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Afghanistan
 
Afghanistan
                                  before 1901
                   1881 - c.1901 
 
[Afghanistan ca.1901-1919]
                      c.1901 - 1919
 
[Afghanistan 1919-1921]
            1919 - 1921; 14-17 Jan 1929 
 
[Afghanistan 1921-1928]
                    1921 - Jun 1928
 
[Afghanistan June to September
                                    1928]
                 Jun 1928 - 2 Sep 1928
 
[Afghanistan
                                    Sep.1928-Jan.1929]
             2 Sep 1928 - 17 Jan 1929
 
[Afghanistan
                                    Jan.1929-Oct.1929]
            17 Jan 1929 - 13 Oct 1929
 
[Afghanistan Oct.1929-1931]
           13 Oct 1929 - 31 Oct 1931 
 
[Afghanistan 1930-1973, arms
                                    within red stripe]
            31 Oct 1931 - 17 Jul 1973
 
[Afghanistan 1973-May 1974]
            17 Jul 1973 - 9 May 1974
 
[Afghanistan May 1974-April
                                    1978]
           9 May 1974 - 27 Apr 1978
 
[Afghanistan April-Oct.1978]
           27 Apr 1978 - 19 Oct 1978 
 
[Afghanistan
                                  1978-1980]
                   19 Oct 1978 - 21 Apr 1980 
 
[Afghanistan 1980-1987]
                  21 Apr 1980 - 30 Nov 1987
 
[Afghanistan
                                    Nov.1987-Aug.1992]
                    30 Nov 1987 - 27 Apr 1992 
 
[Afghanistan
                                    Apr.1992-Dec.1992]
             27 Apr 1992 - 2 Dec 1992 (provisional)
 
 
[Afghanistan
                                    Dec.1992-Sep.1996]
   2 Dec 1992 - 27 Sep 1996, 13 Nov 2001-27 Jan 2002
  (27 Sep 1996-13 Nov 2001 UN recognized Govt. Flag)
 
[Taliban Flag 1996-1997
                                    (Afghanistan)]
  27 Sep 1996 - 27 Oct 1997 Taliban Flag
 
 
[Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
                                    1996-2001, Taliban (Afghanistan)]
   27 Oct 1997 - 13 Nov 2001 Taliban Flag
 
[Afghanistan 2002-2004
                                    (Transitional Authority)]
                     27 Jan 2002 - 4 Jan 2004
 
[Afghanistan (Transitional
                                    Authority) Official Variant
                                    2002-2004]
          27 Jun 2002 - 4 Jan 2004 Official Variant
 
[Afghanistan]
                Adopted 4 Jan 2004
 


Map of Afghanistan Hear National Anthem
"Melli Surood"
(National Anthem)
Adopted 14 May 2006
-------------------------------
Former National Anthem
"Soroud-e-Melli"
(National Anthem)
(1992-1999, 2002-2006)
[No National Anthem 1999-2002]
Hear Former Anthem
"Soroud-e-Melli"
(National Anthem)
(1978-1992)
------------------------------------
Former Anthem
"Soroud-e-Melli"(1973-1978)
(National Anthem)

--------------------------------------
Former Anthem (1943-1973)
--------------------------------------
Former Anthem  (1926-1943)
Constitution
(26 Jan 2004)
------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1923, 1963, 1976, 1987, 1990)
Capital: Kabul
(Kandahar 1747-1774)
Currency: Afghani (AFN);
Afghanistan Rupee (AFR)
1881-1927
National Holiday: 19 Aug (1919)
Independence Day
Population: 31,108,077 (2013) 
GDP: $45.3 billion (2013)
Exports: $376 million (2012)
Imports: $6.39 billion (2012)
Ethnic groups: Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%,
Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, others 4% (2004)
Total Active Armed Forces: 200,000 (2012)
International Security Forces (ISAF): 49,902 (2014)
U.S. Forces: 32,800 (2014)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Sunni Muslim 82%, Shi'a Muslim 17%,
other 1% (2004)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APM, BTWC, CICA, CCM, CP, CTBT, CWC, ECO, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA (observer), ISESCO, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Afghanistan
Index

