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Sri Lanka
 
[National
                                    flag of the Netherlands]
12 May 1656 - 16 Feb 1796
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
16 Feb 1796 - c.1875
 
[Ceylon colonial flag
                                    c.1875-1948 (Sri Lanka)]
c.1875 - 4 Feb 1948
 
[Ceyon
                                    1948-1951 (Sri Lanka)]
4 Feb 1948 - 27 Feb 1951
[Ceylon 1951-1972 (Sri Lanka)]
27 Feb 1951 - 22 May 1972
[Sri
                                    Lanka]
Adopted 22 May 1972
Map of Sri Lanka
Hear National Anthem
"Sri Lanka Matha"
(Mother Sri Lanka )
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 22 Nov 1951
Constitution
(16 Aug 1978)
Capital: Colombo
Legislative Capital:
Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte
(from 29 Apr 1982)
Currency: Sri Lankan
Rupee (LKR); 1872-1978
Ceylon Rupee (LNR)
National Holiday: 4 Feb (1948)
Ilaṅkaiyiṉ tēciya tiṉam
(National Day of Sri Lanka)
Population: 22,889,201 (2019)
GDP: $275.8 billion (2017)
Exports: $11.36 billion (2017)
Imports: $20.98 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Sinhalese 74.9%, Sri Lankan Tamil 11.2%, Sri Lankan Moors 9.2%, Indian Tamil 4.2%, other 0.5% (2012)
Total Active Armed Forces: 160,900 (2010)
Merchant marine: 97 ships (2019)
Religions: Buddhist (official) 70.2%, Hindu 12.6%, Muslim 9.7%,
Roman Catholic 6.1%, other Christian 1.3%, other 0.05% (2012)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB, APA, ARF, BIMSTEC, BTWC, C, CCM, CD, CICA (observer), CP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IORA, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OPCW, OST, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue partner), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Sri Lanka
Index
Chronology

543 BC - 437 BC            Tambapanni kingdom (Tambapanni Rajadhaniya).
377 BC - 1017 AD           Anuradhapura kingdom (Anuradhapura Rajadhaniya).
1017 - 1070                Part of the Chola Empire (invasion began in 993).
1055 - 1232                Polonnaruwa kingdom (Polonnaruva Rajadhaniya).
1215 - Jun 1619            Jaffna kingdom (Aryachakravarti kingdom).
1220 - 1345                Dambadeniya kingdom (Dambadeniya Rajadhaniya).
1341 - 1408                Gampola kingdom (Gampola Rajadhaniya).
1411 - 1459                Vassal of China.
1412 - 27 May 1597         Kotte kingdom (Kottay Rajadhaniya).

1469 -  2 Mar 1815         Kingdom of Udarata (Kandy)(Mahanuwara Rajadhaniya).
15 Nov 1505                Portuguese under Lourenço de Almeida (b. c.1480 -
                             d. 1508) arrive in
Lanka .
1518                       Portuguese captain-major appointed to Colombo,
                             capital of the Kotte kingdom.
27 May 1597                King Dharmapala (Dom João Dharmapala Peria Bandara)
                             (b. 1541 - d. 1597) of Kotte dies without heirs,
                            
and bequeaths, his kingdom to the King of
                             Portugal; a Portuguese colony (Ceilão
)
                            (subordinated to Portuguese India: see Goa).
27 May 1597 -  1 Dec 1640  Ceylon along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
Jun 1619                   Portuguese annex Jaffna.
 2 May 1639                Dutch invasion begins, Trincomalee captured; 
                             Batticaloa on 18 May 1639; Galle on 13 Mar 1640.
12 May 1656                Dutch take Colombo; Ceylon a Dutch colony (Zeylan).
22 Jun 1658                Dutch take Jaffna from the Portuguese.
 8 Jan 1782 - 30 Aug 1782  British occupy Trincomalee.
30 Aug 1782 - Jan 1784     French occupy Trincomalee.
 2 Aug 1795                British East India Company begins occupation 
                             of Dutch Ceylon; Trincomalee captured on 31 Aug
                             1795, Batticaloa on 18 Sep 1795, and Jaffna 
                             on 28 Sep 1795.
 2 Aug 1795 - 12 Oct 1798  Subordinate to the presidency of Madras
                             (see British India).
16 Feb 1796                British take Colombo, Ceylon fully occupied
                             (British East India Company rule).
12 Oct 1798                Separate colony.
 1 Jan 1802                British crown colony (British Settlements and
                             Territories in the Island of Ceylon with its
                             Dependencies).

