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Ecuador
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
to 24 May 1822
 
[Estado de Quito, 1809-1812
                                    (Ecuador)]
10 Aug 1809 - 24 Oct 1809,
11 Oct 1811 - 8 Nov 1812 Quito Rebellion
 
[Estado de Guayaquil 1820-1822
                                    Flag (Ecuador)]
9 Oct 1820 - 2 Jun 1822
     
[Estado de Guayaquil 1822 Flag
                                    (Ecuador)]
2 Jun 1822 - 30 Jul 1822
 
[Estado de Guayaquil 1822-1845
                                    Flag (Ecuador)]
31 Jul 1822 - 6 Mar 1845
 
[Ecuador 1845 Flag]
6 Mar 1845 - 6 Nov 1845
 
[Ecuador 1845-1860
                                    Flag]
6 Nov 1845 - 26 Sep 1860
 
[Ecuador 1845-1860 Variant
                                    Flag]
6 Nov 1845 - 26 Sep 1860 Variant
 
 

[Ecuador 1845-1860 State Flag]
1845 - 26 Sep 1860 State Flag

[Flag of Ecuador]
Adopted 26 Sep 1860 Civil Flag
 

[State Flag of Ecuador]
Adopted 26 Sep 1860 State Flag
 


Map of Ecuador Hear National Anthem
"Salve, Oh Patria!"
(We Salute You, Our Homeland)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 23 Nov 1948
(lyrics 1865)
Constitution
  (22 Oct 2008; in Spanish)
---------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1820, 1830, 1998-2008)
Capital: Quito
(San Francisco de Quito
1556-1822; Santiago de Quito
1534-1556; Riobamba

4 Nov 1859 - 12 Jan 1860)
Currency: US Dollar (USD);
1884-13 Mar 2000 Sucre (ECS);
1993-13 Mar 2000 Unidad de
Valor Constante (UVC); 2014-2018 Dinero Electrónico;
 1835-1884 Ecuador Peso (ECP)
National Holiday: 10 Aug (1809)
Día de la Independencia
(Independence Day)
Population: 16,498,502 (2018)
GDP: $193 billion (2017)
Exports: $19.6 billion (2017)
Imports: $19.3 billion (2017) 
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%,
Montubio (tri-racial) 7.4%, Amerindian 7%, Afro-ecuadorian
4.3%, mulatto 1.9%, black 1%, other 0.4%
(2010)
Total Armed Forces: 57,983 (2010)
Merchant marine: 138 ships (2017)
Religions: Roman Catholic 74%, Evangelical 10.4%, Jehovah's
 Witness 1.2%, other 6.4% (includes Mormon Buddhist, Jewish,
 Spiritualist, Muslim, Hindu, indigenous religions, African American
religions, Pentecostal), atheist 7.9%, agnostic 0.1% (2012)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), ACTO, AIIB (nonregional), ANT (consultative), APM, BTWC, CAN, CCM, CD, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OST, PA (observer), PCA, SEGIB, SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Ecuador Index
Chronology

Jun 1534                   Spanish conquest, part of Viceroyalty of Peru.
28 Aug 1534                Santiago de Quito founded by Diego de Almagro.
 6 Dec 1534                Quito re-founded as San Francisco de Quito.

25 Jul 1538                Santiago de Guayaquil founded.
27 Sep 1563                Real Audiencia of Quito founded, part of Viceroyalty
                             of
Peru.
29 Aug 1563 - 17 May 1717  Popayán part of Audiencia of Quito. 
 
6 Jun 1624                Dutch Admiral Jan Willemszoon sacks Guayaquil.
20 Apr 1687                English and French pirates sack and burn Guayaquil.
 4 May 1709                English privateers William Dampier and Woodes Rogers
                             assault and pillage
Guayaquil.
27 May 1717 - 18 Feb 1720  Part of Viceroyalty of New Granada (see
Colombia)
                             (by Cédula Real of 27 May 1717).

1
8 Feb 1720 - 20 Aug 1739  Re-incorporated into Peru.
20 Aug 1739                Restored to Viceroyalty of New Granada.
10 Aug 1809 - 24 Oct 1809  Junta de Gobierno Autónoma de Quito formed in the
                             name of King Fernando VII.
11 Oct 1810                Junta Superior de Gobierno de Quito declares
                             independence in the name of King Fernando VII.
11 Oct 1811
-  8 Nov 1812  Estado de Quito declares independence, in rebellion.
17 Dec 1819                Incorporation into Great Colombia (Colombia)
                            (as the Department of Ecuador, from 1829
                             Southern District).
 9 Oct 1820 - 24 May 1822  Ecuadorian war of independence.
 
9 Oct 1820                Province of Guayaquil (Provincia de Guayaquil)
                             declares independence.

 3 Nov 1820                Free Province of Cuenca (Provincia Libre de Cuenca)
                             declares independence.
21 Dec 1820 - 11 Apr 1822  Cuenca reverts to Spain.
11 Apr 1822 - 13 May 1830  Cuenca re-incorporated into Gran Colombia.

24 May 1822                Spanish forces capitulate to independence forces.
31 Jul 1822 - 13 May 1830  Guayaquil
incorporated Gran Colombia (Colombia)
13 May 1830                Independence from Gran Colombia (State of the 
                             South of Colombia [Estado del Sur de Colombia]).
22 Sep 1830                State of Ecuador (literally "State of the 
                             Equator").
12 Feb 1832                Galapagos Islands annexed.
 8 Aug 1835                Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador)
30 Oct 1841                Spain recognizes the independence of Ecuador.
29 Jan 1942                Oriente province and port of Tumbes annexed by 
                             Peru.

Ecuador
(since 1830)
Quito
(1533-1822)
Guayaquil
(1820-1822)
Cuenca
(1820-1822)
Southern
District

(1821-1830)
Galápagos
 
 
 
 

Quito

Lieutenant governors
 
6 Dec 1534 - May 1538     Sebastián de Benalcázar                (b. 1480 - d. 1551)
                             (or Belalcázar)
22 May 1539 -  9 Nov 1539  Gonzalo Díaz de Pineda                 (d. 1548)
 9 Nov 1539 -  1 Dec 1540  Lorenzo de Aldana (interim)            (b. c.1508 - d. 1571) 
Governors and Captains-general 
 1 Dec 1540 - 1544         Gonzalo Pizarro y Alonso               (b. 1510 - d. 1548) 
26 Sep
1541 - 17 May 1544  Cristóbal Vaca de Castro (acting)      (b. c.1492 - d. 1566)
1544 - 29 May 1547         Pedro de Puelles y Hurtado             (b. 1500 - d. 1547)
                             (interim to Jan 1546)

