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Switzerland
 
[Swiss
                                    Confederation War Flag c.1470-1798
                                    (Switzerland)]
c.1470 - 1798 War Flag
 
 
[Flag
                                    of Helvetic Republic 1798-1803
                                    (Switzerland)]
14 Apr 1798 - 10 Mar 1803
 

[Flag of
                                  Switzerland]
12 Sep 1848 - 12 Dec 1889 (unofficial),
Adopted 12 Dec 1889

Map of Switzerland Hear National Anthem
"Schweizerpsalm"/
"Cantique Suisse"/
"Salmo Svizzero"/
"Psalm Svizzer"
(Swiss Psalm)
Adopted 12 Sep 1961
(provisional until 1 Apr 1981)
Former National Anthem
"Rufst du, mein Vaterland"/
"Ô monts indépendants"
(Fatherland's Song)
(unofficial but de facto
c.1811- 12 Sep 1961)
Constitution
 (1 Jan 2000)
------------------------------------
Helvetic Constitution
(12 Apr 1798-28 Oct 1801;
in French)
Capital (federal city): Bern
(22 Apr-4 Oct 1798 Aarau;
4 Oct 1798-28 May 1799 Luzern;
28 May 1799-10 Mar 1803 Bern;
10 Mar 1803-31 Dec 1814
rotated annually among
Fribourg, Bern,
Solothurn,
Basel,
Zürich, & Luzern;
1 Jan 1815-28 Nov 1848
rotated bi-annually among

Bern, Zürich, & Luzern)
Currency: Swiss Franc
(CHF) (from 1799) 
National Holiday: 1 Aug (1291)
Schweizer Bundesfeiertag/
Fête nationale suisse/
Festa nazionale svizzera/
Festa naziunala svizra
(Swiss National Day)
(founding of the Swiss

Confederation)
Population: 8,403,994 (2019)
GDP: $523.1 billion (2017)
Exports: $313.5 billion (2017)
Imports: $264.5 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Swiss 69.5%, German 4.2%, Italian 3.2%,
Portuguese 2.6%, French 2%, Kosovar 1.1%, other 17.3%,
unspecified .1% (2018)
Total Active Armed Forces: 134,886 (2010)
(excludes 76,000 reservists)
Merchant marine: 32 ships (2019)
(includes Liechtenstein)
Religions: Roman Catholic 35.9%, Protestant 23.8%, other
Christian 5.9%, Muslim 5.4%, Jewish 0.3%, other 1.4%,
none 26%, unspecified 1.4% (2017)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, AIIB (nonregional), ANT, APM, BIS, BTWC, CCM, CD, CE, CERN, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI, ESA, ESCR, Euratom (associate), Eutelsat, FAO, FATF, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, OST, PA (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Switzerland
Index
Chronology

 1 Aug 1291                Swiss Confederation founded (Uri, Schwyz, and
                             Unterwalden), called forest states (Waldstätten).
                            
(no central executive authority, each canton
                             retains sovereignty and feudal rights)
                             (see separate cantons).
15 Nov 1315                Swiss troops defeat the Austrians under Leopold I
                             of Habsburg at the Battle of Morgarten.
19 Jul 1318                Habsburgs relinquish suzerainty (by cease-fire
                             agreement)
over the Waldstätten.
22 Sep 1499                The Holy Roman Emperor recognizes the de facto 
                             independence of the Swiss Confederation.
 8 Feb 1649                Peace of Westphalia treaties go into effect 
                             recognizing the sovereign independence of the
                             full members of the Swiss Confederation.
 
5 Mar 1798 - Aug 1802     French occupation.
12 Apr 1798                Helvetic Republic One and Indivisible (Eine und
                             Unteilbare Helvetische Republik/République
                             Helvétique une et indivisible [Latin in limited
                             official use without Constitutional status:
                             Confoederatio Helvetica]); unitary republic,
                             parliament constituted, constitution adopted.
                             (abolition of cantonal sovereignty
and feudal
                             rights).

12 Apr 1798 - 29 Dec 1813  French protectorate.
27 May 1799 - Dec 1799     Austro-Russian invasion.
29 May 1801                C
onstitution adopted (effective 28 Oct 1801 by Loi).
 
2 Jul 1802                Constitution adopted (by Beschluss des Kleinen Raths)
28 Aug 1802 -  3 Oct 1802  Civil war (Stecklikrieg).
15 Oct 1802 -  9 Jan 1804  French re-occupation.
10 Mar 1803                Swiss
Confederation¹ (Confédération Suisse/
                            
Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft/Confederazione
                             Svizzera
/(from 29 Apr 1939, Confederaziun Svizra)
                             re-established by
19 Feb 1803 Acte de Médiation/
                             Vermittlungsacte
(cantonal sovereignty partially
                            
restored).
29 Dec 1813                Constitution voided by arrangement (Übereinkunft).
 
7 Aug 1815                Union renewed by federal pact (Bundesvertrag).
20 Nov 1815                Allied powers formally accept the neutrality
                             of Switzerland by Congress of Vienna final act.
17 Mar 1832                Siebnerkonkordat signed by the liberal cantons
                             (Luzern, Zürich, Bern, Solothurn, St. Gallen,
                             Aargau, and Thurgau) as a united front against
                             the conservative cantons.
15 Nov 1832 - 12 Aug 1833  Sarnerbund formed by the conservative cantons in
                             response to the liberal
Siebnerkonkordat (by
                             Uri, Schwyz, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Neuchâtel, and
                             Basel-Stadt), it is dissolved by liberal cantons.
11 Dec 1845 -  1 Dec 1847 
Sonderbund formed by conservative Catholic cantons
                            (Luzern, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug, Fribourg,
                             and Valais) in opposition to liberal Protestant
                             cantons, leading to a brief civil war which is
                             won by the liberal cantons.