 2 Mar 1815                Kandy kingdom occupied by the U.K.
Oct 1818                   Kandy incorporated into colony of Ceylon.
13 Mar 1833                Island of Ceylon and its Territories and
                             Dependencies.
22 Apr 1931                Island of Ceylon and its Dependencies
24 Sep 1947                Self-rule.
 
4 Feb 1948                Island of Ceylon (in Sinhala: Sri Lamka; in
                             Tamil: Ilankai), independence as a dominion.
22 May 1972                Republic of Sri Lanka (Sri Lamka Janarajaya si =
                             Ilankai Kutiyaracu).
 7 Sep 1978                Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Sri
                             Lamka Prajatantrika Samajavadi Janarajaya si =
                             Ilankai Jananayaka Cosalicak Kutiyaracu).

23 Jul 1983 - 19 May 2009  Tamil secessionists in the northeast and Jaffna.

Provinces
(from 1988)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Captains
1518                       João da Silveira
1518 - 1522                Lopo de Brito
1522 - 1524                Fernão Gomes de Lemos
1524 - 1551                office abolished
Captains-major
1551 - 1552                João Henriques 
1552                       Diogo de Melo Coutinho (1st time)
1552                       Duarte de Eça                      (b. 1480 - d. 15..)
1552 - 1553                Fernão de Carvalho
1553 - 1559                Afonso Pereira de Lacerda
1559 - 1560                Jorge de Meneses "o Baroche"
1560 - 1564                Baltasar Guedes de Sousa
1564 - 1565                Pedro de Ataíde Inferno 
1565 - 1568                Diogo de Melo
1568 - 1570                Fernando de Monroy
1570 - 1572                Diogo de Melo Coutinho (2nd time)
1572 - 1575                António de Noronha
1575 - 1578                Fernando de Albuquerque
1578 - 1583                Manuel de Sousa Coutinho           (b. 1540 - d. 1591)
1583 - 1590                João de Correia de Brito
1590 - 1591                Simão de Brito
1591 - 1594                Pedro Homem Pereira
Governors
1594                       Pedro Lopes de Sousa               (d. 1594)
1594 - 1613                Jerónimo de Azevedo                (b. c.1560 - d. 1625) 
1613 - 1614                Francisco de Meneses 
1614 - 1616                Manuel Mascarenhas Homem 
1616 - 1618                Nuno Álvares Pereira 
1618 - 1622                Constantino de Sá de Noronha       (b. 1586 - d. 1630) 
                             (1st time) 
1622 - 1623                Jorge de Albuquerque 
1623 -  2 Aug 1630         Constantino de Sá de Noronha       (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) 
1630 (3 months)            Lançarote de Seixas Cabreira       (b. 1570 – d. 1633)
                             (acting)
1630 - 1631                Filipe Mascarenhas (1st time)      (b. 1580 - d. 16..)

1631 - 1633                Jorge de Almeida (1st time) 
1633 - 1635                Diego de Melo de Castro            (d. 1638)
                             (1st time) 
1635 - 1636                Jorge de Almeida (2nd time)
1636 - 28 Mar 1638         Diogo de Melo de Castro            (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1638 - 1640                António Mascarenhas 
1640 - 1645                Filipe Mascarenhas (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
1645 - 1653                Manuel Mascarenhas Homem           (b. c.1600 - d. 1657)
1653 - 1655                Francisco de Mello e Castro        (b. 1600 - d. 1664)
1655 - 1656                António de Sousa Coutinho          (d. 1668)
1656 - 22 Jun 1658         António de Amaral de Meneses       (d. 1658)
                             (in Jaffna)
Dutch Governors (at Galle to May 1656, then Colombo)
13 Mar 1640 -  1 Aug 1640  Willem Jacobszoon Coster           (b. 1590 - d. 1640) 
                             (commander)
21 Aug 1640 - 24 Mar 1646  Jan Thijszoon Payaart (Paijart)    (b. 1606 - d. 1678)
                             (president and governor)