29 May 1547 - 1556         Rodrigo de Salazar (acting)
12 Oct 1556 - 28 Jul 1559  Gil Ramírez Dávalos                    (b. 1510 - d. bf.1580) 
28 Jul 1559 -  6 Apr 1563  Melchor Vásquez de Ávila 
 
6 Apr 1564 - 27 Apr 1564  Juan Salazar de Villasante 
27 Apr 1564 - 18 Sep 1564  Alonso Manuel de Anaya 
Governors, Captains-general, and Presidents of the Audiencia
18 Sep 1564 - 19 Jul 1571  Hernando de Santillán y Figueroa       (b. c.1519 - d. 1574) 
19 Jul 1571 - 11 Aug 1575  Lope Díez de Aux y Armendáriz          (b. c.1520 - d. 1585)
                             Castrejón (interim)
11 Aug 1575 -  2 Jun 1578  Pedro García de Valverde
 2 Jun 1578 - 19 Jun 1579  Diego de Narváez                       (d. 1579)
19 Jun 1579 -  5 Mar 1582  the Audiencia
                           -
Diego de Ortegón 
                           - Pedro Venegas del Cañaveral          (b. c.1540 - d. ....)
                           - Francisco de Auncibay
                           (acting)
 5 Mar 1582 - 30 Mar 1587  Pedro Venegas del Cañaveral (interim)
  (s.a.)
30 Mar 1587 -  2 Aug 1589  the Audiencia
                           -
Pedro Venegas del Cañaveral          (s.a.)
                           - Francisco de Auncibay
                           - Cabezas de Meneses
                           - Moreno de Mera
 2 Aug 1589 - 1592         Manuel Barros de San Millán            (b. c.1523 - d. 1599) 
1592                       Pedro Diego de Arana (acting)          (b. 1514 - d.1598)
1592 - 1593                Julio Narváez de Mendoza (interim)
22 Mar 1593 - 30 Jan 1600  Esteban de Marañón (interim)           (b. c.1522 - d. 1600)
                             (visitador general)
23 Feb 1600 - 29 Apr 1608  Miguel de Ibarra                       (b. 1550 - d. 1608)
29 Apr 1608 -  9 Dec 1609  Diego de Armenteros y Henao (interim)  (b. c.1575 - d. 1628) 
 9 Dec 1609 - 19 Oct 1612  Juan Fernández de Recalde              (b. c.1561 - d. 1612) 
20 Oct 1612 - 1615         Matías de Peralta Cabeza de Vaca       (b. 1581 - d. 1655)  
                             (interim)
29 Sep 1615 - 21 Jul 1636  Antonio de Morga Sánchez Garay         (b. 1559 - d. 1636)
                             y López de Garfinas
                             (imprisoned 1625 - 18 Sep 1627)
28 Oct 1624 - 18 Sep 1627  Juan de Mañosca y Zamora               (b. 1580 - d. 1650)
                             (visitador general y juerz inquisidor)
1636 - 1637                Antonio Rodríguez de San Isidro        (d. 1646)
                             Manrique (1st time) (interim) 
19 Sep 1637 - Sep 1643     Alonso Pérez de Salazar                (b. 1561 - d. 1643)
 9 Sep 1643 - 17 Dec 1644  Juan de Lizárazu                       (b. 1594 - d. 1644)
17 Dec 1644 - 22 Mar 1646  Antonio Rodríguez de San Isidro        (s.a.)
                             Manrique (2nd time)(interim)
1646 - 1647                Alonso Ferrer de Ayala (interim) 
14 Aug 1647 - 30 Jan 1653  Martín de Arriola y Belardi            (b. c.1595 - d. 1653) 
Jul 1653 - 1655            Juan Morales de Aramburú (interim)     (b. 1594 - d. bf.1660)
 5 Nov 1655 - 1661         Pedro Vázquez de Velasco               (b. 1603 - d. 1671)
23 Jan 1662 - 1665         Antonio Fernández de Heredia           (d. 1665) 

1665 - 1670                Lope Antonio de Munive (interim)       (d. 1670)
20 Sep 1670 -  9 Mar 1673  Diego del Corro Carrascal              (b. c.1625 - d. 1673) 
Mar 1673 - 29 Jan 1678     Alonso de la Peña y Montenegro,        (b. 1596 - d. 1681)
                             obispo de Quito (interim)
29 Jan 1678 - 25 Apr 1689  Lope Antonio de Munive y Axpe,         (b. 1630 - d. 1689)
                             (from 1683) conde de Peña Florida
Apr 1689 - 20 Jan 1691    
Miguel Antonio de Ormaza y Ponce       (b. 16.. - d. 1723)
                             de Léon
(president of the Audiencia)
20 Jan 1691 - Aug 1703     Mateo de la Mata y Ponce de León       (b. c.1645 - d. 1720)
28 Aug 1703 - Feb 1707     Francisco López de Dicastillo y Azcona (b. 1652 - d. 1707)
 1 Mar 1707 - 1714         Juan de Sosaya y Lecuberria            (b. c.1661 - d. 1714)
1714 - 28 Jul 1715         Simón de Rivera (interim)
28 Jul 1715 -  3 Nov 1718  Santiago de Larraín y Vicuña (1st time)(b. 1666 - d. 1748)

 3 Nov 1718 - 26 Mar 1722  Audiencia suppressed
26 Mar 1722 - 31 Dec 1728  Santiago de Larraín y Vicuña (2nd time)(s.a.)
29 Dec 1728 - Dec 1736     Dionisio de Alcedo y Herrera           (b. 1690 - d. 1776)
28 Dec 1736 -  3 Jul 1743  José de Araujo y Río                   (d. 1754)
1741                       Francisco Miguel de Goyeneche y        (b. 1705 - d. 1762)
                             Balanza (did not take office)
 3 Jul 1743 - 22 Mar 1745  Manuel Rubío de Arévalo y Martín       (b. 1690 - d. 1776) 
                             (1st time) (interim)
22 Mar 1745 - 22 Sep 1753  Fernando Félix Sánchez de Orellana     (b. 1715 - d. 1784)
                             y Rada, marqués de Solanda
22 Sep 1753 - 24 Sep 1761  Juan Pío de Montúfar y Fraso Porras    (b. 1702 - d. 1761)
                             y del Corro, marqués de Selva Alegre
24 Sep 1761 -  9 Apr 1766  Manuel Rubío de Arévalo y Martín       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (interim)   
 9 Apr 1766 -
17 Jul 1767  Juan Antonio Zelaya y Vergara          (b. 1712 - d. 1776) 
                             (interim)
17 Jul 1767 - 29 Nov 1778  José Diguja y Villagómez               (b. 1720 - d. 1780)
29 Nov 1778 - 16 Nov 1784  José Garíca de León y Pizarro          (b. 1745 - d. 1815)
16 Nov 1784 - 29 Apr 1790  Juan Jose de Villalengua y Marfil      (b. 1748 - d. 1822)
29 Apr 1790 -  5 Mar 1791  Juan Antonio Mon y Velarde Pardo       (b. 1747 - d. 1791) 
                             y Cienfuegos
13 Jun 1791 - 10 Feb 1799  Luis Antonio Muñoz de Guzmán Montero   (b. 1735 - d. 1808)
                             de Espinosa
10 Feb 1799 -  6 Mar 1807  Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet    (b. 1748 - d. 1807) 
                             de Novelles, barón de Carondelet 
 
