey Fumu (3rd time) (tibe viii)
    .... - ....                Fum Mbavu (tibe ix)
    .... - ....                Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (1st time)   (d. 1883)
                                 (tibe xi)
    .... - ....                Tibe Bamba (1st time) (tibe xii)
    .... - ....                Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                                 (tibe xiii)
    .... - ....                Tibe Bamba (2nd time) (tibe xiv)
    .... - ....                Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (3rd time)   (s.a.)
    .... - ....                Tibe Bamba (3rd time) 
    .... - ....                Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (4th time)   (s.a.)
    .... - ....                Tibe Bamba (4th time)
    .... - ....                Kalega


    Mitsamihuli

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Mahame Msahi
    .... - ....                Fozi wa Mahame
    .... - ....                Mbantsi
    .... - ....                Ju Mambu Madi wa Musa Fumu
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba (1st time)
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                Kori Dazi
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba (2nd time)
    .... - ....                Tambavu wa Jumbe Fumu
    .... - ....                Fozi Wa
    .... - ....                Suja Fumu Mbamba
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                Mba Fumu wa Jumbe Fumu
    .... - ....                Msa Fumu wa Tambwe
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu wa Jumbe Mfumu
    .... - ....                Mbandhi wa Bwana Haji
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                Abdallah bin Ahmed
    .... - 1886?               Bwana Fumu


    Bajini (Badgini)

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Mwenye Bamba I
    .... - ....                Bamba Jumbe
    .... - ....                Tambe Mbafu wa Fum Nau
    .... - ....                Ju Mamba Oma wa Mla Nau
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                Mwambatsi
    .... - ....                Mwenye Bamba II
    .... - ....                Bamba Oma
                               - jointly with the following two -
    .... - ....                Suja Oma wa Tambwe
    .... - ....                Shekani
    .... - ....                Fumu Oma
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - 1884                Oma wa Dari                        (d. 1884)
    188. - 188.                Ja Mhaba (f)
    188. - 188.                Hashimu bin Ahmed (1st time)       (d. 1889)
    188. - 188.                Hadija bint Ahmed (f)
    188. - 1886                Hashimu bin Ahmed (2nd time)       (s.a.)
    1889                       Hashimu bin Ahmed (3rd time)       (s.a.)


    Hambu

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Beja Mbuyuni
    .... - ....                Nau wa Migira
    .... - ....                Nau wa Moro
    .... - ....                Fumu Nau
    .... - ....                Yasi Azi
    .... - ....                Demani Mtango
    .... - ....                Fumu Jimba wa Idimani
    .... - ....                Madi Jimbwa wa Tangwe
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                Dari wa Mla Nau
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu wa Suja Oma Inkwaba
    .... - ....                Suja Oma wa Tambwe
    .... - ....                Mrunda Mijo
                               - jointly with the following two -
    .... - ....                Fey Mwando wa Tambwe
    .... - ....                Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba
    .... - ....                Tambwe wa Hinye
    .... - ....                Abudu bin Mohamed bin Sultani
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                Bamba Oma wa Oma


    Washili (Oichili)

    .... - ....                Subordinated to Itsandra.

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Mohama Mdume wa Beja
    .... - ....                Fey Zinda wa Mawana
    .... - ....                Fey Zinda wa Makasara
    .... - ....                Tambwe Msa Fumu
                               - jointly with following-
    .... - ....                Tambwe wa Habadi
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu wa Mlala Bwani
    c.1760 - ....              Tambwe No Fumu wa Mla Nau          (b. 1735 - d. 1815)
    .... - ....                Ju Mwamba Mwenye Majini
    .... - ....                Mba Fumu wa Suja Fumu Bamba
                               - jointly with following-
    .... - ....                Shekhe Salim
    .... - ....                Mavunzanga
    .... - ....                Tibe Mle
    .... - ....                Abudu


    Hamahame

    .... - ....                Subordinated to Itsandra.