24 Mar 1646 - 25 Feb 1650  Joan Matsuyker (Maetzuiker)        (b. 1606 - d. 1678)
25 Feb 1650 - 11 Oct 1652  Jacob van Kittensteyn (Kittensten) (d. 1653) 
11 Oct 1652 - 12 May 1660  Adriaan van der Meyden (1st time) 
12 May 1660 - 1661         Ryklof van Goens (1st time)        (b. 1619 - d. 1682)
12 May 1661 - 1663         Adriaan van der Meyden (2nd time)
27 Dec 1663 - 19 Nov 1664  Jacob Hustaert                     (b. 1616 - d. 1695)
19 Nov 1664 - 1675         Ryklof van Goens (2nd time)        (s.a.)

Apr 1675 - 1679            Ryklof van Goens de jonge          (b. 1642 - d. 1687)
 3 Dec 1679 - 19 Jun 1693  Laurens van Pyl (Peil)             (b. 1634 - d. 1705) 
19 Jun 1693 - 29 Jan 1695  Thomas van Rhee (1st time)         (b. 1634 - d. 1701)
29 Jan 1695 -  9 Aug 1695  Paulus van Rhoo                    (b. 1658 - d. 1695)
                            
(governor and director)
 9 Aug 1695 - 22 Feb 1697  Thomas van Rhee (2nd time)         (s.a.)
22 Feb 1697 - 26 Nov 1702  Gerrit de Heere                    (b. 1657 - d. 1702)
26 Nov 1702 - 11 May 1703  the Council members
11 May 1703 - 22 Nov 1707  Cornelius Johannes Simonsz (Simons)(b. c.1660 - d. 1727)

22 Nov 1707 -  5 Dec 1716  Hendrik Bekker (Becker)            (b. 1661 - d. 1722)
 5 Dec 1716 - 11 Jun 1723  Isaac Augustin Rumpf               (b. 1673 - d. 1723)
11 Jun 1723 - 12 Jan 1724  Arnold Moll (acting)               (b. 1675 - d. 1729)
                            
(commander at Galle)
12 Jan 1724 - 19 Oct 1725  Johannes Hertenberg
                (b. 1668 - d. 1725)
19 Oct 1725 - 16 Sep 1726  Jan Paulus Schagen (acting)        (b. 1689 - d. 1746)
                             (Joan Paul Schaghen)
                             (commander at Galle)
16 Sep 1726 - 27 Aug 1729  Petrus Vuyst                       (b. 1691 - d. 1732)

27 Aug 1729 - 25 Aug 1732  Stephanus Versluys                 (b. 1694 - d. 1736)
25 Aug 1732 -  2 Dec 1732  Gualterus Woutersz (acting)        (b. c.1670 - d. 1759)
                             (commander at Jaffnapatam)
 2 Dec 1732 - 27 Jan 1734  Jacob Christiaan Pielat            (b. 1692 - d. 1740)

                             (commissioner)
27 Jan 1734 -  7 Jun 1736  Diederik van Domburg               (b. 1685 - d. 1736)
 7 Jun 1736 - 23 Jul 1736  Jan Macaré (Maccara) (acting)      (b. 1686 - d. 1742)
                             (commander at Galle)
23 Jul 1736 - 12 Mar 1740  Gustaaf Willem, baron van Imhoff   (b. 1705 - d. 1750)

12 Mar 1740 -  8 Jan 1742  Willem Maurits Bruyninck           (b. 1689 - d. 17..)
                            
(Bruijninck or Bruinink)
 8 Jan 1742 - 11 May 1743  Daniel Overbeck
                    (b. 1695 - d. 1751)
11 May 1743 -  6 May 1751  Julius Valentyn Stein van          (b. 1691 - d. 1755)
                             Gollenesse (Golnesse
 6 May 1751 - 26 Feb 1752  Gerard Joan Vreeland               (b. 1711 - d. 1752)
26 Feb 1752 - 10 Sep 1752  Jacob de Jong (acting)             (b. c.1700 - d. c.1764)
                             (commander at Jaffnapatam)
10 Sep 1752 - 17 Mar 1757  Joan Gideon Loten                  (b. 1710 - d. 1789)