20 Nov 1848                Federal constitution effective (adopted 12 Sep 1848).
29 May 1874                Constitution effective (adopted 1 Jan 1874).
29 Apr 1939                German, French, Italian, and Rhaeto-Romansh made
                             national languages;
German, French, Italian made
                             official languages by enactment of Constitutional
                             amendment.
 6 Dec 1992                In referendum Swiss voters reject European Economic
                             Area membership, 50.3% to 49.7%.
 
8 Jun 1997                In referendum Swiss voters reject accession talks
                             with the European Union, 74.1% to 25.9%.
 1 Jan 2000 
               Constitution effective (adopted
18 Dec 1998).
 4 Mar 2001               
In referendum Swiss voters reject European Union
                             membership
, 76.8% to 23.2%.

Swiss Cantons
A-F and G-N
O-S and T-Z

Former Swiss
Territories
(to 1803)
Administrative
Divisions Map
Map of Swiss
Cantons in 1798
Map of Switzerland
1555 - 1791
Map of Helvetic
Republic
Historical Maps
of Switzerland
 
 


Presidents of the Executive Directory

(Präsidenten des vollziehenden Direktoriums/Présidentes du Directoire Exécutif)
22 Apr 1798 - 31 May 1798  Johann Lucas Legrand               (b. 1755 - d. 1836)  R
ep
 1 Jun 1798 -  1 Jul 1798  Urs Viktor Oberlin (1st time)      (b. 1747 - d. 1818)  Pat
 2 Jul 1798 - 31 Jul 1798  Pierre-Maurice Glayre (1st time)   (b. 1743 - d. 1819)  Rep
 1 Aug 1798 - 31 Aug 1798  Frédéric-César de Laharpe          (b. 1754 - d. 1838)  Pat
                             (1st time)
 1 Sep 1798 - 30 Sep 1798  Peter Ochs (1st time)              (b. 1752 - d. 1821)  Pat
 1 Oct 1798 - 21 Nov 1798  Frédéric-César de Laharpe          (s.a.)               Pat
                             (2nd time)
22 Nov 1798 - 12 Jan 1799  Urs Viktor Oberlin (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Pat
13 Jan 1799 -  5 Mar 1799  Pierre-Maurice Glayre (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Rep
 6 Mar 1799 - 26 Apr 1799  David Ludwig Bay                   (b. 1749 - d. 1832)  Rep
27 Apr 1799 - 23 Jun 1799  Peter Ochs (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Pat
24 Jun 1799 -  4 Sep 1799  Frédéric-César de Laharpe          (s.a.)               Pat
                             (3rd time)
 5 Sep 1799 - 17 Nov 1799  François-Pierre Savary             (b. 1750 - d. 1821)  Rep
18 Nov 1799 -  7 Jan 1800  Johann Rudolf Dolder               (b. 1753 - d. 1807)  Rep
Executive Power (rarely in official use: Executive Commission)
(Mitglied der vollziehenden Gewalt/membre du Pouvoir Exécutif)
 7 Jan 1800 - 11 Jan 1800  Johann Rudolf Dolder               (s.a.)               Rep
                           + François-Pierre Savary           (s.a.)               Rep
Presidents of the Executive Commission

(Präsidenten des Vollziehungsausschusses/Présidentes de la Commission exécutive)
12 Jan 1800 - 27 May 1800  J
ohann Rudolf Dolder               (s.a.)               Uni
28 May 1800 - 25 Jun 1800  Karl Albrecht Frisching            (b. 1734 - d. 1801)  Fed
26 Jun 1800 - 23 Jul 1800  François-Pierre Savary             (s.a.)               Uni
24 Jul 1800 -  8 Aug 1800  Johann (Hans) Konrad Finsler       (b. 1765 - d. 1839)  Uni
Presidents of the Executive Council
(Präsidenten des Vollziehungsrates/Présidentes du Conseil exécutif)
 9 Aug 1800 - 30 Sep 1800  Karl Albrecht Frisching (1st time) (s.a.)              
Uni
 1 Oct 1800 - 31 Oct 1800  Johann Rudolf Dolder (1st time)    (s.a.)               U-F
 1 Nov 1800 - 30 Nov 1800  Karl Friedrich Zimmermann          (b. 1765 - d. 1823)  Uni
                             (1st time)
 1 Dec 1800 - 31 Dec 1800  Johann Jakob Schmid (1st time)     (b. 1765 - d. 1828)  Uni
 1 Jan 1801 - 31 Jan 1801  Georg Vinzenz Jost Ludwig          (b. 1769 - d. 1844)  Uni
                            
Rüttimann (1st time)
 1 Feb 1801 - 28 Feb 1801  François-Pierre Savary (1st time)  (s.a.)               U-F
 1 Mar 1801 - 31 Mar 1801  Karl Albrecht Frisching (2nd time) (s.a.)               Fed
 1 Apr 1801 - 30 Apr 1801  Johann Rudolf Dolder (2nd time)    (s.a.)               U-F
 1 May 1801 - 31 May 1801  Karl Friedrich Zimmermann          (s.a.)               Uni
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jun 1801 - 30 Jun 1801  François-Pierre Savary (2nd time)  (s.a.)               U-F
 1 Jul 1801 - 31 Jul 1801  Johann Jakob Schmid (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Uni
 1 Aug 1801 - 31 Aug 1801  Georg Vinzenz Jost Ludwig          (s.a.)               Uni
                            
