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South Africa
 
[flag
                                    of South Africa of 1910]
                   31 May 1910 - 25 Mar 1912 
 
[flag
                                    of South Africa of 1912]
                  25 Mar 1912 - 31 May 1928
 
[flag
                                    of South Africa, 1928-1994]
           31 May 1928 - 27 Apr 1994 
 
[Flag of
                                    South Africa]
               Adopted 27 Apr 1994
 


Map of South Africa
Hear National Anthem
"N'kosi Sikelel' iAfrika"
(God Bless Africa)
Text National Anthem
Adopted 10 Oct 1997
Constitution
(4 Feb 1997)
Map of South Africa
1910-1994
Former National Anthem
"Die Stem van Suid Afrika"
(The Call of South Africa)
2 May 1957 - 27 Apr 1994
(unofficial from 1938;
co-anthem to 10 Oct 1997)

Former Co-National Anthem
"N'kosi Sikelel' iAfrika"
(God Bless Africa)
27 Apr 1994 - 10 Oct 1997
Former Constitutions
(1910, 1961, 1983, 1994)
Capital: Pretoria
Legislative: Cape Town
Judicial: Bloemfontein
(from 1961)
Currency: Rand (ZAR);
South African Pound (ZAP)
 1920-1961 
National Holiday: 27 Apr (1994)
Freedom Day
 --------------------------------------

1961-1993: 31 May (1910)
Republic Day
 (Union Day 1910-1961)
Population: 48,601,098 (2013)
42,792,804 (1993) 
GDP: $595.7 billion (2013) 
Exports: $91.05 billion (2013)
Imports: $99.55 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: black 79.2% (Zulu 22.7%, Xhosa 16%,
Pedi 9.1%, Tswana 8%, Sotho 7.6%, Tsonga 4.5%, Swazi 2.6%,
 Tshivenda 2.4%, Ndebele 2.1%, other black 2.2%), white 8.9%,
coloured 8.9%,
and Asian (mainly Indian) 2.5% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 62,082 (2010)
Former Nuclear Power: 6 weapons (1979-1992)
Merchant marine: 3 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 79.77% (of which Zion Christian 11.1%,
Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Roman Catholic 7.1%,
Methodist 6.8%,
Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%, other
Christian 36%)
, non-religious 15.10%,  Muslim 1.46%,
undetermined 1.36%, Hindu 1.23%,
African traditional beliefs
 and animist 0.28%
,
Jewish 0.17%,
other 0.63% (2001)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, ANT, APM, AU, BIS, BRICS, BTWC, C, CCM (signatory), CMA, CTBT, CWC, DBSA, DLU (special partner), ESCR (signatory), FAO, G-20, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NAM, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OECD (partner), OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
South Africa
Index
Chronology

 7 Apr 1652                Dutch Cape Colony, administered by Dutch 
                             East India Company.
16 Sep 1795                Cape Colony occupied by Britain.
 5 Mar 1797                British colony.
21 Feb 1803                Colony of the Batavian Republic (Netherlands).
10 Jan 1806                British re-occupy Cape Colony.
13 Aug 1814                Dutch officially cede Cape Colony to Britain.
 6 May 1835 - 24 Dec 1839  Port Natal a British colony.
 6 Jun 1837 - 12 May 1843  Republic of Natal (Natalia)(a Boer republic).
12 May 1843 - 31 May 1844  British take Natal taken from Boers, it becomes
                             Natal Colony on 28 Sep 1843.
31 May 1844 -  4 Dec 1845  Natal annexed to Cape Colony.
 8 Mar 1845                Transorangia a British settlement.
 8 Mar 1848 - 11 Mar 1854  Orange River Sovereignty (under British rule;
                             annexed to Cape Colony).
17 Jan 1852                Sand River Convention, U.K. recognizes Boer
                             independence north of the Vaal River.
21 Sep 1853                South-African Republic (a Boer republic).
23 Feb 1854                Orange Free State (a Boer republic).
29 Mar 1854 - 31 May 1902  Republic of the Orange Free State
12 Jul 1856                Natal Colony reconstituted.
 7 Mar 1860 - 17 Apr 1866  British Kaffraria a separate colony
                             (fomerly Queen Adelaide Province 1835-1847).
12 Apr 1877                Transvaal a British colony.
 8 Aug 1881                Transvaal State (South-African Republic).
 8 Aug 1884 - 31 May 1902  South-African Republic (restored).
 7 Aug 1884 -  1 Mar 1994  Walvis Bay under (1884-1910 Cape Colony) South 
                             African rule. 
 1 Sep 1885 - 16 Nov 1895  British Bechuanaland a separate colony.
21 Jun 1887 -  1 Dec 1897  Zululand a separate British colony.
13 Mar 1900                British occupy Bloemfontein.
30 May 1900                British occupy Johannesburg.
 5 Jun 1900                British occupy Pretoria.
25 Oct 1900                Transvaal a British colony.
 4 Jan 1901                Orange River Colony
31 May 1902                Boer resistance ceases upon the signing of the
                             Treaty of Vereeniging.
31 May 1910                Union of South Africa (Cape Colony, Natal, Orange
                             Free State and Transvaal united as a British
                             dominion).
 9 Jul 1915 - 21 Mar 1990  South West Africa (Namibia) ruled by South
                             Africa.
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty to 
                             the British dominions (effective in South Africa
                             with Royal assent 22 Jun 1934).
29 Dec 1947                Prince Edward Islands annexed (Marion Island on
                             29 Dec 1947 and Prince Edward I. on 4 Jan 1948).
 4 Jun 1948 - 11 Feb 1990  Apartheid era.
31 May 1961                Republic of South Africa
1976/77/79/81              Nominal independence of four black homelands
                             (recognized only by South Africa and each other).
12 Jan 1986 -  8 Jun 1990  State of emergency imposed.
 1 Mar 1994                Walvis Bay and Penguin Islands formally
                             transferred to Namibia.
27 Apr 1994                Re-integration of the homelands.

South Africa
(from 1910)
Provinces
Traditional
States
Homelands
(1968-1994)
Prince Edward
Islands
Cape Colony
(1652-1910)
Graaff-Reinet  Swellendam
(1795-1796)
Goshen
(1882-1885)
Stellaland
(1882-1885)
British
   Bechuanaland

(1885-1895)
British Kaffraria
(1835-1866)
Natal
(1836-1910)
Port Natal
(1824-1839)
Zululand
(1887-1897)
Orange Free
State
(1845-1910)
Transvaal
(1838-1910)
Winburg-
Potchefstroom

(1834-1860)
Utrecht
(1852-1858)
New Republic
(1884-1888)
Little Republic
(1886-1891)
Griqualand West
(1813-1880)
Campbell  Land
(1813-1857)
Klipdrift Republic
(1870)
Philippolis
(1825-1861)
Griqualand East
(1861-1874)
 

Cape Colony
 
[National
                                    flag of the Netherlands]  
               to 16 Sep 1795; 
         21 Feb 1803 - 10 Jan 1806
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                16 Sep 1795 - 21 Feb 1803; 
                10 Jan 1806 - 12 May 1875
 
[Cape
                                    of Good Hope Blue Ensign]
               12 May 1875 - 31 May 1910
 
 
Map of Cape Colony
(c.1894)
Capital: Cape Town
(Kaapsche Vlek 1652-c.1678
 Kaapstad c.1678-1795, 1803-1806)
Population: 2,564,965 (1911)

 7 Apr 1652                Dutch Cape Colony (Kaap de Goede Hoop), administered by
                             Dutch East India Company.
16 Sep 1795                Cape Colony occupied by British forces.
 5 Mar 1797                British colony.
21 Feb 1803 - 18 Jan 1806  Colony of the Batavian Republic (Netherlands).
10 Jan 1806                British retake Cape Colony.
13 Aug 1814                Dutch officially cede Cape Colony to Britain.
 1 Dec 1872                Responsible government granted.
31 May 1910                Part of the Union of South Africa.
 

