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Colombia
 
[Spanish War
                            Ensign (1785-1931)]
  to 14 Jul 1811; Jul 1816 - 17 Dec 1819
 
[Federated
                            Provinces of New Granada flag 1811-1814
                            (Colombia)]
14 Jul 1811 - 26 Apr 1814
 
[United
                            Provinces of New Granada (1814-1815)
                            (Colombia)]
26 Apr 1814 - 14 Nov 1815
 
[United
                            Provinces of New Granada (Colombia)
                            1815-1816] (1815-1816)
14 Nov 1815 - Jul 1816 

 
[Republic of
                            Colombia (1819-1834)]
17 Dec 1819 - 9 May 1834

 
[Republic of
                            New Granada (1834-1861) flag]
9 May 1834 - 26 Jul 1861
 
[Republic of
                            Colombia (1834-1861) state flag]
9 May 1834 - 17 Apr 1854 and
4 Dec 1854 - 26 Jul 1861 State Flag
[Republic of
                            Colombia (1834-1861) civil ensign]  
9 May 1834 - 26 Jul 1861 Civil Ensign  
[Republic of
                            Colombia (1854) (Colombia) state flag]     
17 Apr 1854 - 4 Dec 1854 State Flag
 
[Republic of
                            Colombia (1861) (Colombia) state flag]
26 Jul 1861 - 26 Nov 1861 State Flag
[Republic of
                            Colombia]
Adopted 26 Nov 1861


Map of Colombia Hear National Anthem
"Himno Nacional de la
República de Colombia”
(National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
or "Oh Gloria inmarcesible!"

(O Unfading Glory!)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 28 Oct 1920
Constitution
(5 Jul 1991)
(1821, 1853,
1886 constitutions)
Capital: Bogotá
Currency: Colombian Peso (COP); 1837-1861 Colombian
 Escudo (COE)
National Holiday: 20 Jul (1810)
Día de la Independencia
(Independence Day)
Population: 48,168,996 (2018)
GDP: $711.6 billion (2017)
Exports: $39.4 billion (2017)
Imports: $44.2 billion (2017) 
Ethnic groups: mestizo and white 84.2%, Afro-Colombian
(includes mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 10.4%,
Amerindian 3.4%, Romani 0.01, unspecified 2.1% (2005)
Total Active Armed Forces: 285,220 (2010)
Merchant marine: 103 ships (2017)
Religions: Roman Catholic 79%, Protestant 14% (includes
 Pentecostal 6%, mainline Protestant 2%, other 6%),
 other 2%, unspecified 5% (2014)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS, ACTO, ANT, APM, BCIE (nonregional), BIS, BTWC, CAN, Caricom (observer), CCM, CD, CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, EITI, ESCR, FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, NATO (global partner), NPT, NTBT, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, OST (signatory), PA, PCA, SEGIB, SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Colombia Index
Chronology

1509 - 1520                Spanish colonize area of Nueva Reino de Granada
                             or simply Nueva Granada (New Granada)(modern 
                             Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela).
1510                       First settlement by Nicuesa at Madre de Dios.
29 Jul 1525                Santa Marta founded by Bastidas.
15 Jan 1533                Cartagena de Indias founded by Heredia.
 6 Aug 1538                Santa Fé de Bogotá founded by Quesada.
17 Jul 1549                Audiencia of Santa Fé de Bogotá founded, part of
                             the Viceroyalty of Peru (incl. Cartagena de 
                             Indias, Santa Marta, and Popayán [to 1563]).
27 May 1717                Viceroyalty of Santa Fé del Nuevo Reino de Granada
                             separated from Peru (effective 1718)(incl. Nueva
                             Andalucía, Guyana, Venezuela, Mérida-La Grita,
                             Popayán, Quito [see Ecuador], Cartagena de 
                             Indias and Santa Marta)(real cédula of 27 May 1717)
17 May 1724 - 20 Aug 1739  Re-incorporated into Peru, Viceroyalty suppressed
                             (by real cédula of 5 Nov 1723).
20 Aug 1739                Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada (restored)(includes
                             former jurisdictions plus Panama).
 8 Sep 1777                Captaincy-general of Venezuela detached (incl.
                             Nueva Andalucía, Guyana, Venezuela, and 
                             Mérida-La Grita).
 4 Apr 1811                Local juntas, acting nominally in favor of deposed
                             King Fernando VII dethroned by Napoleon, depose
                             the viceroy and set up local rule (Panama and
                             Santiago remain loyal to Spain).
27 Nov 1811                Federated Provinces of New Grenada
 4 Oct 1812                United Provinces of New Granada
Dec 1815 - Jul 1816        Reconquest by Spain.
 7 Aug 1819 - 10 Nov 1820  Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada.
11 Sep 1819                Free Provinces of New Granada (Provincias libres
                             de
la Nueva Granada).
17 Dec 1819                Republic of Colombia (called "Gran Colombia")
                             composed of New Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela
                             (independence from Spain).

10 Nov 1820                Santa Marta liberated from Spanish rule.
24 Dec 1822                Pasto liberated from Spanish rule.
21 Nov 1831                Dissolution into New Granada, Venezuela, and 
                             Ecuador.
21 Nov 1831                State of New Granada (Estado de la Nueva Granada).
 