6 Mar 1807 -  5 Oct 1807  Diego Antonio Nieto (acting)
 
5 Oct 1807 -  1 Aug 1808  Antonio Suárez Rodríguez de Yebar y    (b. 1738 - d. af.1816)
                             Malagón (interim)
 
1 Aug 1808 - 15 Feb 1810  Manuel María José Joaquín Benito       (b. 1734 - d. 1812) 
                             Pascual Clemente Fermín Ruiz Urriés
                             de Castilla y Pujadas, conde de Ruíz
                             de Castilla

                            
(junta prisoner 10 Aug - 13 Oct 1809)
Presidents
of the Autonomous Governing Junta of Quito
16 Aug 1809 - 22 Sep 1809  Juan Pío de Montúfar y Larrea-Zurbano, (b. 1758 - d. 181
9)
                             marqués de Selva Alegre
22 Sep 1809 - 24 Oct 1809  Juan José Guerrero y Matheu, conde     (b. 1765 - d. 1836)
                             de Selva Florida

 9 Sep 1810 - 22 Sep 1810  Carlos de Montúfar y Larrea-Zurbano    (b. 1780 - d. 1816)
                             (royal commissioner for the Audiencia of Quito)
Presidents of the Superior
Government Junta
22 Sep 1810 - 11 Oct 1811 
Manuel María José Joaquín Benito       (s.a.)
                             Pascual Clemente Fermín Ruiz Urriés
                             de Castilla y Pujadas, conde de Ruíz
                             de Castilla
11 Oct 1810 -  9 Sep 1811  José de Cuero y Caicedo, obispo de     (b. 1735 - d. 1815)
                             Quito
President
the Government Junta of Estado de Quito 
 9 Sep 1811 - 
8 Nov 1812  José de Cuero y Caicedo, obispo de     (s.a.)
                             Quito
(
in Ibarra to 10 Dec 1812)
Governor-Presidents
15 Feb
1810
-  9 Jul 1812  Joaquín de Molina y Zuleta             (b. 1750 - d. 1821)
                             (in Cuenca)

 9 Jul 1812
- 26 Jul 1817  Toribio Montes-Caloca y Pérez          (b. 1749 - d. 18
30)
                             (in Guaranda, taking Quito 8 Nov 1812) 

26 Jul 1817 - 14 Apr 1819  Juan Ramírez Orozco                    (b. 1764 - d. 18
52)
14 Apr 1819 - 26 Dec 1821  Melchor de Aymerich y Villajuana       (b. 1754 - d. 1836)
                             (1st time)(interim)
26 Dec 1821 -  8 Apr 1822  Juan de la Cruz Mourgeon y Achet       (b. 1766 - d. 1822)
 8 Apr 1822 - 24 May 1822  Melchor de Aymerich y Villajuana
      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(interim)


Guayaquil
 
[Guayaquil
                          1820-1822 Flag (Ecuador)]
9 Oct 1820 - 2 Jun 1822
[Guayaquil 1822
                          Flag (Ecuador)]
2 Jun 1822 - 31 Jul 1822
1535                       Guayaquil founded by Spain.
 9 Oct 1820                Province of Guayaquil (Provincia de Guayaquil)
                             declares independence.

31 Jul 1822                Incorporation into Gran Colombia (see Colombia).
13 May 1830                Part of State of the South of Colombia (Ecuador).

Political Chief
 9 Oct 1820 - 14 Oct 1820  José Joaquín Eufrasio de Olmedo    (b. 1780 - d. 1847)
                             y Maruri 
President of the Provisional Government Junta
14 Oct 1820 -  8 Nov 1820  Gregorio Escobedo y Rodríguez de   (b. 1795 - d. 1830) 
                             Olmedo
President of the Superior Government Junta
 8 Nov 1820 - 13 Jul 1822  José Joaquín Eufrasio de Olmedo    (s.a.)

                             y Maruri 
In Charge of Political and Military Command
13 Jul 1822 - 31 Jul 1822  Simón José Antonio de la Santísima (b. 1783 - d. 1830)

                             Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios


Cuenca 

[Free Province
                          of Cuenca 1820 (Ecuador)]
5 Nov 1820 - 21 Dec 1820

1557                       Cuenca founded by Spain.
 3 Nov 1820                Free Province of Cuenca (Provincia Libre de Cuenca)
                             declares independence.
21 Dec 1820 - 11 Apr 1822  Cuenca reverts to Spain.
11 Apr 1822               
Incorporation into Gran Colombia (see Colombia).
13 May 1830                Part of State of the South of Colombia (Ecuador).

Political Chief
 
5 Nov 1820 - 15 Nov 1820  José María Vásquez de Noboa y      (b. 1793 - d. 1853)
                             López de Artiga
President of the Supreme Government Junta,
Political Chief
15 Nov 1820 - 21 Dec 1820  José María Vásquez de Noboa y      (s.a.)
                             López de Artigas


Southern District of Gran Colombia

12 Oct 1821                District of the South (Distrito del Sur) of Gran Colombia
                             (see Colombia) organized.    
1824                       Departments of Guayaquil and Azuay (Asuay) established.
13 May 1830                Department of Ecuador declares separation from Gran Colombia.
19 May 1830                Department of Guayaquil separates from Gran Colombia.
20 May 1830                Departments of Azuay separates from Gran Colombia.

