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Tajikistan
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
                   1868 - Nov 1917
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
                    30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991 
 
[Flag of
                                    Tajik SSR in 1953]
                     9 Sep 1991 - 24 Nov 1992
 
Tajiskistan flag, 1991
               9 Sep 1991 - 24 Nov 1992 Variant
 
[Tajikistan
                                    flag]
                       Adopted 24 Nov 1992
 

Map of Tajikistan
Hear National Anthem
"Surudi Milli"
(National Anthem) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 7 Sep 1994
Constitution
(6 Nov 1994)
Capital: Dushanbe
Currency: Somoni (TJS);
1995-2000 Tajikistan Ruble (TJR);
1991-1995 Russian Ruble (RUR)
National Holiday:  9 Sep (1991)
Independence Day
Population: 7,910,041 (2013)
GDP: $19 billion (2013)
Exports: $825.6 million (2013)
Imports: $4.56 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%,
Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 8,800 (2010)
Russian Forces: 5,000 (2013)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Sunni Muslim 78%, Shi'a Muslim 6%,
non-religious 12%, other (mostly Christian) 4% (2005) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB (signatory), APM, BTWC, CICA, CIS, CSTO, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISESCO, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM (observer), NPT, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Tajikistan
Index
Chronology
1626                       Under Dzungarian Kalmuck's.
1758                       Part of China.
1798                       Part of Kokand.
1842                       Bukhara annexes the main southern part of
                             Tajikistan, including Dushanbe.
30 Jun 1868 Nov 1917     Bukhara a Russian protectorate.
1877                       Bukhara extends its control over mountainous
                             regions in upper Panj River Valley (Tajik
                             principalities of Karategin and Darvaz; title of
                             rulers: Shah).
11 Mar 1895                Pamir (Gorno-Badakhshan) annexed by Russia.
Sep 1920 1926            "Basmachi" rebellion in the name of emir of Bukhara
                             (the "Basmachi" occupy Dushanbe to 21 Feb 1921
                             and 16 Feb 1922 14 Jul 1922) against the
                             Bukharan republic.
27 Oct 1924                Tajik Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (within
                             Uzbek S.S.R.), Bukharan S.S.R. dissolved.
15 Mar 1925                Tajik A.S.S.R. inaugurated.
 5 Dec 1929                Tajik Socialist Soviet Republic within Soviet Union
  5 Dec 1936                Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
24 Aug 1990                State sovereignty declared.
31 Aug 1991                Republic of Tajikistan
 9 Sep 1991                Independence declared (Republic of Tajikistan).
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (U.S.S.R dissolved).
Gorno-Badakhshan
Tadzhik Soviet
Socialist Republic

(1925-1991)
 

 
 
 

Presidents
31 Aug 1991 - 23 Sep 1991  Kadreddin Aslonovich Aslonov       (b. 1947 - d. 1992)  CPT
                             (acting)
23 Sep 1991 -  7 Sep 1992  Rakhmon Nabiyevich Nabiyev         (b. 1930 - d. 1993)  CPT
                             (acting to 2 Dec 1991)
 
5 Oct 1991 -  2 Dec 1991  Akbarsho Iskandarovich Iskandarov  (b. 1951)            Non-party
                             (1st time)(acting for Nabiyev)
 7 Sep 1992 - 19 Nov 1992  Akbarsho Iskandarovich Iskandarov  (
s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)(acting)
19 Nov 1992 - 27 Nov 1994  Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov      (b. 1952)            Non-party
                             (acting)
Chairman of
the Supreme Council
27 Nov 1992 - 16 Nov 1994  Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov      (s.a.)               Non-party
President
16 Nov 1994 -              Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov      (s.a.)               PDPT
                             (from 21 Mar 2007, Emomalii Rakhmon) 

Prime ministers
25 Jun 1991 -  9 Jan 1992  Izatullo Khayoyevich Khayoyev      (b. 1936 - d. 2015)  CPT
 9 Jan 1992 - 21 Sep 1992  Akbar Mirzoyev                     (b. 1939)            Non-party
21 Sep 1992 - 18 Dec 1993  Abdumalik Abdullayevich            (b. 1949)            PPU
                             Abdullajanov
                             (acting to 20 Nov 1992) 
18 Dec 1993 -  2 Dec 1994  Abdujalil Akhadovich Samadov       (b. 1949 - d. 2004)  Non-party
                             (acting to 27 Dec 1993)
 2 Dec 1994 -  8 Feb 1996  Jamshed Khilolovich Karimov        (b. 1940)            Non-party
 8 Feb 1996 - 20 Dec 1999  Yakhyo Nuriddinovich Azimov        (b. 1947)            Non-party
20 Dec 1999 - 23 Nov 2013  Akil Gaybullayevich Akilov         (b. 1944)            PDPT
23 Nov 2013 -              Kokhir Rasulzoda                   (b. 1961)            PDPT
                             (Abdukokhir Abdurasulovich Nazirov
to May 2007