Rüttimann (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1801 - 30 Sep 1801  Paulus Usteri                      (b. 1768 - d. 1831)  Uni
 1 Oct 1801 - 27 Oct 1801  Johann Rudolf Dolder (3rd time)    (s.a.)               U-F
President of the Executive Power
(Präsident der Vollziehenden Gewalt/Président du Pouvoir exécutif)
27 Oct 1801 - 22 Nov 1801  J
ohann Rudolf Dolder               (s.a.)               Fed
Landammann/Landamman (elected as Erster Landammann/Premier Landamman)
23 Nov 1801 - 20 Apr 1802  Joseph Fridolin Vinzenz Aloys      (b. 1765 - d. 1818)  Fed
                             Reding von Biberegg

30 Nov 1801 - 17 Jan 1802  Johann Rudolf Frisching            (b. 1761 - d. 1838)  Fed
                             (acting for absent
Reding)
Statthalter
20 Apr 1802 -  5 Jul 1802  Georg Vinzenz Jost Ludwig          (s.a.)              
Uni
                            
Rüttimann
Landammann/Landamman
 
5 Jul 1802 -  8 Mar 1803  Johann Rudolf Dolder               (s.a.)              
U-F
Landammann der Schweiz/Landammann de la Suisse/Landamano della Svizzera
(Heads of the Confederation who were chief magistrates of the canton hosting the Diet)
10 Mar 1803 - 31 Dec 1803  Ludwig August Philipp von Affry 
   (b. 1743 - d. 1810)  Con
                            
(1st time)
 1 Jan 1804 - 31 Dec 1804  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl       (b. 1760 - d. 1832) 
Mod
                             (1st time) 
 1 Jan 1805 - 31 Dec 1805  Peter Josef Johann Anton von       (b. 1754 - d. 1835)  Con
                             Glutz-Ruchti 
 1 Jan 1806 - 31 Dec 1806  Andreas Merian                     (b. 1742 - d. 1811)  Con
 1 Jan 1807 - 31 Dec 1807  Hans von Reinhard (1st time)       (b. 1755 - d. 1835)  Con
 1 Jan 1808 - 31 Dec 1808  Georg Vinzenz Jost Ludwig          (s.a.)               Con
                             Rüttimann (1st time) 
 1 Jan 1809 - 31 Dec 1809  Ludwig August Philipp von Affry 
   (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1810 - 31 Dec 1810  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1811 - 31 Dec 1811  Heinrich Daniel Balthasar Josef    (b. 1754 - d. 1821) 
                             Grimm von Wartenfels 
 1 Jan 1812 - 31 Dec 1812  Peter Burckhardt                   (b. 1742 - d. 1817) 
 1 Jan 1813 -  6 Apr 1814  Hans von Reinhard (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Con
                            
(acting from 1 Jan 1814)
Presidents of the Diet 

(Präsident der Tagsatzung/Président de la Diète/Presidente della Dieta)
 6 Apr 1814 - 22 Sep 1814  H
ans von Reinhard (1st time)       (s.a.)               Con
22 Sep 1814 - 12 Dec 1814  Johann Konrad Escher vom Luchs     (b. 1743 - d. 1814)  Con
                             (acting)
12 Dec 1814 - 14 Dec 1814  Johann (Hans) Konrad Finsler       (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
16 Dec 1814 -
31 Dec 1815  David von Wyss II (1st time)       (b. 1763 - d. 1839)  Con 
                            
(acting to
21 Dec 1814)
 1 Jan 1816 - 31 Dec 1816  H
ans von Reinhard (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Con
 1 Jan 1817 - 31 Dec 1817  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl       (s.a.)               Mod  
                             (1st time) 
 1 Jan 1818 - 31 Dec 1818  Niklaus Friedrich von Mülinen      (b. 1760 - d. 1833)  Lib
                             (1st time) 
 1 Jan 1819 - 31 Dec 1819  Josef Karl Xaver Leopold Leodegar  (b. 1777 - d. 1848)  Lib
                             Amrhyn (1st time) 
 1 Jan 1820 - 31 Dec 1820  Georg Vinzenz Jost Ludwig          (s.a.)               Con
                             Rüttimann (2nd time)     
 1 Jan 1821 - 31 Dec 1821  David von Wyss II (2nd time)       (s.a.
)               Con
 1 Jan 1822 - 31 Dec 1822  Hans von Reinhard (3rd time)       (s.a.)               Con
 1 Jan 1823 - 31 Dec 1823  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1824 - 31 Dec 1824  Niklaus Friedrich von Mülinen      (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1825 - 31 Dec 1825  Josef Karl Xaver Leopold Leodegar  (s.a.)               Lib
                             Amrhyn (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1826 - 31 Dec 1826  Georg Vinzenz Jost Ludwig          (s.a.)               Con
                             Rüttimann
(3rd time)           

