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Guatemala
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                   to 15 Sep 1821 
 
[Kingdom of Guatemala flag
                                    1821-1822]
           15 Sep 1821 - 5 Jan 1822 
 
[Central American Federation
                                    1823-1824]
          21 Aug 1823 - 22 Nov 1824
 
[Central American Federation
                                    1824-1838]
                22 Nov 1824 - 1839
 
[Guatemala Flag 1825-1851]
     1 Jan 1825 - 14 Mar 1851 Civil Flag
 
[Guatemala 1839-1843 Flag]
          1839 - 26 Oct 1843 State Flag
 
[Guatemala 1843-1851 Flag]
     26 Oct 1843 - 14 Mar 1851 State Flag
 
[Guatemala state flag,
                                    1851-58]
    14 Mar 1851 - 31 May 1858 State Flag
 
[Guatemala Civil Flag 1851-58]
   14 Mar 1851 - 31 May 1858 Civil Flag
 
[Guatemala 1858-71 State Flag]
    31 May 1858 - 17 Aug 1871 State Flag
 
[Guatemala 1858-71 Civil Flag]
    31 May 1858 - 17 Aug 1871 Civil Flag

[Guatemala
                                    - civil flag, 1871]
             17 Aug 1871 - 18 Nov 1871
 
[Guatemala state flag
                                    1871-c.1900]  
            18 Nov 1871 - c.1900 State Flag
 
[Guatemala state flag
                                    c.1900-1968]  
            c.1900 - 15 Sep 1968 State Flag

[Guatemala state flag]  
           Adopted 15 Sep 1968 State Flag
 Map of Guatemala  Hear National Anthem
  "Himno Nacional de Guatemala"
 (National Anthem of Guatemala)
 Text of National Anthem
Adopted 28 Oct 1896
(lyrics 26 Jul 1934)
 Constitution
 (14 Jan 1986, suspended
25 May-2 Jun 1993; in Spanish) 
Capital: Guatemala City
(Ciudad de Guatemala)
(Nueva Guatemala de
la Asunción 1775-1821;
Santiago de los Caballeros
 de Guatemala 1527-1775;

Tecpan Guatemala 1524-27)
Currency: Quetzal (GTQ);
and from 2001 US Dollar (USD);
1847-1925 Guatemala Peso
 (GTP);
1839-1847 Central
 American Escudo (XCAE)
National Holiday: 15 Sep (1821)
Independence Day
Population: 14,373,472 (2013)
GDP: $81.51 billion (2013)
Exports: $10.29 billion (2013) 
Imports: $16.7 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish -
in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 59.4%,
K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%,
other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%,
other 0.1% (2001) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 15,212 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 57%, Protestant 40%,
indigenous Mayan beliefs 1%, other 2% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS, ANT, APM, BCIE, BTWC, CACM, CAFTA, CAP, CCM, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA (observer), LAP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SEGIB, SICA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Guatemala
Index
Chronology
 
25 Jul 1524                Spanish possession, Ciudad de Guatemala founded. 
1527 - 1544                Subordinated to New Spain (see Mexico).
20 Nov 1542                Audiencia de los Confines de Guatemala y Nicaragua
                             established.
16 May 1544 - 1560         Part of Captaincy of Gracias (Yucatan,
                             Chiapas, Tabasco, Panama, and Central America).
1564                       Subordinated to New Spain (see Mexico).
1560                       Kingdom of Guatemala (Reino de Guatemala),
                             subordinated to New Spain (Chiapas, Costa Rica,
                             Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Yucatan, and
                             from 1786 El Salvador).
1565                       Audiencia of Guatemala 
 1 May 1570                Kingdom of Guatemala also a Captaincy-general.  
15 Sep 1821                Independence of the colonial "Kingdom of 
                             Guatemala" (now Chaipas, Costa Rica, 
                             El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua)
 5 Jan 1822                Incorporation into Mexico.
 1 Jul 1823                Independence restored.
10 Jul 1823 - 17 Apr 1839  State of Guatemala, part of United Provinces of 
                             the Centre of America (also styled Republic of
                             the Centre of America; from 1825 Federal Republic
                             of Central America).
15 Sep 1824                State of Guatemala     
21 Mar 1847                Republic of Guatemala
 1 Oct 1921 - 14 Jan 1922  State of Guatemala, during a later aborted attempt
                             at recreating a Central American Federation.
14 Jan 1922                Republic of Guatemala
Guatemala
(since 1824)
Kingdom of
Guatemala
(1524-1821)
 Central American
Federations
(1821-1840,
1844,1852,1898,
1921-1922)
Los Altos
(1838-1840,
 1848-1849)
 Santo Tomas
(1843-1854)