Superior Chief in Civil and Military Affairs of the South
Jan 1823 - Sep 1823        Antonio José Francisco de Sucre    (b. 1795 - d. 1830)  Mil
                             y Alcalá
Superior Chiefs of the Departments of the South
25 Sep 1823 - 22 Sep 1824  Bartolomé Antonio de la Concepción (b. 1780 - d. 1863)  Mil
                             Salom Borges
23 Sep 1824 - Dec 1826     Juan Paz del Castillo (acting)     (b. 1778 - d. 1828)  Mil
 
1 Jan 1827 -  7 Jul 1827  José Gabriel Pérez                 (b. 1780 - d. 1828)  Mil
11 Sep 1827 -  8 Oct 1828 
Juan José Flores y Aramburú        (b. 1800 - d. 1864)  Mil
Superior Chief of the Three Departments of Ecuador, Guayaquil and Azuay

 8 Oct 1828 - 29 Oct 1829  Antonio José Francisco de Sucre    (s.a.)               Mil
                             y Alcalá
General Prefect of the Southern District
29 Oct 1829 - 14 May 1830  Juan José Flores y Aramburú        (s.a.)               Mil


Ecuador
 
13 May 1830                State of the South of Colombia
22 Sep 1830                State of Ecuador (literally "State of the Equator").
 8 Aug 1835                Republic of Ecuador
 