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Nye Hila
    .... - ....                Haji wa No Fumu
    .... - ....                Suja Oma Mshinda Kodo
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu Madi
    .... - ....                Bwana Haji Musa
    .... - ....                Simai
    .... - ....                Dari Oma
    .... - ....                Fumu Oma wa Nasiri
    .... - ....                Suja Oma wa Fumu
    .... - ....                Mba Fumu wa Bwana Haji
    .... - ....                Suja Oma Bwana


    Mbude (M'Budé)

    c.1860 - 1872              Subordinated to Itsandra.
    1872 - 1873
                    Subordinated to Bambao.
    1873 - 1880                Subordinated to Itsandra.
    1880 - 1892                Subordinated to Bambao.

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Msa Mwinza
    .... - ....                Bamba
    .... - ....                Lwali
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu wa Tambwe
    .... - ....                Dari Mbamba
    .... - ....                Mwandhi Oma wa Jumbe Fumu
    .... - ....                Bamba Oma wa Suja Funu
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu Mna Mango
    .... - ....                Bamba wa Madi Jimba
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu wa Sinai


    Hamamvu

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                ....


    Mbaku

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... -  ....               Bwana Fumu


    La Dombe

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... -  ....               Febeja Mambwe


    Ngazidja (Grande Comore)

    Sultani tibe
    1886 - 1911                Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar           (s.a.)
                                (in exile from 19 Sep 1893 [Diégo-Suarez;
                                 from 1897, Réunion])
    Presidents
    29 May 2002 - 28 May 2007  Abdou Soulé Elbak                  (b. 1954)            FNJ
    26 May 2007 - 29 May 2007  Soulé Ahamada Mroivili (acting)
    30 May 2007 - 30 Jun 2007  Soudjay Hamadi (interim)           (b. 1955?)
    30 Jun 2007 - 23 May 2009  Mohamed Abdouloihabi
                  (b. 1959)            MP-Union
    Governors
    23 May 2009 - 23 May 2011
     Mohamed Abdouloihabi               (s.a.)               MP-Union
    23 May 2011 - 23 May 2016  Mouigni Baraka Said Soilihi        (b. 1968)            UPDC
    23 May 2016 -
    23 May 2019  Hassani Hamadi                     (b. 1961)            CRAN
    13 Feb 2019 -
    Apr 2019     Abdourahim Said Bacar                                   CRAN
                                 (acting for Hamadi)
    23 May 2019 -              Mhoudine Sitti Farouata (f)                             CRC


    French Residents

    (subordinated to the administrators of Mayotte)
    Nov 1886 - Dec 1887        Louis Édmond Weber                 (b. 1855 - d. ....)
    Jan 1888 - Nov 1888        Jules Le Corney                    (b. 1860 - d. ....)
    Nov 1888 - Nov 1889        Claude Jean Henri Pupier           (b. 1860 - d. ....)
    Nov 1889 - Jun 1896        Henry Joseph Léon Humblot          (b. 1852 - d. 1914)
                                
    ("the White Sultan")
    Jun 1896 - Nov 1897        Eugène Louis Frédéric Decazes      (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
    Nov 1897 - Apr 1899        Charles Henri Olivier Pobéguin     (b. 1856 - d. 1951)
    Apr 1899 - Sep 1899        Emilien Célestin Nicolas du        (b. 1871 - d. ....)
                                 Plantier 
    Sep 1899 - Dec 1899        Jean Louis Edmond Alby             (b. 1865 - d. 1948)
    Dec 1899 - Apr 1900        de Bellemare
    Apr 1900 - Aug 1900        Évariste Paul Sallefranque         (b. 1873 - d. 1943)
    Aug 1900 - Jul 1901        Alexis Joseph Gratian              (b. 1864 - d. 19..)
    Jul 1901 - Aug 1902        François Henri Félix Veisseyre     (b. 1865 - d. 19..)
    Aug 1902 - Apr 1903        René Pierre
    May 1903 - Sep 1903        Mainguy (acting)
    Sep 1903 - Oct 1903        Louis Célestin Jean Baptiste       (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
                                 Lemaire
    Oct 1903 - Apr 1904        Massol
    May 1904 - Dec 1904        Louis Victor Ferdinand Feuillard   (b. 1864 - d. 19..)
    Jan 1905 - Jun 1907        Carten
    Jun 1907 - Jun 1909        Pierre Martin (1st time)
    Jun 1909 - May 1911        Ernest Philippe François Lachat    (b. 1876 - d. 1950)
    May 1911 - 1912            Pierre Martin (2nd time)