 
 
 
 
 

Kingdom of Guatemala

1560                       "Kingdom of Guatemala" a Captaincy-general, but
                             subordinated to New Spain (Chiapas, Costa Rica,
                             Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Yucatan, and
                             El Salvador).
20 Nov 1542                Audiencia of de los Confines de Guatemala established.
15 Sep 1821                Independence of the colonial "Kingdom of
                             Guatemala" (now Chaipas, Costa Rica, El Salvador,
                             Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

Governors
1524 - 1526                Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras          (b. 1485 - d. 1541)
                             (1st time)
1526                       Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras        (b. 1482 - d. 1541)
1526 - 1527                Pedro de Portocarrero
1527 - 1529                Jorge de Alvarado (1st time)
1529 - 1530                Agustín Francisco de Orduña
1530 - 1533                Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1533 - 1535                Jorge de Alvarado (2nd time)
1535 - 1536                Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)  
1536 - 1539                Alonso de Maldonado (1st time)
1539 - 1540                Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
1540 - 1541                Francisco de la Cueva y Villacreces    (b. 1510 - d. 1576)
                             (1st time)
1541 - 11 Sep 1541         Beatriz de Alva de la Cueva (f)        (d. 1541)
1541 - 1542                Francisco de la Cueva y Villacreces    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
                           - jointly with -
1541 - 1542                Francisco Marroquín                    (b. 1499 - d. 1563)
20 Nov 1542 - 26 May 1548  Alonso de Maldonado (2nd time)
26 May 1548 - 1554         Alonso López de Cerrato                (b. c.1490 - d. 1554)
14 Jan 1555 - 28 Nov 1558  Antonio Rodríguez de Quesada           (d. 1558)
28 Nov 1558 -  2 Sep 1559  Pedro Ramírez de Quiñónes  (interim)
 2 Sep 1559 -  3 May 1563  Juan Núñez de Landecho        
1563 - 1569                Francisco Briceño (interim)            (d. 1575)
1568                       García Pérez de Manzanedo
                            (elected but did not serve)
1569 - 1570                Antonio González                       
Governors and Captains-general   
 1 May 1570 - 26 Jan 1573  Antonio González                      
26 Jan 1573 -  4 Feb 1578  Pedro de Villalobos
                    (b. c.1515 - d. 1579)
 2 Feb 1578 - 21 Jul 1588  Diego García de Valverde               (d. 1589)
21 Jul 1588 -  3 Aug 1594  Pedro Mallen de Rueda
 3 Aug 1594 - 1596         Francisco de Sande Picón (interim)     (b. c.1540 - d. 1602)
1596 - 1598                Álvaro Gómez de Abaunza (interim)
19 Sep 1598 - 1611         Alonso Criado de Castilla              (d. 1611)
1611 - 1614                Antonio Peraza de Ayala Castilla
                             y Rojas, conde de la Gomera
                             (1st time)
1614 - 1617                Juan de Ibarra
1617 - 1626                Antonio Peraza de Ayala Castilla
                             y Rojas, conde de la Gomera
                             (2nd time)
1626 - 1633                Diego de Acuña
16 Mar 1634 - 16 Mar 1642  Álvaro de Quiñónes y Osorio,
                             marqués de Lorenzana
Mar 1642 -  2 Aug 1649     Diego de Avendaño                      (d. 1649)
 2 Aug 1649 - 1654         Antonio de Lara y Mogrobejo
May 1654 - 27 Mar 1657     Fernando de Altamirano y Velasco,      (b. c.1589 - d. 1657)
                             conde de Santiago de Calimaya
1657 - 1658                Audiencia
 6 Jan 1659 - 1667         Martín Carlos de Mencos
Jan 1667 - 1670            Sebastián Álvarez Alfonso Rosica       (d. 1672)
                             de Caldas
28 Oct 1670 -  9 Jun 1672  Juan de Santa Mathia Sáenz de Mañosca  (b. 1611? - d. 1675)
                             y Murillo
1672 - 1682                Fernando Francisco de Escobedo
1682 - 1684                Juan Miguel de Agurto                  (b. 1630 - d. 1686)
1684 - 1688                Enrique Enríquez de Guzmán
1688 - 1691                Jacinto de Barrios y Leal (1st time)
1691 - 1694                Fernando Lope de Ursino y Orbaneja     (b. 1600 - d. 1699)
                             (interim)
1694 - 1695                Jacinto de Barrios y Leal (2nd time)
1695 - 1696                José de Seals (interim)
27 Mar 1696 - 1699         Gabriel Sánchez de Berrospe (1st time)
1699 - 1700                Amezqueta (provisional)
1700 - 1702                Gabriel Sánchez de Berrospe (2nd time)
1702 - 27 Oct 1703         Alonso de Ceballos y Villagutierre    (b. 1633 - d. 1703)
1703 - 1706                José Osorio Espinosa de los Monteros
1706 - 1716                Toribio José de Cosío y Campo
                             marqués de Torre Campo
1716 - 1724                Francisco Rodríguez de Rivas
1724 - 1733                Antonio Pedro de Echevers y
                             Subiza
1733 - 1742                Pedro de Rivera y Villalón            (b. 1679 - d. af.1742)
1742 - 1748                Tomás de Rivera y Santa Cruz
1748 - 1752                José de Araujo y Río
17 Jan 1752 - 24 Jun 1753  José Vásquez Prego Montaos y
                             Sotomayor
1753 - 17 Oct 1754         Juan de Velarde y Cienfuegos
                             (1st time)(interim)
17 Oct 1754 - 27 Oct 1760  Alonso de Arcos y Moreno              (b. 1700 - d. 1760)
1760 - 1761                Juan de Velarde y Cienfuegos
                             (2nd time) (interim)
14 Jun 1761 -  3 Dec 1765  Alonso Fernández de Heredia           (d. 1782)
 3 Dec 1765 - 20 May 1771  Pedro de Salazar Nájera y Mendoza     (d. 1771)
20 May 1771 - 12 Jun 1773  Juan Gonzáles Bustillo y Villaseñor
                             (interim)
12 Jun 1773 -  4 Apr 1779  Martín de Mayorga y Ferrer            (b. 1721 - d. 1783)
 4 Apr 1779 -  7 Mar 1783  Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo Madrid    (b. 1717 - d. 1784)
                             y Cabrera (acting to 14 May 1779)
 7 Mar 1783 - 29 Dec 1789  José de Estachería y Hernández
31 Dec 1789 - 25 May 1794  Bernardo Troncoso Martínez del Rincón (b. 1730 - d. 1804)
1794 - 1801                José Tomás y Valle
28 Jul 1801 - 1811         Antonio González Mollinedo y Saravia  (b. 1743 - d. 1812)
14 Mar 1811 - 28 Mar 1818  José de Bustamante y Guerra           (b. 1759 - d. 1825)
28 Mar 1818 - 15 Sep 1821  Carlos de Urrutia y Montoya           (b. 1750 - d. 1825)