Chief of the Administration (also in official use Chief of State)
14 May 1830 - 22 Sep 1830  Juan José Flores y Aramburú        (b. 1800 - d. 1864)  PC
Presidents
22 Sep 1830 - 10 Sep 1834  Juan José Flores y Aramburú        (s.a.)               PC
                             (1st time)
10 Sep 1834 - 18 Jan 1835  Vacant
18 Jan 1835 - 31 Jan 1839  José Vicente Rocafuerte y Rodríguez(b. 1783 - d. 1847)  PL
                             de Bexarano
                            (Supreme Chief of the Department of Guayas,
                             in rebellion 20 Oct 1833 - 18 Jan 1835;
                             Supreme Chief to 22 Jun 1835, then interim
                             president to 8 Aug 1835)
13 Jul 1834 - 18 Jan 1835  José Félix Valdivieso y Valdivieso (b. 1780 - d. 1856)
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
31 Jan 1839 - 18 Jun 1845  Juan José Flores y Aramburú        (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time)
18 Jun 1845 -  8 Dec 1845  José Joaquín Eufrasio de Olmedo    (s.a.)               PL
                             y Mururi (President of the Provisional
                             Government; in rebellion from 6 Mar 1845)
 8 Dec 1845 - 15 Oct 1849  Vicente Ramón Roca Rodríguez       (b. 1792 - d. 1858)  PL
15 Oct 1849 - 10 Jun 1850  Manuel de Ascásubi y Matheu        (b. 1804 - d. 1876)  PL
                             (1st time) (acting)
17 Jun 1850 - 1850         Antonio de Elizalde y La Mar       (b. 1795 - d. 1862)  Mil
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
10 Jun 1850 - 24 Jul 1851  Diego María de Noboa y Arteta      (b. 1789 - d. 1870)  PC
                             (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 2 Mar 1850] to 8 Dec 1850; 
                             interim president 8 Dec 1850 - 26 Feb 1851)
24 Jul 1851 - 16 Oct 1856  José María Mariano Segundo         (b. 1808 - d. 1891)  PL
                             Fernández de Urvina y Sáenz de Viteri
                             (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 13 Jul 1851] to
                             17 Jul 1852; interim president 17 Jul - 6 Sep 1852)
16 Oct 1856 - 17 Sep 1859  Juan Francisco Robles García       (b. 1811 - d. 1893)  PL
 1 May 1859 -  4 Jun 1859  Provisional Government (in rebellion)
                           - Gabriel Gregorio García Moreno   (b. 1821 - d. 1875)  PC
                               (from 25 May 1859)
                           - Manuel Gómez de la Torre         (b. 1814 - d. 1887)  PL
                               Gangotena (to 25 May 1859)
                           - José María Avilés Pareja         (b. 1816 - d. 1874)  PL
                               (acting) 
                           - Pacífico Chiriboga Borja         (b. 1811 - d. 1886)  PL
 6 May 1859 - 1859         Miguel Francisco Jerónimo Carrión  (b. 1804 - d. 1873)  PC
                             y Palacio (acting; in rebellion)
17 Sep 1859 - 31 Aug 1865  Gabriel Gregorio García Moreno     (s.a.)               PC
                            (1st time)(Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 4 Jun 1859] 
                             to 17 Jan 1861; interim 17 Jan - 2 Apr 1861)
17 Sep 1859 - 24 Sep 1860  Guillermo Pablo Franco Herrera     (b. 1811 - d. 1886)  Mil
                            (Supreme Chief of Guayas and of Azuay, in rebellion)
31 Aug 1865 -  7 Sep 1865  Rafael Carvajal Guzmán (acting)    (b. 1818 - d. 1881)  PC
 7 Sep 1865 -  6 Nov 1867  Miguel Francisco Jerónimo Carrión  (s.a.)               PC
                             y Palacio
 6 Nov 1867 - 20 Jan 1868  Pedro José de Arteta y Calisto     (b. 1797 - d. 1873)  PC
                             (acting)
20 Jan 1868 - 19 Jan 1869  José Manuel Francisco Javier       (b. 1815 - d. 1870)  PC
                             Espinosa y Espinosa de los Monteros 
19 Jan 1869 - 16 May 1869  Gabriel Gregorio García Moreno     (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) (interim)
16 May 1869 - 10 Aug 1869  Manuel de Ascásubi y Matheu        (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) (acting)
10 Aug 1869 -  6 Aug 1875  Gabriel Gregorio García Moreno     (s.a.)               PC
                             (3rd time)
 6 Aug 1875 -  8 Oct 1875  Francisco Javier Tomás León y      (b. 1832 - d. 1880)  PC
                             Chiriboga (acting) 
 8 Oct 1875 -  9 Dec 1875  José Javier Eguiguren Riofrío      (b. 1816 - d. 1884)  PC
                             (acting [for absent León 16 Sep - 8 Oct 1875])
 9 Dec 1875 - 18 Dec 1876  Antonio María Vicente Narciso      (b. 1827 - d. 1911) Non-party/PL
                             Borrero y Cortázar
18 Dec 1876 -  9 Jul 1883  Mario Ignacio Francisco Tomás      (b. 1828 - d. 1908)  Mil/PC
                             Antonio de Veintemilla y Villacís
                            (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 8 Sep 1876] to
                             26 Jan 1878; interim president to 21 Apr 1878;
                             Supreme Chief again from 4 Apr 1882)
Feb 1883 - 11 Oct 1883     José Eloy Alfaro Delgado           (b. 1842 - d. 1912)  PL
                             (1st time)
                             (in charge of the Supreme Command of
                             Manabí and Esmeraldas Provinces, in rebellion)
 9 Jul 1883 - 11 Oct 1883  Provisional Government
                           (in rebellion from 16 Jan 1883)
                           - José María Sarasti y Ladrón      (b. 1837 - d. 1936)  Mil
                               de Guevara    
                           - Agustín Guerrero Lizarzaburu     (b. 1817 - d. 1902)  Mil
                           - Pedro Ignacio Lizarzaburu Borja  (b. 1834 - d. 1902)  Mil
                           - Luis Benjamín Cordero y Crespo   (b. 1833 - d. 1912)  PL
                              (from 13 Feb 1883)
                           - Pablo Herrera González           (b. 1820 - d. 1896)  PC
                              (to 13 Feb 1883)
                           - Rafael Pérez Pareja              (b. 1836 - d. 1897)  PL
17 Sep 1883 - 11 Oct 1883  Pedro José Carbo y Noboa           (b. 1813 - d. 1895)  PL
                             (Supreme Chief of Guayas, in rebellion)
11 Oct 1883 - 15 Oct 1883  Ramón Antonio Borrero y Cortázar   (b. 1824 - d. 1894)  PC
                             (vice president of the National Convention,
                             in charge the executive power)
15 Oct 1883 - 23 Nov 1883  Rafael Pérez Pareja (interim)      (s.a.)               PC
23 Nov 1883 - 30 Jun 1888  José María Plácido de la Trinidad  (b. 1837 - d. 1901)  PP
                             Caamaño y Gómez Cornejo 
                             (interim to 10 Feb 1884)
 1 Jul 1888 - 17 Aug 1888  Pedro José Cevallos y Fernández    (b. 1830 - d. 1892)  PP
                             Salvador (acting)
17 Aug 1888 -  1 Jul 1892  Juan Antonio María Flores y Jijón  (b. 1833 - d. 1915)  PP
 1 Jul 1892 - 16 Apr 1895  Luis Benjamín Cordero y Crespo     (s.a.)               PP
16 Apr 1895 - 23 Aug 1895  Vicente Lucio Salazar y Cabal      (b. 1832 - d. 1896)  PP
                             (interim popular authority) 
 5 Jun 1895 - 19 Jun 1895  Ignacio Robles y Santistevan       (b. 1839 - d. 1915)  Mil
                             (Superior Civil and Military Chief  
                             Province of Guayas, in rebellion)
19 Jun 1895 -  1 Sep 1901  José Eloy Alfaro Delgado           (b. 1842 - d. 1912)  PL
                             (1st time)(Supreme Chief [in rebellion
                             to 23 Aug 1895] to 9 Oct 1896; interim
                             president 9 Oct 1896 - 17 Jan 1897)
 1 Sep 1901 -  1 Sep 1905  Leonidas Plaza y Gutiérrez de      (b. 1865 - d. 1932)  PL
                             Caviedes (1st time)
 1 Sep 1905 - 16 Jan 1906  Lizardo García Sorroza             (b. 1842 - d. 1927)  PL
14 Jan 1906 - 12 Aug 1911  José Eloy Alfaro Delgado           (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
                            (Supreme Chief [in rebellion to 16 Jan 1906]
                             to 9 Oct 1906; then interim president
                             to 1 Jan 1907)
12 Aug 1911 -  1 Sep 1911  Carlos Freile Zaldumbide           (b. 1851 - d. 1926)  PL
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 1 Sep 1911 - 21 Dec 1911  Emilio Antonio Jerónimo Estrada y  (b. 1855 - d. 1911)  PL
                             Carmona 
21 Dec 1911 -  6 Mar 1912  Carlos Freile Zaldumbide           (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time) (acting)
29 Dec 1911 -  7 Jan 1912  Flavio Eloy Alfaro Santana         (b. 1866 - d. 1912)  Mil/PL
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
29 Dec 1911 - 22 Jan 1912  Pedro Jacinto Montero Maridueña    (b. 1862 - d. 1912)  Mil
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
 6 Mar 1912 -  6 Aug 1912  Francisco Higinio Freire de Andrade(b. 1841 - d. 1935)  PL
                             Marín y Rivadeneira (acting)
10 Aug 1912 -  1 Sep 1912  José Alfredo Wenceslao del Carmen  (b. 1859 - d. 1951)  PL
                             de la Concepción Baquerizo Moreno
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 1 Sep 1912 -  1 Sep 1916  Leonidas Plaza y Gutiérrez de      (s.a.)               PL