17 Mar 1757 - 17 Sep 1762  Jan Schreuder                      (b. 1704 - d. 1764)
17 Sep 1762 - 13 May 1765  Lubbert Jan, baron van Eck         (b. 1719 - d. 1765)
13 May 1765 -  7 Aug 1765  Anthony Mooyaart (acting)          (b. 1698 - d. 1767)
                             (commander at Jaffnapatam)
 7 Aug 1765 -  5 Feb 1785  Iman Willem Falck                  (b. 1736 - d. 1785)

 8 Jan 1782 - 30 Aug 1782  Edward Hughes -British Commander   (b. c.1720 - d. 1794)
                             (in Trincomalee)
30 Aug 1782 - Jan 1784     Pierré Andre de Suffern Saint      (b. 1729 - d. 1788)
                             Tropez -French Commander
                             (in Trincomalee)
 7 Feb 1785 - 15 Jul 1794  Willem Jacob van de Graaff         (b. 1737 - d. 1804)
15 Jul 1794 - 16 Feb 1796  Johan Gerard van Angelbeek         (b. 1727 - d. 1799)
British Military governors
31 Aug 1795 -  1 Mar 1796  Patrick Alexander Agnew            (b. 1765 - d. 1813)
                             (in Trincomalee) 
 1 Mar 1796 -  1 Jan 1797  James Stewart                      (b. 1741 - d. 1815)
 1 Jan 1797 - 30 Jun 1797  Welbore Ellis Doyle                (b. 1758 - d. 1797)
30 Jun 1797 - 12 Jul 1797  Peter Bonnevaux                    (b. c.1752 - d. 1797)
12 Jul 1797 - 12 Oct 1798  Pierre Frédéric de Meuron          (b. 1746 - d. 1813)
Resident and Superintendent
12 Feb 1796 - 12 Oct 1798  Robert Andrews                     (b. 1763? - d. 1821)   
Governors
12 Oct 1798 - 19 Jul 1805  Frederick George Augustus North,   (b. 1766 - d. 1827)
                             Earl of Guilford 
14 Mar 1799 - 22 Jul 1799  Josias Champagné (acting for North)(b. 1755 - d. 1840)
19 Jul 1805 - 19 Mar 1811  Thomas Maitland                    (b. 1759 - d. 1824)
19 Mar 1811 - 11 Mar 1812  John Wilson (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1780 - d. 1856)
11 Mar 1812 -  1 Feb 1820  Robert Brownrigg                   (b. 1759 - d. 1833)
 1 Feb 1820 -  2 Feb 1822  Edward Barnes (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1776 - d. 1838)
 2 Feb 1822 -  6 Nov 1822  Edward Paget                       (b. 1775 - d. 1849)
 6 Nov 1822 - 18 Jan 1824  James Campbell (acting)            (b. 1778 - d. 1835)
18 Jan 1824 - 13 Oct 1831  Edward Barnes (2nd time)           (s.a.)
13 Oct 1831 - 23 Oct 1831  John Wilson (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
23 Oct 1831 -  7 Nov 1837  Robert Wilmot-Horton               (b. 1784 - d. 1841)
 7 Nov 1837 - 15 Apr 1841  James Alexander Stewart Mackenzie  (b. 1776 - d. 1843)
15 Apr 1841 - 19 Apr 1847  Colin Campbell                     (b. 1776 - d. 1847)
19 Apr 1847 - 29 May 1847  James Emerson Tennent (acting)     (b. 1804 - d. 1869)
29 May 1847 - 18 Oct 1850  George Byng, Viscount Torrington   (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
18 Oct 1850 - 27 Nov 1850  Charles Justin MacCarthy           (b. 1820 - d. 1864)
                             (1st time) (acting) 
27 Nov 1850 - 18 Jan 1855  Sir George William Anderson        (b. 1791 - d. 1857)
18 Jan 1855 - 11 May 1855  Charles Justin MacCarthy           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
11 May 1855 - 30 Jun 1860  Henry George Ward                  (b. 1797 - d. 1860)
30 Jun 1860 - 30 Jul 1860  Henry Frederick Lockyer (acting)   (b. 1797 - d. 1860)
30 Jul 1860 - 22 Oct 1860  Charles Edmund Wilkinson (acting)  (b. 1807 - d. 1870)
22 Oct 1860 -  1 Dec 1863  Charles Justin MacCarthy (3rd time)(s.a.)
 1 Dec 1863 - 21 Mar 1865  John Terence Nicholls O'Brien      (b. 1830 - d. 1903) 
                             (acting)
21 Mar 1865 -  4 Jan 1872  Sir Hercules George Robert         (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
                             Robinson (acting to 16 May 1865)