Central America
 
[United
                            States (Provinces) of Central America
                            (1823-1824)]
    21 Aug 1823 - 22 Nov 1824 State Flag
 
[state flag
                            Federal Republic of Central America
                            (1824-1840)]
      22 Nov 1824 - Mar 1840 State Flag
 
[Merchant flag
                            Federal Republic of Central America
                            (1824-1840)]
   21 Aug 1823 - Mar 1840 Merchant Flag
 
[Greater
                            Republic of Central America flag 1896-1898]
            15 Sep 1896 - 30 Nov 1898
 


Map of  Central America Capital:  San Salvador,
El Salvador 1835-1840;
(Sonsonate, El Salvador
1834-1835; Guatemala City,
Guatemala 1823-1834;
Leon, Nicaragua 1851-1852)
Currency: 1823-1839
Central American Escudo
(XCAE)
Constitution
(22 Nov 1824; in Spanish)
-------------------------------
Later Constitutions
(1835, 1898, 1921; in Spanish)

15 Sep 1821                Independence of the colonial "Kingdom of Guatemala"
                             (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua
                             and Chiapas); also styled Provinces of Central America
                             (Provincias del Centro de América).
 5 Jan 1822 -  1 Jul 1823  Incorporation into Mexico.
11 Jan 1822 - 10 Feb 1823  El Salvador in secession.
 1 Jul 1823                Independence from Mexico (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, 
                             Honduras, and Nicaragua) as "Kingdom of Guatemala"
10 Jul 1823                United Provinces of the Centre of America (Provincias Unidas del
                             Centro de América)(also styled "Republic of the Centre of
                             America").
10 Apr 1825                Federal Republic of Central America (República Federal de
                             Centroamérica)
 2 May 1838                Nicaragua exits the Federation.
 5 Jun 1838 - 26 May 1839  State of Los Altos part of the federation.
26 Oct 1838                Honduras exits the Federation.
15 Nov 1838                Costa Rica exits the Federation.
17 Apr 1839                Guatemala exits the Federation.
Mar 1840                   Federation effectively dissolved after successive secessions
                             of the states.
 2 Feb 1841                El Salvador becomes a republic, officially ending the Federation.
29 Mar 1844 -  1 Dec 1844  Abortive attempt to create a Confederation of Central America
                             (El Salvador, Guatemala [to Jun 1844], Honduras, Nicaragua).
13 Oct 1852 - 10 Nov 1852  Abortive attempt to create a Federation of Central America
                             (El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua).
15 Sep 1896                Republic of Greater Central America (República Mayor de Centro
                             América)(El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua).
 1 Nov 1898                Renamed United States of Central America (Estados Unidos de
                             Centro América).
25 Nov 1898                El Salvador exits the Federation.
30 Nov 1898                Federation is dissolved.
13 Jun 1921                Federation of Central America (Federación de Centro América)
                             (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras).
 1 Oct 1921                Renamed Republic of Central America (República de Centro América).
14 Jan 1922                Guatemala leaves the union.
 4 Feb 1922                El Salvador leaves the union.
 7 Feb 1922                Honduras exit officially ends the union.

Superior Political Chiefs
15 Sep 1821 -  5 Jan 1822  Gabino Gaínza y Fernández de       (b. 1753 - d. 1829)