Commanders (for the Dutch East India Company)
 7 Apr 1652 -  6 May 1662  Jan Anthoniszoon van Riebeeck      (b. 1619 - d. 1677)
 6 May 1662 - 27 Sep 1666  Zacharias Wagenaer                 (b. 1614 - d. 1668)
27 Sep 1666 - 18 Jun 1668  Cornelis van Quaelberg             (b. 1623 - d. 1687)
18 Jun 1668 - 25 Mar 1670  Jacob van Borghorst
25 Mar 1670 -  2 Jun 1670  Pieter Hackius                     (d. 1671)
Governors
(for the Dutch East India Company)
 2 Jun 1670 - 30 Nov 1671  Pieter Hackius                     (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1671 - 25 Mar 1672  Politieke Raad (Political Council)
                           - Coenraad (Konrad) van Breitenbach
                              (chaiman)
                           - Johannes Coon (Coen)

                           - Daniël Froijmanteau (Fermenthau)
                           - Hendrick Crudop                  (b. 1646 - d. 1686)
                           - Willem van Dieden (from 1672)
                           - Johan Wittebol (from Dec 1671)   (b. c.1648 - d. 1681)
25 Mar 1672 -  2 Oct 1672  Albert van Breughel (acting)       (d. 1686)
 2 Oct 1672 - 14 Mar 1676  Ijsbrand Goske                     (b. c.1626 - d. 1689)
14 Mar 1676 - 29 Jun 1678  Johan Bax van Herenthals           (b. 1637 - d. 1678) 
29 Jun 1678 - 12 Oct 1678  Hendrick Crudop (acting)           (s.a.)
12 Oct 1678 - 11 Feb 1699  Simon van der Stel                 (b. 1639 - d. 1712)
                             (commander to 1 Jun 1691)
11 Feb 1699 -  3 Jun 1707  Willem Adriaan van der Stel        (b. 1664 - d. 1733)
 3 Jun 1707 -  1 Feb 1708  Johannes Cornelis d'Ablaing        (b. 1663 - d. 1721)
                             (acting)
 1 Feb 1708 - 27 Dec 1711  Lodewijk van Assenburgh            (b. 1660 - d. 1711)
27 Dec 1711 - 28 Mar 1714  Willem Helot (acting)
28 Mar 1714 -  8 Sep 1724  Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes       (b. 1654 - d. 1724)
 8 Sep 1724 - 25 Feb 1727  Jean de la Fontaine (1st time)     (b. 1689 - d. 1743)
                             (acting)
25 Feb 1727 - 23 Apr 1729  Pieter Gysbert Noodt               (b. 1681 - d. 1729)
23 Apr 1729 - 31 Aug 1737  Jean de la Fontaine (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting to 8 Mar 1737)
31 Aug 1737 - 19 Sep 1737  Adriaan van Kervel                 (b. 1681 - d. 1737)
20 Sep 1737 - 14 Apr 1739  Daniël van den Henghel (acting)
14 Apr 1739 - 27 Feb 1751  Hendrik Swellengrebel              (b. 1700 - d. 1760)
27 Feb 1751 - 11 Aug 1771  Ryk Tulbagh                        (b. 1699 - d. 1771)
12 Aug 1771 - 14 Feb 1785  Joachim Ammema van Plattenberg,    (b. 1739 - d. 1793) 
                             baron van Plattenberg       
                             (acting to 18 May 1774) 
14 Feb 1785 - 24 Jun 1791  Cornelis Jacob van de Graeff       (b. 1734 - d. 1812)
24 Jun 1791 -  3 Jul 1792  Johann Isaac Rhenius (acting)      (b. 1721 - d. 1811)
Commissioners-general
 3 Jul 1792 -  2 Sep 1793  Sebastian Cornelis Nederburgh      (b. 1762 - d. 1811)
                           + Simon Hendrik Frykenius          (b. 1747 - d. 1797)
 2 Sep 1793 - 16 Sep 1795  Abraham Josias Sluysken            (b. 1736 - d. 1799)
Commanders
16 Sep 1795 - 15 Nov 1795  Sir George Keith Elphinstone       (b. 1746 - d. 1823)
                           + Alured Clarke                    (b. 1745 - d. 1832)
                           + James Henry Craig                (b. 1748 - d. 1812)
Commandant
15 Nov 1795 -  5 May 1797  James Henry Craig                  (s.a.)
Governors
 5 May 1797 - 20 Nov 1798  George Macartney, Earl Macartney   (b. 1737 - d. 1806)
20 Nov 1798 -  9 Dec 1799  Francis Dundas (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1759 - d. 1824)
10 Dec 1799 - 20 Apr 1801  Sir George Yonge                   (b. 1731 - d. 1812)
21 Apr 1801 - 20 Feb 1803  Francis Dundas (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)
Commissioner-general
21 Feb 1803 - 25 Sep 1804  Jacob Abraham Uitenhage de Mist    (b. 1749 - d. 1823)
Governors
 1 Mar 1803 - 18 Jan 1806  Jan Willem Janssens                (b. 1762 - d. 1838)
10 Jan 1806 - 17 Jan 1807  Sir David Baird -Military governor (b. 1757 - d. 1829)
                             (acting) 
17 Jan 1807 - 21 May 1807  Henry George Grey (1st time)       (b. 1766 - d. 1845) 
                             (acting)
22 May 1807 -  4 Jul 1811  Du Pré Alexander, Earl of Caledon  (b. 1777 - d. 1839)
 5 Jul 1811 -  5 Sep 1811  Henry George Grey (2nd time)       (s.a.) 
                             (acting) 
 6 Sep 1811 -  6 Apr 1814  Sir John Francis Cradock           (b. 1762 - d. 1839)
18 Oct 1813 -  7 Jan 1814  Robert Meade                       (b. 1772 - d. 1852)
                             (acting for Cradock)
 6 Apr 1814 -  5 Mar 1826  Lord Charles Henry Somerset        (b. 1767 - d. 1831)
13 Jan 1820 - 30 Nov 1821  Sir Rufane Shawe Donkin            (b. 1772 - d. 1841)
                             (acting for Somerset)
 5 Mar 1826 -  9 Sep 1828  Richard Bourke (acting)            (b. 1777 - d. 1855)
 9 Sep 1828 - 10 Aug 1833  Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole           (b. 1772 - d. 1842)
10 Aug 1833 - 16 Jan 1834  Thomas Francis Wade                (b. c.1784 - d. 1846)
                             (acting [for D'Urban from 10 Jan 1834])
10 Jan 1834 - 20 Jan 1838  Sir Benjamin D'Urban               (b. 1777 - d. 1849)
22 Jan 1838 - 18 Mar 1844  Sir George Thomas Napier           (b. 1784 - d. 1855)
18 Mar 1844 - 27 Jan 1847  Sir Peregrine Maitland             (b. 1777 - d. 1854
Governors (and to 31 May 1910 also High Commissioners for South Africa)
27 Jan 1847 -  1 Dec 1847  Sir Henry Eldred Pottinger         (b. 1789 - d. 1856)
 1 Dec 1847 - 31 Mar 1852  Sir Henry "Harry" George Wakelyn   (b. 1787 - d. 1860)
                             Smith
31 Mar 1852 - 26 May 1854  George Cathcart                    (b. 1794 - d. 1854)
26 May 1854 -  5 Dec 1854  Charles Henry Darling (acting)     (b. 1809 - d. 1870)
 5 Dec 1854 - 15 Aug 1861  Sir George Grey                    (b. 1812 - d. 1898)
20 Aug 1859 -  4 Jul 1860  Robert Henry Wynyard (1st time)    (b. 1802 - d. 1864)
                             (acting for Grey) 
15 Aug 1861 - 15 Jan 1862  Robert Henry Wynyard (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
15 Jan 1862 - 20 May 1870  Sir Philip Edmond Wodehouse        (b. 1811 - d. 1887)
20 May 1870 - 31 Dec 1870  Charles Craufurd Hay (acting)      (b. 1809 - d. 1873)
31 Dec 1870 - 31 Mar 1877  Sir Henry Barkly                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
31 Mar 1877 - 15 Sep 1880  Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere      (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
15 Sep 1880 - 27 Sep 1880  Henry Hugh Clifford (acting)       (b. 1826 - d. 1883)
27 Sep 1880 - 22 Jan 1881  Sir George Cumine Strahan (acting) (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
22 Jan 1881 -  1 May 1889  Sir Hercules George Robert         (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
                             Robinson (1st time)
30 Apr 1881 - Aug 1881     Sir Leicester Smyth (1st time)     (b. 1829 - d. 1891)
                             (acting for Robinson)
25 Apr 1883 - 26 Mar 1884  Sir Leicester Smyth (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting for Robinson)
 7 Apr 1886 -  7 Jul 1886  Sir Henry D'Oyley Torrens          (b. 1833 - d. 1889)
                             (acting for Robinson)
 1 May 1889 - 13 Dec 1889  Henry Augustus Smyth (acting)      (b. 1825 - d. 1906)
13 Dec 1889 - 30 May 1895  Sir Henry Brougham Loch            (b. 1827 - d. 1900)
14 Jan 1891 -  1 Dec 1892  Sir William Gordon Cameron         (b. 1827 - d. 1913)
                             (1st time)(acting for Loch)
May 1894 - Jul 1894        Sir William Gordon Cameron         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting for Loch) 
30 May 1895 - 21 Apr 1897  Sir Hercules George Robert         (s.a.)
                             Robinson (2nd time)
                            (from 10 Aug 1896, Hercules George Robert
                             Robinson, Baron Rosmead)
21 Apr 1897 -  5 May 1897  Sir William Howley Goodenough      (b. 1833 - d. 1898)
                             (acting)
 5 May 1897 -  6 Mar 1901  Sir Alfred Milner                  (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
 2 Nov 1898 - 14 Feb 1899  Sir William Francis Butler         (b. 1838 - d. 1910)
                             (acting for Milner)
 6 Mar 1901 - 31 May 1910  Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson (b. 1849 - d. 1913)
17 Jun 1909 - 21 Sep 1909  Sir Henry Jenner Scobell           (b. 1859 - d. 1912)
                             (acting for Hely-Hutchinson)