 1 Jan 1827 - 31 Dec 1827  David von Wyss II (3rd time)       (s.a.)               Con
 1 Jan 1828 - 31 Dec 1828  Hans von Reinhard (4th time)       (s.a.)               Con
 1 Jan 1829 - 31 Dec 1829  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (3rd time) 
 1 Jan 1830 - 31 Dec 1830  Emanuel Friedrich von Fischer      (b. 1786 - d. 1870)  Mod
 1 Jan 1831 - 31 Dec 1831  Josef Karl Xaver Leopold Leodegar  (s.a.)               Lib
                             Amrhyn (3rd time) 
 1 Jan 1832 - 31 Dec 1832  Eduard Pfyffer von Altishofen      (b. 1782 - d. 1834)  Lib
 1 Jan 1833 - 31 Dec 1833  Johann Jakob Hess (1st time)       (b. 1791 - d. 1854)  Lib
 1 Jan 1834 - 31 Dec 1834  Konrad Melchior Hirzel             (b. 1793 - d. 1843)  Lib
 1 Jan 1835 - 31 Dec 1835  Franz Karl von Tavel               (b. 1801 - d. 1865)  Lib
 1 Jan 1836 - 31 Dec 1836  Karl Friedrich Tscharner           (b. 1772 - d. 1844)  Lib
                             (1st time) 
 1 Jan 1837 - 31 Dec 1837  Josef Karl Xaver Leopold Leodegar  (s.a.)               Lib
                             Amrhyn (4th time) 
 1 Jan 1838 - 31 Dec 1838  Georg Jakob Kopp                   (b. 1786 - d. 1859)  Lib
 1 Jan 1839 - 31 Dec 1839  Johann Jakob Hess (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Lib
 1 Jan 1840 - 31 Dec 1840  Johann (Hans) Konrad von Muralt    (b. 1779 - d. 1869)  Con
 1 Jan 1841 - 31 Dec 1841  Johann Karl Friedrich Neuhaus      (b. 1796 - d. 1849)  Lib
 1 Jan 1842 - 31 Dec 1842  Karl Friedrich Tscharner           (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1843 - 31 Dec 1843  Rudolf Rüttimann                   (b. 1795 - d. 1873)  Con
 1 Jan 1844 - 31 Dec 1844  Konstantin Siegwart-Müller         (b. 1801 - d. 1869)  Con
 1 Jan 1845 -  3 Apr 1845  Johann Heinrich Emmanuel Mousson   (b. 1803 - d. 1869)  Con
 
3 Apr 1845 - 31 Dec 1845  Jonas Furrer                       (b. 1805 - d. 1861)  Rad
 1 Jan 1846 - 31 Dec 1846  Johann Ulrich Zehnder              (b. 1798 - d. 1877)  Rad
 1 Jan 1847 - 28 May 1847  Alexander Ludwig Funk (1st time)   (b. 1806 - d. 1871)  Rad
28 May 1847 -  5 Nov 1847  Johann Ulrich Ochsenbein           (b. 1811 - d. 1890)  Rad
                             (1st time) 
 
5 Nov 1847 -  2 Dec 1847  Johann Rudolf Schneider (interim)  (b. 1804 - d. 1880)  Rad
 
2 Dec 1847 - 31 May 1848  Johann Ulrich Ochsenbein           (s.a.)               Rad
                             (2nd time)
31 May 1848 - 20 Nov 1848  Alexander Ludwig Funk (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Rad
Presidents of the Confederation2
20 Nov 1848 - 31 Dec 1849  Jonas Furrer (1st time)            (s.a.)               Rad
 1 Jan 1850 - 31 Dec 1850  Daniel-Henri Druey                 (b. 1799 - d. 1855)  Rad
 1 Jan 1851 - 31 Dec 1851  Martin Joseph Munzinger            (b. 1791 - d. 1855)  Rad
 1 Jan 1852 - 31 Dec 1852  Jonas Furrer (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Rad
 1 Jan 1853 - 31 Dec 1853  Wilhelm Matthias Naeff             (b. 1802 - d. 1881)  Lib
 1 Jan 1854 - 31 Dec 1854  Friedrich Frey-Herosé (1st time)   (b. 1801 - d. 1873)  Lib
 1 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1855  Jonas Furrer (3rd time)            (s.a.)               Rad
 1 Jan 1856 - 31 Dec 1856  Jakob Stämpfli (1st time)          (b. 1820 - d. 1879)  Rad
 1 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1857  Charles Emmanuel Constant Fornerod (b. 1819 - d. 1899)  Rad
                             (1st time) 
 1 Jan 1858 - 31 Dec 1858  Jonas Furrer (4th time)            (s.a.)               Rad
 1 Jan 1859 - 31 Dec 1859  Jakob Stämpfli (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Rad
 1 Jan 1860 - 31 Dec 1860  Friedrich Frey-Herosé (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Lib
 1 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1861  Melchior Joseph Martin Knüsel      (b. 1813 - d. 1889)  Lib
                             (1st time) 
 1 Jan 1862 - 31 Dec 1862  Jakob Stämpfli (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Rad
 1 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1863  Charles Emmanuel Constant Fornerod (s.a.)               Rad
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1864 - 31 Dec 1864  Johann Jakob Dubs (1st time)       (b. 1822 - d. 1879)  Lib
 1 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1865  Johann Carl Emmanuel Schenk        (b. 1823 - d. 1895)  Rad
                             (1st time) 
 
1 Jan 1866 - 31 Dec 1866  M
elchior Joseph Martin Knüsel      (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1867 - 31 Oct 1867  Charles Emmanuel Constant Fornerod (s.a.)               Rad 
                             (3rd time) 
 1 Nov 1867 - 31 Dec 1868  Johann Jakob Dubs (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Lib
                            
(acting to 31 Dec 1867)
 1 Jan 1869 - 31 Dec 1869  F
riedrich Emil Welti (1st time)    (b. 1825 - d. 1899)  Lib
 1 Jan 1870 - 31 Dec 1870  Johann Jakob Dubs (3rd time)       (s.a.)               Lib
                            