                             Medrano (from 16 Sep 1821 also called
                             Captain-general and Supreme Chief) 
 1 Jul 1823 - 10 Jul 1823  Vicente Filísola                   (b. 1785 - d. 1850)
Supreme Executive Power (3 members; chair rotating monthly)
10 Jul 1823 -  4 Oct 1823  First Triumvirate
                           - Antonio Rivera Cabezas           (b. 1784 - d. 1851)
                           - Pedro José Antonio Molina        (b. 1777 - d. 1854)
                               Mazariegos 
                           - Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz     (b. 1764 - d. 1828)
 4 Oct 1823 - 29 Apr 1825  Second Triumvirate
                           - José Francisco Barrundia Cepeda  (b. 1787 - d. 1854)                                            (4-6 Oct 1823)(did not take office)
                           - Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz     (s.a.)
                              (6 Oct 1823 - 15 Mar 1824)
                           - Manuel José Arce y Fagoaga       (b. 1768 - d. 1847)  Lib
                              (to 17 Sep 1824)
                           - José Manuel de la Cerda y        (b. c.1780 - d. 1840)
                               Aguilar (from 20 Oct 1824)
                           - Tomás Antonio O'Horan y Argüello (b. 1776 - d. 1848)
                           - José Santiago Milla Pineda       (b. 1783 - d. ....)
                               Arriaga (to 5 Feb 1824)
                           - José Cecilio Díaz del Valle y    (b. 1780 - d. 1834)  Con
                               Díaz del Valle (from 5 Feb 1824) 
Presidents
30 Apr 1825 - 13 Apr 1829  Manuel José Arce y Fagoaga         (s.a.)               Lib
13 Apr 1829 - 25 Jun 1829  José Francisco Morazán Quezada     (b. 1792 - d. 1842)  Lib
                             (1st time)(General-in-Chief) 
26 Jun 1829 - 16 Sep 1830  José Francisco Barrundia Cepeda    (s.a.)
                             (acting) 
16 Sep 1830 - 16 Sep 1834  José Francisco Morazán Quezada     (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time) 
16 Sep 1834 - 14 Feb 1835  José Gregorio Salazar Lara (acting)(b. 1773 - d. 1838)
14 Feb 1835 -  1 Feb 1839  José Francisco Morazán Quezada     (s.a.)               Lib
                             (3rd time) 
 1 Feb 1839 - Mar 1840     Diego Vigil Cocaña (acting)        (b. 1799 - d. 1845)
President of the Federal Council
Mar 1844 - 29 Mar 1844     Juan Nepomuceno Fernandez Lindo    (b. 1790 - d. 1857)  Con
                             y Zelaya
Supreme Delegate
29 Mar 1844 -  1 Dec 1844  Fruto Chamorro Pérez               (b. 1806 - d. 1855)
Provisional President
13 Oct 1852 - 28 Oct 1852  José Trinidad Cabañas Fiallos      (b. 1805 - d. 1871) 
                             (elected, but did not take office)
28 Oct 1852 - 10 Nov 1852  Francisco Castellón Sanabria       (b. 1815 - d. 1855)
Diet of the Republic of Greater Central America
15 Sep 1896 -  1 Nov 1898  Jacinto Castellanos Rivas          (b. 1843 - d. 1897)
                             (El Salvador)
                             (from 18 Sep 1896, President of the Diet)
                           + Enrique Constantino Fiallos      (b. 1861 - d. 1910)
                               Moreno (Nicaragua)
                           + Eugenio Mendoza (Honduras)
Federal Executive Council
 1 Nov 1898 - 29 Nov 1898  Manuel Coronel Matus (Nicaragua)   (b. 1864 - d. 1910)
                           + Salvador Gallegos Valdez         (b. 1844 - d. 1919)
                              (El Salvador)
                           + Ángel Ugarte Vega (Honduras)     (b. 1862 - d. 1898)
President of Provisional Federal Council¹
13 Jun 1921 - 29 Jan 1922  José Vicente Martínez              (b. 1863 - d. 1922)
                             (Guatemala)