Prime ministers
 1 Dec 1872 -  5 Feb 1878  John Charles Molteno               (b. 1814 - d. 1886)  Non-party
 6 Feb 1878 -  8 May 1881  John Gordon Sprigg (1st time)      (b. 1830 - d. 1913)  Non-party 
 9 May 1881 - 12 May 1884  Thomas Charles Scanlen             (b. 1834 - d. 1912)  Non-party
13 May 1884 - 24 Nov 1886  Thomas Upington                    (b. 1844 - d. 1898)  Non-party
25 Nov 1886 - 16 Jul 1890  Sir John Gordon Sprigg (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Non-party
17 Jul 1890 - 12 Jan 1896  Cecil John Rhodes                  (b. 1853 - d. 1902)  Non-party
13 Jan 1896 - 13 Oct 1898  Sir John Gordon Sprigg (3rd time)  (s.a.)               Non-party
13 Oct 1898 - 17 Jun 1900  William Philip Schreiner           (b. 1857 - d. 1919)  Non-party
18 Jun 1900 - 21 Feb 1904  Sir John Gordon Sprigg (4th time)  (s.a.)               PP
22 Feb 1904 -  2 Feb 1908  Leander Starr Jameson              (b. 1853 - d. 1917)  PP
 3 Feb 1908 - 31 May 1910  John Xavier Merriman               (b. 1841 - d. 1926)  SAP

Party abbreviations: PP = Progressive Party (liberal, British, 1890-1908, renamed Unionist Party); SAP = South African Party (conservative, supported by liberal Afrikaans, 1890-1910, merged to form new Union-wide South African Party)


Graaff-Reinet

[National flag of the Netherlands]
 
Capital: Graaff-Reinet
Population: N/A

 6 Feb 1795                Cape district of Graaf-Reinet revolts against Dutch East
                             Indian Company rule.
22 Aug 1796                British rule, re-incorporated into Cape Colony.

Chairman of the Provisional Government and War Council
 6 Feb 1795 - 22 Aug 1796  Adriaan Van Jaarsfeld              (b. 1745 - d. 1801)
Landdrost
 6 Feb 1795 - 22 Aug 1796  Friedrich Carl David Gerotz        (b. 1739 - d. 1828)
                             (acting)


Swellendam

[National flag of the Netherlands]
 
Capital: Swellendam
Population: N/A

18 Jun 1795               Cape district of Swellendam revolts against Dutch East
                            India Company rule (colloquially called "Swellendam Republic").
Nov 1795                  British rule, re-incorporated into Cape Colony.

National Commandant
18 Jun 1795 - Jul 1795    Petrus Jacobus Delport             (b. 1757 - d. af.1800)
National Landdrost
18 Jun 1795 - Nov 1795    Hermanus Steyn                     (b. 1743 - d. 1804)


Goshen

[Goshen (South Africa)]
         5 Mar 1883 - 23 Mar 1885
 
Capital: Rooigrond
Population: N/A

24 Oct 1882                Het Land Goosen independent.
11 Oct 1883                Agrees to merges with Stellaland to from United States
                             of Stellaland, but not effected.
23 Mar 1885                Incorporated into Cape Colony (part of Bechuanaland).

Chairman of the Council of Government
24 Oct 1882 -  7 Aug 1883  Nicolaas Claudius Gey van Pittius  (b. 1837 - d. 1893)
Administrator
 7 Aug 1884 - 23 Mar 1885  Nicolaas Claudius Gey van Pittius  (s.a.)


Stellaland
 
[Stellaland
                          1882 flag (Carr)]
                  1882 - 1883 
 
[Stellaland
                          1883 flag]
                   1883 - 1884 
 
[Flag Stellaland
                          1884-1885]
                  1884 - 1885 
 
Capital: Vrijburg (Vryburg)
Population: N/A

18 Jan 1883                Boer conquered land named Stellaland.
 6 Aug 1883
                Republic of Stellaland independent.
23 Mar 1885                Incorporated into Cape Colony (part of Bechuanaland).

Administrator
18 Jan 1883 - 23 Mar 1885  Gerrit Jacobus van Niekerk        (
b. 1849 - d. 1896)


British Bechuanaland

  [Flag of the United Kingdom]                          
                            1885 - 1895

 
Map of British
Bechuanaland
Capital: Vrijburg
(Vryburg)
Population: N/A

 1 Sep 1885                British Bechuanaland crown colony.
16 Nov 1895                Incorporated into Cape Colony.

Military Commander
 1 Sep 1885 - 23 Oct 1885  Frederick Carrington                (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
Administrator
23 Oct 1885 - 16 Nov 1895  Sidney Godolphin Alexander Shippard (b. 1837 - d. 1902)
                            (from 21 Jun 1887, Sir Sidney Godolphin Alexander Shippard)


British Kaffraria (Queen Adelaide Land)

[Flag of the United Kingdom]
 
Capital: King William's Town; Grahamstown 1835-1847;
King William's Town 1835)
Population: N/A

10 May 1835                Annexed to Cape Colony as Queen Adelaide Province.
 5 Dec 1835                Dis-annexed from Cape Colony, Xhosa allowed to return.
10 Dec 1835                Renamed Queen Adelaide Land, a district of Cape Colony.
17 Dec 1847                Annexed to Cape Colony as British Kaffraria.
 7 Mar 1860                British Kaffraria a separate crown colony.
17 Apr 1866                Incorporated into Cape Colony.

