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Benin
 
[France]
22 Jun 1894 - 16 Nov 1959
 
[Benin flag]
16 Nov 1959 - 30 Nov 1975;
Re-adopted 1 Aug 1990
[People's
                            Republic of Benin flag 1975-1990]
30 Nov 1975 - 1 Aug 1990
 
Map of Benin
Hear National Anthem
"L'Aube Nouvelle"
(The Dawn of a New Day)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 30 Jul 1960
Constitution
(2 Dec 1990)
Capital: Porto-Novo
(Abomey 1892-1927)
Seat of Government: Cotonou
(from 1904)
Currency:  Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XOF)
National Holiday: 1 Aug (1960)
Fête de l'indépendance
(Independence Day)
Population: 11,340,504 (2018)
GDP: $25.39 billion (2017)
Exports: $1.97 billion (2017)
Imports: $2.78 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Fon and related 38.4%, Adja and related 15.1%,
 Yoruba and related 12%, Bariba and related 9.6%, Fulani and
 related 8.6%, Ottamari and related 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa and related
 4.3%, Dendi and related 2.9%, other 0.9%, foreigner 1.9% (2013)
Total Active Armed Forces: 7,250 (2018)
Merchant marine: 6 ships (2017) 
Religions: Muslim 27.7%, Roman Catholic 25.5%,
Protestant 13.5% (Celestial 6.7%, Methodist 3.4%, other Protestant
3.4%), Vodoun 11.6%, other Christian 9.5%, other traditional
 religions 2.6%, other 2.6%, none 5.8% (2013)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfCFTA (signatory), AfDB, AIIB (nonregional), APM, AU, BCEAO, BTWC, CD, CEMAC, CEN-SAD, CCM, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OST, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Benin Index
Chronology

1650 - 1807                English Fort William at Ouidah.
1671 - 1797                French Fort St. Louis at Ouidah.
23 Feb 1863 -  2 Jan 1865  Porto-Novo a French protectorate.
19 May 1878                Cotonou a French protectorate (attached to Gabon),
                             merged with Porto-Novo
protectorate in 1883.
14 Apr 1882                Porto-Novo a French protectorate.
 5 Aug 1885 - 22 Dec 1887  Portugal declares a protectorate over Dahomey 
                             (with no effect).
1886                       French Establishments in the Gulf of Benin
                             (Établissements Français du Golfe de Benin);
                             subordinated to Senegal to 1 Aug 1889.

 3 Dec 1892                French annex Whydah (Ouidah).

22 Jun 1893                Porto-Novo a French colony.
20 Jan 1894                Dahomey a French protectorate.
22 Jun 1894                Dahomey colony, including Porto Novo.
17 Oct 1899                Part of French West Africa (see Senegal).
24 Jun 1911                Dahomey colony and Dependencies
16 Jun 1940 - 23 Nov 1942  Administration loyal to Vichy France (from 23 Nov
                             1942 [under Darlan to 24 Dec 1942], Free French).

27 Oct 1946                Dahomey an overseas territory of France.  

 
6 Dec 1958                Autonomy (Republic of Dahomey [République du
                             Dahomey]). 

 6 Dec 1958 -  1 Aug 1960  Member state of the Communauté (French Community).
31 Jul 1960                Dahomey acceded to sovereignty and independence
 1 Aug 1960                Independence from France is proclaimed in Porto Novo)

 2 Dec 1975                People's Republic of Benin
(République Populaire du
                             Bénin)(retrospectively effective to 30 Nov 1975).
 1 Mar 1990                Republic of Benin (République du Bénin).