 4 Jan 1872 -  4 Mar 1872  Henry Turner Irving (acting)       (b. 1833 - d. 1923)
 4 Mar 1872 -  4 Sep 1877  William Henry Gregory              (b. 1817 - d. 1892)
 4 Sep 1877 - 10 Jul 1883  Sir James Robert Longden           (b. 1827 - d. 1891)
10 Jul 1883 -  3 Dec 1883  Sir John Douglas (acting)          (b. 1836 - d. 1885)
 3 Dec 1883 - 28 May 1890  Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon     (b. 1829 - d. 1912)
28 May 1890 - 24 Oct 1895  Arthur Elibank Havelock            (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
24 Oct 1895 - 10 Feb 1896  Edward Noël Walker (acting)        (b. 1842 - d. 1908)
10 Feb 1896 - 19 Nov 1903  Joseph West Ridgeway               (b. 1844 - d. 1930)
19 Nov 1903 -  3 Dec 1903  Edward Ferdinand im Thurn (acting) (b. 1852 - d. 1932)
 3 Dec 1903 - 11 Jul 1907  Sir Henry Arthur Blake             (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
11 Jul 1907 - 24 Aug 1907  Hugh Charles Clifford  (acting)    (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
                             (1st time)
24 Aug 1907 - 24 Jan 1913  Sir Henry Edward McCallum          (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
24 Jan 1913 - 18 Oct 1913  Reginald Edward Stubbs (1st time)  (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
                             (acting)
18 Oct 1913 -  4 Dec 1915  Robert Chalmers                    (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
 4 Dec 1915 - 15 Apr 1916  Reginald Edward Stubbs (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
15 Apr 1916 - 24 Mar 1918  Sir John Anderson                  (b. 1858 - d. 1918)
24 Mar 1918 - 10 Sep 1918  Reginald Edward Stubbs (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                            (acting)
10 Sep 1918 -  1 Apr 1925  Sir William Henry Manning          (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
 1 Apr 1925 - 18 Oct 1925  Cecil Clementi (acting)            (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
18 Oct 1925 - 30 Nov 1925  Edward Bruce Alexander (acting)    (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
30 Nov 1925 - 20 Aug 1928  Sir Hugh Charles Clifford          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
20 Aug 1928 - 11 Feb 1931  Sir Herbert James Stanley          (b. 1872 - d. 1953)
11 Feb 1931 - 11 Apr 1931  Bernard Henry Bourdillon (acting)  (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
11 Apr 1931 - 20 Sep 1933  Sir Graeme Thomson                 (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
20 Sep 1933 - 23 Dec 1933  Francis Graeme Tyrrell (acting)    (b. 1876 - d. 1964)
23 Dec 1933 - 30 Jun 1937  Reginald Edward Stubbs (4th time)  (s.a.)
30 Jun 1937 - 16 Oct 1937  Maxwell MacLagan Wedderburn        (b. 1883 - d. 1953) 
                             (acting)
16 Oct 1937 - 19 Sep 1944  Sir Andrew Caldecott               (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
19 Sep 1944 -  4 Feb 1948  Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore        (b. 1887 - d. 1964)
Kings/Queens¹
 4 Feb 1948 - 22 May 1972  the Kings/Queens of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 
4 Feb 1948 -  5 Jul 1949  Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore        (s.a.)
30 Jun 1949 -  5 Jul 1949  Sir Edwin Arthur Lewis Wijewardene (b. 1887 - d. 1964)
                            
(acting for Moore) 
 5 Jul 1949 - 17 Jul 1954  Herwald Ramsbotham, Baron Soulbury (b. 1887 - d. 1971)
 
6 Mar 1952 - May 1952     Sir Alan Edward Percival Rose      (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
                             (acting for Baron Soulbury)
1953                       Sir Edwin Arthur Lewis Wijewardene (s.a.)
                            