(acting to 1 Feb 1870)
 1 Jan 1871 - 31 Dec 1871 
Johann Carl Emmanuel Schenk        (s.a.)               Rad
                             (2nd time) 
 
1 Jan 1872 - 31 Dec 1872  F
riedrich Emil Welti (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Lib
 1 Jan 1873 - 31 Dec 1873  Paul Cérésole                      (b. 1832 - d. 1905)  Lib
 1 Jan 1874 - 31 Dec 1874  Johann Carl Emmanuel Schenk        (s.a.)               Rad
                             (3rd time) 
 
1 Jan 1875 - 31 Dec 1875  J
ohann Jakob Scherer (Schaerer)    (b. 1825 - d. 1878)  Dem
 1 Jan 1876 - 31 Dec 1876  Friedrich Emil Welti (3rd time)    (s.a.)               Lib
 1 Jan 1877 - 31 Dec 1877  Joachim Heer                       (b. 1825 - d. 1879)  Lib
 1 Jan 1878 - 31 Dec 1878  Johann Carl Emmanuel Schenk        (s.a.)               Rad
                             (4th time)  
 1 Jan 1879 - 31 Dec 1879  J
ohann Bernhard Hammer (1st time)  (b. 1822 - d. 1907)  Lib
 1 Jan 1880 - 31 Dec 1880  Friedrich Emil Welti (4th time)    (s.a.)               Lib
 1 Jan 1881 - 31 Dec 1881  Numa Droz (1st time)               (b. 1844 - d. 1899)  Rad
                            
(acting to 22 Feb 1881)
 1 Jan 1882 - 31 Dec 1882  S
imeon Bavier                      (b. 1825 - d. 1896)  Lib
 1 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1883  Antoine Louis John Ruchonnet       (b. 1834 - d. 1893)  Rad
                             (1st time) 
 1 Jan 1884 - 31 Dec 1884  Friedrich Emil Welti (5th time)    (s.a.)               Lib
 1 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1885  Karl Johann Emanuel Schenk         (s.a.)               Rad
                             (5th time)   
 
1 Jan 1886 - 31 Dec 1886  A
dolf Deucher (1st time)           (b. 1831 - d. 1912)  Rad
 1 Jan 1887 - 31 Dec 1887  Numa Droz (2nd time)               (s.a.)               Rad
 1 Jan 1888 - 27 Nov 1888  Wilhelm Friedrich Hertenstein      (b. 1825 - d. 1888)  Lib
27 Nov 1888 - 31 Dec 1889  Johann Bernhard Hammer (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Lib
                             (acting to 31 Dec 1888)
 1 Jan 1890 - 31 Dec 1890  Antoine Louis John Ruchonnet       (s.a.)               Rad
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1891  Friedrich Emil Welti (6th time)    (s.a.)               Lib
 1 Jan 1892 - 31 Dec 1892  Walter Hauser (1st time)           (b. 1837 - d. 1902)  Dem
 1 Jan 1893 - 31 Dec 1893  Karl Johann Emanuel Schenk         (s.a.)               Rad
                             (6th time) 
 1 Jan 1894 - 31 Dec 1894  E
mil Johann Rudolf Frey            (b. 1838 - d. 1922)  FDP
 1 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1895  Josef Zemp (1st time)              (b. 1834 - d. 1908)  KVP
 1 Jan 1896 - 31 Dec 1896  Adrien-Louis Lachenal              (b. 1849 - d. 1918)  FDP
 1 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1897  Adolf Deucher (2nd time)           (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1898 - 31 Dec 1898  Eugène Ruffy                       (b. 1854 - d. 1919)  FDP
 1 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1899  Eduard Müller (1st time)           (b. 1848 - d. 1919)  FDP
 1 Jan 1900 - 31 Dec 1900  Walter Hauser (2nd time)           (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1901 - 31 Dec 1901  Ernst Brenner (1st time)           (b. 1856 - d. 1911)  FDP
 1 Jan 1902 - 31 Dec 1902  Josef Zemp (2nd time)              (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1903  Adolf Deucher (3rd time)           (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1904 - 31 Dec 1904  Hugo-Robert Comtesse (1st time)    (b. 1847 - d. 1922)  FDP
 1 Jan 1905 - 31 Dec 1905  Marc-Émile Ruchet (1st time)       (b. 1853 - d. 1912)  FDP
 1 Jan 1906 - 31 Dec 1906  Johann Ludwig Forrer (1st time)    (b. 1845 - d. 1921)  FDP
 1 Jan 1907 - 31 Dec 1907  Eduard Müller (2nd time)           (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1908 - 31 Dec 1908  Ernst Brenner (2nd time)           (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1909 - 31 Dec 1909  Adolf Deucher (4th time)           (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1910 - 31 Dec 1910  Hugo-Robert Comtesse (2nd time)    (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1911 - 31 Dec 1911  Marc-Émile Ruchet (2nd time)       (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1912 - 31 Dec 1912  Johann Ludwig Forrer (2nd time)    (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1913 - 31 Dec 1913  Eduard Müller (3rd time)           (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1914 - 31 Dec 1914  Hermann Arthur Hoffmann            (b. 1857 - d. 1927)  FDP
 1 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1915  Giuseppe Motta (1st time)          (b. 1871 - d. 1940)  KVP
 1 Jan 1916 - 31 Dec 1916  Camille Decoppet                   (b. 1862 - d. 1925)  FDP
 1 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1917  Edmund Julius Schulthess (1st time)(b. 1868 - d. 1944)  FDP
 1 Jan 1918 - 31 Dec 1918  Felix Louis Calonder               (b. 1863 - d. 1952)  FDP
 1 Jan 1919 - 31 Dec 1919  Gustave Ador                       (b. 1845 - d. 1928)  LPS
 1 Jan 1920 - 31 Dec 1920  Giuseppe Motta (2nd time)          (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1921 - 31 Dec 1921  Edmund Julius Schulthess (2nd time)(s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1922 - 31 Dec 1922  Robert Haab (1st time)             (b. 1865 - d. 1939)  FDP
 1 Jan 1923 - 31 Dec 1923  Karl Alfred Scheurer               (b. 1872 - d. 1929)  FDP
 1 Jan 1924 - 31 Dec 1924  Ernest-Louis Chuard                (b. 1857 - d. 1942)  FDP
 1 Jan 1925 - 31 Dec 1925  Jean-Marie Musy (1st time)         (b. 1876 - d. 1952)  KVP
 1 Jan 1926 - 31 Dec 1926  Heinrich Häberlin (1st time)       (b. 1868 - d. 1947)  FDP
 1 Jan 1927 - 31 Dec 1927  Giuseppe Motta (3rd time)          (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1928 - 31 Dec 1928  Edmund Julius Schulthess (3rd time)(s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1929 - 31 Dec 1929  Robert Haab (2nd time)             (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1930 - 31 Dec 1930  Jean-Marie Musy (2nd time)         (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1931 - 31 Dec 1931  Heinrich Häberlin (2nd time)       (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1932 - 31 Dec 1932  Giuseppe Motta (4th time)          (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1933 - 31 Dec 1933  Edmund Julius Schulthess (4th time)(s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1934 - 31 Dec 1934  Marcel Édouard Ernest Pilet-Golaz  (b. 1889 - d. 1958)  FDP
                            