Chief Commissioner
10 May 1835 -  5 Dec 1835  Henry "Harry" George Wakelyn       (b. 1787 - d. 1860)
                             Smith
Lieutenant-governors of the Eastern Districts
10 Dec 1835 - 13 Sep 1836  Henry "Harry" George Wakelyn       (s.a.)
                             Smith (acting)
13 Sep 1836 -  9 Aug 1838  Sir Andries Stockenström           (b. 1792 - d. 1864)
 9 Aug 1838 - Sep 1846     Sir John Hare                      (b. 1782? - d. 1846)
                             (acting to 31 Aug 1839)  
Sep 1846 -  9 Apr 1847     direct rule by Cape Colony
 9 Apr 1847 -  4 Nov 1847  Sir Henry Edward Fox Young         (b. 1803 - d. 1870) 
 4 Nov 1847 - 17 Dec 1847  direct rule by Cape Colony
Chief Commissioners
23 Dec 1847 - Oct 1852     George Henry Mackinnon             (b. 1806 - d. 1899)    
Oct 1852 -  7 Mar 1860     John Maclean                       (b. 1810 - d. 1874)
Lieutenant-governor
 7 Mar 1860 - 24 Dec 1864  John Maclean                       (s.a.)
Deputy governor
24 Dec 1864 - 17 Apr 1866  Robert Graham                      (b. 1816 - d. 1887)

Paramount chiefs (of amaRharhabe [offshoot of main Xhosa line])
1829 - 1840                Maqoma Jongumsobomvu a Ngqika
                             (acting)
1840 - 29 May 1878         Sandile a Ngqika                   (b. 1820 - d. 1878)


Idutywa Reserve
 
Capital: Idutywa
Population: N/A

Aug 1858                  Idutywa Reserve created as a dependency of British Kaffraria
                            for the fragments of Umhala's clan.
Dec 1864                  Merged into British Kaffraria.

British Special Magistrates for the Idutywa Reserve
Aug 1858 - Sep 1858       John Cox Gawler                     (b. 1830 - d. 1882)
Sep 1858 - May 1860       George Pomeroy Colley               (b. 1835 - d. 1881)
May 1860 -  2 Mar 1861    William George Brooks Shepstone     (b. 1823 - d. 1861) 
Sep 1861 - 24 Dec 1864    William Buchanan Chalmers           (b. 1833 - d. 1910) 



Natal
 
[Natalia (South Africa),
                                  1839-1843]
             1839 - 13 May 1843 
 
[Natal
                                  Blue Ensign (1875)]
              23 Aug 1875 - 16 May 1907
 
[Natal
                                  Blue Ensign (1905)]
               16 May 1907 - 31 May 1910
 
Map of Natal
Capital: Pietermaritzburg
(Durban 1836-1843)
Constitution
(1828-1843)
Population: 1,200,000
(1909 est.)

 2 Dec 1836                Company of Emigrants (Trekker Maatschappij) constituted.
 6 Jun 1837                Free Province of New Holland in South-East Africa
12 Oct 1838                "Natalia" (Republic of Natal)¹
12 May 1843                British take Natalia from Boers.
28 Sep 1843                British colony (Natal)
31 May 1844                Annexed to Cape colony (as Natal district).
 4 Dec 1845                Natal a separate province.
12 Jul 1856                Natal Colony reconstituted.
10 May 1893                Responsible government granted.
15 Oct 1899 - 1899         Boers occupy Newcastle (renamed Viljoensdorp).
31 May 1910                Part of the Union of South Africa.

President of the Burghers' Council and Chief Commandant
 2 Dec 1836 -  6 Jun 1837  Gerhardus Marthinus Maritz         (b. 1797 - d. 1838)
Chief Governor
 6 Jun 1837 -  6 Feb 1838  Pieter Maurits Retief              (b. 1780 - d. 1838)
Presidents of the Policy Council
 6 Feb 1838 - 23 Sep 1838  Gerhardus Marthinus Maritz         (s.a.)
23 Sep 1838 - 12 Oct 1838  Karel Pieter Landman               (b. 1796 - d. 1875)
Chairmen of the Raad²
14 May 1839 - Mar 1840     Johannes Stephanus Maritz          (b. 1794 - d. 1857)
                             (1st time)
 1 Apr 1840 - Jun 1840     Laurens Badenhorst (1st time)      (b. 1800 - d. 18..)
 5 Aug 1840                Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo   (b. 1807? - d. 1877)
                             (1st time)
 5 Aug 1840 - Aug 1840     Karel Pieter Landman (1st time)    (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1840 - Sep 1840     Laurens Badenhorst (2nd time)      (s.a.)
28 Sep 1840 - Nov 1840     Frans Roos (1st time)
17 Nov 1840                Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
18 Nov 1840                Frans Roos (2nd time)
14 Jan 1841 - Jan 1841     Karel Pieter Landman (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1841                Lucas Johannes Meijer
 2 Feb 1841                Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof (1st time) (b. 1808 - d. 1881)
 3 Feb 1841                Jurie J. Wessels
 7 Apr 1841 - Apr 1841     Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
14 Jun 1841 - Jun 1841     Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof (2nd time) (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1841 - Oct 1841     Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo
                             (4th time)
 3 Jan 1842 - Jan 1842     Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof (3rd time) (s.a.)
17 Jan 1842                Johannes Hendrik Bruwer
19 Feb 1842 - Feb 1842     Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo   (s.a.) 
                             (5th time)
14 Mar 1842                Matthys Hendrik Marais
 6 Apr 1842                Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof (4th time) (s.a.)
25 Apr 1842                P.R. Otto (1st time)
26 Apr 1842                P.R. Otto (2nd time)
27 Apr 1842 - Apr 1842     Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo   (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
 2 Jun 1842                Hermanus Stephanus Lombaard
                             (1st time)
10 Jun 1842                Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo   (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
13 Jun 1842                Hermanus Stephanus Lombaard
                             (2nd time)
15 Jun 1842                Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof (5th time) (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1842 - Oct 1842     Hermanus Stephanus Lombaard
                             (3rd time)
14 Nov 1842                Evert Fk. Potgieter
17 Dec 1842                Hermanus Stephanus Lombaard
                             (4th time)
 2 - 4 Jan 1843            Andreas Theodorus Spies (1st time) 
19 Jan 1843 - Feb 1843     Johannes Stephanus Maritz          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
20 Feb 1843                Paulus Hermanus Zietsman (1st time) 
13 Mar 1843 - Apr 1843     Johannes Stephanus Maritz          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 7 Aug 1843                Andreas Theodorus Spies (2nd time)
 8 Aug 1843 - Sep 1843     Johannes Stephanus Maritz          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
30 Oct 1843                P.R. Otto (3rd time) 
 4 Dec 1843 - Jan 1844     Paulus Hermanus Zietsman (2nd time)
 4 Mar 1844 - Mar 1844     P.R. Otto (4th time) 
 3 Jun 1844                Paulus Hermanus Zietsman (3rd time)
 8 Jul 1844                M.J. Potgieter
12 Aug 1844                Paulus Hermanus Zietsman (4th time)
 2 Sep 1844                P.R. Otto (5th time) 
 4 Sep 1844                no presiding officer recorded
13 Sep 1844                J.A. Kriel
21 Sep 1844 - Apr 1845     Johannes Stephanus Maritz          (s.a.)
                             (5th time) 
 7 Jul 1845 - Jul 1845     P.R. Otto (6th time)
Chief Commandant
23 Nov 1838 -  6 Mar 1840  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus          (b. 1798 - d. 1853)
                             Pretorius
Commandants-General
 3 Jun 1840 - 10 Jan 1842  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus          (s.a.)
                             Pretorius (1st time)
21 Feb 1842 -  9 Aug 1842  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus          (s.a.)
                             Pretorius (2nd time)
Special Commissioner
10 May 1843 - 31 May 1844  Henry Cloete                       (b. 1792 - d. 1870)
31 May 1844 -  4 Dec 1845  direct rule by Cape Colony
Lieutenant-governors
 4 Dec 1845 -  1 Aug 1849  Martin Thomas West                 (b. 1804? - d. 1849)
19 Apr 1850 -  3 Mar 1855  Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine     (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
                             (1st time)
 5 Nov 1856 - 31 Dec 1864  John Scott                         (b. 1814 - d. 1898)
31 Dec 1864 - 26 Jul 1865  John Maclean                       (b. 1810 - d. 1874)
26 Jul 1865 - 26 Aug 1865  John Wellesley Thomas (acting)     (b. 1822 - d. 1908)
26 Aug 1865 - 24 May 1867  John Jarvis Bisset (acting)        (b. 1819 - d. 1894)
24 May 1867 - 19 Jul 1872  Robert William Keate               (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
19 Jul 1872 - 30 Apr 1873  Anthony Musgrave                   (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
30 Apr 1873 - 22 Jul 1873  Thomas Milles (acting)
22 Jul 1873 -  1 Apr 1875  Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Apr 1875 -  3 Sep 1875  Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley (acting)(b. 1833 - d. 1913) 
 3 Sep 1875 - 20 Apr 1880  Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer   (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
20 Apr 1880 -  5 May 1880  William Bellairs (acting)          (b. 1828 - d. 1913)
 5 May 1880 -  2 Jul 1880  Henry Hugh Clifford (acting)       (b. 1826 - d. 1883)
Governors
 2 Jul 1880 - 27 Feb 1881  Sir George Pomeroy Colley          (b. 1835 - d. 1881)
17 Aug 1880 - 14 Sep 1880  Henry Alexander (acting for Colley)
27 Feb 1881 -  3 Apr 1881  Sir Henry Evelyn Wood (acting)     (b. 1838 - d. 1919)
 3 Apr 1881 -  9 Aug 1881  Redvers Henry Buller (acting)      (b. 1839 - d. 1908)
22 Dec 1881 -  6 Mar 1882  Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell       (b. 1836 - d. 1899)
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 6 Mar 1882 - 23 Oct 1885  Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer   (s.a.)
18 Feb 1886 -  5 Jun 1889  Sir Arthur Elibank Havelock        (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
 1 Dec 1889 - Jul 1893     Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
Jul 1893 - 27 Sep 1893     Francis Seymour Haden (acting)     (b. 1850 - d. 1918)
28 Sep 1893 -  6 May 1901  Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson (s.a.)
13 May 1901 -  7 Jun 1907  Sir Henry Edward McCallum          (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
 2 Sep 1907 - 23 Dec 1909  Sir Matthew Nathan                 (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
17 Jan 1910 - 31 May 1910  Paul Sanford Methuen,              (b. 1845 - d. 1932)
                             Baron Methuen of Corsham 