(acting for
Baron Soulbury
1954                       Chellappah Nagalingam              (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
                             (acting for Baron Soulbury
17 Jul 1954 -  2 Mar 1962  Sir Oliver Ernest Goonetilleke     (b. 1892 - d. 1978)

 2 Mar 1962 - 22 May 1972  William Gopallawa                  (b. 1897 - d. 1981)
Presidents
22 May 1972 -  4 Feb 1978  William Gopallawa                  (s.a.)               Non-party
 4 Feb 1978 -  2 Jan 1989  Junius Richard Jayawardene         (b. 1906 - d. 1996)  EJP
 2 Jan 1989 -  1 May 1993  Ranasinghe Premadasa               (b. 1924 - d. 1993)  EJP
 1 May 1993 - 12 Nov 1994  Dingiri Banda Wijetunga            (b. 1916 - d. 2008)  EJP
                             (acting to 7 May 1993)
12 Nov 1994 - 19 Nov 2005  Chandrika Bandaranaike             (b. 1945)            SLNP
                             Kumaratunga (f)
19 Nov 2005 -  9 Jan 2015  Mahinda Rajapaksa                  (b. 1945)            SLNP
 9 Jan 2015 -
17 Nov 2019  Maithripala Sirisena               (b. 1951)            SLNP
18 Nov 2019 -              Nandasena Gotabaya Rajapaksa       (b. 1949)            SLPP


Prime ministers

24 Sep 1947 - 22 Mar 1952  Don Stephen Senanayake             (b. 1884 - d. 1952)  EJP
26 Mar 1952 - 12 Oct 1953  Dudley Shelton Senanayake          (b. 1911 - d. 1973)  EJP
                             (1st time)
12 Oct 1953 - 12 Apr 1956  Sir John Lionel Kotelawala         (b. 1897 - d. 1980)  EJP
12 Apr 1956 - 26 Sep 1959  Solomon Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (b. 1899 - d. 1959)  SLNP 
26 Sep 1959 - 21 Mar 1960  Wijayananda Dahanayake             (b. 1902 - d. 1997)  SLNP
21 Mar 1960 - 21 Jul 1960  Dudley Shelton Senanayake          (s.a.)               EJP 
                             (2nd time)
21 Jul 1960 - 25 Mar 1965  Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias             (b. 1916 - d. 2000)  SLNP
                             Bandaranaike (f)(1st time)
25 Mar 1965 - 29 May 1970  Dudley Shelton Senanayake          (s.a.)               EJP 
                             (3rd time)
29 May 1970 - 23 Jul 1977  Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias             (s.a.)               SLNP
                             Bandaranaike (f)(2nd time)
23 Jul 1977 -  6 Feb 1978  Junius Richard Jayawardene         (s.a.)               EJP 
 6 Feb 1978 -  3 Mar 1989  Ranasinghe Premadasa               (s.a.)               EJP
 3 Mar 1989 -  7 May 1993  Dingiri Banda Wijetunga            (s.a.)               EJP 
 7 May 1993 - 19 Aug 1994  Ranil Wickremasinghe (1st time)    (b. 1949)            EJP
19 Aug 1994 - 14 Nov 1994  Chandrika Bandaranaike             (s.a.)               SLNP 
                             Kumaratunga (f)
14 Nov 1994 - 10 Aug 2000  Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias             (s.a.)               SLNP 
                             Bandaranaike (f)(3rd time)
10 Aug 2000 -  9 Dec 2001  Ratnasiri Wickremanayake           (b. 1933 - d. 2016)  SLNP 
                             (1st time) 
 9 Dec 2001 -  6 Apr 2004  Ranil Wickremasinghe (2nd time)    (s.a.)               EJP
 6 Apr 2004 - 21 Nov 2005  Mahinda Rajapaksa (1st time)       (s.a.)               SLNP 
21 Nov 2005 - 21 Apr 2010  Ratnasiri Wickremanayake           (s.a.)               SLNP 
                             (2nd time) 
21 Apr 2010 -  9 Jan 2015  Disanayaka Mudiyanselage Jayaratne (b. 1931 - d. 2015)  SLNP
 9 Jan 2015 - 26 Oct 2018  Ranil Wickremesinghe (3rd time)    (s.a.)               EJP
                             (continues in opposition)
26 Oct 2018 - 16 Dec 2018  Mahinda Rajapaksa (2nd time)       (s.a.)               SLPP
                             (suspended from 3 Dec 2018)
16 Dec 2018 -
21 Nov 2019  Ranil Wickremesinghe (4th time)    (s.a.)               EJP
21 Nov 2019 -              Mahinda Rajapaksa (3rd time)       (s.a.)               SLPP