 ¹Elected delegates of the Council were: José Llerena (b. 1849 - d. 1924)(Guatemala; never takes office); José Vicente Martínez (Guatemala; substitute for Llerena)(s.a.); Francisco Martínez Suárez (El Salvador), and Dionisio Gutiérrez (Honduras)(b. 1853 - d. 1935). On 22 Dec 1921, Marcial Prem Bolaños (b. 1856 - d. 1942) is elected sole member for Guatemala while the election of Llerena and Martínez is declared illegal, but he is not allowed to take his seat on the Council and Martínez continues in office without consent of the government of Guatemala.

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservador (Conservative); Lib = Liberal


Guatemala

10 Jul 1823                State of Guatemala; constituent state of the Central American 
                             Federation to 17 Apr 1839.
21 Mar 1847                Republic of Guatemala
13 Jun 1921 - 14 Jan 1922  State of Guatemala, during a later aborted attempt at
                             recreating a Central American Federation.

Supreme Chiefs of State
10 Jul 1823 - 15 Sep 1824  direct rule by Federation government
15 Sep 1824 - 12 Oct 1824  Alejandro Díaz Cabeza de Vaca      (b. 1766 - d. 18..)  Con 
                             (provisional)
12 Oct 1824 -  9 Sep 1826  Juan Nepomuceno Barrundia Cepeda   (b. 1787 - d. 1854)  Lib 
                             (1st time)
 9 Sep 1826 - 13 Oct 1826  José Cirilo Flores Estrada (acting)(b. 1779 - d. 1826)
13 Oct 1826 -  2 Jan 1827  direct rule by Federation government
 2 Jan 1827 -  1 Mar 1827  José Domingo Estrada (acting)                           Con
 1 Mar 1827 - 13 Apr 1829  Mariano de Aycinena y Piñol        (b. 1789 - d. 1855)  Con
13 Apr 1829 - 30 Apr 1829  Mariano Zenteno (provisional)      (b. 1773 - d. 1838)
30 Apr 1829 - 30 Aug 1829  Juan Nepomuceno Barrundia Cepeda   (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (2nd time)
30 Aug 1829 - 27 Oct 1830  Pedro José Antonio Molina          (b. 1777 - d. 1854)  Lib
                             Mazariegos
27 Oct 1830 - 10 Feb 1831  Antonio Rivera Cabezas (acting)    (b. 1784 - d. 1851)
10 Feb 1831 - 28 Aug 1831  José Gregorio Márquez (acting)
28 Aug 1831 -  3 Mar 1838  José Mariano Felipe Goyena y Gálvez(b. 1794 - d. 1862)  Lib
 3 Mar 1838 - 29 Jul 1838  Pedro José Valenzuela y Jáuregui   (b. 1797 - d. 1865)  Lib
                             (acting)
29 Jul 1838 - 30 Jan 1839  Mariano Rivera Paz (1st time)      (b. 1804 - d. 1849)  Lib
                             (acting)
30 Jan 1839 - 13 Apr 1839  Carlos Salazar Castro (provisional)(b. 1800 - d. 1867)
13 Apr 1839 -  3 Dec 1839  Mariano Rivera Paz (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Lib
                             (acting)
Presidents
 3 Dec 1839 - 25 Feb 1842  Mariano Rivera Paz (1st time)      (s.a.)               Lib
14 Dec 1841 - 14 May 1842  José Venancio López Requena        (b. 1791 - d. 1863)  Lib
                             (acting for Rivera Paz to 25 Feb 1842)
14 May 1842 - 11 Dec 1844  Mariano Rivera Paz (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Lib
11 Dec 1844 - 16 Aug 1848  José Rafael Carrera Turcios        (b. 1814 - d. 1865)  Con
                             (1st time) 
16 Aug 1848 - 28 Nov 1848  Juan Antonio Martínez Martínez     (b. 1783 - d. 1854)  Con
                             (interim)
28 Nov 1848 - 18 Jan 1849  José Bernardo Escobar (interim)    (b. 1797 - d. 1849)  Con
18 Jan 1849 -  6 Nov 1851  José Mariano de Jesús Paredes      (b. 1800? - d. 1856) Lib
                             (interim)
 6 Nov 1851 - 14 Apr 1865  José Rafael Carrera Turcios        (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time)
14 Apr 1865 - 24 May 1865  Pedro de Alcántara de Santa Teresa (b. 1802 - d. 1897)  Con
                             de Aycinena y Piñol (acting)
24 May 1865 - 29 Jun 1871  Vicente Cerna Cerna                (b. 1810 - d. 1885)  Lib
29 Jun 1871 -  4 Jun 1873  Miguel García Granados Zavala      (b. 1809 - d. 1878)  Lib
                             (in rebellion from 3 Jun 1871)
 4 Jun 1873 -  2 Apr 1885  Justo Rufino Barrios Auyón         (b. 1835 - d. 1885)  Lib
 2 Apr 1885 -  5 Apr 1885  Alejandro Manuel Sinibaldi y       (b. 1825 - d. 1896)  Lib
                             Castro (acting)  
 5 Apr 1885 - 15 Mar 1892  Manuel Lisandro Barillas Bercián   (b. 1845 - d. 1907)  Con
                             (acting to 15 Mar 1886)