Chronology

1504                       Divided between the Moghul Empire (Kabul)
                             and Persia (Herat) with control of Qandahar 
                             alternating between them.
21 Apr 1709                Mir Wais frees Qandahar from Persian rule. 
12 Oct 1722 - 25 Apr 1725  Afghans under Mir Mahmud occupy Isfahan in Persia
12 Mar 1738                Persia under Nadir Shah reasserts control over 
                             Qandahar, renamed Nadirabad; Kabul (from 19 Jun
                             1738), Herat (already from 22 Aug 1731) and
                             Lahore (from 12 Jan 1739).
Jun/Jul 1747               Independence (Emirate [or Empire] of Afghanistan)
                             under Kabul; supremacy is contested from
                             Herat, Ghazni, Qandahar, and Peshwar.
 7 Aug 1839 -  6 Jan 1842  British occupation of Kabul.
 7 Aug 1839 -  6 Jan 1842  British protectorate declared.
19 Jun 1877                British annex Baluchistan and Afghanistan becomes
                             landlocked. 
 8 Oct 1879 - 11 Aug 1880  British occupation of Kabul.
12 Oct 1879 -  8 Aug 1919  British protectorate.
 2 Oct 1881                God-granted State of Afghanistan
30 Mar 1885                Russia annexes the Panjdeh Oasis and Afghan
                             territory north of the Oxus River.
 8 Aug 1919                Independence proclaimed (from 22 Nov 1921,
                             recognized by Britain).
 9 Apr 1923                Exalted State of Afghanistan
 9 Jun 1926                Kingdom of Afghanistan
17 Jan 1929                Exalted State of Afghanistan
17 Oct 1929                Kingdom of Afghanistan
17 Jul 1973                Republic of Afghanistan
30 Apr 1978                Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
25 Dec 1979 - 15 Feb 1989  Occupied by the Soviet Union.
30 Nov 1987                Republic of Afghanistan
28 Apr 1992                Islamic State of Afghanistan (from 27 Sep 1996,
                             largely retaining
international recognition).
26 Oct 1997 - 13 Nov 2001  Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 
                             (not internationally recognized).
22 Dec 2001                Interim Administration of Afghanistan
19 Jun 2002                Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
 7 Dec 2004                Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Afghanistan
(since 1880)

Kabul
(1747-1901)
Herat
(1747-1881)
Kandahar
(1708-1881)
 Peshawar
(1747-1823)
 Ghazni
(1879-1880)
Exile Government
(1988-1992)
Other Former
Afghan Polities

Andkhui
(1731-1880)
Badakhshan
(1657-1873)
 Konduz
(1698-c.1900)
 Maimana
(1747-c.1900)
Sar-i-Pul
(1831-c.1880)
Shibarghan
(1757-1875)
1849 Map of
Aghanistan


Note
:
Before 1881 there were essentially four rulers' capitals: Kabul, Herat, Qandahar, 
and Peshawar (the last now in Pakistan).  All rulers of Kabul, Herat Qandahar, and Peshawr belong belong to the Abdali tribal group, whose name was changed to Dorrani on the accession of Ahmad Shah. They belong either to the Saddozay segment of the Popalzay clan (typically with the style padshah [king]) or to the Mohammadzay segment of the Barakzay clan (typically with the style Amir, in full Amir al-Mo´menin [Leader of the Faithful]). The Mohammadzay also furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counselors, who served occasionally as regents, identified with the epithet Mohammadzay.

Kabul

[Afghanistan before 1901]
                1881 - c.1901 

Kings
Jul 1747 - 16 Oct 1772     Ahmad Shah "Dorr-e Dorran"         (b. 1724 - d. 1772)
16 Oct 1772 - 18 May 1793  Timur Shah                         (b. 1748 - d. 1793)
23 May 1793 - 1801         Zaman Shah                         (b. 1770/72 - d. 1844)
25 Jul 1801 - Jul 1803     Mahmud Shah (1st time)
13 Jul 1803 - 1809         Shoja` al-Molk Shah (1st time)     (b. c.1792 - d. 1842)
 3 May 1808 - 1808         Qaysar Shah (in rebellion)
 3 May 1809 - 1818         Mahmud Shah (2nd time)
1818 - 1819                Soltan `Ali Shah
1819 - 1823                Ayyub Shah
1823                       Habibollah Shah
1823 - 1826                Soltan Mohammad Khan
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
1826 - 1836                Dost Mohammad Khan                 (b. 1789 - d. 1863)
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
Emir
1836 -  2 Aug 1839         Dost Mohammad Khan (1st time)      (s.a.) 
King
 8 May 1839 -  5 Apr 1842  Shoja` al-Molk Shah (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1841 - Apr 1842            Mohammad Zaman Khan 
                             Mohammadzay -Regent 
                             (in rebellion)
Emirs
29 Jun 1842 - 12 Oct 1842  Fath Jang Khan
12 Oct 1842 - Dec 1842     Shahpur Khan
Dec 1842 -  9 Jun 1863     Dost Mohammad Khan (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (British prisoner 1840-1842)
1863 - May 1866            Shir `Ali Khan (1st time)          (b. 1825 - d. 1879)
May 1866 -  7 Oct 1867     Mohammad Afzal Khan                (b. 1811 - d. 1867)
 7 Oct 1867 -  8 Sep 1868  Mohammad A`zam Khan                (b. 18.. - d. 1869)
 8 Sep 1868 - 21 Feb 1879  Shir `Ali Khan (2nd time)          (s.a.)
21 Feb 1879 - 12 Oct 1879  Mohammad Ya`qub Khan               (b. 1849 - d. 1923)
1879 - 31 Mar 1880         Mohammad Jan -Minister-regent      (b. .... - d. 1880)
22 Jul 1880 -  3 Oct 1901  Abdor Rahman Khan                  (b. 1844 - d. 1901)
                            (from 2 Oct 1881, Emir of united Afghanistan)