    Party abbreviations: CRAN = Parti Cran (Cran Party, UPDC opposition); CRC = Convention pour le Renouveau des Comores (Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros, social democratic, federalist, Assoumani personalist, est.Sep 2002); FNJ = Front National pour la Justice (National Front for Justice, Islamic fundamentalist, est.c.1989); Juwa = JUWA (Le Soleil) Parti (Juwa [The Sun] Party, supporters of former President Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi, est.Oct 2013); MP-Union = Mouvement Présidentielle-Union (Presidential Movement-Union); UPDC = Union pour le Développement des Comores (Union for the Development of the Comoros)



    Ndzuwani (Anjouan)
    [Pre-1833 Anjouan flag
                          (Comoros)]
    to 1833
     
    [Anjouan merchant flag
                          1833-1891 (Comoros)]
    1833 - 1891
     
    [Anjouan (Ndzuwani) flag
                          from 1997 (Comoros)]
    3 Aug 1997 - 2002; 
    Adopted 10 Mar 2002
     
    [Anjouan (Ndzuwani) state flag
                                    from 2012 (Comoros)]
    Adopted Feb 2012 State Flag
     


    Map of Anjouan
    Hear Local Anthem
    Text of Anthem
    Constitution
    (10 Mar 2002-Feb 2012;
    in French)

    ------------------------
    Former Constitution
    (25 Feb 1998 - 2002; in French)
    Capital: Mutsamudu
    (formerly Domoni)
    Currency: Comoran Franc
    (KMF) 
    Former Holiday:
    3 Aug (1997)
    Independence Day
    Population: 306,800 (2012)
    188,953 (1991)
    1500                       Ndzuwani sultanate founded.
    21 Apr 1886                French protectorate of Comoros.
    25 Jul 1912                Annexed by France.
     3 Aug 1997                Secession from Comoros (State of Anjouan)(not internationally
                                 recognized).
    26 Oct 1997                Referendum endorses independence.
    10 Mar 2002                New constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                                 Anjouan as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros.
                                 (Autonomous Island of Anjouan).

    Sultans (also styled Phany)
    c.1676 - c.1711            Alimah III (f)
    c.1711 - 1741              Salim                              (d. 1741)
    1741 - 1782                Saidi Ahamd
    1782 - 1788                Abdallah I (1st time)
    1788 - 1792                Halimah (f)
    1792 - 1796                Abdallah I (2nd time)
    1796 - 1816                Alawi bin Husain "Mwinye Fani"
    1816 - 1832                Abdallah II bin Alawi (1st time)   (d. 1836)
    1832 - 1833                Ali bin Salim
    1833 - 1836                Abdallah II bin Alawi (2nd time)   (s.a.)
    1836 - 1837                Saidi Alawi bin Abdallah           (d. 1842)
    1837 - 1852                Salim bin Alawi
    1852 -  2 Feb 1891         Saidi Abdallah bin Salim           (d. 1891)
    Feb 1891 -  2 Apr 1891     Salim bin Abdallah
     2 Apr 1891 - 14 Apr 1892  Saidi Omar bin Saidi Hasan         (d. 1892)
    14 Apr 1892 - 25 Jul 1912  Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar       (b. 18.. - d. 1931)
    French Residents (subordinated to the administrators of Mayotte)
     2 Aug 1886 - Nov 1888     Théodore Troupel                   (b. 1852 - d. 1897)
    Nov 1888 - 30 May 1895     Louis Auguste Bertrand Ormières    (b. 1851 - d. 1914)
    1892 - 189.                Jean Baptiste Castaing             (b. 1864 - d. 1915)
                                 (acting for Ormières)
    Heads of State 
     5 Aug 1997 -  3 Aug 1999  Foundi Abdallah Ibrahim            (b. 1925? - d. 2018) MPA 
     