15 Mar 1892 -  8 Feb 1898  José María Reina Barrios           (b. 1854 - d. 1898)  Con
 8 Feb 1898 - 15 Apr 1920  Manuel José Estrada Cabrera        (b. 1857 - d. 1924)  Lib
                             (acting to 21 Mar 1898)
15 Apr 1920 - 10 Dec 1921  Carlos Rafael Herrera y Luna       (b. 1856 - d. 1930)  Con
                             (acting to 15 Sep 1920; Head of State from 1 Oct 1921)
10 Dec 1921 - 26 Sep 1926  José María Orellana Pinto          (b. 1872 - d. 1926)  Con
                             (acting to 4 Mar 1922)
26 Sep 1926 -  2 Jan 1931  Lázaro Chacón González             (b. 1873 - d. 1931)  Con
                             (acting to 18 Dec 1926)
 2 Jan 1931 - 14 Feb 1931  José María Reina Andrade (acting)  (b. 1860 - d. 1947)  Con
14 Feb 1931 -  4 Jul 1944  Jorge Ubico y Castañeda            (b. 1878 - d. 1946)  Lib
 4 Jul 1944 - 20 Oct 1944  Juan Federico Ponce Vaides (acting)(b. 1889 - d. 1956)  Lib
20 Oct 1944 - 15 Mar 1945  Revolutionary Government Junta
                           - Francisco Javier Arana Castro    (b. 1905 - d. 1949)  Mil
                           - Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán             (b. 1913 - d. 1971)  Mil
                           - Jorge Toriello Garrido           (b. 1908? - d. 1998) Mil
15 Mar 1945 - 15 Mar 1951  Juan José Arévalo Bermejo          (b. 1904 - d. 1990)  PAR
15 Mar 1951 - 27 Jun 1954  Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán               (s.a.)               PAR
27 Jun 1954 - 28 Jun 1954  Carlos Enrique Díaz de León        (b. 1910 - d. 1971)  Mil
                             (provisional)
28 Jun 1954 - 29 Jun 1954  Government Junta
                           - Carlos Enrique Díaz de León      (s.a.)               Mil
                              (junta chairman)
                           - Élfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre     (b. 1912 - d. 1981)  Mil
                           - José Ángel Sánchez Barillas                           Mil
29 Jun 1954 -  7 Jul 1954  Élfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (junta chairman)
 7 Jul 1954 - 26 Jul 1957  Carlos Castillo Armas              (b. 1914 - d. 1957)  Lib
                            (in rebellion as head of the provisional 
                             government from 18 Jun 1954 - 2 Jul 1954;
                             junta chairman 7 Jul 1954 - 1 Sep 1954)
27 Jul 1957 - 24 Oct 1957  Luis Arturo González López (acting)(b. 1900 - d. 1965)  PAN 
24 Oct 1957 - 26 Oct 1957  Óscar Alberto Mendoza Azurdia      (b. 1917)            Mil
                             (chairman of military junta)
27 Oct 1957 -  2 Mar 1958  Guillermo Flores Avendaño (acting) (b. 1894 - d. 1982)  Mil 
 2 Mar 1958 - 31 Mar 1963  José Miguel Ramón Ydígoras Fuentes (b. 1895 - d. 1982)  PRN 
31 Mar 1963 -  1 Jul 1966  Alfredo Enrique Peralta Azurdia    (b. 1908 - d. 1997)  Mil 
                             (Head of government to 5 May 1966 and then Head of State)
 1 Jul 1966 -  1 Jul 1970  Julio César Méndez Montenegro      (b. 1915 - d. 1996)  PR 
 1 Jul 1970 -  1 Jul 1974  Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio         (b. 1918 - d. 2003)  Mil/MLN 
 1 Jul 1974 -  1 Jul 1978  Kjell Eugenio Laugerud García      (b. 1930 - d. 2009)  Mil/MLN/PID
 1 Jul 1978 - 23 Mar 1982  Fernando Romeo Lucas García        (b. 1924 - d. 2006)  Mil/PID/PR
23 Mar 1982 -  8 Aug 1983  José Efraín Ríos Montt             (b. 1926)            Mil
                             (chairman of military junta to 9 Jun 1982)
 8 Aug 1983 - 14 Jan 1986  Óscar Humberto Mejía Victores      (b. 1930)            Mil
                             (Chief of State)
14 Jan 1986 - 14 Jan 1991  Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo       (b. 1942)            PDCG 
14 Jan 1991 -  5 Jun 1993  Jorge Antonio Serrano Elías        (b. 1945)            MAS
 6 Jun 1993 - 14 Jan 1996  José Ramiro de León Carpio         (b. 1942 - d. 2002)  Non-party
14 Jan 1996 - 14 Jan 2000  Álvaro Enrique Arzú Irigoyen       (b. 1946)            PAN
14 Jan 2000 - 14 Jan 2004  Alfonso Antonio Portillo Cabrera   (b. 1951)            FRG
14 Jan 2004 - 14 Jan 2008  Óscar José Rafael Berger Perdomo   (b. 1946)          PSN;2005 GANA
14 Jan 2008 - 14 Jan 2012  Álvaro Colom Caballeros            (b. 1951)            UNE
14 Jan 2012 -              Otto Fernando Pérez Molina         (b. 1950)            PP
 