                             Caviedes (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1916 -  1 Sep 1920  José Alfredo Wenceslao del Carmen  (s.a.)               PL
                             de la Concepción Baquerizo Moreno
                             (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1920 -  1 Sep 1924  José Luis Tamayo Terán             (b. 1858 - d. 1947)  PLR
 1 Sep 1924 -  9 Jul 1925  Gonzalo Segundo Fernández de       (b. 1863 - d. 1928)  PLR
                             Córdova y Rivera
 9 Jul 1925 - 10 Jul 1925  Luis Telmo Paz y Miño Estrella     (b. 1884 - d. 1962)  Mil
                            (chairman Supreme Military Junta)
10 Jul 1925 - 10 Jan 1926  Provisional Government Junta
                           (chair rotating weekly)
                           - Luis Enrique Napoleón Dillon     (b. 1875 - d. 1929) PL/Non-party
                               Cabezas
                           - Pedro Pablo Garaicoa Cabanilla   (b. 1874 - d. 1936) PL/Non-party
                           - Moisés Oliva Ojeda               (b. 1874 - d. 1926)  Mil
                               (to 14 Jul 1925) 
                           - Francisco Gómez de la Torre      (b. 1885 - d. 1966)  Mil
                               Zaldumbide (to 24 Oct 1925)
                           - José Rafael Bustamante Cevallos  (b. 1881 - d. 1961) PL/Non-party
                               (to 22 Dec 1925)
                           - José Modesto Manuel Larrea Jijón (b. 1890 - d. 1957)  Non-party
                               (from 13 Jul 1925)
                           - Francisco José Boloña Rolando    (b. 1882 - d. 1955)  Non-party
                               (from 13 Jul 1925)
                           - Francisco Arízaga Luque          (b. 1900 - d. 1964) PL/Non-party
                               (from 14 Jul 1925)
10 Jan 1926 - 10 Mar 1926  Humberto Albornoz Sánchez          (b. 1894 - d. 1959)  Non-party 
                             (chairman Provisional Government Junta)
10 Mar 1926 -  1 Apr 1926  Julio Enrique Moreno Peñaherrera   (b. 1879 - d. 1952)  Non-party 
                             (chairman of Provisional Government Junta)
                             (1st time)
 1 Apr 1926 - 24 Aug 1931  Isidro Ramón Antonio Ayora Cueva   (b. 1879 - d. 1978)  CL
                             (provisional to 10 Oct 1928; then
                             interim 10 Oct 1928 - 17 Apr 1929)
24 Aug 1931 - 15 Oct 1931  Luis Alberto Larrea Alba (acting)  (b. 1895 - d. 1980)  VRSE
15 Oct 1931 - 28 Aug 1932  Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno           (s.a.)               PL
                             (3rd time)(acting) 
28 Aug 1932 -  2 Sep 1932  Carlos Eduardo Freile Larrea       (b. 1876 - d. 1942)  VRSE
                             (acting)
 2 Sep 1932 -  5 Dec 1932  Alberto Guerrero Martínez (acting) (b. 1878 - d. 1941)  PL
 5 Dec 1932 - 20 Oct 1933  Juan de Dios Martínez Mera         (b. 1875 - d. 1955)  UR
21 Oct 1933 -  1 Sep 1934  Abelardo Montalvo Alvear (acting)  (b. 1876 - d. 1950)  PLR
 1 Sep 1934 - 21 Aug 1935  José María Velasco Ibarra          (b. 1893 - d. 1979)  AD
                             (1st time)
21 Aug 1935 - 26 Sep 1935  Antonio Pons Campuzano (acting)    (b. 1897 - d. 1980)  PLR
26 Sep 1935  (hours)       Benigno Andrade Flores             (b. 1892 - d. 1972)  Mil
                             (chairman military junta)
26 Sep 1935 - 23 Oct 1937  Federico Páez Chiriboga            (b. 1876 - d. 1974)  Non-party
                             (acting head of state to 10 Aug 1937, then interim president)
23 Oct 1937 - 10 Aug 1938  Gil Alberto Enríquez Gallo         (b. 1893 - d. 1962)  Mil
                             (Supreme Head of State)
10 Aug 1938 -  2 Dec 1938  Manuel María José del Espíritu     (b. 1883 - d. 1975)  PLR
                             Santo Borrero González (interim)
 2 Dec 1938 - 17 Nov 1939  Aurelio Mosquera Narváez           (b. 1883 - d. 1939)  PLR
17 Nov 1939 - 11 Dec 1939  Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río      (b. 1893 - d. 1969)  PLR
                             (1st time) (acting) 
11 Dec 1939 - 10 Aug 1940  Andrés Fernández de Córdova Nieto  (b. 1892 - d. 1983)  PLR
                             (acting)
10 Aug 1940 -  1 Sep 1940  Julio Enrique Moreno Peñaherrera   (s.a.)               Non-party 
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 1 Sep 1940 - 29 May 1944  Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río      (s.a.)               PLR
                             (2nd time) 
29 May 1944                Fausto Navarro Allende (acting)    (b. 1888 - d. 1972)  PLR
29 May 1944 - 31 May 1944  Julio Teodoro Salem Gallegos       (b. 1900 - d. 1968)  AD
                            (rotating chairman of the Political Bureau of Ecuadorean
                             Democratic Alliance, in charge of the executive power)
31 May 1944 - 24 Aug 1947  José María Velasco Ibarra          (s.a.)               AD
                             (2nd time) 
24 Aug 1947 -  2 Sep 1947  Carlos Elicio Mancheno Cajas       (b. 1902 - d. 1996)  Mil
                             (acting to 24 Aug 1947)
 2 Sep 1947 - 16 Sep 1947  Mariano Suárez Veintimilla         (b. 1897 - d. 1980)  PCE
16 Sep 1947 - 31 Aug 1948  Carlos Julio Arosemena Tola        (b. 1894 - d. 1952)  Non-party
 1 Sep 1948 - 31 Aug 1952  Galo Lincoln Plaza Lasso de la Vega(b. 1906 - d. 1987)  MCDN
 1 Sep 1952 - 31 Aug 1956  José María Velasco Ibarra          (s.a.)               FNV
                             (3rd time) 
 1 Sep 1956 - 31 Aug 1960  Camilo Ponce Enríquez              (b. 1912 - d. 1976)  PSC
 1 Sep 1960 -  7 Nov 1961  José María Velasco Ibarra          (s.a.)               FNV
                             (4th time) 
 7 Nov 1961 - 11 Jul 1963  Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy      (b. 1919 - d. 2004)  FNV
 8 Nov 1961  (hours)       Camilo Gallegos Toledo (interim)   (b. 1895 - d. 1986)  Non-party
                             (in dissidence)
11 Jul 1963 - 29 Mar 1966  Ramón Castro Jijón                 (b. 1915 - d. 1984)  Mil
                             (chairman military government junta)
29 Mar 1966 - 30 Mar 1966  Telmo Oswaldo Vargas Benalcázar    (b. 1912 - d. 2013)  Mil
                             (Chief of Staff of Armed Forces)
30 Mar 1966 - 16 Nov 1966  Clemente Yerovi Indaburu (interim) (b. 1904 - d. 1981)  Non-party
16 Nov 1966 - 31 Aug 1968  Otto Arosemena Gómez               (b. 1925 - d. 1984)  CID
                             (interim to 28 May 1967)
 1 Sep 1968 - 15 Feb 1972  José María Velasco Ibarra          (s.a.)               FNV
                             (5th time) 
15 Feb 1972 - 11 Jan 1976  Guillermo Antonio Rodríguez Lara   (b. 1924)            Mil
11 Jan 1976 - 10 Aug 1979  Alfredo Ernesto Poveda Burbano     (b. 1926 - d. 1990)  Mil
                             (chairman Supreme Government Council)
10 Aug 1979 - 24 May 1981  Jaime Roldós Aguilera              (b. 1940 - d. 1981)  CFP 
24 May 1981 - 10 Aug 1984  Luis Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea        (b. 1939)            DP-UDC
10 Aug 1984 - 10 Aug 1988  León Esteban Febres-Cordero        (b. 1931 - d. 2008)  PSC
                             Ribadeneyra 
10 Aug 1988 - 10 Aug 1992  Rodrigo Borja Cevallos             (b. 1935)            ID 
10 Aug 1992 - 10 Aug 1996  Sixto Alfonso Durán Ballén         (b. 1921 - d. 2016)  PUR
                             Cordovez
10 Aug 1996 -  6 Feb 1997  Abdala Jaime Bucaram Ortiz         (b. 1952)            PRE
 6 Feb 1997 -  9 Feb 1997  Fabián Ernesto Alarcón Rivera      (b. 1947)            FRA
                             (1st time) (interim)
 9 Feb 1997 - 11 Feb 1997  Lupe Rosalía Arteaga Serrano de    (b. 1956)            MIRA
                             Fernández de Córdova (f)(acting) 
11 Feb 1997 - 10 Aug 1998  Fabián Ernesto Alarcón Rivera      (s.a.)               FRA
                             (2nd time) (interim)
10 Aug 1998 - 21 Jan 2000  Jorge Jamil Mahuad Witt            (b. 1949)            DP-UDC
21 Jan 2000                Lucio Edwin Gutiérrez Borbúa       (b. 1957)            Mil
                             (1st time)(in dissidence)
21 Jan 2000 - 22 Jan 2000  Council of State ("Junta of National Salvation")
                           - Carlos Mendoza Poveda                                 Mil
                           - Carlos Antonio Vargas Guatatuca  (b. 1958)            CONAIE
                           - Carlos Solórzano Constantine     (b. 1939)            Non-party
22 Jan 2000 - 15 Jan 2003  Gustavo José Noboa Bejarano        (b. 1937 - d. 2021)  DP-UDC
15 Jan 2003 - 20 Apr 2005  Lucio Edwin Gutiérrez Borbúa       (s.a.)               PSP
                             (2nd time)
20 Apr 2005 - 15 Jan 2007  Luis Alfredo Palacio González      (b. 1939)            Non-party
15 Jan 2007 - 24 May 2017  Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado      (b. 1963)            PAIS
15 Jan 2013 - 18 Feb 2013  Lenín Boltaire Moreno Garcés
      (b. 1953)            PAIS
                             (acting for Correa)
24 May 2017 - 24 May 2021  Lenín Boltaire Moreno Garcés       (s.a.)               PAIS
24 May 2021 -              Guillermo Alberto Santiago Lasso   (b. 1955)            CREO
                             Mendoza
 