9 May 1843                Republic of New Granada (República de la Nueva
                             Granada).
22 May 1858                Granadine Confederation (Confederación Granadina)
                            
(in dissidence 30 Jul 1861-13 Jan 1863).
10 Sep 1860                United States of New Granada (Estados Unidos de
                             Nueva Granada).
20 Sep 1861                United States of Colombia (Estados Unidos de
                             Colombia).
10 Sep 1880                Spain recognizes the independence of Colombia.
 
1 Dec 1885                Republic of Colombia (República de Colombia).
 4 Nov 1903                Independence of Panama.
 8 Sep 1972                Quita Sueño Bank, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
                             transferred to Colombia by the U.S. (effective
                             17 Sep 1981); but not the Serranilla Bank.

Colombia
(since 1831)
States
(1855-1886)
and
Panama
(1821-1903)
Viceroyalty of
New Granada

(1694-1821)
 Cundinamarca
(1811-1814)
 Cartagena
(1810-1812)
 Antioquia
(1810-1815)
Tunja
(1812)
United Provinces
(1812-1816)
Gran Colombia
(1819-1831)
Santa Catalina
(1628-1689)
Historical Maps
of Colombia
 

New Granada 

Governors
1538 - 1539                Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada y        (b. 1509 - d. 1579)
                             Rivera
1539 - 1542                Hernán Pérez de Quesada (interim)   (b. c.1500 - d. 1544)
1542 - 1545                Luis Alonso de Lugo                 (b. 1506 - d. 1556)
1545                       Lope Montalvo de Lugo (interim)
1545 - 1547                Pedro de Ursúa                      (b. 1526 - d. 1561)
1547 - 1554                Miguel Díez de Armendáriz           (d. 1551)
1551 - 1558                Juan de Montaño                     (d. 1558)
Presidents, Governors and Captains-general

1558 - 1564                the Audiencia
Feb 1564 - 1574            Andrés Díaz Venero de Leyva         (b. 1477 - d. 1576) 
1574 - 23 Mar 1575         Gedeón de Hinojosa                  (b. 1527 - d. 1595)
23 Mar 1575 - 13 Dec 1575  Francisco Briceño                   (b. 1500 - d. 1575) 
1575 - 1578                the Audiencia
1578 - 1580                Lope Díez de Aux y Armendáriz       (b. c.1520 - d. 1588) 
1580 - 1582                Juan Bautista Monzón (interim)      (d. 1594)
1582 - 1585                Juan Prieto de Orellana (interim)   (d. 1625)
1585 - 1590                Francisco Guillén Chaparro (interim)(b. c.1545 - d. 1600) 
30 Mar 1590 - 1597         Antonio González                    (b. c.1535 - d. 1601) 
23 Aug 1597 - 12 Sep 1602  Francisco de Sande Picón            (b. c.1540 - d. 1602)
1602 - 1605                Nuño Núñez de Villavicencio (acting)(b. 15.. - d. 1607)
 
2 Oct 1605 - 12 Feb 1628  Juan Buenaventura de Borja y        (b. 1564 - d. 1628)
                             Armendía                  
12 Feb 1628 -  1 Feb 1630  the Audiencia
 
1 Feb 1630 - 1637         Sancho Girón de Narváez, marqués    (b. c.1596 - d. 1637)
                             de Sofraga

 
5 Oct 1637 - Dec 1645     Martín de Saavedra Galindo de       (b. 1594 - d. 1654)
                             Guzmán

28 Dec 1645 - 1654         Juan Fernández de Córdoba y Coalla, (b. c.1595 - d. 1664)
                             marqués de Miranda de Auta
24 Apr 1654 - 29 Jun 1659  Dionisio Pérez Manrique,            (b. 1598? - d. 1678) 
                             marqués de Santiago (1st time)
29 Jun 1659 - 16 Jan 1660  Juan Cornejo (interim)
16 Jan 1660 -  2 Feb 1662  Dionisio Pérez Manrique, 
                             marqués de Santiago (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 
2 Feb 1662 - 25 Dec 1664  Diego de Egües de Beaumont          (b. c.1612 - d. 1667) 
25 Dec 1664 - 12 Jun 1666  Francisco de Leyva (acting)
12 Jun 1666 - 10 Aug 1667  Diego del Corro y Carrascal         (b. c.1625 - d. 1673) 
10 Aug 1667 -  2 Jun 1671  Diego de Villalba y Toledo,         (b. c.1610 - d. c.1680)
                             marqués de Campo, señor de la
                             Villa de Santacruz de Pinares
 2 Jun 1671 - 18 Jun 1674  Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros         (b. 1629 - d. 1708)
                             (interim)
18 Jun 1674 -  4 Jan 1679  Audiencia de Santa Fe
 
4 Jan 1679 -  6 Sep 1685  Francisco del Castillo de la Concha (b. 1652 - d. 1685) 
28 Nov 1685 -  6 Sep 1686  Sebastián Alfonso de Velasco        (b. c.1610 - c.1690)
 
8 Sep 1686 - 10 May 1691  Gil de Cabrera y Dávalos (1st time) (b. 1646 - d. 1712)
10 May 1691 - 10 Feb 1694  Francisco José Merlo de la Fuente   (b. 1650 - d. 1709)
                             (acting)
10 Feb 1694 - 21 Jun 1703  Gil de Cabrera y Dávalos (2nd time) (s.a.)
21 Jun 1703 -  3 Sep 1710  Diego de Córdoba Lasso de la Vega,  (b. 1629 - d. 1720)
                             marqués del Vado (1st time) 
 