Traditional
States
Forte São João
Baptista
de Ajudá

(1680-1961)
English
Fort William

(1650-1812)
French Fort
St. Louis

(1671-1797)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Secretary of the Popular Revolutionary (Communist) Party of Benin (PRBP)
30 Nov 1975 - 28 Feb 1990  Mathieu Kérékou                    (b. 1933 - d. 2015)
                          ("leading role" of the party abolished 8 Dec 1989)


French Agent at Whydah
23 Feb 1863 -  2 Jan 1865  Marius Denis Célestin Daumas       (d. 1894)
French Consuls at Cotonou
19 Apr 1878 - 1881         Albert Richard Ardin d'Elteil      (b. 1843 - d. 1894)
1881 - 1883                Victor Bareste                     (b. 1835 - d. 1889)
Residents in Porto-Novo
Jun 1882 - 14 May 1883     Bonaventure Colonna de Leca        (b. 1841 - d. 1883) 
1883 - Jul 1883            Henri Guilmin (Guillemin)
                             (provisional)
Jul 1883 - Sep 1883        Henri Joseph Masseron (interim)    (b. 1848 - d. 1888)
Sep 1883 - Feb 1884        Daniel Germa                       (d. 1884)
Mar 1884 - Jul 1884        Léopold Maignot (Meignot)(acting)
Ju1 1884 - 1886            Charles Disnematin-Dorat           (b. 1826 - d. 1898)
1886                       Émmanuel Roget                     (b. 1856 - d. 1903)
1886 -  6 Mar 1887         Jean-Marie Bayol                   (b. 1849 - d. 1905)
 6 Mar 1887 - 16 Jun 1887  Gentien Antoine Victor Pereton     (b. 1845 - d. ....) 
                             (provisional)
16 Jun 1887 - 11 Jul 1888  Victor Marie Paul Ballot           (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
                             (1st time)
Nov 1888 - May 1889        Paul Alphonse Frédéric Marie de    (b. 1846 - d. 1915)
                             Ghislain Raoul, baron de
                             Beeckman -Administrator
1889 - 19 Oct 1889         Louis Frédéric Émile Tautain       (b. 1855 - d. 1904) 
19 Oct 1889 - 22 Dec 1891  Victor Marie Paul Victor Ballot    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Lieutenant-governor
22 Dec 1891 - 22 Jun 1894  Victor Marie Paul Victor Ballot    (s.a.)
Governors 
22 Jun 1894 -  3 Jul 1899  Victor Marie Paul Victor Ballot    (s.a.)
 3 Jul 1899 -  8 Oct 1899  Jean-Baptiste Fonssagrives         (b. 1862 - d. 1910)
                             (acting)
 8 Oct 1899 - 26 Nov 1900  Pierre Hubert Auguste Pascal       (b. 1861 - d. 1946)
                             (acting)
26 Nov 1900 -  5 May 1906  Victor Théophile Liotard           (b. 1858 - d. 1916)
30 Jun 1902 - Oct 1902     Charles Emmanuel Joseph Marchal    (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
                             (acting for Liotard)
 1 Sep 1903 - 15 Jan 1904  Eugène Louis Frédéric Décazes      (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
                             (acting for Liotard)
15 Jan 1904 - 28 Jun 1904  Antoine Julien Oscar Penel         (b. 1843 - d. 1908)
                             (acting for Liotard)
 5 May 1906 -  9 Jun 1906  Joseph Étienne Gabriel Lhuerre     (b. 1855 - d. 1923) 
                             (acting)
 9 Jun 1906 -  8 Mar 1908  Charles Emmanuel Joseph Marchal    (s.a.) 
                             (acting to 16 Jul 1906)