Wazir-i-azam (chief ministers)
1747 - 17..                Haji Jamal Khan Barakzai
bf.1757 - 1773             Shah Wali Khan
17.. - 1793                Payinda Khan Mohammadzai
1793 - 1800                Wafadar Khan
1803 - 1808                Shir Mohammad Khan
1808 - 1809                Nawab Mohammad Usman Khan
1809 - 1818                Fateh Khan
1818                       Dost Mohammad Khan
Mohammadzay     (s.a.)
1818 - 1823                Mohammad Azim Khan
1823                       Habibullah Khan
1823 - 1824                Yar Mohammad Khan
Alikozay
1824 - 1826                Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai
1826? - 1839               Mirza Sami Khan
1839 - 1840                Mulla Shakur Ishakzai
1840 - 1841                Mohammad Usman Khan Sadozai
1841 - May 1842            Aminullah Khan Logari
                             (in rebellion with Mohammad Zaman Khan)
Jun 1842 - Sep 1842        Mohammad Akbar Khan
Oct 1842 - Dec 1842        Gholam Mohammad Khan Bamizai
                           + Khan Shirin Khan Jawansher
1842 - c.1848?             Mohammad Akbar Khan                 (d. c.1848)
c.1848? - 1855             
Gholam Haydar Khan                  (b. 18.. - d. 1858)
1855 - 1863                ....
1863 - 18..                Mohammad Rafiq Khan
c.1869 - Mar 1878          Sayyid Nur Muhammad Khan
c.1878 - 1880              Mirza Mohammad Hasan Khan
22 Jul 1880 -  3 Oct 1901  Vacant


Herat
[Herat flag, c.1829 -
                  1863 (Afghanistan)]
           c.1829 - 26 May 1863
Persian governor
1695 - 1708                Sultan Abdullah Khan Abdali        (b. 1670 - d. 1721)
Shah
1708 - Aug 1712           
Abdullah Khan                      (s.a.)
Persian governors
16 Oct 1712 -  4 Oct 1720  Shahzada Assadullah Khan Abdali    (b. 1687 - d. 1720)
15 Jul 1722 - Aug 1724     Shahzada Muhammad Khan Abdali
Aug 1724 - 21 Apr 1730     Allah Yar Khan Abdali
21 Apr 1720 - 22 Aug 1731  Sardar Zulfikhar Khan Abdali

Kings

Jul 1747 - 1797            see Kabul
1797                       Mahmud Shah (1st time)
1797 - 1818                see Kabul
1818 - 1819                Mahmud Shah (2nd time)
1819                       see Qandahar
1819 - 1826                Mahmud Shah (3rd time)
1826 - Mar 1842            Kamran Shah
Mar 1842 -  1 Jun 1851     Yar Mohammad Khan
                             Alikozay -Minister-regent
 1 Jun 1851 - 15 Sep 1855  Sayyed Mohammad Khan 
                             Alikozay -Minister-regent
15 Sep 1855 - Jun 1856     Mohammad Yusuf Khan 
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
Jun 1856 - Oct 1856        Isa Khan Bardorani -Minister-regent
Oct 1856 - 27 Jul 1857     occupied by Persia
Emirs
27 Jul 1857 - 26 May 1863  Soltan Ahmad Khan                  (d. 1863)
26 May 1863 -  9 Jun 1863  see Kabul
 9 Jun 1863 -  8 Sep 1868  Shir `Ali Khan                     (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1868 - 12 Oct 1879  see Kabul
Mar 1880 -  2 Oct 1881     Mohammad Ayyub Khan                (b. 1855 - d. 1914)

Wazirs (chief ministers)  
1801 - 1818                Fateh Khan Barakzai
1818 - 1828/9              Ata M
ohammad Khan
1828/9 - Mar 1842          Yar Mohammad Khan
Alikozay

Kandahar (Qandahar)
 
[Afghanistan before
                1901]
                    c.1881 

Persian governors
May 1704 - 21 Apr 1709     Gorgin Khan (Giorgi XI of Kartli)   (b. 1651 - d. 1709)
Nov 1709 - 26 Oct 1711     Ki-Khosrow (Kaikhosro of Kartli)    (b. 1674 - d. 1711)
21 Apr 1709 - 1715         Mir Wais Khan Hotaki                (b. 1673 - d. 1715)
                             (in rebellion to 1711)
1715  (6 months)           Mir Abdollah Khan Hotaki            (d. 1715)
1715 - 1722                Mahmud Shah Hotaki                  (b. c.1699 - d. 1725)
1722 - 12 Mar 1738         Husain Sultan Khan Hotaki