Territorial Disputes: Annual ministerial meetings under the Organization of American States-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land and maritime claims in Belize and the Caribbean Sea; Guatemala persists in its territorial claim to half of Belize, but agrees to Line of Adjacency to keep Guatemalan squatters out of Belize's forested interior; both countries agreed in Apr 2012 to hold simultaneous referenda, which were supposed to occur on 6 Oct 2013, to decide whether to refer the dispute to the ICJ for binding resolution; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States
Party abbreviations: FRG = Frente Republicano Guatemalteco (Guatemalan Republican Front, right-wing populist, est.1989); GANA = Gran Alianza Nacional (Grand National Alliance, center-right, est.2005, formerly coalition of PSN, PP & Movimiento Reformador 2003-2005); MAS = Movimiento de Acción Solidaria (Solidarity Action Movement, liberal conservative, est.1986); PAN = Partido de Avanzada Nacional (National Progress Party, conservative, est.1989); PP = Partido Patriota (Patriotic Party, conservative, est.2001); UNE = Unidad Nacional de la Esperanza (National Unity of Hope, social-democratic, est.2002); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Con = Conservador (Conservative); Lib = Liberal; MLN = Movimiento de Liberación Nacional de Guatemala (National Liberation Movement of Guatemala, authoritarian, far-right, c.1954-1999); PAR = Partido Acción Revolucionaria (Revolutionary Action Party, leftist, 1945-1947 & 1951-1954); PDCG = Partido Democracia Cristiana Guatemalteco (Guatemalan Christian Democratic Party, christian-socialist, center-left, 1955-2008); PID = Partido Institucional Democrática (Institutional Democratic Party, pro-government, center right, 1963-1990); PR = Partido Revolucionario (Revolutionary Party, ruling party 1967-1970, moderate left, from 1967 conservative, 1957-c.1990); PRDN = Partido Democrático Nacional de Reconciliación "Redencion" (National Democratic Reconciliation Party "Redemption", moderate conservative, 1950-1963); PSN = Partido Solidaridad Nacional (National Solidarity Party, conservative, 2002-2005, then GANA)