Territorial Disputes: In 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan

Party abbreviations: PDPT = Hizbi Khalqi-Demokrati Tojikiston (People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan, secular, pro-presidential, state party, est.10 Dec 1994); CPT = Hizbi Kommnisti Tojikiston (Communist Party of Tajikistan, 20 Oct - Dec 1991 suspended, 21 Sep 1991 - Jan 1992 named Socialist Party of Tajikistan, est.1929);
- Former parties: PPU =
Hizbi Yagonagii Khalqi (Party of People's Unity, Nov 1994-Dec 1998)



Tadzhik Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of Tajik
                          ASSR in 1929]
                  23 Feb 1929 - 28 Apr 1929
 
[Flag of
                          Tajik SSR in 1929-1931]
                   28 Apr 1929 - 24 Feb 1931
 
Flag of Tajik
                          SSR in 1931
                    24 Feb 1931 - 4 Jul 1935 
 
Flag of Tajik
                          SSR in 1935
                     4 Jul 1935 - 1 Mar 1937
 
Flag of Tajik
                          SSR in 1937
                       1 Mar 1937 - 1938
 
Flag of Tajik
                          SSR in 1938
                       1938 - 28 Sep 1940 
 
Flag of Tajik
                          SSR in 1940
                  28 Sep 1940 - 20 Mar 1953 
 
[Flag of Tajik SSR
                          in 1953]
                    20 Mar 1953 - 24 Nov 1992
 

Capital: Dushanbe
(Stalinabad 1929-1961)
Hear Anthem
"State Anthem of
Tadzhik SSR"
(1946 - 1994)
Constitution
(1978)
Population: 4,471,586 (1989)
 

27 Oct 1924                Tajik Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic inside Uzbek S.S.R.
15 Mar 1925                Tajik A.S.S.R. inaugurated.
 5 Dec 1929                Tajik A.S.S.R. within Uzbek S.S.R. becomes

                             Tajik Socialist Soviet Republic.
 5 Dec 1936
                Renamed Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic.
24 Aug 1990                State sovereignty declared.
31 Aug 1991                Republic of Tajikistan

Responsible Secretaries of the Tajik Regional Organizing Bureau of the
Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Uzbekistan (serving jointly)
23 Oct 1924 Mar 1925     Sergey Mikhaylovich Sokolov
23 Oct 1924 Jun 1927     Chinor Imomov                      (b. 1898 - d. 1939)

Mar 1925 Jul 1927        Boris Vasilyevich Tolpygo          (b. 1893 - d. 1938)
Mar 1927 21 Oct 1927     Mumin Suleymanovich Khodzhayev     (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
Sep 1927 21 Oct 1927     Ali Heydar Ibash Shervoni          (b. 1894 - d. 1938)
Responsible Secretaries of the Tajik Oblast Committee of the Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) of Uzbekistan
(jointly)
21 Oct 1927   3 Oct 1928  Mumin Suleymanovich Khodzhayev     (s.a.)
21 Oct 1927   3 Feb 1929  Ali Heydar Ibash Shervoni          (s.a.)      

10 Feb 1929 25 Nov 1929  Shirinsho Shotemor                 (b. 1899 - d. 1937)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Tajikistan (from 13 Oct 1952,
Communist Party of Tajikistan)
25 Nov 1929 - 25 Dec 1933  Mirzo Dovud Guseynov               (b. 1894 - d. 1938)
                             (Mirza Davud Bagir ogly Husseynov)
25 Dec 1933 -  3 Jan 1933  Grigoriy Isaakovich Broydo         (b. 1885 - d. 1936)
 
3 Jan 1935 - 16 Jan 1937  Suren Konstantinovich Shadunts     (b. 1898 - d. 1938)
16 Jan 1937 -  4 Oct 1937 
Urumbay Ashurovich Ashurov         (b. 1903 - d. 1938)
 