3 Sep 1710 -  2 Jun 1711  Francisco Cossío y Otero, arzobispo (b. 1640 - d. 1715)
                             de
Santa Fé (1st time)(interim)
21 Jun 1711 -  4 Feb 1712  Diego de Córdoba Lasso de la Vega,  (s.a.)
                             marqués del Vado (2nd time) 
 
4 Feb 1712 - 23 Sep 1715  Francisco Meneses Bravo de Saravia  (b. 1669 - d. 1723)
23 Sep 1715 - 29 Nov 1715  Juan Francisco Cossío y Otero,      (s.a.)
                             arzobispo de Santa Fé
                            
(2nd time)(interim)
28 Apr 1717 -  8 Jun 1718  Francisco del Rincón, arzobispo     (b. 1650 - d. 1723)
                             de Santa Fé de Bogotá (interim)
Viceroys
 
8 Jun 1718 - 17 Dec 1719  Antonio Ignacio de la Pedrosa y     (b. c.1660 - d. c.1721)
                             Guerrero (interim)
17 Dec 1719 - 17 May 1724  Jorge de Villalonga i Fortuny,      (b. 1665 - d. 1735) 
                             conde de La Cueva
Presidents, Governors and Captains-general
10 Dec 1725 - 12 May 1731  Antonio Manso y Maldonado           (b. c.1670 - d. 1755?)
12 May 1731 - 23 May 1733  Civil Commissioners of the Audiencia
                           - José Martínez Malo
                           - José Quintana Acebedo
                           - Jorge Miguel Lozano de Peralta    (b. 1731 - d. 1793)
                           - José Castilla
23 May 1733 - 24 Apr 1737  Rafael de Eslava y Lazaga           (b. 1685 - d. 1737)
24 Apr 1737 - 19 Aug 1738  the Audiencia
20 Aug 1738 -  1 Sep 1738  Antonio González Manrique           (b. 1695 - d. 1738)
 
2 Sep 1738 - 25 Mar 1739  the Audiencia
25 Mar 1739 - 24 Apr 1740  Francisco González Manrique         (b. c.1698 - d. 1747)
                             (interim)
Viceroys
24 Apr 1740 -  6 Nov 1749  Sebastián de Eslava y Lazaga        (b. 1685 - d. 1759)
 
6 Nov 1749 - 24 Nov 1753  José Alfonso Pizarro, marqués       (b. 1689 - d. 1762)
                             del Villar
25 Nov 1753 - 24 Feb 1761  José Manuel Solís Folch de Cardona  (b. 1716 - d. 1770)
24 Feb 1761 - 31 Nov 1772  Pedro Messía de la Cerda,           (b. 1700 - d. 1783)
                             marqués de la Vega de Armíjo
31 Nov 1772 - 10 Feb 1776  Manuel de Guirior y Portal de       (b. 1708 - d. 1788)
                             Huarte y Edozain, marqués de Guirior  
10 Feb 1776 -  1 Mar 1782  Manuel Antonio Flores Maldonado     (b. 1723 - d. 1799)
                             Martínez y Bodequín
31 Mar 1782 - 11 Jun 1782  Juan de Torrezar y Díaz Pimienta    (b. 17.. - d. 1782)
                             (interim)
15 Jun 1782 -  8 Jan 1789  Juan Antonio Caballero y Góngora    (b. 1723 - d. 1796)
 
8 Jan 1789 - 31 Jul 1789  Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos    (b. 1736 - d. 1809)
31 Jul 1789 -  2 Jan 1797  José Manuel Ignacio Timoteo de      (b. 1741 - d. 1823)
                             Ezpeleta Galdeano Dicastillo y
                             del Prado 
 2 Jan 1797 - 17 Sep 1803  Pedro Mendinueta y Múzquiz          (b. 1736 - d. 1825)
17 Sep 1803 - 23 Jul 1810  Antonio José de Amar y Borbón       (b. 1742 - d. 1826)
                             Arguedas y Vallejo de Santacruz
                            (from 20 Jul 1810, president of 
                             the Supreme Governing Junta)
25 Jul 1810 -  4 Oct 1812  José Miguel Pey y García de Andrade (b. 1763 - d. 1838)
                            (president of the Supreme Governing Junta)
21 Mar 1812 - Nov 1812     Benito Pérez Brito de los Ríos      (b. 1747 - d. 1813)
                             y Fernández Valdelomar
                            (at Portobelo, Panama in refuge from Bogotá)
30 May 1813 -  9 Mar 1818  Francisco José Montalvo y Ambulodi, (b. 1754 - d. 1822)
                             Montalvo y Arriola                             
                             (captain-general, jefe político superior to 6 Nov 1816)
 9 Mar 1818 -  3 Aug 1821  Juan José Francisco de Sámano y     (b. 1753 - d. 1821)
                             Uribarri de Rebollar y Mazorra
                             (titular in Panama from 9 Aug 1819)
17 Aug 1821 - 3/8 Apr 1822 Juan de la Cruz Mourgeon y Achet    (b. 1766 - d. 1822)
                             (titular in Quito)



Independent provinces

Note: This record is in four parts: (1) some provinces that became independent of Spain and later joined the United Provinces; (2) the United Provinces of New Granada, from independence to reconquest by Spain, after which they became part of Great Colombia; (3) Great Colombia (a historians' term, never official), encompassing New Granada (later Colombia), Venezuela, and Ecuador; and (4) New Granada/Colombia from the breakup of Great Colombia.