Kings
Jul 1747 - 16 Oct 1772     see Kabul
16 Oct 1772 - 1772         Solayman Shah
1772 - 18 May 1793         see Kabul
18 May 1793 - 19 Jun 1793  Homayun Shah
19 Jun 1793 - 1804         see Kabul
1804 - 1805                Kamran Shah
1805 - 1808                see Kabul
1808                       Mahmud Shah (1st time)
1808 - 1809                see Kabul
1809 -  3 May 1809         Mahmud Shah (2nd time)
 3 May 1809 - 1818         see Kabul
1819 - 1826                Shirdil Khan Mohammadzay -Regent
1826 - 1839                Purdil Khan Mohammadzay -Regent
Apr 1839 -  5 Apr 1842     Shoja` al-Molk Shah                 (s.a.)
May 1842 - 1842            Safdar Jang Khan Saddozay -Regent
1842 - Aug 1855            Kohandil Khan Mohammadzay -Regent   (b. 18.. - d. 1855)
Aug 1855 - Nov 1855        Mohammad Sadeq Khan 
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
Nov 1855 - Jul 1858        Gholam Haydar Khan                  (b. 18.. - d. 1858)
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
Jul 1858 -  9 Jun 1863     see Kabul
Emirs
1863 - 1865                Mohammad Amin Khan                  (b. 18.. - d. 1865)
1865 - Jan 1867            Shir `Ali Khan (1st time)           (b. 1825 - d. 1879)
Jan 1867 -  7 Oct 1867     Mohammad Afzal Khan                 (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1867 - Apr 1868     Mohammad A`zam Khan                 (s.a.)
Apr 1868 -  8 Sep 1868     Shir `Ali Khan (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1868 - 12 Oct 1879  see Kabul
1880 - 21 Apr 1881         Shir `Ali Khan Barakzay -Minister-regent
21 Apr 1881 - 20 Jul 1881  see Kabul
20 Jul 1881 - 22 Sep 1881  Mohammad Ayyub Khan                 (s.a.)

Peshawar

1823                       Incorporated into Punjab (officially May 1834).

Kings
Jul 1747 - Aug 1801        see Kabul
Aug 1801 - Sep 1801        Shoja` al-Molk Shah (1st time)      (s.a.)
Sep 1801 - 1818            see Kabul
1818                       Ayyub Shah (1st time)
1818                       Shoja` al-Molk Shah (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1818 - 1823                Ayyub Shah (2nd time)


Ghazni

Emir
24 Dec 1879 - 21 Apr 1880  Musa Jan Khan                       (b. 1868 - d. 1951)


Afghanistan
 


General Secretaries of the People's Democratic (Communist) Party (HDK)

 1 May 1978 - 16 Sep 1979  Nur Mohammad Taraki                (b. 1917 - d. 1979)
16 Sep 1979 - 27 Dec 1979  Hafizullah Amin                    (b. 1929 - d. 1979) 
27 Dec 1979 -  4 May 1986  Babrak Karmal                      (b. 1929 - d. 1996) 
 4 May 1986 - 28 Jun 1990  Mohammad Najibullah                (b. 1947 - d. 1996) 

De facto ruler (from 26 Oct 1997 styled Amir al-Mo´menin [Commander of the Faithful])
27 Sep 1996 - 13 Nov 2001  Mullah Mohammad Omar Akhund        (b. 1959/62)         Tal
                             (selected 3 Apr 1996)

Emirs¹
22 Jul 1880 -  3 Oct 1901  Abdor Rahman Khan                  (b. 1844 - d. 1901)
Apr 1887 - Jun 1887        Timur Shah Khan Ghilzai