    3 Aug 1999 -  9 Aug 2001  Said Abeid Abderemane              (b. 1941?)           Mil
                                 (National Coordinator to 22 Aug 1999)
    10 Aug 2001 - 24 Aug 2001  Presidium of the Politico-Military
                               Transitional Commission

                               - Halidi Charif                    (b. 196.)            Mil
                               - Mohamed Bacar                    (b. 1962)            Mil
                               - Hassan Ali Toilha                (b. 196.)            Mil
    25 Aug 2001 - 14 Apr 2002  Mohamed Bacar                      (s.a.)               Mil
    24 Sep 2001 - 25 Sep 2001  Ahmed Aboubacar Foundi                                  Mil
                                 (premier chef d'autorité de l'île, in rebellion)
    Presidents
    14 Apr 2002 - 28 Apr 2007  Mohamed Bacar (1st time)           (s.a.)               MPA
    28 Apr 2007 - 11 May 2007  Kaambi Houmadi (interim)
    11 May 2007 - 14 Jun 2007  Dhoihirou Halidi (interim)         (b. 1965)
    14 Jun 2007 - 25 Mar 2008  Mohamed Bacar (2nd time)           (s.a.)               MPA
    26 Mar 2008 - 31 Mar 2008  Ikililou Dhoinine (provisional)    (b. 1962)
    31 Mar 2008 -  7 Jul 2008  Lailizamane Abdou Cheik (interim)  (b. 1959?)
     7 Jul 2008 - 23 May 2009  Moussa Toybou                      (b. 1962)            Non-party
    Governors
    23 May 2009 - 
    22 May 2011  Moussa Toybou                      (s.a.)               SNDD
    23 May 2011 - 22 May 2016  Anissi Chamsidine (1st time)                            UPDC
    23 May 2016
    - 23 May 2019  Abdou Salami Abdou                                      Juwa
                                 (under arrest from 21 Oct 2018)
     8 Nov 2018 -
    23 May 2019  Abdallah Mohamed (administrator)                        PRC
    23 May 2019 -              Anissi Chamsidine (2nd time)                            Soma

    Prime ministers
     8 Mar 1998 -  7 Jul 1998  Chamasse Said Omar                 (b. 1935?)
    19 Jul 1998 - Dec 1998     Abdou Mohamed Mhindi

    Dec 1998 - Jan 1999        Abdou Mohammed Hussain

    Party abbreviations: Juwa = JUWA (Le Soleil) Parti (Juwa [The Sun] Party, supporters of former President Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi, est.Oct 2013); MPA = Mouvement Populaire Anjouanais (Anjouan People's Movement, Anjouan separatist, est.1997); SNDD = Solidarité Nationale pour la Démocratie et le Développement (National Solidarity for Democracy and Development, est.2009 by Toybou); Soma = Soma ("Learn", est.Oct 2016); UPDC = Union pour le Développement des Comores (Union for the Development of the Comoros); Mil = Military



    Mwali (Mohéli)
    [Moheli
                            merhcant flag c.1830-1871 (Comoros)]
    c.1830 - 1871
       
    [Moheli merhcant flag 1871-1891
                            (Comoros)]
    1871 - 1891
       
    [Moheli (Mwali)
                            national flag 1997-2003 (Comoros)]
    11 Aug 1997 - 1998, Adopted 2003
       
    [Moheli (Mwali)
                            state flag, 2003 (Comoros)]
    Adopted 2003 State Flag
       
    [Moheli (Mwali)
                            reported state flag variant, 2002-2003]
    2002 - 2003 Variant
     