 8 Mar 1908 - 22 Sep 1908  Marie Antoine Edmond Gaudart       (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
                             (acting)
22 Sep 1908 -  9 Oct 1908  Charles Désiré Auguste Brunet      (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
                             (acting)
 9 Oct 1908 - 25 Apr 1909  Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne         (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
25 Apr 1909 -  6 Mar 1911  Henri Jules Jean Baptiste Malan    (b. 1869 - d. 1912)
29 Jun 1909 - 10 Feb 1910  Raphaël Valentin Marius Antonetti  (b. 1872 - d. 1938)
                             (acting for Malan)
 6 Mar 1911 - 24 Jun 1911  Raphaël Valentin Marius Antonetti  (s.a.)
24 Jun 1911 -  9 May 1912  Émile Joseph Merwart               (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
Lieutenant-governors
 9 May 1912 -  7 Apr 1917  Charles Henri Adrien Noufflard     (b. 1872 - d. 1936)
                             (acting to 11 Jul 1912)
 7 Apr 1917 - 29 Aug 1928  Gaston Léopold Joseph Fourn        (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
                             (acting to Jul 1919)
 1 May 1921 - 28 Feb 1922  Pierre Aimable Chapon-Baissac      (b. 1876 – d. af.1934)
                             (acting for Fourn)
 1 Apr 1924 - 26 Nov 1924  Alphonse Paul Albert Choteau       (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
                             (acting for Fourn)
29 Aug 1928 -  4 Apr 1929  Lucien Eugène Geay (acting)        (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
 4 Apr 1929 -  8 Feb 1931  Dieudonné François Joseph Marie    (b. 1879 - d. 1976)
                             Reste                         
 8 Feb 1931 -  7 Jan 1932  Théophile Antione Pascal Tellier   (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 7 Jan 1932 -  2 Aug 1932  Louis Placide Blacher              (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
 2 Aug 1932 - 22 Jul 1933  Louis Aujas (acting)               (b. 1876 - d. 1962)
22 Jul 1933 - 24 Aug 1934  Jules Marcel de Coppet             (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
24 Aug 1934 - 15 Feb 1935  Jean Hyacinthe de Santi (acting)   (b. 1899 - d. 1944) 
15 Feb 1935 - 12 Jan 1937  Maurice Léon Bourgine              (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
22 Sep 1935 - 1936         Jean Hyacinthe de Santi            (s.a.) 
                             (acting for Bourgine)
12 Jan 1937 -  7 Aug 1937  Henri Étienne Martinet (1st time)  (b. 1896 - d. 1941)
                             (acting)
 7 Aug 1937 -  7 Apr 1938  Ernest Gayon (acting)
 7 Apr 1938 -  1 Jun 1938  Henri Étienne Martinet (2nd time)  (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
 1 Jun 1938 - 27 Aug 1940  Armand Léon Annet                  (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
27 Aug 1940 - 18 Sep 1940  Pierre Jean André Saliceti         (b. 1893 - d. 1946)
                             (acting)
18 Sep 1940 - 26 Aug 1943  Léon Hippolyte Truitard            (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
26 Aug 1943 - 21 May 1946  Charles André Maurice Assier       (b. 1889 - d. 1952) 
                             de Pompignan