                             (in rebellion, at Herat)
 1 Aug 1887 - 29 Sep 1887  Sardar Muhammad Ishaq Khan
                             (in rebellion, at Balkh)
14 Aug 1887 - Sep 1887     Muhammad Ayyub Khan                (b. 1855 - d. 1914)
                             (in rebellion, at Herat)
 3 Oct 1901 - 20 Feb 1919  Habibullah Khan                    (b. 1872 - d. 1919)
21 Feb 1919 - 28 Feb 1919  Nasrullah Khan                     (b. 1875 - d. 1920)
28 Feb 1919 -  9 Jun 1926  Amanullah Khan                     (b. 1892 - d. 1960)
Kings¹
 9 Jun 1926 - 14 Jan 1929  Amanullah Shah                     (s.a.)
14 Jan 1929 - 17 Jan 1929  Inayatullah Shah                   (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
Emirs¹
17 Jan 1929 - 13 Oct 1929  Habibullah Ghazi                   (b. 1890? - d. 1929)
17 Jan 1929 -  9 Feb 1929  Sardar Ali Ahmad Khan Jan          (b. 1883 - d. 1929)
                             (in rebellion, at Jalalabad)
21 Jan 1929 - 23 May 1929  Amanullah Shah -King               (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion, at Kandahar)
23 May 1929 - 31 May 1929  Sardar Ali Ahmad Khan Jan          (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion, at Kandahar)
1929 - 17 Oct 1929         Mohammad Nadir Khan                (b. 1880 - d. 1933)
                             (in rebellion, at Khost)
Kings¹
17 Oct 1929 -  8 Nov 1933  Mohammad Nadir Shah                (s.a.)
 8 Nov 1933 - 17 Jul 1973  Mohammad Zahir Shah                (b. 1914 - d. 2007)
President
17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978  Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan          (b. 1909 - d. 1978)  None;1976 NRP
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Council
27 Apr 1978 - 30 Apr 1978  Abdul Qadir Dagarwal               (b. 1944)            Mil
Presidents of the Revolutionary Council 
30 Apr 1978 - 16 Sep 1979  Nur Mohammad Taraki                (s.a.)               HDK
16 Sep 1979 - 27 Dec 1979  Hafizullah Amin                    (s.a.)               HDK
27 Dec 1979 - 24 Nov 1986  Babrak Karmal                      (s.a.)               HDK
24 Nov 1986 - 30 Sep 1987  Haji Mohammad Chamkani             (b. 1947)            Non-party
30 Sep 1987 - 30 Nov 1987  Mohammad Najibullah                (s.a.)               HDK
Presidents
30 Nov 1987 - 16 Apr 1992  Mohammad Najibullah                (s.a.)               HDK;1990 HW
19 Apr 1992 - 28 Apr 1992  Abdul Rahim Hatef (acting)         (b. 1926 - d. 2013)  HW
28 Apr 1992 - 28 Jun 1992  Sibghatullah Mojadedi (interim)    (b. 1925)            JNM
28 Jun 1992 - 27 Sep 1996  Burhanuddin Rabbani (1st time)     (b. 1940 - d. 2011)  JIA;1997
                             (continues in rebellion from 27 Sep 1996,             UINFSA
                             largely retaining international recognition)
Heads of the Supreme Council2
27 Sep 1996 - 16 Apr 2001  Mullah Mohammad Rabbani Akhund     (b. 1956 - d. 2001)  Tal
16 Apr 2001 - 13 Nov 2001  Mawlawi Abdul Kabir (acting)       (b. 1958/63)         Tal
President
13 Nov 2001 - 22 Dec 2001  Burhanuddin Rabbani (2nd time)     (s.a.)               JIA+UINFSA
                             (returns to Kabul 17 Nov 2001)
Chairman of the Interim Administration
22 Dec 2001 - 19 Jun 2002  Hamid Karzai                       (b. 1957)            Non-party
Presidents
19 Jun 2002 - 29 Sep 2014  Hamid Karzai                       (s.a.)               Non-party
29 Sep 2014 -              Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai              (b. 1949)            Non-party


Chief ministers

1892 - 1901                Mir Abdul Kasim 
1905 - 1916                Sardar Abdul Kuddus Khan
 
                             (1st time)
1906 - 1916                Ali Ahmad Ghan Barakzay (acting)
1906 - 1916                Sirdar Mohammad Sulayman Khan 
                             (acting)
1916 - 1919                Sardar Nasrullah Khan
1919 - 1927                Sardar Abdul Kuddus Khan 
                             (2nd time)
Prime ministers
25 Oct 1927 - Jan 1929     Sardar Shir Ahmad Sura-i-Milli     (b. 1885 - d. 19..)  Non-party
Jan 1929 -  1 Nov 1929     Shir Giyan                         (b. .... - d. 1929)  Non-party
14 Nov 1929 - May 1946     Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan        (b. c.1885 - d. 1953)Non-party
May 1946 -  7 Sep 1953     Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan            (b. 1890 - d. 1959)  Non-party
 7 Sep 1953 - 10 Mar 1963  Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan          (s.a.)               Non-party
10 Mar 1963 -  2 Nov 1965  Mohammad Yusuf                     (b. 1917 - d. 1998)  Non-party
 2 Nov 1965 - 11 Oct 1967  Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal         (b. 1919 - d. 1973)  Non-party
11 Oct 1967 -  1 Nov 1967  Abdullah Yaqta (interim)           (b. 1914 - d. 2003)  Non-party
 1 Nov 1967 -  9 Jun 1971  Mohammad Nur Ahmad Etemadi         (b. 1921 - d. 1979)  Non-party
 9 Jun 1971 - 12 Dec 1972  Abdul Zahir                        (b. 1910 - d. 1982)  Non-party
12 Dec 1972 - 17 Jul 1973  Mohammad Musa Shafiq               (b. 1932 - d. 1979)  Non-party
17 Jul 1973
- 27 Apr 1978  Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan          (s.a.)               None;1976 NRP
 1 May 1978 - 27 Mar 1979  Nur Mohammad Taraki                (s.a.)               HDK

27 Mar 1979 - 27 Dec 1979  Hafizullah Amin                    (s.a.)               HDK
27 Dec 1979 - 11 Jun 1981  Babrak Karmal                      (s.a.)               HDK
11 Jun 1981 - 26 May 1988  Sultan Ali Keshtmand (1st time)    (b. 1935)            HDK
26 May 1988 - 21 Feb 1989  Mohammad Hassan Sharq              (b. 1925)            HDK
21 Feb 1989 -  8 May 1990  Sultan Ali Keshtmand (2nd time)    (s.a.)               HDK
 8 May 1990 - 15 Apr 1992  Fazal Haq Khaliqyar                (b. 1934 - d. 2004)  HDK;1990 HW
15 Apr 1992 -  6 Jul 1992  Vacant
 6 Jul 1992 - 15 Aug 1992  Abdul Sabur Farid Kuhestani        (b. 1952 - d. 2007)  HIG
15 Aug 1992 - 17 Jun 1993  Vacant