Prime ministers
10 Oct 1893 - 14 Feb 1897  Sir John Robinson                  (b. 1839 - d. 1903)  Non-party
15 Feb 1897 -  4 Oct 1897  Harry Escombe                      (b. 1838 - d. 1899)  Non-party
 5 Oct 1897 -  8 Jun 1899  Sir Henry Binns                    (b. 1837 - d. 1899)  Non-party
 9 Jun 1899 - 17 Aug 1903  Sir Albert Henry Hime              (b. 1842 - d. 1919)  Non-party
18 Aug 1903 - 16 May 1905  George Morris Sutton               (b. 1834 - d. 1913)  Non-party
16 May 1905 - 28 Nov 1906  Charles John Smythe                (b. 1852 - d. 1918)  Non-party
28 Nov 1906 - 28 Apr 1910  Frederick Robert Moor              (b. 1853 - d. 1927)  Non-party

 ¹The constitution of 1838 did not specify an official name for the polity. Sources style
it Natalia or Republic of Natal. In foreign correspondence the Raad (Council) requested occasionally that the polity be styled Republic of Port Natal and Adjoining Countries; 
not surprisingly, nobody took them up on this idea.

 ²According to the constitution, the state was to be headed by a committee called the 
Politie; the President of the Politie would be the formal head of state. However, this body was never constituted. In this record, the chairman of the Raad is regarded as the head of state. The chairman was officially elected quarterly. The list of chairmen is very incomplete; dates are given when the person named was active. During much of the time of independence
of Natalia the Raad appointed a Chief Commandant or Commandant-General, who functioned informally as a Chief Executive, and is therefore listed here.


Port Natal

[Flag of the United Kingdom]
 
Capital: Port Natal (Durban)
Population: N/A

 7 Aug 1824                Port Natal granted to British settlers under kwaZulu suzerainty.
30 Apr 1828                Port Natal settlement dissolved.
 6 May 1835                British settlers return, kwaZulu suzerainty continues.
23 Jun 1835                Port Natal renamed Durban.
 4 Feb 1838                kwaZulu cede area to Natal, but Zulu then destroy settlement.
16 May 1838                Re-claimed by Natal, renamed Port Natal.
 3 Dec 1838                Occupied by British forces from Cape Colony, renamed Durban.
24 Dec 1839                Incorporated into Natal.

Chief British Settler
 7 Aug 1824 - 30 Apr 1828  Francis George Farewell            (b. 1784 - d. 1829)
30 Apr 1828 -  6 May 1835  No formal British rule
Special Magistrate
21 Apr 1835 - 1838         Allen Francis Gardiner             (b. 1794 - d. 1851)
Landdrost
May 1838 - 1838            Alexander Biggar                   (b. 1781 - d. 1838)
British Commandants of Port Natal
 3 Dec 1838 - 20 Jan 1839  Samuel Charters                    (b. 1788 - d. 1866)
20 Jan 1839 - 24 Dec 1839  Henry Jervis                       (d. 1879)


Zululand

[Flag of the United Kingdom]

Map of Zululand Capital: Eshowe Population: 230,000
(1896 est.) 

 4 Jul 1879                British occupation.
1883                       Zulu "Native" Reserve (Zululand province).
21 Jun 1887                British crown colony Zululand (declared over KwaZulu).
 1 Dec 1897                Incorporated into Natal.

British Residents
 8 Sep 1879 - Jan 1880     William Douglas Wheelwright        (b. 1846 - d. 1887)
Jan 1880 - 22 Dec 1882     Sir Melmoth Osborn                 (b. 1834 - d. 1899)
Resident Commissioners
22 Dec 1882 - Mar 1883     John Wesley Shepstone              (b. 1827 - d. 1916)
Mar 1883 - 1887            Sir Melmoth Osborn                 (s.a.)
Governors

21 Jun 1887 -  1 Dec 1897  the governors of Natal
Resident Commissioners and Chief magistrates
1887 - 1893                Sir Melmoth Osborn                 (s.a.)
1893 -  1 Dec 1897         Sir Marshall James Clarke          (b. 1841 - d. 1909)



Orange Free State
 
[Flag
                                  Orange Free State 1854-1856]
            1854 - 28 Feb 1856 
 
 
[Orange
                                  Free State (South Africa) 1856-72,
                                  1880-1902]
       28 Feb 1856 - 12 Apr 1877;
       16 Dec 1880 - 31 May 1902
 
[Flag of the
                                  United Kingdom]
      12 Apr 1877 - 16 Dec 1880, 1901 - 1904 
 