21 May 1946 - 13 Oct 1946  Robert Alfred Legendre (acting)    (b. 1891 - d. 19..)
Governors
13 Oct 1946 - 14 Jan 1948  Robert Alfred Legendre (acting)    (s.a.)
14 Jan 1948 - 13 Jan 1949  Jean Georges Chambon               (b. 1896 - d. 1965)
13 Jan 1949 - 19 Sep 1949  Jacques Alphonse Boissier          (b. 1910 - d. 1967)
19 Sep 1949 - Nov 1951     Claude Valluy (acting)
Nov 1951 - 21 Jun 1955     Charles Henri Bonfils              (b. 1908 - d. 2001)
21 Jun 1955 - 21 Mar 1958  Marc Casimir Biros                 (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
21 Mar 1958 - 15 Jul 1958  Bernard Hepp (acting)              (b. 1919 - d. 1986)
15 Jul 1958 -  4 Dec 1958  René Tirant (acting)               (b. 1907 - d. 1978)
High commissioner
 4 Dec 1958 -  1 Aug 1960  René Tirant                        (s.a.)
Presidents
30 Jul 1960 - 27 Oct 1963  Coutoucou Hubert Maga (1st time)   (b. 1916 - d. 2000) RDD;1960 PDU
                            (Chief of State, Prime minister to 31 Dec 1960)
27 Oct 1963 - 28 Oct 1963  Provisional Government
                           - Coutoucou Hubert Maga            (s.a.)               PDU
                           - Joseph Sourou Migan Marcellin    (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  PR
                               Apithy
                           - Justin Ahomadégbé-Tomêtin        (b. 1917 - d. 2002)  UDD
28 Oct 1963 - 25 Jan 1964  Christophe Soglo (1st time)        (b. 1909 - d. 1983)  Mil
                             (Head of Provisional Government)
25 Jan 1964 - 29 Nov 1965  Joseph Sourou Migan Marcellin      (s.a.)               PDD
                             Apithy
29 Nov 1965 - 22 Dec 1965  Tahirou Congacou                   (b. 1913 - d. 1976)  PDD
22 Dec 1965 - 17 Dec 1967  Christophe Soglo (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Mil
17 Dec 1967 - 21 Dec 1967  Iropa Maurice Kouandété (1st time) (b. 1932 - d. 2003)  Mil
                             (Chief of State) 
21 Dec 1967 - 17 Jul 1968  Alphonse Amadou Alley              (b. 1930 - d. 1987)  Mil
                             (Chief of State) 
17 Jul 1968 - 10 Dec 1969  Émile Derlin Henri Zinsou          (b. 1918 - d. 2016)  Non-party
10 Dec 1969 - 12 Dec 1969  Iropa Maurice Kouandété (2nd time) (s.a.)               Mil
                             (Chief of Staff of the Army)
12 Dec 1969 -  7 May 1970  Paul-Émile de Souza                (b. 1931 - d. 1999)  Mil 
                             (president of the Directory)
 7 May 1970 -  7 May 1972  Coutoucou Hubert Maga (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (president of Presidential Council)
 7 May 1972 - 26 Oct 1972  Justin Ahomadégbé-Tomêtin          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (president of Presidential Council)
26 Oct 1972 -  4 Apr 1991  Mathieu Kérékou¹ (1st time)        (s.a.)            Mil;1975 PRPB
 4 Apr 1991 -  4 Apr 1996  Nicéphore Dieudonné Soglo          (b. 1934)            1992: PRB
 4 Apr 1996 -  6 Apr 2006  Mathieu Kérékou (2nd time)         (s.a.)               FARD 
 6 Apr 2006 -  6 Apr 2016  Thomas Boni Yayi                   (b. 1952)            Non-party
 6 Apr 2016 -              Patrice Athanase Guillaume Talon   (b. 1958)            Non-party