17 Jun 1993 - 28 Jun 1994  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (1st time)     (b. 1947)            HIG
Nov 1994 - 1995            Arsala Rahmani (acting)            (b. 1937 - d. 2012)  IT

1995 - 26 Jun 1996         Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai (acting)       (b. 1944)            IT
26 Jun 1996 - 27 Sep 1996  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (2nd time)     (s.a.)               HIG
                             (continues under Burhanuddin Rabbani to 11 Aug 1997)
11 Aug 1997 - 21 Aug 1997  Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai             (b. 1947 - d. 1997)  UINFSA
                             (under Burhanuddin Rabbani)
21 Aug 1997 - 30 Sep 1997  Abdul Ghafoor Ravan Farhadi        (b. 1929)            UINFSA
                             (under Burhanuddin Rabbani)
30 Sep 1997 - 29 Sep 2014  Post abolished
Chief executive
29 Sep 2014 -              Abdullah Abdullah                  (b. 1960)            EM



 [International
                Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan]

Commanders of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 
10 Jan 2002 - 20 Jun 2002  John Chalmers McColl (U.K.)        (b. 1952)
20 Jun 2002 - 10 Feb 2003  Akin Zorlu (Turkey)                (b. 1948 - d. 2014)
10 Feb 2003 - 11 Aug 2003  Norbert van Heyst (Netherlands)    (b. 1944)
11 Aug 2003 -  9 Feb 2004  Götz Gliemeroth (Germany)          (b. 1943)
 9 Feb 2004 -  9 Aug 2004  Rick J. Hillier (Canada)           (b. 1956)
 9 Aug 2004 - 13 Feb 2005  Jean-Louis Py (France)             (b. 1948)
13 Feb 2005 -  5 Aug 2005  Ethem Erdagi (Turkey)              (b. 1949) 
 5 Aug 2005 -  4 May 2006  Mauro Del Vecchio (Italy)          (b. 1946)
 4 May 2006 -  6 Feb 2007  David J. Richards (U.K.)           (b. 1952)
 6 Feb 2007 -  3 Jun 2008  Dan K. McNeill (U.S.)              (b. 1946)
 3 Jun 2008 - 15 Jun 2009  David D. McKiernan (U.S.)          (b. 1950)
15 Jun 2009 - 23 Jun 2010  Stanley A. McChrystal (U.S.)       (b. 1954)
23 Jun 2010 -  4 Jul 2010  Sir Nicholas "Nick" Parker (U.K.)  (b. 1954)
                             (acting)
 4 Jul 2010 - 18 Jul 2011  David H. Petraeus (U.S.)           (b. 1952)
18 Jul 2011 - 10 Feb 2013  John R. Allen (U.S.)               (b. 1953)
10 Feb 2013 - 26 Aug 2014  Joseph F. Dunford, Jr. (U.S.)      (b. 1955)
26 Aug 2014 -              John F. Campbell (U.S.)            (b. 1957)



Commanders of Soviet Forces (40th Army)

25 Dec 1979 - 23 Sep 1980  Yuri Vladimirovich Tukharinov      (b. 1927 - d. 1998) 
23 Sep 1980 -  7 May 1982  Boris Ivanovich Tkach              (b. 1935)
 7 May 1982 -  4 Nov 1983  Viktor Fyodorovich Ermakov         (b. 1935)
 4 Nov 1983 - 19 Apr 1985  Leonid Yevstafyevich Generalov     (b. 1937 - d. 1991)
19 Apr 1985 - 30 Apr 1986  Igor Nikolayevich Rodionov         (b. 1936)  
30 Apr 1986 -  1 Jun 1987  Viktor Petrovich Dubynin           (b. 1943 - d. 1992)
 1 Jun 1987 - 15 Feb 1989  Boris Vsevolodovich Gromov         (b. 1943)             

British Residents
1837 -  2 Nov 1841         Sir Alexander Burnes               (b. 1805 - d. 1841)
 7 Aug 1839 - 23 Dec 1841  William Hay McNaghten              (b. 1793 - d. 1841)
Dec 1841 -  6 Jan 1842     Eldred Pottinger                   (b. 1811 - d. 1843)
British Native Agents (Vakils)
1856 - Apr 1859            Nawab Foujdar Khan 
Apr 1859 - 1865            Ghulam Husain Khan Allizai 
Feb 1864 - Jan 1868        Bukhiar Khan (acting)
Jan 1868 - 1878            Attah Muhammad Khan Khagwani       (d. 1897) 
British Residents
24 Jul 1879 -  3 Sep 1879  Louis Napoleon Cavagnari           (b. 1841 - d. 1879)
1880 - 1881                Lepel Henry Griffin                (b. 1838 - d. 1908)
Military Commanders
 8 Oct 1879 -  5 May 1880  Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts       (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
 5 May 1880 - 1880         Donald Martin Stewart              (b. 1824 - d. 1900)
1880                       Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts       (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
British Agents
(Indian Muslim Agents of the Government of India)
Jun 1882 - Jun 1885        Sirdar Muhammad Afzal Khan (1st time)
1885 - Jul 1891            Mirza Atta-ullah Khan Sardar 
Jul 1891 - 1894            Sardar Muhammad Afzal Khan (2nd time)
Dec 1894                   Muhammad Izzat Khan (acting)
Dec 1894 - Sep 1895        Muhammad Akram Khan 
1897 - 1900                Maulvi Ghaffur Khan
Mar 1900 - 1903            Hafiz Muhammad Nawaz Khan
Jul 1903 - 1907            Malik Khuda Bakhsh Tawana          (b. 1866 - d. 19..)
Mar 1907 - Jul 1910        Fakir Sajyid Iftikhar-ud-Din
Jul 1910 - Nov 1913        Malik Talib Mahdi Khan
Nov 1913 - 1919            Hafiz Saifullah Khan