Los Altos

[Los Altos State Flag
                1838-1840]
    State Flag: 5 Feb 1838 - 29 Jan 1840,
            5 Sep 1848 - 15 May 1849

Map of  Los Altos
Capital: Quetzaltenango
Population: N/A (1838)

 2 Feb 1838                Ciudad de Quetzaltenango declares secession from Guatemala.
 5 Feb 1838                State of Los Altos (Estado de los Altos); independence from
                             State of Guatemala (Quetzaltenango joined by Totonicapán
                             and Sololá).
 5 Jun 1838 - 26 May 1839  Constituent state of the Central American Federation (s.a.)
29 Jan 1840                Re-incorporated into Guatemala.
26 Aug 1848                Ciudad de Quetzaltenango declares the continued existence of
                             State of Los Altos, and calls for the other cities to join.
 5 Sep 1848                Independence again (Estado de los Altos).
25 Oct 1848                Guatemala occupies Quetzaltenango, but provisional government
                             remains in dissidence.
15 May 1849                Re-incorporated into Guatemala.


 2 Feb 1838 -  5 Mar 1838  Provisional Government
                           - José María Marcelo Molina Mata   (b. 1800 - d. 1879)  Lib
                           - José María Gálvez Valiente
                           - José Antonio Claro Aguilar       (b. 1800 - d. 18..)
                               Colomo (to 5 Feb 1838)
                           - Joaquín Mont Prats
                              (from 5 Feb 1838)
                           - Felix Juárez (from 5 Feb 1838)
President of the Governing Junta

 5 Mar 1838 - 28 Dec 1838  José María Marcelo Molina Mata     (s.a.)               Lib
Chiefs of State
28 Dec 1838 - 29 Jan 1840  José María Marcelo Molina Mata     (s.a.)               Lib 
29 Jan 1840 -  5 Sep 1848  Re-incorporated into Guatemala
 5 Sep 1848 - 25 Dec 1848  Provisional Government
                           - Fernando Antonio Dávila          (b. 1783 - d. 1851)
                               Sotomayor
                           - José Velasco Yxquetey
                           - Rafael de la Torre López         (b. 1814? - d. 1848)
                              (to 21 Oct 1848)
25 Dec 1848 - 15 May 1849  Agustín Guzmán López (acting)                           Mil/Lib 


Party abbreviation
: Lib = Liberal; Mil = Military



Santo Tomas
[Santo Tomás de
                  Castilla, c.1843-1851 (Guatemala)]
   c.1843 - 1851

1841                       Compagnie Belge de Colonisation chartered.
19 Apr 1843                Compagnie granted a concession by Guatemala at Santo Tomás
                             de Castilla in Verapaz (Verapas or Verapa).
May 1843                   First colonists arrive from Belgium.
1855                       Concession rescinded by Guatemala.

Heads of the council
19 May 1843 - 24 Oct 1843  Philippot
24 Oct 1843 -  6 Mar 1844  Father R.P. Walle
 6 Mar 1844 -  1 Nov 1844  Guillaumont (Guillaumot)
 5 Nov 1844 -  1 Apr 1845  Alexander baron von Bülow          (d. 1856)
 1 Apr 1845 -  1 Nov 1845  Jean Dorn
Nov 1845 - Apr 1847        ....
Apr 1847 - c.1850          Jean Pierre Aguet
c.1850 - 1855              ....








© Ben Cahoon