 ¹Full style of ruler:
(a) 4 Feb 1948 - 6 Feb 1952: "by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India"; the title "Emperor of India" was dropped as of 15 Aug 1947 by retroactive proclamation dated 22 Jun 1948;
(b) 6 Feb 1952 - 29 May 1953: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith";
(c) 29 May 1953 - 22 May 1972: "Queen of Ceylon and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth";
(d) Governor-generals 4 Feb 1948 - 22 May 1972: "Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief in and over the Island of Ceylon and its Dependencies."

Party abbreviations: EJP = Eksath Jathika Pakshaya (United National Party, liberal conservative, center-right, est.6 Sep 1946); NDF = Nava Prajathantravadi Peramuna (New Democratic Front, part of EJP); SLNP = Sri Lanka Nidahas Pakshaya (Sri Lanka Freedom Party, social democratic, center-left, Sinhalese nationalist, Buddhist democratic, est.2 Sep 1951); SLPP = Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna (Sri Lanka People's Front, social democratic, Sinhalese nationalist, populist, anti-federalist, est.6 Nov 2016)



Udarata (Kandy)

[Kandy Kingdom Royal
                        Standard of King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha 1798-1815
                        (Sri Lanka)]
c.1798 - 2 Mar 1815

1469                       Kingdom of Udarata (Mahanuwara Rajadhaniya) established
                            (often referred to as the
"Kingdom of Kandy" by the name
                             of its capital).

1582 - 1592                Annexed to the Sithawaka kingdom.
19 Feb 1765 - 31 Aug 1765  Dutch occupation of Kandy.

 2 Mar 1815 - Jul 1817     Occupied by U.K. (colony of Ceylon).
Jul 1817 - Oct 1818        Uva–Wellassa rebellion.
Oct 1818                   Incorporated into colony of Ceylon.

Kings
1592 - 1604                Vimala Dharmasurya I               (b. 15.. - d. 1604) 
1604 - 1635                Senarat                            (d. 1635) 
1635 - 25 Nov 1687         Rajasingha II                      (b. 1608 - d. 1686) 
1687 -  4 Jun 1707         Vimala Dharmasurya II              (b. 16.. - d. 1707)
 4 Jun 1707 - 13 May 1739  Viraparakkama Narendrasimha        (b. 1690? - d. 1739)
13 May 1739 - 11 Aug 1747  Sri Vijaya Rajasimha               (d. 1747)
12 Aug 1747 -  2 Jan 1782  Kirtisri Rajasimha                 (b. 1734 - d. 1782)
 2 Jan 1782 - 12 Aug 1798  Sri Rajadhirajasimha               (d. 1798)
1798 - 17 Feb 1803         Sri Vikrama Rajasimha (1st time)   (b. 1780 - d. 1832)
17 Feb 1803 - 24 Jun 1803  Muttusami                          (b. 17.. - d. 1803)
24 Jun 1803 -  2 Mar 1815  Sri Vikrama Rajasimha (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 2 Mar 1815 - Jul 1817     British rule
Jul 1817 - Oct 1818        Kirtisri Doraisami (pretender)     (d. af.1830)
                             (=
Wilbawe)







© Ben Cahoon