Afghan Government in Exile (in Peshawar, Pakistan) 1989-1992

[Afghan Exile Govt. in Peshawar 1989-1992
                  flag]

President
14 Feb 1989 - Apr 1992     Sibghatullah Mojadedi               (s.a.)               JNM

Prime ministers
Jun 1988 - Feb 1989        Shah Ahmed                          (b. 1943)            IT
14 Feb 1989 - Apr 1992     Abdul Rab Rasul Sayyaf              (b. 1946)            IT
 

[Qandahar Flag revolt 1929 (Afghanistan)]
 Jan - Jul 1929 Qandahar Revolt flag
 
  ¹full title: 
 (a) 2 Oct 1881 - 9 Jun 1926, 17 Jan 1929 - 17 Oct 1929: Amir al-Mo´menin ("Commander of the
Faithful"),
the Constitution of 9 Apr  1926 refers to the ruler as Padshah, but the style Emir
continues in official use;
 (b) 9 Jun 1926 - 17 Jan 1929, 17 Oct 1929 - 17 Jul 1973: Padshah-i Afghanistan (Dari language); De Afghanistan Pacha (Pashto language, official from 1937); In the official English-language version of documents, the style used after 1905 is "Emir, Independent King of the
State of Afghanistan and its Dependencies." 

  2As indicated by the country's 1997 name change, the de facto leader during the Taliban rule (27 Sep 1996 - 13 Nov 2001) was Taliban leader Mullah Mohammad Omar Akhund (s.a.), self-styled Amir al-Mo´menin. The United Nations, U.S. and most countries recognized the government of Burhanuddin Rabbani (s.a.) as the legitimate government of Afghanistan during the Taliban period. During this period the Burhanuddin Rabbani government controlled only Takhar and parts of Badakhshan.

International Disputes: Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries.

Party abbreviations (parties banned 1997-2001): EM = Etelaf-e Milli (National Coalition, Hamid Karzai opposition coalition, est.2011); HIG = Hizb-i Islami Gulbuddin (Islamic Party Gulbuddin, HI-Gulbuddin Hekmatyar faction, radical islamist, Hekmatyar personalist, Pashtun, est.1977); JIA = Jamaat-i Islami Afghanistan (Islamic Association of Afghanistan, moderate islamist, Tajik, est.1968); JMI = Junbish-i-Milli Islami Afghanistan (National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan, left-wing, mainly Uzbek, est.1992); JNM = Jabha-i Najat-i Milli Afghanistan (National Liberation Front of Afghanistan, anti-communist, moderate islamist, mainly Pashtun, est.1978); Tal = Taliban ("[Koran] Students", islamic fundamentalist, government party 1997-2001, Pashtun nationalist, est.1994); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: HDK = Hizb-i Dimukratik-i Khalq-i Afghanisan (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, communist, 1990 renounced Marxism, 1965-28 Jun 1990, then HW); HW = Hizb-i Watan (Fatherland Party, social-democratic, former HDK, 1990-1992); IT = Ittehad-e Islami bara-ye Azadi-ye Afghanistan (Islamic Union for Liberation of Afghanistan, extreme islamist, mainly Pashtun, 1980-2005); NRP = Hizb-i Inqilab-i Milli (National Revolutionary Party, Mohammad Daud personalist, 1977-1978 government party, Pashtun nationalist, 1976-1978); UINFSA = Jabha-i Muttahid-i Islmai-i Milli bara-i Nijat-i Afghanistan (United Islamic and National Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan, "Northern Alliance", anti-Taliban coalition incl. JMI, IT, Hizb-i Wahdat and Harakat-e Islami, Sep 1996 - Dec 2001)

Other Polities Incorporated into Afghanistan

Andkhui

1730/31                    Andkhui Khanate, under suzerainty of Bukhara.
1820                       Under suzerainty of Afghanistan.
1880                       Incorporated into Afghanistan.