4 Oct 1937 -  5 Jun 1946  Dmitriy Zakharovich Protopopov     (b. 1897 - d. 1986)
 
5 Jun 1946 - 24 May 1956  Bobodzhan Gafurovich Gafurov       (b. 1908 - d. 1977)
24 May 1956 - 12 Apr 1961  Tursun Uldzhabayevich Uldzhabayev  (b. 1916 - d. 1988)
12 Apr 1961 -  4 Apr 1982  Dzhabar Rasulovich Rasulov         (b. 1913 - d. 1982)
 4 Apr 1982 - 14 Dec 1985  Rakhman Nabiyevich Nabiyev         (b. 1930 - d. 1993)
14 Dec 1985 -  4 Sep 1991  Kakhar Makhkamovich Makhkamov      (b. 1932)

Chairman of the Tajik Revolutionary Committee
26 Nov 1924 16 Dec 1926  N
usratullo Maksum (Lutfulayev)     (b. 1881 - d. 1937)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee

16 Dec 1926 - 28 Dec 1933  Nusratullo Maksum (Lutfulayev)     (s.a.)              1929: KPT-B
28 Dec 1933 - Dec 1936     Shirinsho Shotemor                 (s.a.)               KPT-B
Dec 1936 - Sep 1937        Abdullo Rakhimbayevich Rakhimbayev (b. 1896 - d. 1938)  KPT-B
14 Oct 1937 - 13 Jul 1938  Munavar Shagadayev                 (b. 1898 - d. 1974)  KPT-B
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
13 Jul 1938 - 15 Jul 1938  Nigmat Ashurov                     (b. 1904 - d. 1974)  KPT-B
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
15 Jul 1938 - 29 Jul 1950  Munavar Shagadayev                 (s.a.)               KPT-B
29 Jul 1950 - 24 May 1956  Nazarsho Dodkhudoyev               (b. 1915 - d. 2000)KPT-B;1952KPT
24 May 1956 - 28 Mar 1963  Mirzo Rakhmatov                    (b. 1914 - d. 1998)  KPT
28 Mar 1963 - 14 Jan 1984  Makhmadullo Kholovich Kholov       (b. 1920 - d. 1989)  KPT
14 Jan 1984 - 17 Feb 1984  Nizoramo Zaripova (f)              (b. 1923)            KPT
                           + Vladimir Yakovlevich Oplanchuk   (b. 1919 - d. 1991)  KPT
                           (acting)
17 Feb 1984 - 12 Apr 1990  Gaibnazar Pallayevich Pallayev     (b. 1929 - d. 2000)  KPT
12 Apr 1990 - 30 Nov 1990  Kakhar Makhkamovich Makhkamov      (s.a.)               KPT
President
30 Nov 1990 - 31 Aug 1991  Kakhar Makhkamovich Makhkamov      (s.a.)               KPT

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
16 Dec 1926 15 Jan 1929  Abdulkadyr Mansurovich Mukhitdinov (b. 1892 - d. 1934)
15 Jan 1929 - 28 Dec 1933  Abdurrahim Khodzhibayev            (b. 1900 - d. 1938)  KPT
-B
28 Dec 1933 - Feb 1937     Abdullo Rakhimbayevich Rakhimbayev (s.a.)               KPT-B
Feb 1937 - Sep 1937        Urumbay Ashurovich Ashurov         (s.a.)               KPT-B
Sep 1937 - Apr 1946        Mamadali Kurbanov                  (b. 1905 - d. 1976)  KPT-B
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
Apr 1946 - 29 Mar 1955     Dzhabar Rasulovich Rasulov         (s.a.)            KPT-B;1952 KPT
29 Mar 1955 - 25 May 1956  Tursun Uldzhabayevich Uldzhabayev  (s.a.)               KPT
25 May 1956 - 12 Apr 1961  Nazarsho Dodkhudoyev               (s.a.)               KPT
12 Apr 1961 - 24 Jul 1973  Abdulakhad Kakharovich Kakharov    (b. 1913 - d. 1984)  KPT
24 Jul 1973 - 20 Apr 1982  Rakhman Nabiyevich Nabiyev         (s.a.)               KPT
26 Apr 1982 - 26 Jan 1986  Kakhar Makhkamovich Makhkamov      (s.a.)               KPT
26 Jan 1986 -  6 Dec 1990  Izatullo Khayoyevich Khayoyev      (b. 1936 - d. 2015)  KPT