 
Vice President of the Government Council
25 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958  Joseph Sourou Migan Marcellin      (s.a.)               PR
                             Apithy
Prime ministers
26 Jul 1958 - 22 May 1959  Joseph Sourou Migan Marcellin      (s.a.)               PR; 1959 PPD
                             Apithy
                            (to 4 Dec 1958, president of the government council;
                             then president of the provisional government)
22 May 1959 - 31 Dec 1960  Coutoucou Hubert Maga              (s.a.)              RDD;1960 PDU
31 Dec 1960 - 25 Jan 1964  Post abolished
25 Jan 1964 - 29 Nov 1965  Justin Ahomadegbé-Tomêtin          (s.a.)               PDD
29 Nov 1965 - 21 Dec 1967  Post abolished
21 Dec 1967 - 17 Jul 1968  Iropa Maurice Kouandété            (s.a.)               Mil
17 Jul 1968 - 12 Mar 1990  Post abolished
12 Mar 1990 -  4 Apr 1991  Nicéphore Dieudonné Soglo (interim)(s.a.)               Non-party
 4 Apr 1991 -  9 Apr 1996  Vacant
 9 Apr 1996 - 14 May 1998  Adrien Houngbédji                  (b. 1942)            PRD 
14 May 1998 - 28 May 2011  Post abolished
28 May 2011 - 11 Aug 2013  Pascal Irénée Koupaki              (b. 1951)            UDBN
11 Aug 2013 - 18 Jun 2015  Post abolished
18 Jun 2015 -  6 Apr 2016  Lionel Zinsou                      (b. 1954)            FCBE
 6 Apr 2016 -              Post abolished
 ¹Name change to Ahmed Kérékou announced 28 Sep 1980, but officially denied. 

Territorial Disputes: Talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved.