Khans
1730/31 - 1736             Ali Mardan Khan (for Nadir shah of Afghanistan)
1736 - 1790                Sulaiman Khan (in 1750 Mukhless Khan)
1790 - 1812                Rahmatullah Khan
1812 - 1830                Yulduz Khan
1830 - 1835                Abd'al Aziz Khan
1835 - 1844                Shah Wali Khan
1844 - 1845                Ghazanfar Khan (1st time)
1845                       Sufi Khan (1st time)
1845 - 1847                Ghazanfar Khan (2nd time)
1847                       Sufi Khan (2nd time)
1847 - 1869                Ghazanfar Khan (3rd time)
1869 - 1880                Daulat Beg Khan



Badakhshan

1657                       (Uzbek) Khanate of Badakhshan 
1822 - 1859                Tributary to Qonduz.
1859                       Tributary to Afghanistan.
1873                       Incorporated into Afghanistan. 

Khans
1657 - 1708                Yari Beg
1708 - 1713                Sulaiman Shah
1713 - 1718                Yusuf Ali
1718 - 1736                Diya' ad-Din
1736 - 17..                Sulaiman Beg
17.. - 1748                Mirza Kalan I
1748 - 1765                Sultan Beg
1765 - 17..                Burhan ad-Din
17.. - 17..                Mirza Kalan II
17.. - 17..                Ahmad Shah Khan 
17.. - 17..                Mirza Kalan III 
17.. - 1792                Zaman ad-Din
1792 - 1822                Mir Mohammed Shah
1822 - 1828                Mirza Kalan IV
1828 - 1829                Mirza Abd al-Ghaful
1829 - 1832                Murad Beg
1832 - 1838                Mirza Sulaiman 
1838 - 1847                Sultan Shah
                           - jointly with -
1844 - 1862                Mir Shah Nizam ad-Din                (d. 1862)
1862 - 1869                Ghahandar Shah
1869 - 1873                Mahmud Shah



Ghurian

1803                       Ghurian Qaraei Khanate within Persia.
1816                       Incorporated into (Herat) Afghanistan.

Khans
1803 - 1813                Yusef Ali Khan Qaraei-Torbati                        
1813 - 1816                Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati (b. c.1790 - d. 1850)   



Konduz (Qonduz)

1508                       Qonduz founded.
1520 - 1545                Annexed to Badakhshan.
.... - 1698                Annexed to Badakhshan. 
1888                       Incorporated into Afghanistan. 

Rulers
1647 - 1657                Beg Murad
1657 - 1714                Mahmud Bî
1714 - 17..                Sohrab Biy
17.. - 1740                Yusuf Biy
1740 - 1753                Hazara Biy
1753 - 1800                Mizrab Biy
1800 - 1815                Kokan Biy
1815 - 1846                Murad Beg
1846 - 1860                Sultan Murad
1869 - 1888                Sultan Ali Murad Beg 


Khulm (Kholm) 

1800? - 1841               Under suzerainty of Qonduz.
1849                       Annexed by Afghanistan.

Rulers
1800? - 1817               Qilij Ali Beg Khan
1817 - 1849                Muhammad Amin Beg 



Maimana

c.1506                     Conquered by Persia.
1747                       Maimana city state in the northwest of Afghanistan.
1876 - 1879                Incorporated into Afghanistan.
c.1900                     Incorporated into Afghanistan.

Governors
1747 - 17..                Haji Khan
17.. - 1790                Ghan
1790 - 1810                Ahmad
1810 - 1826                Allah Yar
1826 - 1845                Mizrab
1845 - 1853                Hikmat
1853 - 1876                Husain Kahn (1st time)
1876 - 1879                see Kabul
1879 - 1883                Dilwar Khan
1883 - ....                Husian Khan (2nd time)
.... - c.1900              Kemal Khan



Sar-i-Pul (Sar-i-Pol) 

c.1510                     Part of Persia.
1731 - 1800                Ruled by Maimana.
1747                       Incorporated into Afghanistan.
1831                       City of Sar-i-Pul in northwest Afghanistan.
1850 - 1863                Incorporated into Afghanistan (see Kabul).
1875                       Incorporated into Afghanistan.
 

Rulers (title Beglarbegis)
1731 - 1800                see Maimana
1800 - 1840                Zu'l-Faqar Sher Khan
1840 - 1851                Mahmud Khan
1851 - 1862                Qilij Khan
1861 - 1862                see Kabul
1862 - 1864                Muhammad Khan (1st time)
1864 - 1866                see Kabul
1866? - 1875               Muhammad Khan (2nd time)



Shibarghan (Sheberghan)‏

1757                        Shibarghan a Khanate 
1855 - 1859                 Occupied by Afghanistan.
1875                        Incorporated into Afghanistan.

Hakims
1747 - 1757                 Izbasar (for Bukhara)
1757 - 1800                 Daulat Khan
1800 - 1820                 Erich Khan
1820 - 1829                 Manwar Khan
1829 - 1851                 Rustam Khan (from 1846 Husain Khan)
1851 - 1855                 Hakim Khan 
                            + Nizam al Daula 
1855 - 1859                 Sardar Wali Muhammad Khan Barakzai
                              (Afghan military governor)
1859 - 1875                 Hakim Khan 





© Ben Cahoon