(1st time)
 1 Jan 1935 - 31 Dec 1935  R
udolf Minger                      (b. 1881 - d. 1955)  BGP
 1 Jan 1936 - 31 Dec 1936  Albert Meyer                       (b. 1870 - d. 1953)  FDP
 1 Jan 1937 - 31 Dec 1937  Giuseppe Motta (5th time)          (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1938 - 31 Dec 1938  Johannes Baumann                   (b. 1874 - d. 1953)  FDP
 1 Jan 1939 - 31 Dec 1939  Philipp Etter (1st time)           (b. 1891 - d. 1977)  KVP 
 1 Jan 1940 - 31 Dec 1940  Marcel Édouard Ernest Pilet-Golaz  (s.a.)               FDP
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1941 - 31 Dec 1941  E
rnst Wetter                       (b. 1877 - d. 1965)  FDP
 1 Jan 1942 - 31 Dec 1942  Philipp Etter (2nd time)           (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1943 - 31 Dec 1943  Enrico Celio (1st time)            (b. 1889 - d. 1980)  KVP
 1 Jan 1944 - 31 Dec 1944  Walter Stampfli                    (b. 1884 - d. 1965)  FDP
 1 Jan 1945 - 31 Dec 1945  Adolf Eduard von Steiger (1st time)(b. 1881 - d. 1962)  BGP
 1 Jan 1946 - 31 Dec 1946  Karl Kobelt (1st time)             (b. 1891 - d. 1968)  FDP
 1 Jan 1947 - 31 Dec 1947  Philipp Etter (3rd time)           (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1948 - 31 Dec 1948  Enrico Celio (2nd time)            (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1949 - 31 Dec 1949  Ernst Nobs                         (b. 1886 - d. 1957)  SPS
 1 Jan 1950 - 31 Dec 1950  Max-Édouard Petitpierre (1st time) (b. 1899 - d. 1994)  FDP
 1 Jan 1951 - 31 Dec 1951  Adolf Eduard von Steiger (2nd time)(s.a.)               BGP
 1 Jan 1952 - 31 Dec 1952  Karl Kobelt (2nd time)             (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1953 - 31 Dec 1953  Philipp Etter (4th time)           (s.a.)               KVP
 1 Jan 1954 - 31 Dec 1954  Rodolphe Rubattel                  (b. 1896 - d. 1961)  FDP
 1 Jan 1955 - 31 Dec 1955  Max-Édouard Petitpierre (2nd time) (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1956 - 31 Dec 1956  Markus Feldmann                    (b. 1897 - d. 1958)  BGP
 1 Jan 1957 - 31 Dec 1957  Hans Streuli                       (b. 1892 - d. 1970)  FDP
 1 Jan 1958 - 31 Dec 1958  Thomas Emil Leo Holenstein         (b. 1896 - d. 1962)  KCVP
 1 Jan 1959 - 31 Dec 1959  Paul Chaudet (1st time)            (b. 1904 - d. 1977)  FDP
 1 Jan 1960 - 31 Dec 1960  Max-Édouard Petitpierre (3rd time) (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1961 - 31 Dec 1961  Friedrich Traugott Wahlen          (b. 1899 - d. 1985)  BGP
 1 Jan 1962 - 31 Dec 1962  Paul Chaudet (2nd time)            (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1963 - 31 Dec 1963  Willy Spühler (1st time)           (b. 1902 - d. 1990)  SPS
 1 Jan 1964 - 31 Dec 1964  Ludwig von Moos (1st time)         (b. 1910 - d. 1990)  KCVP
 1 Jan 1965 - 31 Dec 1965  Hans-Peter Tschudi (1st time)      (b. 1913 - d. 2002)  SPS
 1 Jan 1966 - 31 Dec 1966  Hans Schaffner                     (b. 1908 - d. 2004)  FDP
 1 Jan 1967 - 31 Dec 1967  Roger Bonvin (1st time)            (b. 1907 - d. 1982)  KCVP
 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1968  Willy Spühler (2nd time)           (s.a.)               SPS
 1 Jan 1969 - 31 Dec 1969  Ludwig von Moos (2nd time)         (s.a.)               KCVP
 1 Jan 1970 - 31 Dec 1970  Hans-Peter Tschudi (2nd time)      (s.a.)               SPS
 1 Jan 1971 - 31 Dec 1971  Rudolf Gnägi (1st time)            (b. 1917 - d. 1985)  SVP
 1 Jan 1972 - 31 Dec 1972  Nello Celio                        (b. 1914 - d. 1995)  FDP
 1 Jan 1973 - 31 Dec 1973  Roger Bonvin (2nd time)            (s.a.)               CVP
 1 Jan 1974 - 31 Dec 1974  Ernst Brugger                      (b. 1914 - d. 1998)  FDP
 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1975  Pierre Graber                      (b. 1908 - d. 2003)  SPS
 1 Jan 1976 - 31 Dec 1976  Rudolf Gnägi (2nd time)            (s.a.)               SVP
 1 Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1977  Kurt Furgler (1st time)            (b. 1924 - d. 2008)  CVP
 1 Jan 1978 - 31 Dec 1978  Willi Ritschard                    (b. 1918 - d. 1983)  SPS
 1 Jan 1979 - 31 Dec 1979  Hans Hürlimann                     (b. 1918 - d. 1994)  CVP
 1 Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1980  Georges-André Chevallaz            (b. 1915 - d. 2002)  FDP
 1 Jan 1981 - 31 Dec 1981  Kurt Furgler (2nd time)            (s.a.)               CVP
 1 Jan 1982 - 31 Dec 1982  Fritz Honegger                     (b. 1917 - d. 1999)  FDP
 1 Jan 1983 - 31 Dec 1983  Pierre Aubert (1st time)           (b. 1927 - d. 2016)  SPS
 1 Jan 1984 - 31 Dec 1984  Leon Schlumpf                      (b. 1925 - d. 2012)  SVP
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1985  Kurt Furgler (3rd time)            (s.a.)               CVP
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Dec 1986  Alphons Egli                       (b. 1924 - d. 2016)  CVP
 1 Jan 1987 - 31 Dec 1987  Pierre Aubert (2nd time)           (s.a.)               SPS
 1 Jan 1988 - 31 Dec 1988  Anton Otto Stich-Stampfli          (b. 1927 - d. 2012)  SPS
                            