Party abbreviations: FARD = Front d'Action pour le Rénouveau et le Développement (Action Front for Renewal and Development, socialist democratic, est.1994); FCBE = Forces Cauris pour un Bénin Emergent (Cowry Forces for an Emerging Benin, liberal, centrist, pro-Yayi Boni, est.2006); PRB = Parti de la Renaissance du Bénin (Party for Renaissance of Benin, liberal, N. Soglo personalist to 2017, est.Mar 1992); PRD = Parti du Rénouveau Démocratique (Democratic Renewal Party, Houngbédji personalist, est.1990); UDBN = Union pour le Développement d'un Bénin Nouveau (Union for the Development of a New Benin, 2015 renamed Union Démocratique pour un Benin Nouveau [Democratic Union for a New Benin], presidential movement, est.3 Oct 2010); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ADD = Alliance Démocratique Dahoméenne (Dahomeyan Democratic Alliance, J. Ahomadégbé personalist, UDD successor, 10 Dec - 22 Dec 1965); PDD = Parti Démocratique Dahoméen (Dahomeyan Democratic Party, sole legal party, African nationalist, mainly ethnic Yoruba-Nago & Fon-Adja, south and central regionalist, merger of PR and UDD, 1963-22 Dec 1965); PDU = Parti Dahoméen de l'Unité (Unity Party of Dahomey, state party, African nationalist, republicanism, merger of PR and RDD, Nov 1960-1963); PND = Parti des Nationalistes du Dahomey (Nationalist's Party of Dahomey, S.M. Apithy personalist, Yorua and Nago based, Feb 1960-Nov 1960, merged into PDU); PPD = Parti Progressiste Dahoméen (Dahomeyan Progressive Party, anti-Ahomadégbé, merger of PR and MDD, 1958-1959, dissolved); PR = Parti Républicain Dahoméen (Republican Party of Dahomey, S.M. Apithy personalist, Apr 1951-1958, merged into PPD, re-est.1959-Feb 1960, renamed PND); PRPB = Parti de la Révolution Populaire du Bénin (Benin People's Revolutionary Party, Marxist-Leninist to 8 Dec 1989, communist, 1975-8 Dec 1989 only legal party, 30 Nov 1975-30 Apr 1990); RDD = Rassemblement Démocratique Dahoméenn (Dahomeyan Democratic Rally, northern regionalist, H. Maga personalist, Aug 1957-1960, merged into PDU); UDD = Union Démocratique Dahoméenne (Dahomeyan Democratic Union, mainly ethnic Fon, J. Ahomadégbé personalist, 1955-11 Apr 1961)   


Forte de São João Baptista de Ajudá (Fortress of Saint John the Baptist of Whydah)

[Portugal]
to 1 Aug 1961
 




Map of  São João
Baptista de Ajudá
Hear National Anthem
"A Portugesa"
(The Portuguese)
Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: São João Baptista
de Ajudá
Currency: Portuguese 
Escudo (PTE)
National Holiday:
10 Jun (1580)
Dia de Portugal
(Portugal Day)
Population: 2 (1961)
 5 (1921)
GDP: $N/A (1960)
Exports: $N/A (1960)
Imports: $N/A (1960)
Ethnic groups: Portuguese 100%
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Defense was the responsibility of Portugal
Merchant marine: None (1960)
Religions: Roman Catholic 100%
International Organizations/Treaties: None

1680                       Portuguese governor of São Tomé and Príncipe establishes
                             a fort in the city of Hweda (in English: Whydah, French:
                             Ouidah, Portuguese: Ajudá).
17.. - 1721                Abandoned.
1721                       Fort re-established and named Forte de São João Baptista de Ajudá; 
                             subordinated to Brazil until 1821.
1730 - ...                 Under Companhia de Cacheu e Cabo Verde rule.
 7 Sep 1822 - 1844         Under the sovereignty of Brazil.
18 Apr 1861 -  6 Mar 1865  Occupied by French missionaries (expelled on 12 Apr 1865).
 6 Mar 1865                Fort reclaimed by the Portuguese (subordinated to the governors 
                             of São Tomé and Príncipe).
1869 - 1872?               Abandoned.
 1 Aug 1961                Occupied and annexed by Dahomey (Benin).
1965                       Symbolic closure of the fort, its premises becomes home to
                             the Museum of History of Ouidah.
1975                       Annexation formally recognized by Portugal.