Cundinamarca
 
[Cundinamarca
                          Independent State (1811-1813) (Colombia)]
4 Apr 1811 - 7 Aug 1813

[Cundinamarca
                          Independent State (1813-1814) (Colombia)]
7 Aug 1813 - 12 Dec 1814

 6 Aug 1538                Santa Fé de Bogotá founded by Spain.
 4 Apr 1811                Independence (State of Cundinamarca).
19 Jul 1813                Monarchy abolished.
12 Dec 1814                Incorporation into United Provinces of New Granada.

Note: 4 Apr 1811 - 19 Jul 1813 Cundinamarca considered itself a monarchy, with 
Fernando VII, king of Spain, as "King of the Cundinamarqueses"¹; Fernando VII neither accepted nor acknowledged this office, but government was carried on in his name.

Presidents of the State and Vicegerents of the King's Person
 4 Aug 1811 - 21 Sep 1811  José Tadeo Lozano de Peralta y 
                             González Manrique, vizconde de   (b. 1771 - d. 1816)
                             Pastrana
21 Sep 1811 - 19 Aug 1812  Antonio Amador José Nariño y       (b. 1765 - d. 1823)
                             Álvarez del Casal (1st time)
                             (interim to 24 Dec 1811) 
19 Aug 1812 - 12 Sep 1812  Manuel Benito de Castro y          (b. 1751 - d. 1826)
                             Díaz de Arcaya (acting) 
12 Sep 1812 - 19 Jul 1813  Antonio Amador José Nariño y       (s.a.)
                             Álvarez del Casal (2nd time)
Presidents of the State
19 Jul 1813 - 14 May 1814  Antonio Amador José Nariño y       (s.a.)
                             Álvarez del Casal
14 May 1814 - 12 Dec 1814  Manuel de Bernardo Álvarez del     (b. 1743 - d. 1816)
                             Casal

 ¹Full style: por la gracia de Dios y por la voluntad y consentimiento del pueblo, legítima y constitucionalmente representado, Rey de los Cundinamarqueses, etc. ("by the grace of God and the will and consent of the town, legitimate and constitutionally represented, King of the Cundinamarqueses, etc.")


Cartagena
 
[Flag of the
                          Cartagena state 1810-1811 (Colombia)]
1810 - 17 Nov 1811
[Flag of the
                          Cartagena state 1811-1812 (Colombia)]
17 Nov 1811 - 4 Oct 1812
 1 Jun 1533                Cartagena de Indias founded by Spain.
11 Nov 1811                Independence (Province of Cartagena de Indias).
20 Jan 1812                State of Cartagena de Indias
 4 Oct 1812                Incorporation into United Provinces of New Granada.

Presidents of the Supreme Government Junta
13 Aug 1810 -  1 Jan 1811  José María García de Toledo y      (b. 1769 - d. 1816) 
                             Madariaga (1st time)
 1 Jan 1811 -  1 May 1811  José María del Real e Hidalgo      (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
 1 May 1811 -  1 Sep 1811  José María García de Toledo y      (s.a.) 
                             Madariaga (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1811 - 20 Jan 1812  Ignacio Cavero y Cárdenas          (b. 1757 - d. 1834)
Governor President of the State
21 Jan 1812 -  1 Apr 1812  José María del Real e Hidalgo      (s.a.)
Dictator Vice President
 1 Apr 1812 - 15 Jun 1812  Manuel Juan Robustiano de los 
                             Dolores Rodríguez Torices y      (b. 1788 - d. 1816)
                             Quiroz 
Governor President of the State
15 Jun 1812 -  4 Oct 1812  Manuel Juan Robustiano de los 
                             Dolores Rodríguez Torices y      (s.a.)
                             Quiroz 


Antioquia

[Antioquia possibly used
                c.1812 (Colombia)]

 2 Nov 1675                Medellín founded by Spain.
29 Dec 1811                State of Antioquia (independence from United Provinces).
10 Nov 1812                Antioquia recognizes the Congress of the United Provinces of
                             New Granada.
 7 Feb 1813                Antioquia recognizes its affiliation with New Granada.
Jul 1815                   Constitution adopts the "pact" of the United Provinces of New 
                             Granada fully incorporating Antioquia.

Presidents of the Superior Government Junta
10 Sep 1810 - 17 Feb 1811  Francisco de Ayala Gudiño Medina   (b. 1751 - d. 1816) 
                             y Calderón
17 Feb 1811 - 27 Jul 1811  Juan Elías López Tagle y           (b. 1777 - d. 1819) 
                             Madariaga (acting)
Presidents of the State
27 Jul 1811 - 29 Jul 1811  Juan Elías López Tagle y           (s.a.) 
                             Madariaga (provisional)
29 Jul 1811-11/29 Oct 1811 José María Montoya Duque           (b. 1757 - d. 1834)
11/29 Oct 1811-10 Oct 1812 José Antonio Aurelio Gómez Londoño (b. 1754 - d. 1812)
14 Oct 1812 - 30 Jul 1813  José Miguel de Restrepo y Puerta   (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
30 Jul 1813 -  7 Apr 1814  Juan Bautista Antonio María del    (b. 1778 - d. 1814) 
                             Corral y Alonso Carriazo 
                             (Dictator President to 1/5 Mar 1814)
15 Apr 1814-8/16 May 1814  José Miguel de la Calle Vélez      (b. 1755 - d. 1839)
                             (interim)
8/16 May 1814 - Jul 1815   Dionisio Sánchez de Tejada y       (b. 1769 - d. 1816)
                             Nieto de Paz


Tunja

 6 Aug 1539                Tunja founded by Spain.
 9 Dec 1811                State of Tunja (also in constitutional use: Republic

                             of Tunja)(independence from United Provinces).
 4 Oct 1812                Re-incorporation into United Provinces of New Granada.