Territorial Dispute: Organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country

Party abbreviations: CFP = Concentración de Fuerzas Populares (Concentration of Popular Forces, populist, est.1949); CONAIE = Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador (Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, indigenous rights, est.1986); CREO = Creando Oportunidades (Creating Opportunities, liberal conservative, economic liberal, est.Jan 2012); DC = Demócrata Cristiana (Christian Democratic Party); ID = Izquierda Democrática (Democratic Left, democratic socialist, center-left, est.1977); PAIS = Alianza PAIS - Patria Altiva i Soberana (PAIS [Proud and Sovereign Fatherland] Alliance, democratic socialist, left-wing, est.2006); PCE = Partido Conservador Ecuatoriano (Ecuadorian Conservative Party, est.1855); PLR = Partido Liberal Radical Ecuatoriano (Eduadorian Radical Liberal Party, radical liberal, split from PL, est.1921); PRE = Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Roldosist Party, populist, nationalist, est.1982); PSP = Partido Sociedad Patriótica 21 de Enero (Party Patriotic Society 21 January, reformist, nationalist, extreme right, est.2002); PSC = Partido Social Cristiano (Social Christian Party, christian democratic, est.1951); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: AD = Alianza Democrática Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Democratic Alliance, coalition of PLR, PC, VRSE, Socialis Party, Communist Party, and Ecuadorian Democratic Front,
1944-1947?); CID = Coalición Institucionalista Demócrata (Democratic Institutionalist Coalition, est.1965); CL = Contra-Liberal (Anti-Liberal); DP = Democracia Popular (Popular Democracy, center-left, renamed UDC, 1976-1996); DP-UDC = Democracia Popular-Unión Demócrata Cristiana (Popular Democracy-Christian Democratic Union, center-right, christian-democratic, 1996-2009); FNV = Federación Nacional Velasquista (Velasquista National Federation, velasquismo, Velasco Ibarra personalist, 1952-1978); FRA = Frente Radical Alfarista (Alfarist Radical Front, center liberal, later renamed Union Alfarista, 1972-2006); MCDN = Movimiento Cívico Democrático Nacional (National Democratic Civic Movement); MIRA = Movimiento Independiente para una República Auténtica (Independent Movement for an Authentic Republic, center-left, 1996-1998); PC = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, catholic conservative, later PCE, est.1855); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, later divided into PLR and liberal moderate parties, 1895-1921); PP = Partido Progresista (Progressive Party, liberal catholic, est.c.1883); PUR = Partido Unión Republicano (Republican Union Party, center-right, Durán Ballén personalist, split from PSC, 1991-1995, merged into PCE); UR = Unión Republicana (Republican Union); VRSE = Vanguardia Revolucionaria del Socialismo Ecuatoriano (Ecuadorian Socialist Revolutionary Vanguard)


Galápagos

[Provinical Flag of
                        Galapagos (Ecuador)]
Province Flag Adopted 1961

[Galapagos National
                        Park Flag (Ecuador)]
Galápagos National Park Flag

Map of the Galapagos Capital: Puerto
Baquerizo Moreno

(Floreana 1832-51, 1861-85)
Local Anthem
"Himno de Galápagos"
(Hymn of the Galapagos)
Population: 30,890 (2016)
--------------------------------
Holiday: 12 Feb (1832)
 (Día de Galápagos)

 4 May 1493                By Treaty of Tordesillas the region made a possession of Spain.
10 Mar 1535                Spanish under Tomás de Berlanga, Bishop of Panama (b. 1487 - d.
                             1551) discover
s the islands.
1535 - 1832                No-man's land (terra nullis), frequently visited by pirates
                             whalers and merchant ships and are nicknamed the 
                             Las Islas Encantadas ("the Enchanted Islands").
1574                       Named Insulae de los Galopegos ("Islands of the Tortoises")
                             on a map by Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius.
1593 - 1710                Islands frequently used as a base by pirates.
1684                       English pirate William Ambrose Cowley names the main islands:
                             Chatham (San Cristóbal), Hood (Española), Charles or 
                             Floreana (Santa Maria), Narborough (Isabela), Jervis
                             (Rábida), Santa Cruz (Indefatigable), South Seymour (Baltra), 
                             and Tower (Genovesa). 
1790                       First scientific expedition under Alejandro Malaspina (b. 1754 -
                             d. 1810) sent
to the islands by King Charles III of Spain.
1793 - 1870                Islands frequented by whale and seal hunting ships. 
1807 - 1809                Floreana inhabited by castaway Patrick Watkins.
17 Apr 1813 -  3 Oct 1813  U.S. Capt. David Porter (b. 1780 - d. 1843) of U.S.S. Essex uses
                             islands
as a base to destroy most of local British whaling fleet.
12 Feb 1832                Annexed by Ecuador as a territory and named Archipiélago
                             del Ecuador (Archipelago of Ecuador).
15 Sep 1835 - 20 Oct 1835  Islands visited by British naturalist Charles Darwin (b. 1808 -
                             d. 1882) aboard the
H.M.S. Beagle.
16 Feb 1840                Spain formally renounces its claim to the islands.
1869 - 1904                San Cristobál used as a penal colony. 
29 May 1861 - 1865         Galápagos Islands elevated to a province.
15 Aug 1885                Status and name changed to Columbus Archipelago Insular Territory 
                             (Territorio Insular del Archipiélago de Colón),
                             subordinated to Guayas province.
12 Oct 1892                Islands are officially renamed Archipiélago de Colón.
31 Aug 1934                Ecuador adopts Executive Decree 607 protecting key species,
                             regulating collections, and controlling visiting yachts.
14 May 1936                Galápagos Islands declared a national preserve.