Party abbreviations: KPT = Hizbi Kommnisti Tojikiston/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Tadzhikistana (Communist Party of Tajikistan, 13 Oct 1952 - 21 Sep 1991, named Socialist Party of Tajikistan); KPT-B = Hizbi Kommunisti Tojikiston (Bolşevikon) az- Tazhikistan/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Tadzhikistana (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Tajikistan, 25 Nov 1929 - 13 Oct 1952, renamed KPT)



Gorno-Badakhshan
 
Capital: Khorog
(Khorugh)
Population: 208,300 (2012)

1883                       Afghanistan annexes the Tajik principalities of the western Pamir
                             (Roshan, Shugnan, Vakhan).
1884 1893                Chinese troops garrison eastern Pamir.
1893                       Russians occupy Eastern Pamir and founded Murgab post.
11 Mar 1895                Badakhshan region divided between Russia and Afghanistan, upon

                             Russian cession Bukhara annexed the former principalities of the
                             western Pamir.
1902                       Bukharan (Western) Pamir under the Russian military administration.
Nov 1918                   Few remaining Russian troops recognize the Bolshevik rule.
Dec 1919                   Taken over by anti-Bolshevik Russian "Peasant's Army" from Fergana.
Apr 1920 - Jun 1920        Vacuum of power filled by attempt to establish Bukharan rule.
Jun 1920                   Bukharans expelled by locals, Bolshevik rule restored.
Jul 1923                   Western Pamir part of Turkestan A.S.S.R. (ceded by Bukharan S.S.R.)

15 Aug 1923                Parmir Okrug within Ferghana oblast of Turkestan A.S.S.R.=
 2 Jan 1925                Autonomous Oblast of Gorno-Badakhshan (Mountainous Badakhshon
                             Autonomous Province), within Tajik A.S.S.R.
 
5 Dec 1936                Renamed Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast.
Apr 1992? - 1993           Pamiri-Badakshoni
Autonomous Republic (within Tajikistan) declared.
 6 Nov 1994                Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (Mountainous Badakhshon
                             Autonomous Veloyat), within Tajikistan.

Chairmen of the Pamir Party Bureau of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)of Turkestan
(from Jan 1925, Pamir Party Bureau of the Committee of the Communist
Party
(Bolsheviks) of Uzbekistan)
1924 - Jan 1925            Mannon Ramzi (Abdullayev)          (d. 1938)
Jan 1925 - 1925            K.M. Gerasimov
1925 - 1926                M.K. Dudnikov
1926                       Kh.D. Klyavin                      (d. af.1936)
1926 - 1928                Panov

Nov 1928 - 25 Nov 1929     Konstantin Aleksandrovich          (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
                             Moiseyenko 
Chairmen of the Pamir Party Bureau of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Tajikistan
25 Nov 1929 - 1930         Konstantin Aleksandrovich          (s.a.)

                             Moiseyenko 
1930 10 Nov 1930         Khuram Bakiyev                     (b. 1898 - d. 1938)
Responsible Secretaries
of the Regional Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Tajikistan
for the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast

17 Nov 1930 1930         Khuram Bakiyev (1st time)          (s.a.)
1930 - 1934                Abdul Zennatshayev                 (b. 1900 - d. 1938)  
First Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the
Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Tajikistan
for the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast

193. - Oct 1937            Khuram Bakiyev (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1938 - 1941                Andrey Aleksandrovich Kuznetsov

1941 - 1944                Mikhail Mikhaylovich Prishchepa    (b. 1906 - d. 19..)
1944 - 1945                Nikolay Ivanovich Rogatkin

1945 - 1948                Kurbonsho Gadoliyev                (b. 1908 - d. 1987)
1948 - 1949                Tadzhiddin Isayev                  (b. 1904 - d. 1971)
1949 - 1950                Nigmat Ashurov                     (b. 1904 - d. 1974)
1950 - 1951                Ismail Burkhanov                   (d. 1978)
1951 - 13 Oct 1952         Rakhimbobo Tursunov                (b. 1917 - d. 1995)
First Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the
Communist Party of Tajikistan
for the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast
13 Oct 1952 - Aug 1956     Rakhimbobo Tursunov                (s.a.)
Aug 1956 - Apr 1961        Nadzhmiddin Pashayevich Abdullayev (b. 1917 - d. 1982)
Apr 1961 - Sep 1963        Grizi Dzhavov                      (b. 1916 - d. 1984)
Sep 1963 - Apr 1970        Moyensho Nazarshoyev               (b. 1929 - d. 1994)
Apr 1970 - 15 Dec 1978     Khushkadam Davlyatkadamov          (b. 1924 - d. 1995) 
15 Dec 1978 -  5 Jun 1982  Aloviddin Ishanovich Babayev       (b. 1931 - d. 1994) 
 5 Jun 1982 - 11 Apr 1987  Mukhitdin Zairov                   (b. 1931)
11 Apr 1987 - 21 Sep 1991  Soibnazar Beknazarov               (b. 1934)