(1st time)  
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  J
ean-Pascal Delamuraz (1st time)   (b. 1936 - d. 1998)  FDP
 1 Jan 1990 - 31 Dec 1990  Arnold Koller (1st time)           (b. 1933)            CVP
 1 Jan 1991 - 31 Dec 1991  Flavio Cotti (1st time)            (b. 1939 - d. 2020)  CVP
 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  René Felber                        (b. 1933 - d. 2020)  SPS
 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 1993  Adolf Ogi                          (b. 1942)            SVP
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Anton Otto Stich-Stampfli          (s.a.)               SPS
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  K
aspar Villiger (1st time)         (b. 1941)            FDP
 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1996  Jean-Pascal Delamuraz (2nd time)   (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1997  Arnold Koller (2nd time)           (s.a.)               CVP 
 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Flavio Cotti (2nd time)            (s.a.)               CVP 
 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 1999  Ruth Dreifuss (f)                  (b. 1940)            SPS
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Dec 2000  Adolf Ogi (2nd time)               (s.a.)               SVP
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Moritz Leuenberger (1st time)      (b. 1946)            SPS
 1 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Kaspar Villiger (2nd time)         (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Pascal Roger Couchepin (1st time)  (b. 1942)            FDP
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Joseph Deiss                       (b. 1946)            CVP
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Samuel Jörg Schmid                 (b. 1947)            SVP
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Moritz Leuenberger (2nd time)      (s.a.)               SPS
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007  Micheline Anne Marie Calmy-Rey (f) (b. 1945)            SPS
                             (1st time) 
 1 Jan 2008 -
31 Dec 2008  Pascal Roger Couchepin (2nd time)  (s.a.)               FDP
 1 Jan 2009 - 31 Dec 2009  Hans-Rudolf Merz                   (b. 1942)            FDP
 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  Doris Leuthard Hausin (f)(1st time)(b. 1963)            CVP
 1 Jan 2011 - 31 Dec 2011  Micheline Anne Marie Calmy-Rey (f) (s.a.)               SPS
                             (2nd time) 
 
1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012  Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf
(f)        (b. 1956)            BDP
 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  Ulrich "Ueli" Maurer (1st time)    (b. 1950)            SVP
 1 Jan 2014 - 31 Dec 2014  Didier Eric Burkhalter             (b. 1960)            FDP
 1 Jan 2015 - 31 Dec 2015  S
imonetta Myriam Sommaruga (f)     (b. 1960)            SPS
                             (1st time)
 1 Jan 2016 - 31 Dec 2016  Johann Niklaus Schneider-Ammann 
  (b. 1952)            FDP
 1 Jan 2017 - 31 Dec 2017  Doris Leuthard Hausin (f)(2nd time)(s.a.)               CVP
 1 Jan 2018 - 31 Dec 2018  Alain Berset                       (b. 1972)            SPS
 1 Jan 2019 - 31 Dec 2019  U
lrich "Ueli" Maurer (2nd time)    (s.a.)               SVP
 1 Jan 2020 - 31 Dec 2020 
Simonetta Myriam Sommaruga (f)     (s.a.)               SPS
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2021 -              Guy Parmelin                       (b. 1959)            SVP