     
    Map of Moheli
    Hear Local Anthem
    Text of Anthem
    Constitution
    (10 Mar 2002; in French)
    Capital: Fomboni
    Currency: Comoran Franc
    (KMF) 
    Former Holiday:
    11Aug (1997)
    Independence Day
    Population: 47,900 (2012)
    24,331 (1991)
    1830                       Migrants from Madagascar establish Mwali as a 
                                 separate sultanate; previously Mwali was subject to Anjouan.
    26 Apr 1886                French protectorate.
    1889                       The residency of Mohéli was suppressed. The Sultanate became
                                 dependent of the Residents of Anjouan.
    1909                       Annexed by France.
    1912                       Sultanate abolished by colonial authority, part of Comoros.
    11 Aug 1997 - 1998         Secession from Comoros (Democratic Republic of Mwali)
                                 (not internationally recognized).
    10 Mar 2002                New constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                                 Moheli as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros
                                 (Autonomous Island of Moheli).

    Sultans
    1830 - 1842                Ramanetaka (later Abderremane)     (d. 1842)
    1842 - 1865                Raketaka Jombe Sudy (f)(1st time)  (b. c.1836 - d. 1878)
                                 (from 1851, Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane)
    1842 - 26 May 1849         Regency
                               - Rovao (f)
                               - Tsivandini (to 1847)
    Sep 1865 - 1874            Mohamed bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara  (b. c.1859 - d. 1874)
    Sep 1865 - 1868            Jumbe Fatima bint                  (s.a.)
                                 Abderremane (f) -Regent (1st time) 
    1868 - Jan 1871            Joseph Lambert, duc                (b. 1824 - d. 1873)
                                 d'Imerina -Regent
    Jan 1871 - 1874            Jumbe Fatima bint                  (s.a.)
                                 Abderremane (f) -Regent (2nd time) 
    1874 - 1878                Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane (f)  (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    1878 - 1885                Abderremane bin Saidi Hamadi       (b. c.1860 - d. 1885)
                                 Makadara
    1885 - 1886                Mohammed Shekhe                    (b. c.1830 - d. ....)
    1886 - 1888                Marjani bin Abudu Shekhe           (b. c.1851 - d. ....)
    1888 - 1909                Salima Machamba bint Saidi Hamadi  (b. 1874 - d. 1964)
                                 Makadara (f)(did not reign) 
    1888 - 1889                Regents
                               - Fadeli bin Othman
                               - Balia Juma (f)
                               - Abudu Tsivandini
    1889 - 1897                Mahmudu bin Mohamed                (b. 1863 - d. 1898)
                                 Makadara -Regent
    French Residents (subordinated to the French administrators of Mayotte)
    1886 - 1887                Louis Hyacinthe Désiré Jules       (b. 1846 - d. 1894)
                                 Vincent 
    1887 - 1888                Germain Barneaud (1st time)(acting)(b. 1861 - d. ....)
    1888 - 1889                Edmond Édouard Regnot              (b. 1850 - d. 1891)
    1889                       Germain Barneaud (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
    1889 - 1912                the residents of Anjouan
     7 Apr 1897 - 1898         Gustave Adolphe Paul Émile Dufour  (b. 1862 - d. 19..)
                                (representing the resident of Anjouan)
    Presidents

    11 Aug 1997 - 1998         Said Mohamed Souef
    19 May 2002 - 18 May 2007  Mohamed Said Fazul (1st time)      (b. 1960)            UCP
    19 May 2007 - 22 May 2007  Vacant
    22 May 2007 -  1 Jul 2007  Youssouf El-Farouk (interim)
     1 Jul 2007 - 23 May 2003  Mohamed Ali Said
                                           Non-party
    Governors
    23 May 2009 - 22 May 2016 
    Mohamed Ali Said                                        Non-party
    23 May 2016 -             
    Mohamed Said Fazul (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
    13 Feb 2019 - Apr 2019     Youssouf Said Moissi
                                 (acting for Fazul)

    Prime minister
    11 Aug 1997 - 1998         Soidri Ahmed

    Party abbreviations: UCP = Union Comorien pour le Progrès (Comoran Union for Progress, Moheli regionalist, Said Fazul personalist, est.2002); Mil = Military






    © Ben Cahoon