Governor President of the State
1812 -  4 Oct 1812         Juan Nepomuceno Niño y Muelle      (b. 1769 - d. 1816)



United Provinces of New Granada
[United
                          Provinces of New Granada (1814-1815)
                          (Colombia)]26 Apr 1814 - 14 Nov 1815
[United
                            Provinces of New Granada (Colombia)
                            (1815-1816)]14 Nov 1815 - Jul 1816
 

 4 Oct 1812                United Provinces of New Granada (Nueva Granada).
Dec 1815/Jul 1816          Reconquest by Spain.

President of the Congress, entrusted with the Federal Executive Power
 4 Oct 1812 -  5 Oct 1814  José Camilo Clemente Torres        (b. 1766 - d. 1816)
                             Tenorio
Presidents (presiding members of three-member Executive Power)
 5 Oct 1814 - 28 Nov 1814  José María Eusebio Carlos del      (b. 1776 - d. 1835)
                             Rosario del Castillo y Rada 
                             (acting) 
28 Nov 1814 - 28 Mar 1815  José Custodio Cayetano García      (b. 1786 - d. 1816)
                             Rovira (1st time) 
28 Mar 1815 - 28 Jul 1815  José Miguel Pey y García de        (b. 1775 - d. 1838)
                             Andrade
28 Jul 1815 - 15 Nov 1815  Manuel Juan Robustiano de los      (s.a.)
                             Dolores Rodríguez Torices y 
                             Quiroz 
15 Nov 1815 - 14 Mar 1816  José Camilo Clemente Torres        (s.a.)
                             Tenorio 
14 Mar 1816 - 22 Jun 1816  José Luis Álvaro Alvino Fernández  (b. 1789 - d. 1830)
                             Madrid
22 Jun 1816 - 30 Jun 1816  Liborio José Apolinar Mejía y      (b. 1792 - d. 1816)  Mil
                             Gutíerrez de Lara (acting)
30 Jun 1816 - 10 Jul 1816  José Custodio Cayetano García      (s.a.)
                             Rovira (2nd time) 
16 Jul 1816 - 16 Sep 1816  Manuel Fernando Serrano y Uribe    (b. 1789 - d. 1819)  Mil


Gran Colombia (Great Colombia)
[Republic of Colombia
                  state flag (1822-1831)]

Note: Gran Colombia (or Great Colombia) is a historical term, never official,
encompassing New Granada (later Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito (later Ecuador).

17 Dec 1819                Republic of Colombia (independence from Spain, again).
21 Nov 1831                Dissolution into New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador.

Presidents
17 Dec 1819 -  4 May 1830  Simón José Antonio de la           (b. 1783 - d. 1830)  Mil
                             Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y
                             Palacios 
                            (President-Liberator from 14 Jan 1820)
 4 May 1830 - 13 Jun 1830  Domingo Caycedo y Sanz de          (b. 1783 - d. 1843)  Con
                             Santamaría (1st time) (acting) 
13 Jun 1830 -  4 Sep 1830  Joaquín Mariano Mosquera Figueroa  (b. 1787 - d. 1877)  Non-party
                             y Arboleda Salazar
 5 Sep 1830 - 30 Apr 1831  Rafael José Urdaneta Faría (acting)(b. 1789 - d. 1845)  Mil
14 Apr 1831 - 21 Nov 1831  Domingo Caycedo y Sanz de          (s.a.)               Con
                             Santamaría (2nd time)(acting)
                            (in opposition to 30 Apr 1831, enters Bogotá 2 May 1831) 


Free Provinces of New Granada

11 Sep 1819                Free Provinces of New Granada (Provincias libres de la Nueva Granada)
17 Dec 1819                Part of Gran Colombia as Department of Cundinamarca
                             (Departamento de Cundinamarca).

12 Feb 1820                Cundinamarca Department within Gran Colombia.
 8 Oct 1821                Cundinamarca is reconstituted as departaments of Boyacá,
                             Cundinamarca, Cauca, and Magdalena.          

Vice President of Free Provinces of New Granada (from 12 Feb 1820, Department of Cundinamarca)
20 Sep 1819 -  8 Oct 1821  Francisco José de Paula Santander  (b. 1792 - d. 1840)  Mil
                             y Omaña

Colombia
21 Nov 1831                State of New Granada
 9 May 1834                Republic of New Granada
22 May 1858 - 18 Jul 1861  Granadine Confederation (in dissidence 30 Jul 1861-13 Jan 1863).
10 Sep 1860                United States of New Granada
20 Sep 1861                United States of Colombia
 1 Dec 1885                Republic of Colombia