Commander-in-chief of the Sonderbund
Oct 1847 - 26 Nov 1847    Johann Ulrich von Salis-Soglio      (b. 1790 - d. 1874)  Mil

  ¹The name "Swiss Confederation" (Confédération Suisse) does not appear in the Mediation Act of 1803, but the Diet decided on 5 Jul 1803 to make a seal bearing the inscription Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft ("Swiss Confederation"). Napoléon Bonaparte (b. 1769 - d. 1821) used the title of Médiateur de la Confédération Suisse ("Mediator of the Swiss Confederation") from about 1809, but the style was not approved by Swiss law and he was not given any office of state under the Act. The Pact of 1815 stipulates that "the XXII Cantons are constituted in the Swiss Confederation" (la Confédération Suisse), while, in the constitutions of 1848 and 1874, "the Swiss Confederation" (la Confédération Suisse) is at the same time the object of the charter and the sovereign people and cantons who adopts it.

  2Full title (in German): Bundespräsident ("Federal President"),(in French/Italian and from 29 Apr 1938, Romansch): Président de la Confédération/Presidente della Confederazione/(from 29 Apr 1983): President da la Confederaziun ("President of the Confederation"). The Swiss government consists of seven members of the Federal Council who are elected for a four year mandate by both chambers of the federal parliament sitting together as the Federal Assembly. The President of the Swiss Confederation is elected for 1 year and is regarded as Primus inter pares, or first among equals, for this period.

Party abbreviations: DM = Die Mitte/Le Centre/Alleanza del Centro/Allianza dal Center (The Middle/Center Alliance, centrist, merger of CVP and BDP, est.1 Jan 2021); FDP = Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz/Parti Radical-Démocratique Suisse/Partito Liberale Radicale Svizzero (Freethinking-Democratic Party of Switzerland, liberal, center-right, from 1 Jan 2009 named FDP.The Liberals [FDP.Die Liberalen/PLR.Les Libéraux-Radicaux], est.25 Feb 1894); SPS = Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz/Parti Socialiste Suisse/Partito Socialista Svizzero (Social-Democratic Party of Switzerland, social-democratic, est.21 Oct 1888); SVP = Schweizerische Volkspartei/Union Démocratique du Centre/Unione Democratica del Centro/Partida Populara Svizra (Swiss People's Party/Democratic Union of the Center, nationalist, conservative, Eurosceptic, formerly BGP, est.22 Sep 1971); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: BDP = Bürgerlich-Demokratische Partei Schweiz/Parti Bourgeois Démocratique Suisse/Partito Borghese Democratico Svizzera (Citizens' Democratic Party of Switzerland, center-right, split from SVP, 1 Nov 2008-31 Dec 2020, merged into DM); BGB = Schweizer Bauern-, Gewerbe- und Bürgerpartei (Swiss Party of Farmers, Traders and Citizens, nationalist, conservative, Eurosceptic, split from FDP, 23 Dec 1936-22 Sep 1971, renamed SVP); Con = Konservative (Conservatives, conservative republicans, 1798-1881, mostly joining KKP); CVP = Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz/Parti Démocrate-Chrétien/Partito Popolare Democratico Svizzero/ Partida Cristiandemocratica Svizra (Christian Democratic People's Party, christian-democratic; named 1881-1894 Catholic People's Party, 1894-1912 Catholic People's Party, 1912-1957 Conservative People's Party, 1957-12 Dec 1970 Conservative Christian Social People's, 18 Jul 1881-31 Dec 2020, merged into DM); Dem = Demokratische Bewegung/Mouvement Démocratique/Movimento Democratico (Democratic Movement, center-left, 1861-22 Feb 1894, mostly joining FDP); Fed = Föderalisten (Federalists, de-centralists, supported return to cantonal sovereignty, 1799-1803); KCVP = Konservativ-Christlichsoziale Volkspartei (Conservative Christian Social People's Party, conservative - Catholic, former KPV, 10 Feb 1957-12 Dec 1970, renamed CVP); KKP = Katholisch-Konservative Partei der Schweiz (Catholic-Conservative Party of Switzerland, conservative - Catholic, 18 Jul 1881-11 Dec 1894, renamed KVP); KVP = Katholische Volkspartei (Catholic People's Party, conservative - Catholic, former KKP, named 22 Apr 1912-10 Mar 1957 Konservative Volkspartei [Conservative People's Party], 1 Dec 1894-10 Mar 1957, renamed KCVP); Lib = Liberale (Liberals, center-right, c.1814-25 Feb 1894, mostly joining FDP, some elements later form LPS); LPS = Liberale Partei der Schweiz/Parti Libéral Suisse/Partito Liberale Svizzero/Partida Liberala Svizra (Liberal Party of Switzerland, liberal, 8 Oct 1913-1 Jan 2009, merged into FDP); Mod = Moderate (Moderates, moderate republicans, c.1803-c.1832); Pat = Patrioten (Patriots, liberal, radical reformers, 1789-1800, joined Uni); Rep = Republikaner (Republicans, conservative, moderate reformers, 1798-1800, mostly joining Uni); Rad = Radikale (Radicals, "freethinking", center-left, c.1832-1848, mostly joining Lib/FDP); Uni = Unitarier (Unitarians, centralist, supported unitary centralized state, 1800-1803); U-F = Unitarier-Föderalisten (Unitarians-Federalists, leaders alternating between Uni and Fed camps, 1801-1803)








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