 
[flag
                                  of Orange River colony, 1904]
                10 Dec 1904 - 31 May 1910
 
 
Map of Orange
 Free
State
Capital: Bloemfontein
(Bethlehem 13 Mar 1900
- 11 May 1900)
Hear National Anthem
"Volkslied van de
 Oranje Vrijstaat"
 (National Anthem of the
 Orange Free State)
(23 Aug 1866-1902)
Constitution
(10 Apr 1854 -
31 May 1902)
Population: 528,174
(1911 est.)
--------------------------
Military: 22,314 (1900 est.)
International Organizations/Treaties to 1902: UIBPIP, UPU

1845                       British settlement begins (Transorangia).
 8 Mar 1848 - 11 Mar 1854  Orange River Sovereignty (under British rule;
                             annexed to Cape Colony).
23 Feb 1854                Free State of the Orange River (Vry Staat van Oranjerivier).
10 Apr 1854 - 31 May 1902  Orange Free State (Oranjevrijstaat).
13 Mar 1900                British occupy Bloemfontein.
24 May 1900                Annexed by Britain (Orange River).
 4 Jan 1901                Orange River Colony
31 May 1902                Boer resistance ceases by signing the Treaty of Vereeniging.
 5 Jun 1907                Responsible government granted.
31 May 1910                Part of the Union of South Africa.
 

British Residents Among the Tribes on the North Eastern Frontier
Mar 1845 - 16 Jan 1846     William Sutton                     (b. 1807 - d. 1864)
16 Jan 1846 - 23 Jul 1852  Henry Douglas Warden               (b. 1800 - d. 1856)
23 Jul 1852 - 11 Mar 1854  Henry Green                        (b. 1818 - d. 1884)
Special Commissioner
 6 Apr 1853 -  3 Feb 1854  Sir George Russell Clerk           (b. 1800 - d. 1889)
Chairman of the Provisional Government
24 Feb 1854 - 29 Mar 1854  Josias Philippus Hoffman           (b. 1807 - d. 1879)
Chairman of the Volksraad
29 Mar 1854 - 15 Apr 1854  Josias Philippus Hoffman           (s.a.)
State Presidents
15 Apr 1854 - 10 Feb 1855  Josias Philippus Hoffman           (s.a.)
                             (acting to 13 Sep 1854)
10 Feb 1855 - 27 Aug 1855  Jacobus Johannes Venter (1st time) (b. 1814 - d. 1889)
                             (acting to 15 Feb 1855, then
                             chairman of the Executive Committee)
27 Aug 1855 -  6 Sep 1859  Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof            (b. 1808 - d. 1881)
 6 Sep 1859 -  8 Feb 1860  Esaias Reynier Snyman (interim)
 8 Feb 1860 - 17 Jun 1863  Marthinus Wessel Pretorius         (b. 1819 - d. 1901)
20 Jun 1863 -  2 Feb 1864  Jacobus Johannes Venter (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 2 Feb 1864 - 14 Jul 1888  Johannes Henricus Brand            (b. 1823 - d. 1888)
31 Aug 1872 - 21 Oct 1872  Just Friedrich Rudolph Kaufmann    (b. 1831 - d. 1879)
                             Höhne (acting for Brand)
21 Oct 1872 - 16 Jun 1873  Committee (acting for Brand)
                           - William Collins (chairman)       (b. 1803 - d. 1876)
                           - Friedrich Pieter Schnehage       (b. 1811 - d. 1888)
                           - Gerhardus Johannes du Toitt      (b. 1817 - d. 1899)
14 Jul 1888 - 10 Jan 1889  Pieter Jeremias Blignaut (1st time)(b. 1841 - d. 1909)
                             (chairman of the executive council
                             to 21 Aug 1888, then acting) 
10 Jan 1889 - 11 Dec 1895  Francis William Reitz              (b. 1844 - d. 1934)
11 Dec 1895 -  4 Mar 1896  Pieter Jeremias Blignaut (2nd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting) 
 4 Mar 1896 - 31 May 1902  Marthinus Theunis Steyn            (b. 1857 - d. 1916)
                             (in exile from 11 May 1900)
30 May 1902 - 31 May 1902  Christiaan Rudolph de Wet          (b. 1854 - d. 1922)
                             (acting for Steyn)
British Administrator
28 May 1900 - 23 Jun 1902  Frederick Sleigh Roberts,          (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
                             Earl Roberts
Nov 1900 - 21 Jun 1902     Alfred Milner, Viscount Milner     (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
                             (acting for absent Roberts)
Deputy Administrators
28 May 1900 - Mar 1901     ....
                             (acting in Bloemfontein for absent Roberts and Milner)
Mar 1901 - 23 Jun 1902     Hamilton John Goold-Adams          (b. 1858 - d. 1920)
                             (acting in Bloemfontein for absent Milner)
Governors
23 Jun 1902 -  1 Apr 1905  Alfred Milner, Viscount Milner     (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1905 -  7 Jun 1907  William Waldegrave Palmer,         (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
                             Earl of Selborne
 7 Jun 1907 - 31 May 1910  Sir Hamilton John Goold-Adams      (s.a.)

Prime minister
27 Nov 1907 - 31 May 1910  Abraham Fischer                    (b. 1850 - d. 1913)  ORU

Party abbreviation: ORU = Orangia Unie/Oranje Uni (Orange Union, pro-Boer party, 1906-1910, merged into South African Party)



Transvaal
 
[Vierkleur flag of Transvaal]
      18 Feb 1858 - 24 Oct 1874; 
      10 May 1875 - 12 Apr 1877;
      16 Dec 1880 - 31 May 1902
 
[Flag
                                  South African Republic 1874-1875]
      24 Oct 1874 - 10 May 1875 
 
 
 
[Flag of the
                                  United Kingdom]
     12 Apr 1877 - 16 Dec 1880, 1900 - 1902 
 
 
 
[flag
                                  of Transvaal Colony, 1900]
                    1902 - 31 May 1910
 
 
 
Map of Transvaal Capital: Pretoria
(Potchefstroom 1838-
3 Apr 1860; Heidelberg
16-30 Dec 1880;
Pretoria 3 Apr -
16 Dec 1880)
Hear National Anthem
"Volkslied van Transvaal"
(National Anthem
of the Transvaal)
(1858-1877, 1881-1902)
Constitution
(25 Dec 1889 -
31 May 1902)
Population: 1,260 000
(1904 est.)
---------------------------
Military: 29,279 (1900 est.)
International Organizations/Treaties to 1902: ICRM, UPU

22 Dec 1838                Potchefstroom founded.
1848                       United Band established.
1849                       Zoutpansberg founded.
17 Jan 1852                Sand River Convention, U.K. recognizes Boer independence north
                             of the Vaal River¹.
1853                       Holland-African Republic (style not authorized by legislation).
21 Sep 1853                South-African Republic
 1 Dec 1853                South-African Republic North of the Vaal River
                            (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek Benoorden de Vaalrivier).
27 May 1856                South-African Republic
12 Apr 1877                Transvaal Territory a British colony.
13 Dec 1880                South-African Republic declares it has resumed functions.
 8 Aug 1881                Transvaal granted self-government, subject to the suzerainty
                             of the British crown, under the name of Transvaal State
                             (South-African Republic in domestic use).
 8 Aug 1884                Transvaal granted independence.
 8 Aug 1884 - 31 May 1902  South-African Republic (restored).
30 May 1900                British occupy Johannesburg and from 5 Jun 1900 Pretoria.
 1 Sep 1900                Annexed by Britain (Transvaal).
25 Oct 1900                Transvaal a British colony.
31 May 1902                Boer resistance ceases by signing the Treaty of Vereeniging.
 6 Dec 1906                Responsible government granted.
31 May 1910                Part of the Union of South Africa.
 