Presidents 
21 Nov 1831 - 23 Nov 1831  Domingo Caycedo y Sanz de          (s.a.)               Con 
                             Santamaría (1st time) (acting) 
23 Nov 1831 - 10 Mar 1832  José María Ramón Obando y del      (b. 1797 - d. 1861)  Mil
                             Campo (1st time) (acting) 
10 Mar 1832 -  7 Oct 1832  José Ignacio de Márquez Barreto    (b. 1793 - d. 1880)  Con
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 7 Oct 1832 -  1 Apr 1837  Francisco José de Paula Santander  (s.a.)               Fed
                             y Omaña 
 1 Apr 1837 -  1 Apr 1841  José Ignacio de Márquez Barreto    (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)
 1 Apr 1841 -  2 May 1841  Domingo Caycedo y Sanz de          (s.a.)               Mil
                             Santamaría (2nd time)(acting)
 2 May 1841 -  1 Apr 1845  Pedro Alcántara Herrán Zaldúa      (b. 1800 - d. 1872)  Con
 1 Apr 1845 -  1 Apr 1849  Tomás Cipriano Ignacio María de    (b. 1798 - d. 1878)  Non-party
                             Mosquera Figueroa y Arboleda
                             Salazar (1st time) 
 1 Apr 1849 -  1 Apr 1853  José Hilario López Valdés          (b. 1798 - d. 1869)  PL
 1 Apr 1853 - 17 Apr 1854  José María Ramón Obando y del      (s.a.)               PL
                             Campo (2nd time)
17 Apr 1854 -  4 Dec 1854  José María Dionisio Melo y Ortiz   (b. 1800 - d. 1860)  PL
                             (Supreme Chief of the Provisional Government)
21 Apr 1854 -  5 Aug 1854  Tomás José Ramón del Carmen de     (b. 1804 - d. 1854)  PL
                             Herrera y Pérez Dávila
                             (acting; in rebellion, in Chocontá) 
 4 Dec 1854 -  1 Apr 1855  José Arsenio Vicente del Carmen    (b. 1806 - d. 1889)  PL
                             de Obaldía y Orejuela
                             (acting [in rebellion from 5 Aug 1854]) 
 1 Apr 1855 -  1 Apr 1857  Manuel María Mallarino Ibargüen    (b. 1808 - d. 1872)  PC
                             (acting)
 1 Apr 1857 -  1 Apr 1861  Mariano Ospina Rodríguez           (b. 1805 - d. 1885)  PC
25 Jan 1861 - 31 Mar 1861  Juan José Nieto Gil (in dissidence)(b. 1805 - d. 1861)  PL
 1 Apr 1861 - 18 Jul 1861  Bartolomé Calvo y Díaz de Lamadrid (b. 1815 - d. 1889)  PC
                             (acting) 
18 Jul 1861 -  4 Feb 1863  Tomás Cipriano Ignacio María de    (s.a.)               PLR
                             Mosquera Figueroa y Arboleda
                             Salazar (2nd time)(provisional)
30 Jul 1861 - 25 Jan 1862  Ignacio Gutiérrez Vergara          (b. 1806 - d. 1877)  PC
                             (acting, in rebellion)
18 Jul 1862 - 13 Jan 1863  Leonardo Canal González            (b. 1822 - d. 1894)  Mil
                             (in rebellion)
 4 Feb 1863 - 10 Feb 1863  Francisco Javier Martínez de       (b. 1811 - d. 1882)  PLR
                             Zaldúa y de Racines
                             (president of the National Convention) 
10 Feb 1863 - 14 May 1863  Eustorgio Salgar Moreno (1st time) (b. 1831 - d. 1885)  PLR
                             (president of Executive Ministry)
14 May 1863 - 10 Apr 1864  Tomás Cipriano Ignacio María de    (s.a.)               PLR
                             Mosquera Figueroa y Arboleda
                             Salazar (3rd time)
                             (acting from 1 Apr 1864) 
10 Apr 1864 -  1 Apr 1866  Manuel Murillo Toro (1st time)     (b. 1816 - d. 1880)  PLR
 1 Apr 1866 - 20 May 1866  José María Rojas Garrido (acting)  (b. 1824 - d. 1883)  PLM
20 May 1866 -  1 Nov 1867  Tomás Cipriano Ignacio María de    (s.a.)               PLR
                             Mosquera Figueroa y Arboleda
                             Salazar (4th time)
                             (imprisoned from 23 May 1867, suspended 9 Jul 1867)
12 May 1867 - 28 Jun 1867  Manuel Joaquín de Santa Isabel     (b. 1833 - d. 1875)  PLR
                             Riascos García (acting; in dissidence) 
23 May 1867 -  1 Apr 1868  Manuel María de los Santos Acosta  (b. 1828 - d. 1901)  PLR
                             y Castillo 
                             (nominally acting for Mosquera to 1 Nov 1867)
 1 Apr 1868 -  1 Apr 1870  José de los Santos Gutiérrez       (b. 1820 - d. 1872)  PLR
                             Prieto
 1 Apr 1870 -  1 Apr 1872  Eustorgio Salgar Moreno (2nd time) (s.a.)               PLR
 1 Apr 1872 -  1 Apr 1874  Manuel Murillo Toro (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PLR
 1 Apr 1874 -  1 Apr 1876  Santiago Pérez y Manosalbas del    (b. 1830 - d. 1900)  PLR
                             Castillo
 1 Apr 1876 -  1 Apr 1878  José Bonifacio Aquileo Elías       (b. 1825 - d. 1900)  PLR
                             Parra Gómez
 1 Apr 1878 -  8 Apr 1880  Julián Trujillo Largacha           (b. 1828 - d. 1883)  LI
                             (acting from 1 Apr 1880)
 8 Apr 1880 -  1 Apr 1882  Rafael Wenceslao Núñez Moledo      (b. 1825 - d. 1894)  LI
                             (1st time) 
 1 Apr 1882 - 21 Dec 1882  Francisco Javier Martínez de       (s.a.)               LI
                             Zaldúa y de Racines
21 Dec 1882 - 22 Dec 1882  Clímaco Calderón Reyes (acting)    (b. 1852 - d. 1913)  LI
22 Dec 1882 -  1 Apr 1884  José Eusebio Otálora Martínez      (b. 1828 - d. 1884)  LI