Directors
1680 - ....                Jacinto de Figueiredo Abreu 
.... - 1721                abandoned
1721 - 1728                Francisco Pereira Mendes 
1728 - 1743                João Basílio
1743 - 1746                Martinho de Cunha Barbosa          (d. 1746)
1746                       Frei Francisco do Espírito Santo
                             (interim) 
1746                       Francisco Nunes Pereira (usurper) 
1746 - 1749                Félix José de Gouveia (1st time) 
1749 - 1751                .... [unknown]
1751                       Luis Coelho de Brito               (d. 1751)
1751 - 1757                Teodósio Rodrigues da Costa 
1757 - 1759                António Nunes de Gouveia (interim)
1759 - 1762                Félix José de Gouveia (2nd time) 
1762 - 1764                Francisco Xavier da Silveira       (d. 1764)
1764 - 1765?               José Gomes Gonzaga Neves
1765 - 176.                John Reveire
1768? - 1781               Bernardo Azevedo Coutinho
1782 - 1793                Francisco António da Fonseca e     (b. 1745 - d. ....)
                             Aragão
                            (acting to 22 Jul 1784; nominally to 1797, but expelled in 1793)
1793                       Manuel Lellis e Almeida
1793 - 1796                Francisco Xavier Alves
1796 - 1799                Manuel de Bastos Varela Pinto
                             Pacheco
1799 - 1800                José Ferreira de Araujo (interim)
1800 - 1803                José Joaquim Marques da Graça
                             (interim)
1804 - 1805                Jacinto José de Sousa              (d. 1805)
1805 - 1805?               Francisco Xavier Rodrigues da Silva
1805? - 1844               Francisco Félix de Sousa           (b. 1754 - d. 1849) 
                             (acting to 1818)
Governors
1844 - 1845                Joaquim José Libanio               (d. 1845) 
1845 -  4 May 1849         Francisco Félix de Souza           (s.a.) 
1849 - 18..                Quaresma 
1851                       Francisco Celestino Elesperch      (d. 1851)
1851 - 1852                Isidoro Félix de Souza             (b. 1802 - d. 1858) 
1852 - 1853                João Justino da Costa 
1853 - May 1857            José Pinheiro de Souza 
May 1857 - Nov 1858        Francisco "Chico" Félix de Souza   (b. 1824 - d. 1880)
Jun 1859 - 18 Apr 1861     Claudio Lancastre
18 Apr 1861 -  6 Mar 1865  French missionary leaders
                           - Francesco Borghero               (b. 1830 - d. 1892)
                             (superior of the apostolic vicariat;
                              6 May 1861 - 12 Jan 1865)
                           - Philibert Courdioux              (b. 1838 - d. 1898)
                             (superior-delegate of Borghero)
1865 - 1868                José Maria Borges de Sequeira 
1868 - 1869                Vital de Bettencourt Vasconcellos  (b. c.1820 - d. 1870) 
                             Corte Real do Canto 
1869 - 1872?               abandoned 
1872 - 187.                António Joaquim da Fonseca         (b. 1839 - d. 1872) 
187. - 1878                Augusto Fructuoso Figueiredo de    (b. 1851 - d. 1921)                               Barros 
1878 - 1879                Lourenço da Rocha 
1879 - 1881                António José Machado               (b. 1852 - d. ....) 
1881 - 1883                .... 
1883 - 1885                Fernando Gonçalves 
1885                       Bernardo Francisco Luís da Cruz 
1885                       José Gomes de Souza 
1885 - 1886                Francisco Rego 
1886 - 1887                António Domingues Cortez da Silva  (b. 1849 - d. 1904) 
                             Curado 
1887 - 1888                Manuel Francisco Rodrigues 
                             Guimaräes
1888                       Vicente da Rosa Rolim (1st time)   (b. 1848 - d. 1940)  
1888 - 1890                Manuel José Ferreira dos Santos 
                             (1st time) 
1890                       Carolino Acácio Cordeiro 
1890 - 1893                Vicente da Rosa Rolim (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1893 - 189.                Manuel José Ferreira dos Santos 
                             (2nd time) 
1897 - 1898                Campos 
1898 - ....                Nunes da Aguiar 
1900 - 190.                António Mendes da Costa 
190. - 1905                João de Deus Pires (1st time)      (b. 18.. - d. 1938)
1905 - 1906                Joaquim Luís de Carvalho 
1906 - 1909                João de Deus Pires (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1909 - 1911                Sebastião Lousada 
1911                       Cândido João de Barros 
1911 - 1912                Guilherme Spínola de Melo          (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
1912 - 1913                Eduardo Germack Possolo  
1913 - 191.                Vicente da Rosa Rolim (3rd time)   (s.a.)
191. - 1918                ....
1918                       Vicente da Rosa Rolim (4th time)   (s.a.)
1919 - 1920                José Bento de Oliveira Viegas
1921 - 1928                Viriato Henrique dos Anjos Garcez 
1928 - 1931                Joaquim Sinel de Cordes            (b. 1890 - d. 1936)
1932 - 1938                Miguel Maria Pupo Correia (1st time)
1938 - 1941                José Pimenta Segurado Avelar       (b. 1893 - d. 1941) 
                             Machado
1941 - 1942                Jean Louis Bourjac 
                             (self-proclaimed; not recognized by Portugal)
1942 - 1944                José Aníbal de Vasconcelos e Sá    (b. 1899 - d. 19..)
                             Guerreiro Nuno (1st time)(interim)
1944 - 1946                Carlos Alberto de Serpa Soares     (b. 1908 - d. 1983)
1946                       José Aníbal de Vasconcelos e Sá    (s.a.)
                             Guerreiro Nuno (2nd time) 
1946 - 1951                Miguel Maria Pupo Correia (2nd time)
Administrators
1951 - 1954                António João Teles Pereira de
                             Vasconcelos
1954 - 1956                Ernesto António Pereira Enes       (b. c.1910 - d. ....)
Intendant
1956 -  1 Aug 1961         António Agostinho Saraiva Borges