Commandants at Magaliesberg
Nov 1838 - Jun 1845        Andries Hendrik Potgieter          (b. 1792 - d. 1852)
Jun 1845 - Jun 1848        Gert Kruger                        (b. 1802 - d. 1872)
Commandants-General
20 Jun 1848 - 20 Sep 1849  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus          (b. 1798 - d. 1853)
                             Pretorius (1st time) 
20 Sep 1849 - 16 Oct 1850  Post abolished
16 Oct 1850 - 15 Jan 1851  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus          (s.a.)
                             Pretorius (2nd time)(provisional) 
At Lijdenburg:
15 Jan 1851 - 17 Dec 1856  Willem François Joubert            (b. 1801 - d. 1891)
At Zoutpansberg:
15 Jan 1851 - 16 Dec 1852  Andries Hendrik Potgieter          (s.a.)
16 Dec 1852 -  6 Nov 1854  Pieter Johannes Potgieter          (b. 1822 - d. 1854)
                             (acting to 17 Mar 1853)
Nov 1854 - 18 Feb 1858     Stephanus Schoeman                 (b. 1810 - d. 1890)
                             (acting to 4 Jun 1855)
At Marico:

15 Jan 1851 - Apr 1852     Johan Adam Enslin                  (b. 1800 - d. 1852)
At Potchefstroom-Rustenburg:
15 Jan 1851 - 23 Jul 1853  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus          (s.a.)
                             Pretorius (3rd time) 
23 Jul 1853 -  9 Aug 1853  Vacant
 9 Aug 1853 -  6 Jan 1857  Marthinus Wessel Pretorius         (b. 1819 - d. 1901)

Chairmen of the Volksraad
23 May 1849 - 25 May 1849  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus          (s.a.)
                             Pretorius
19 Sep 1849 - 19 Sep 1849  Jacob de Clercq (le Clercq)
 6 Dec 1849 - 12 Dec 1849  Piet Ernst Kruger (1st time)
                             (provisional)
22 Jan 1850 - 30 Jan 1850  W.C. Swart
26 May 1850 - 28 May 1850  Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon          (b. 1804 - d. 1868)
                             (1st time)
24 Aug 1850 - 24 Aug 1850  Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
10 Sep 1850 - 10 Sep 1850  Cornelis D. Potgieter (1st time)
16 Oct 1850 - 16 Oct 1850  Cornelis D. Potgieter (2nd time)
10 Dec 1850 - 10 Dec 1850  Petrus Frans Jacobus Pretorius     (b. 1810 - d. ....)
15 Jan 1851 - 21 Jan 1851  Cornelis D. Potgieter (3rd time)
15 Feb 1851 - 15 Feb 1851  Cornelis D. Potgieter (4th time)
 5 May 1851 -  5 May 1851  Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 9 May 1851 -  9 May 1851  Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
30 May 1851 - 30 May 1851  no presiding officer recorded
11 Jun 1851 - 11 Jun 1851  J.N.H. Grobler  
 5 Jul 1851 -  5 Jul 1851  Johannes Christoffel Steyn
 1 Sep 1851 -  3 Sep 1851  Cornelis D. Potgieter (5th time)
27 Nov 1851 - 29 Nov 1851  Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon          (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
10 Jan 1852 - 10 Jan 1852  no presiding officer recorded  
12 Feb 1852 - 12 Feb 1852  Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo
                             (1st time)
14 Feb 1852 - 14 Feb 1852  Pieter Ernst Kruger (2nd time)
17 Mar 1852 - 20 Mar 1852  Cornelis D. Potgieter (6th time)
 5 May 1852 -  6 May 1852  Cornelis D. Potgieter (7th time)
 6 May 1852 -  6 May 1852  Andreas Theodorus Spies            (b. 1800 - d. 1889)
 7 May 1852 -  7 May 1852  C. Viljoen
15 Jun 1852 - 25 Jun 1852  Cornelis D. Potgieter (8th time)
12 Jul 1852 - 12 Jul 1852  Cornelis D. Potgieter (9th time)
 4 Oct 1852 -  4 Oct 1852  Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo
                             (2nd time)
15 Nov 1852 - 15 Nov 1852  Cornelis D. Potgieter (10th time)
20 Nov 1852 - 20 Nov 1852  Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo
                             (3rd time)
14 Mar 1853 - 24 Mar 1853  Cornelis D. Potgieter (11th time)
13 Jun 1853 - 22 Jun 1853  Cornelis D. Potgieter (12th time)
 9 Aug 1853 - 13 Aug 1853  Hercules Albertus Pretorius        (b. 1803 - d. 1889)
                             (1st time)
19 Sep 1853 - 28 Sep 1853  Cornelis D. Potgieter (13th time)
21 Nov 1853 -  6 Dec 1853  Cornelis D. Potgieter (14th time)
 4 Jan 1854 -  1 Feb 1854  Cornelis D. Potgieter (15th time)  
27 Feb 1854 - 27 Feb 1854  Cornelis D. Potgieter (16th time)  
 4 Mar 1854 -  5 Mar 1854  no presiding officer recorded  
 3 Apr 1854 - 10 Apr 1854  Cornelis D. Potgieter (17th time)  
 7 Jun 1854 - 15 Jun 1854  Johannes Hermanus Grobler          (b. 1813 - d. 1892)
                             (1st time)
16 Oct 1854 - 17 Oct 1854  Cornelis D. Potgieter (18th time)  
 6 Nov 1854 - 10 Nov 1854  Cornelis D. Potgieter (19th time)  
 2 Feb 1855 -  2 Feb 1855  Cornelis D. Potgieter (20th time)  
13 Mar 1855 - 13 Mar 1855  Cornelis D. Potgieter (21st time)
 1 Jun 1855 - 19 Jun 1855  Cornelis D. Potgieter (22nd time)
 4 Jul 1855 -  5 Jul 1855  Cornelis D. Potgieter (23rd time)
10 Sep 1855 - 11 Sep 1855  Hercules Albertus Pretorius        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
11 Sep 1855 - 18 Sep 1855  Hercules Albertus Pretorius        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 5 Nov 1855 - 20 Nov 1855  Johannes Hermanus Grobler          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
27 Nov 1855 - 27 Nov 1855  Cornelis D. Potgieter (24th time)
 4 Mar 1856 - 11 Mar 1856  Johannes Hermanus Grobler          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
11 Mar 1856 - 11 Mar 1856  Hendrik Teodor Bührmann            (b. 1822 - d. 1890)
27 May 1856 - 30 May 1856  Johannes Hermanus Grobler          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
 5 Jan 1857 -  6 Jan 1857  J.P. Furstenberg
Presidents of the Executive Council

 6 Jan 1857 - 15 Sep 1860  Marthinus Wessel Pretorius         (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
15 Sep 1860 -  6 Dec 1860  Johannes Hermanus Grobler (acting) (s.a.)
 6 Dec 1860 - 17 Apr 1862  Stephanus Schoeman                 (s.a.)
                             (acting; continues in rebellion to 19 Jan 1863)
18 Apr 1862 - 10 May 1864  Willem Cornelis Janse van          (b. 1818 - d. 1865)
                             Renseburg (acting to 23 Oct 1863)
10 May 1864 - 22 Oct 1866  Marthinus Wessel Pretorius         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
State Presidents