 9 Apr 1942 - 15 Jul 1946  U.S. Army Air Force bases on Baltra and Isabela Islands.
 4 Jul 1959                Most of the Galápagos Islands become a national park (Parque
                             Nacional Isla Archipiélago de Galápagos)
(minus the previously
                             settled areas).

17 Dec 1957 - 1959         Galápagos Islands briefly made a province.
18 Feb 1973                Galápagos territory made a province (Provincia de Galápagos).
 8 Sep 1978                Inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
18 Mar 1998                Special Law for the Galápagos (Ley Especial para la
Provincia de
                             Galápagos
)
. The Galapagos to be run by a Special Regime for its
                             environmental protection, the rights of residence, property,
                             and commerce can be restricted (revised 29 Sep 2009).
18 Mar 1998                Galápagos Marine Reserve (La Reserva Marina Galápagos)(size
                             increased in 2009 and 21 Mar 2016).

Military Governors and Territorial Chiefs
12 Feb 1832 - 12 Oct 1832  Ignacio Hernández (acting)
12 Oct 1832 - 1836         José María de Villamil Joly        (b. 1788 - d. 1866)
                             (1st time)
29 Jun 1836 – 26 Jul 1836  José Sanchez Rubio                 (b. 1814 - d. 1889)
                             (acting for Villamil)
26 Jul 1836 – 1836         Nicolás Morla (acting for Villamil)
1836 – 23 Nov 1837         José María de
Villamil Joly        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
23 Nov 1837 – 1838         Nicolás Morla
                           + Pedro Mena
                      (d. 1852)
1838                       Tomás Parra  
1838 - 1839                José (Jaime)
Williams (1st time)
1839                       José María de Villamil Joly        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1839 - 1842 
               José (Jaime) Williams (2nd time)
1842 - 184.                José María de
Villamil Joly        (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
184. - 1852                Pedro Mena (acting)                (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1854 - 18..         José María de
Villamil Joly        (s.a.) 
                             (5th time)
18.. - 1861                ....

1861 - 1884                ....

1869 - 23 Jul 1878         José Valdizán                      (d. 1878)
                             (tenant on Floreana) 
1879 - 15 Jan 1904         Manuel Julián Cobos                (b. 1836 - d. 1904)
                             (tenant on San Cristóbal) 
1884 – Sep 1884            Juan B. Treviño 
1884 – 1893                Pedro P. Jaramillo (1st time)
1893 - 189.                Federico Irigoyen
189. - ....                Juan Elias Pareja Larrea           (b. 1850 - d. 1903)
.... - ....                Antonio Gil Sr. 
.... - ....                Marco Aurelio Calderón 
c.1900                     Tácito Nuñez  
1902 – 15 Jan 1904         Leonardo Reyna                     (d. 1904)
15 Jan 1904 - 19 Jan 1904  Elías Puertas (in rebellion)
Feb 1904 - Jul 1904        Juan José F. Pino 
1904 - 1905                ....
1905 - 1906                Domingo E. Ramos    
c.1906 - 1907              Pedro P. Jaramillo (2nd time) 
191. (or 192.)             Enrique Barriga Larrea             (b. 1872 - d. 1942)
19.. - 1921                Antonio Gil Quesada                (d. 1921)
c.1922                     Cesar Aray Santos                  (b. 1874 - d. 1954)            
1921 - 1930                Enrique V. Gil Quesada
                           + Carlos Gil                       (d. 1960's)
c.1925                     Enrique Rivadeneira

1925 - 19..                Victor Manuel Naranjo          
1930 - 19..                Jorge Villavicencio
193.                       Diogenes Fernandez Ampuero         (b. 1888 - d. 1980)
193.                       Samaniego      
19.. - 1933                Luis A. Paredes Salvador
1933 - 1935                Manuel Tomás Aguilera
c.1935 - 1939              Carlos Puente
1939 - 1941                Alejandro M. Alvear
1941 – 1943                Cornelio Izquierdo A.
1943 – 1946?               Nelson Alejandro Chiriboga Donoso  (b. 1911 - d. 1970)
1946                       Jorge Enrique Páez Torres          (b. 1918 - d. 2009)
c.1946                     Enrique Vallejo Carranza (1st time)
c.1948                     Carlos Monteverede Granados        (b. 1919 - d. 2004)       
c.1952/53                  Alsacio Northía Delgado
195.                       Max Arias Hidalgo
Governors
1957 - 1959
               Marco Aurelio Maldonado Miño       (b. 19.. - d. 2011)
15 Mar 1959 - Apr 1960     Bolívar H. Naveda
Military Governors and Territorial Chiefs
Apr 1960 - 20 Sep 1960     Alberto García
20 Sep 1960 - 1960         Segundo Zapata Vargas
1960 - Nov 1961            Enrique Vallejo Carranza (2nd time)
Nov 1961 - Jul 1963        Antonio Ledesma Monroy
Jul 1963 - 1964            Fausto Alvear Vázquez
1966 - 19..                Norberto Paredes
19.. - 1973                ....
Governors (from 29 Sep 2009,
Governors and Presidents of the Governing
Council of the Special Regime of Galápagos)

1973 - 1975                ....
1975 - 3 Dec 1976          Ramón Apolo Herrera                 (b. 19.. - d. 2019)
c.1976 - c.1979            Napoleón Fernandez Oviedo
1981 - 1983                Freddy Herrera Villacis             (b. 1952)
c.1985                     Walter Freire
1987                      
Galo Salomón Herrera Estrella       (b. 1956)
                             (1st time)

c.1992                     Iván Naula Torres
1994 - 1995                Pedro Anibal Zapata Rumipamba       (b. 1960)
1999? - 2003               Fabián Parra Criollo
2003 - 2005                Alexandra Cedeño Martinez (f)
 5 May 2005 - Dec 2005     Grace Elizabeth Unda Romero (f)
Dec 2005 - 2007            Edgar Eduardo Sanchez Paredes       (b. 1971)
18 Jan 2007 - 2007         Galo Salom
ón Herrera Estrella       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 8 Aug 2007 – 18 Sep 2008  Jorge Eliécer Cruz Bedón (1st time) (b. 1965)
18 Sep 2008 – 19 Apr 2015  Jorge Alfredo Torres Pallo          (b. 1967)

29 Apr 2015 -  6 Jun 2017 
Jorge Eliécer Cruz Bedón (2nd time) (s.a.)
 6 Jun 2017 - 14 Jan 2019  Lorena Tapia Núñez (f)              (b. 1977?)
14 Jan 2019 - 24 May 2021  Norman Stef Wray Reyes              (b. 1969)
 3 Jun 2021 -              Johan Sotomayor






©  Ben Cahoon