 1 Apr 1884 - 11 Aug 1884  Ezequiel Hurtado y Hurtado (acting)(b. 1825 - d. 1890)  PLR
11 Aug 1884 -  1 Apr 1886  Rafael Wenceslao Núñez Moledo      (s.a.)               PN
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Apr 1886 -  6 Jan 1887  José María del Campo Serrano       (b. 1832 - d. 1915)  LI/PN
                             (acting) 
 6 Jan 1887 -  4 Jun 1887  José Eliseo Payán Hurtado (acting) (b. 1825 - d. 1895)  LI
 4 Jun 1887 - 18 Sep 1894  Rafael Wenceslao Núñez Moledo      (s.a.)               PN
                             (3rd time)
13 Dec 1887 -  8 Feb 1888  José Eliseo Payán Hurtado          (s.a.)               LI
                             (acting for Núñez)
 7 Aug 1888 -  7 Aug 1892  Carlos Holguín Mallarino           (b. 1832 - d. 1894)  PN
                             (acting for Núñez)
 7 Aug 1892 -  7 Aug 1898  Miguel Antonio José Zoylo Cayetano (b. 1843 - d. 1909)  PN
                             Andrés Avelino de las Mercedes
                             Caro Tobar 
                             (acting [for Núñez to 18 Sep 1894])
 7 Aug 1898 -  3 Nov 1898  José Manuel Cayetano Marroquín     (b. 1827 - d. 1908)  PN
                             Ricaurte (1st time)(acting) 
 3 Nov 1898 - 19 Mar 1902  Manuel Antonio Sanclemente         (b. 1814 - d. 1902)  PN
                             Sanclemente (prevented from exercising office from
                             31 Jul 1900, under arrest from 3 Aug 1900)
1900 - Jul 1900            Gabriel Vargas Santos              (b. 1829 - d. 1914)  PL
                             (provisional, in dissidence)
31 Jul 1900 -  7 Aug 1904  José Manuel Cayetano Marroquín     (s.a.)               PN
                             Ricaurte (2nd time)
                             (acting [nominally for Sanclemente to 19 Mar 1902])
 7 Aug 1904 - 27 Jul 1909  José Gregorio Ambrosio Rafael      (b. 1850 - d. 1921)  PC 
                             Reyes Prieto
  9 Jun 1909 -  4 Aug 1909  Jorge Marcelo Holguín Mallarino    (b. 1848 - d. 1928)  PC
                             (1st time)(acting [for Reyes to 27 Jul 1909])
 4 Aug 1909 -  7 Aug 1910  José Rafael Ramón Eufrasio de      (b. 1854 - d. 1928)  PC
                             Jesús González Valencia
 7 Aug 1910 -  7 Aug 1914  Carlos Eugenio Restrepo Restrepo   (b. 1867 - d. 1937)  PC/UR
 7 Aug 1914 -  7 Aug 1918  José Vicente Concha Ferreira       (b. 1867 - d. 1929)  PC
 7 Aug 1918 -  7 Aug 1922  Marco Fidel Suárez                 (b. 1855 - d. 1927)  PC
11 Nov 1921 -  7 Aug 1922  Jorge Marcelo Holguín Mallarino    (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time)(acting for Suárez)
 7 Aug 1922 -  7 Aug 1926  Pedro Nel Ignacio Tomás de         (b. 1858 - d. 1927)  PC
                             Villanueva Ospina Vásquez
 7 Aug 1926 -  7 Aug 1930  Miguel Abadía Méndez               (b. 1867 - d. 1947)  PC
 7 Aug 1930 -  7 Aug 1934  Enrique Alfredo Olaya Herrera      (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  PL
 7 Aug 1934 -  7 Aug 1938  Alfonso López Pumarejo (1st time)  (b. 1886 - d. 1959)  PL
 7 Aug 1938 -  7 Aug 1942  Eduardo Santos Montejo             (b. 1888 - d. 1974)  PL
 7 Aug 1942 -  7 Aug 1945  Alfonso López Pumarejo (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PL
19 Nov 1943 - 16 May 1944  Darío Echandía Olaya               (b. 1897 - d. 1989)  PL
                             (acting for López)
 7 Aug 1945 -  7 Aug 1946  Alberto Lleras Camargo (1st time)  (b. 1906 - d. 1990)  PL
                             (acting)
 7 Aug 1946 -  7 Aug 1950  Luis Mariano Ospina Pérez          (b. 1891 - d. 1976)  PC
 7 Aug 1950 - 13 Jun 1953  Laureano Eleuterio Gómez Castro    (b. 1889 - d. 1965)  PC
 5 Nov 1951 - 13 Jun 1953  Roberto Urdaneta Arbeláez          (b. 1890 - d. 1972)  PC
                             (acting for Gómez Castro) 
13 Jun 1953 - 10 May 1957  Gustavo Rojas Pinilla              (b. 1900 - d. 1975)  Mil
10 May 1957 -  7 Aug 1958  Gabriel París Gordillo             (b. 1910 - d. 2008)  Mil
                             (president of Military Junta of Government) 
 7 Aug 1958 -  7 Aug 1962  Alberto Lleras Camargo (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PL/FN
 7 Aug 1962 -  7 Aug 1966  Guillermo León Valencia Muñoz      (b. 1909 - d. 1971)  PC/FN
 7 Aug 1966 -  7 Aug 1970  Carlos Alberto Lleras Restrepo     (b. 1908 - d. 1994)  PL/FN
 7 Aug 1970 -  7 Aug 1974  Misael Eduardo Pastrana Borrero    (b. 1923 - d. 1997)  PC/FN
 7 Aug 1974 -  7 Aug 1978  Alfonso Antonio Lázaro López       (b. 1913 - d. 2007)  PL
                             Michelsen
 7 Aug 1978 -  7 Aug 1982  Julio César Turbay Ayala           (b. 1916 - d. 2005)  PL
 7 Aug 1982 -  7 Aug 1986  Belisario Antonio Betancur Cuartas (b. 1923 - d. 2018)  PC
 7 Aug 1986 -  7 Aug 1990  Virgilio Barco Vargas              (b. 1921 - d. 1997)  PL
 7 Aug 1990 -  7 Aug 1994  César Augusto Gaviria Trujillo     (b. 1947)            PL
 7 Aug 1994 -  7 Aug 1998  Ernesto Samper Pizano              (b. 1950)            PL
 7 Aug 1998 -  7 Aug 2002  Andrés Pastrana Arango             (b. 1954)            PC
 7 Aug 2002 -  7 Aug 2010  Álvaro Uribe Vélez                 (b. 1952)            CPPC
 7 Aug 2010 -  7 Aug 2018  Juan Manuel Santos Calderón        (b. 1951)            PSUN
 7 Aug 2018 -              Iván Duque Márquez                 (b. 1976)            CD
 