Commanders of the Pamir Detachment
1902 1904                Andrey Yevgenyevich Snesarev       (b. 1865 - d. 1937)
1904 1911                Aleksandr Vladimirovich Mukhanov   (b. 1874 - d. af.1921)
1911 1914                Grigoriy Andreyevich Shpilko       (b. 1872 - d. 1936)
1914 Sep 1917            Ivan Denisovich Yagello            (b. 1865 - d. 1942)
Sep 1917 Nov 1918        Valeryan Viktorovich Fenin         (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
Nov 1918 Jan 1919        Yung                               (d. 1920)
Chairmen of the Pamir Revolutionary Committee
Jan 1919 Jul 1919        A.A. Kholmakov                     (d. 1919)
Jul 1919 Dec 1919        Pavel Volovik
Commanders of the Pamir Detachment
Dec 1919 Apr 1920        Timofeyev
Apr 1920 Jun 1920        Bukharan rule
Jun 1920 Aug 1920        Vichich
Aug 1920 1921            P. Patsner
Chairmen of the Pamir Revolutionary Committee
1921 Oct 1922            Tarichan Mikhailovich Dyakov       (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
Oct 1922 1923            Shirinsho Shotemor                 (b. 1899 - d. 1937)

1923 - Aug 1924            Mikhail Vasilyevich Sluvis         (b. 1888 - d. 1938)
27 Aug 1924 - 16 Nov 1925  Seyfullo Abdullayev                (b. 1899 - d. 1938)

Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast

16 Nov 1925 - Oct 1926     Seyfullo Abdullayev                (s.a.)

Oct 1926 - 1928            Ibrahim Ismailov                   (b. 1901 - d. 1938)
1928 - 1930                Khuram Bakiyev                     (s.a.)
193. - 1937                Meretdin Amdinov                   (d. 1938)
193. - 1939                Mirkhan Saidov                     (b. 1906 - d. 19..)
1939 - 1943                Khodza Shadmanov                   (b. 1908 - d. 19..)
1943 - 1947                Dzhifon Mulkomonov
1947 - May 1949            Sharif Rakhmatov
May 1949 - Jul 1950        Nazarsho Dodkhudoyev               (b. 1915 - d. 2000) 
1950 - 1957                Shirinsho
Rakhmatov
1957 - Apr 1961            Grizi Dzhavov                      (s.a.) 
Aug 1961 - 1967            Munim Shirindzhanov                (b. 1922)
1967 - Apr 1970            Khushkadam Davlyatkadamov          (s.a.)
Apr 1970 - 1972            Lakay Karmyshev                    (b. 1930)

1973 - 28 Mar 1978         Izatullo Khayoyevich Khayoyev      (b. 1936 - d. 2015)

28 Mar 1978 - 1988         Muminsho Abdulvasiyev 
1988 - 1990                Yevgeny Ilyich Tursunov            (b. 1947)
1990 - 1991                Garibsho Shakhbozovich Shakhbozov  (b. 1937 - d. 2007)
1991 - 1993                Shodavlat Shodavlatov
Chairman of the Regional Council

1990 - 1992                Akbarsho Iskandarovich Iskanderov  (b. 1951)
Chairman of the Supreme Council
1992 - 1993                Akbarsho Iskandarovich Iskanderov  (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Executive Committee
Dec 1994 - 25 Nov 2006     Alimamad Niyozmamadovich           (b. 1943)
                             Niyozmamadov
25 Nov 2006 - 19 Nov 2013  Kadyr Kasymovich Kasymov           (b. 1961)
                             (from Jun 2007, Kodiri Kosim)
                             (acting to 12 Feb 2007)
19 Nov 2013 -              Shodikhon Jamshedov                (b. 1962)







Ben Cahoon