English Whydah:  Fort William

1681                       English Fort William at Ouidah (English spelling: Whydah), as
                             dependency of the
Cape Castle (Gold Coast).
May 1716 - 20 Oct 1720     Factory leased to William Baillie and Johnson.
 4 May 7219 - 16 Jul 1729  The
Hueda occupy Ouidah town.
1745                      
Fort William (Whydah) independent of Cape Castle (Gold Coast).
Feb 1812                   Abandoned.


Governors (initially called Factors)
May 1681 - Aug 1681        John Thorne
                             (at Offra 1681-83)
Aug 1681 - Jul 1682        Arthur Wendover
Jul 1682 - 1684            John Winder
1684 - 1688                John Carter
1688 - Feb 1690            Petley Wyborne                     (d. 1690)
1690 - Apr 1692            John Wortley
Apr 1692 - 1693            Edward Jacklin
1693                       John Pratt
1693 -  8 Feb 1694         Francis Smith                      (d. 1694)
Feb 1694 - 1699            Josiah Pearson

1700? - 1702?              Wilbourne
c.1702 - 1704              Peter Duffield

Feb 1704 - 1709            Richard Willis                     (d. 1709)
1709 - 1712                William Hicks
Mar 1712 - May 1713        Agents
                           - Hilliard
                           - Green
May 1713 - Mar 1715        Joseph Blaney
Mar 1715 - Aug 1715       
Agents
                           - J. Errington
                           - L. Green
Aug 1715 - May 1716        Agents
                           - R. Mason 
                           - D. Welsh
                           - W. Bramston
May 1716 - Oct 1720        William Baillie
                           + Johnson
Oct 1720 - Dec 1720        John Stevenson
Jan 1721 - Feb 1724        Ambrose Baldwyn
Feb 1724 - Mar 1727        Jeremiah Tinker
Mar 1727 - Feb 1728        Abraham Duport
Feb 1728 - Mar 1729        Thomas Wilson
Jul 1729 - Nov 1729        Charles Testefole                  (d. 1729)
Nov 1729 - Jan 1730        Robert Urquhart (acting)
Jan 1730 - Dec 1730        Edward Dean (1st time)
May 1730 - Dec 1730        John Brathwaite
                             (joint governor of Cape Castle, in Whydah)
Jan 1731 - Jun 1731        Robert Poulter                    
(d. 1731)
Jun 1731 - Mar 1733        Edward Dean
(2nd time)
Mar 1733 - Jul 1734        Charles Whitaker
Jul 1734 - Oct 1734        John Wyat (acting as agent)
Nov 1734 - Apr 1735        William Whetstone Rogers           (d. 1735)
Aug 1735 - 1737/38?        Alexander Spalding
Jun 1738 - Mar 1739        Stephen Lushington
Apr 1739 - 1745            Isaac Gregory
1745 - Dec 1745            Arthur Graham
Jan 1746 - Dec 1746        Henry Turner                       (d. 1746)
1747 - Jul 1750            William Devaynes (1st time)(agent) (b. 17.. - d. 1809)
Jul 1750 - Jan 1751        Andrew Johnson                     (d. 1751)
Jan 1751 - Sep 1751        Robert Livingstone
Sep 1751 - Nov 1752        William Devaynes (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Nov 1752 - Nov 1753        William Withers
Nov 1753 - Aug 1762        William Devaynes (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Aug 1762 - Feb 1767        William Goodson                    (d. 1767)
Feb 1767 - Apr 1767        Richard Burgess (Burgiss)
Apr 1767 - 1770            Archibald Dalzel                   (b. 1740 - d. 1811)
Aug 1770 - Sep 1770        Erasmus Williams                   (d. 1770)
Oct 1770 - Jun 1803        Lionel Abson                       (b. 17.. - d. 1803)
Jun 1803 - Mar 1804        Henry Edward James (acting)
Mar 1804 - Jun 1807        Henry Hamilton
Jul 1807 - Feb 1812        Frederick James  


French Ouidah:  Fort St. Louis

1671 - 1797                French Fort Saint-Louis at Ouidah (Fort Saint-Louis, à Juda,
                             Côte de Guinée
).


Factors
1671 - 16..                Heinrich Karloff                   (b. 1621/22 - d. c.1694)
                             (Henrik Carloff [Hendrik Caerloff])
16.. - 1690's              ....

c.1690's - 1704            abandoned
Directeurs at Fort Saint-Louis, à Juda, Côte de Guinée
1704 - 170.                Gommat (or Gommet)

1707 - 1710                Derigouyn
1710 - 1712                Chamois
1712 - Nov 1715            Du Coulombier
Nov 1715 - 1722            Bouchel
1722? - 1727?              Levesque
1727 - 1729                Houdoyer-Dupetitval                (d. 1729)
                            
(Hueda prisoner from 29 May 1729)
23 Jul 1729 - 1730         Gallot (interim)

1730 - 1731                Mallet de la Mine
1732                       Lavigne                            (d. 1732)
1732 - 1734                Julien du Belay                    (d. 1734)
1734 - 1737                Delisle                            (d. 1737)
1737 - 1742                Laurent
1742                       Levens
1742 - 21 Aug 1747         Levet
Sep 1747 - Mar 1751        Druno de la Court
Mar 1751 - 1755            Jacques Guestard (1st time)        (d. 1774)
1755 - c.1758              Dubourdieu
1763 - 1764                Antoine Pruneau de Pommegorge      (b. 1720 - d. 1812)
1764 -  5 Jul 1764         Remillat
Jul 1764 - Sep 1765        Cuillie
1765 - 1774                Jacques Guestard (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1774 - 1775                de Warel        
1775 - 1786                Joseph Ollivier de Montaguère      (d. c.1793)
Jan 1787 - Jul 1789        Pierre Simon Gourg
1789 - 1797                Jean-François Deniau de La Garenne
1797                       Pierre Bonon





© Ben Cahoon