Territorial Disputes: In Dec 2007, ICJ allocates San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees West meridian as maritime boundary boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the U.S. assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank;
on 19 Nov 2012 in regards to Nicaraguan claims over both Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Banks the International Court of Justice (ICJ) upheld Colombia's sovereignty over both banks.

Party abbreviations: CD = Centro Democrático – Mano firme, Corazón grande (Democratic Center – "Strong Hand, Big Heart", christian democratic, anti-communist, Uribismo, split from PSUN, est.15 Jul 2014); PC = Partido Conservador Colombiano (Colombian Conservative Party, center-right, 1990-92 named Partido Conservador Social [Social Conservative Party], est.1848); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, center-left, 1863-86 as PLR, est.1848); PSUN = Partido Social de Unidad Nacional (Social Party of National Unity, center-right, social democratic, Uribismo to 2013, est.2005); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Con = Conservador (Conservative, 1819-1848); CPPC = Primero Colombia (Colombia First, conservative, reformist, Álvaro Uribe personalist, 2002-2010); FN = Frente Nacional (electoral coalition of liberals and conservatives, 1958-1974); LI = Liberales Independientes (Independent Liberals, centralist, split from PLR, 1880-1887); Lib = Liberal (centralist, 1830-1848); LM = Liberal Moderado (Moderate Liberal); PLR = Partido Liberal Radical (Radical Liberal Party, federalist, name of PL 1863-1886); PN = Partido Nacional (National Party, nationalist, coalition of liberals and conservatives, 1886-1902); UR = Unión Republicana (Republican Union, coalition of liberals and conservatives, 1909-1921)



Santa Catalina (Isla Providencia)

1628 - May 1641            English colony ([Old] Providence Island) under Providence Company,
                             settled from Bermuda.

24 May 1641                Seized by Spain, renamed Isla de Santa Catalina; subordinated
                             to Audiencia of Panama.
26 May 1666 - Aug 1666     English occupation.
15 Dec 1670 - Jan 1671     Occupied by English pirates.
1671 - 1689                Unoccupied.
1689                       Spanish rule restored.
Nov 1803                   Separated from Captaincy of Guatemala and placed under the
                              Viceroyalty of New Granada.
 4 Jul 1818 - 30 Aug 1821  (Old) Providence and St. Catherine Islands captured by French
                             corsair Louis-Michel Aury (b. c.1788 - d. 1821).
23 Jun 1822                Inhabitants of San Andrés, Providence, and St. Catherine Islands
                             voluntarily adhere to the Republic of Gran Colombia. 

Governors
1628 - 1630                Sussex (Camock) Chaddock           (b. 1600 – d. 1659)          
1630 - 1636                Philip Bell                        (b. 1590 - d. 1678)
May 1636 - Jul 1638        Robert Hunt
Jul 1638 - 28 Feb 1640     Nathaniel Butler                   (b. c.1577 - d. 1650)
Feb 1640 - 24 May 1641     Andrew Carter (acting)
1641                       John Humphreys
                    (b. c.1597 - d. 1661)
                             (
commissioned, unable to take up post) 
1641 - 1662?               Jerónimo de Ojeda

166. - 26 May 1666         Juan de Ocampo
26 May 1666 - Aug 1666     Samuel Smith (acting)
10 Nov 1666 - 1666         Sir James Modyford                 (d. 1673)
                             (commissioned, unable to take up post)
1666 - 1670                José Sánchez Jiménez

15 Dec 1670 - Jan 1671     Henry Morgan                       (b. c.1635 - d. 1688)
Officers for Aury
1818 - 18..                Juan Bautista Faiquere
18.. - 1821                Severo (Sévère) Courtois






© Ben Cahoon