22 Oct 1866 - 20 Nov 1871  Marthinus Wessel Pretorius         (s.a.)
21 Nov 1871 -  1 Jul 1872  Daniël Jacobus Erasmus             (b. 1830 - d. 1913)
                             "van Straten" (acting) 
 1 Jul 1872 - 12 Apr 1877  Thomas François Burgers            (b. 1834 - d. 1881)
Administrators
12 Apr 1877 -  4 Mar 1879  Sir Theophilus Shepstone           (b. 1817 - d. 1893)
 4 Mar 1879 -  8 Aug 1881  William Owen Lanyon                (b. 1842 - d. 1887)
                            (from 6 Apr 1880, Sir William Owen Lanyon) 
                            (acting for Wolseley 29 Sep 1879 - 27 Apr 1880)
Governor
29 Sep 1879 - 27 Apr 1880  Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley         (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
13 Dec 1880 -  9 May 1883  Triumvirate 
                           (in rebllion to 8 Aug 1881)
                           - Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (b. 1825 - d. 1904)
                           - Marthinus Wessel Pretorius       (s.a.)
                           - Petrus Jacobus Joubert           (b. 1831 - d. 1900)
State Presidents
 9 May 1883 - 31 May 1902  Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger   (s.a.)
                             (in exile from 10 Sep 1900)
10 Sep 1900 - 31 May 1902  Schalk Willem Burger               (b. 1852 - d. 1918)
                             (acting for Kruger)
British Administrator
 1 Sep 1900 - 21 Jun 1902  Frederick Sleigh Roberts,          (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
                             Earl Roberts
Nov 1900 - 21 Jun 1902     Alfred Milner, Viscount Milner     (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
                             (acting for absent Roberts)
Nov 1900 - Mar 1901        Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (b. 1850 - d. 1916)
                             Baron Kitchener        
                             (acting in Pretoria for absent Milner)
May 1901 - Aug 1901        Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (s.a.)
                             Baron Kitchener        
                             (acting in Pretoria for absent Milner)
Governors
21 Jun 1902 -  1 Apr 1905  Alfred Milner, Viscount Milner     (s.a.)
29 Sep 1902 -  4 Dec 1905  Arthur Lawley (acting for Milner)  (b. 1860 - d. 1932)
 2 Apr 1905 - 31 May 1910  William Waldegrave Palmer,         (s.a.)
                             Earl of Selborne 
 4 Dec 1905 -  2 Oct 1906  Richard Solomon                    (b. 1850 - d. 1913)
                             (acting for Selborne)

Prime minister
 4 Feb 1907 - 31 May 1910  Louis Botha                        (b. 1862 - d. 1919)  HV


British Commanders-in-chief South Africa

18 Dec 1899 - 29 Nov 1900  Frederick Sleigh Roberts,          (s.a.)
                             Earl Roberts          
29 Nov 1900 - 31 May 1902  Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (s.a.)
                             Baron Kitchener        

Party abbreviation: HV = Het Volk (The People, Transvaal Boer party, 1904-1910, merged into South African Party)

  ¹Polity style: Volksraad records normally referred to the Boer polity as "the Company" (maatschappij, maatschappy), appearing in different word combinations such as "united Company of the Emigrants" (de vereenigde Maatschappij der Emigranten) in the resolution concerning public security of 1851.  The first international treaty recognizing the independence of the Transvaal Boers known as the Sand River Convention was signed (16 Jan 1852) by the "Delegates of the Emigrant Farmers residing North of the Vaal River" (Afgewaardigden van de Emigranten Boeren wonende ten Noorden van Vall Rivier).


Winburg-Potchefstroom/Andries-Ohrigstad/Lijdenburg
 
[Voortrekker
                          vlag (South Africa)]
                  1837 - 1848 
 
[Flag Lydenburg
                          Republic 1858-1860]
         4 Dec 1858 - 4 Apr 1860
 
Capital: Lijdenburg
(Winburg 1841-1845;
Andries-Ohrigstad 1845-1846)
Population: N/A

17 Jan 1837                Winburg town founded.
 9 Apr 1844                Community established at Winburg-Potchefstroom.
Jun 1845                   Move to Andries-Ohrigstad.
1846                       Andries-Ohrigstad abandoned settlers move to Lijdenburg 
                             (Lydenburg) Territory.
 3 Feb 1848                Incorporated into Orange River Sovereignty.
1849                       Incorporated into Transvaal.
17 Dec 1856                Republic of Lijdenburg in South Africa established.
 4 Apr 1860                Incorporated into South-African Republic.

Commandants and Governors
17 Jan 1837 -  1 Sep 1838  Andries Hendrik Potgieter (1st time)  (b. 1792 - d. 1845)
 1 Sep 1838 -  9 Apr 1844  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus             (b. 1798 - d. 1853)
                             Pretorius 
 9 Apr 1844 -  8 Jun 1846  Andries Hendrik Potgieter (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1846 - 22 Sep 1846  Johannes Gerhardus Stephanus Bronkhorst 
                             (chairman Volksraad)                (b. 1798 - d. 1848)
22 Sep 1846 - 1849         Andries Hendrik Potgieter (3rd time)  (s.a.)
Jan 1851 - 1859            Willem François Joubert               (b. 1801 - d. 1891)
1859 -  4 Apr 1860         Joseph van Dyck
Chairmen of the Volksraad
17 Dec 1856 - 18..         Philippus Jeremias Coetser
18.. -  4 Apr 1860         Cornelis Potgieter


Utrecht
 
[Flag Orange Free
                State 1854-1858]

               1854 - 8 May 1858

 
Capital: Utrecht
Population: N/A

1852                       Utrecht settlement.
1854                       Republic of Utrecht established.
 8 May 1858                Incorporated into Republic of Lijdenburg.

Landdrosts (magistrates)
1852 - 1855                Andreas Theodorus Spies (1st time)    (b. 1800 - d. 1889)
1855 - Feb 1856            Johannes Christoffel Steyn
Feb 1856 -  8 May 1858     Andreas Theodorus Spies (2nd time)    (s.a.)


New Republic (Vrijheid)

[Nieuwe Republiek (South
                Africa)]
        14 Nov 1884 - 20 Jul 1888
 
Capital: Vrijheid
Population: N/A

 6 Aug 1884                 Installation of executive and legislative authorities at
                              at Hlobane Hill, Natal.
16 Aug 1884                 New Republic (Nieuwe Republiek) established, also known as
                              Republic of Vrijheid (Freedom).
22 Oct 1886                 Recognized by Britain.
20 Jul 1888                 Incorporated into South-African Republic.
 1 Jan 1903                 Transferred to Natal.

State President
 6 Aug 1884 - 20 Jul 1888   Lucas Johannes Meijer             (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
                              (acting to 5 Jun 1885)


Little Republic (Little Free State, Klein Vrijstaat)

[Klein Vrystaat (South
                Africa)]
               1886 - 2 May 1891
 
Capital: Klein Vrijstaat
Population: 72 (1886)

10 Mar 1886                Commonwealth of the Little Republic established, also known 
                             as Republic of Klein Vrijstaat or Little Free State.
 2 May 1891                Incorporated into South-African Republic.

Chairman of the Committee
10 Mar 1886 -  2 May 1891  J.J. Bezuidenhout


Griqua

[Griqua flag]
        Adopted 1902 as the Griqua Flag

Note: Although the Griqua polities are widely scattered and end up being incorporated 
into different provinces/polities, their records are assembled here because of the 
ethnic and clan-led continuity (except for the Klipdrift Republic, a European mining
enterprise). The starting point is in what became Griqualand West; Campbell and
Philippolis are the result of migration led by the Kok family; this migration ended 
in what became Griqualand East.

Griqualand West
 
Capital: Kimberley
(Griquatown 1813-1871)
Population: N/A

1813                       Griquatown
20 Dec 1820                Waterboer's Land
27 Oct 1871                British territory of Griqualand West (under Cape Colony).
16 Jul 1873                Province of Griqualand West
15 Oct 1880                Incorporated into Cape Colony.

Chieftains (Kaptyns)
1813 - 1819                Barend Barends                     (b. af.1770 - d. 1839)
                           + Adam Kok II                      (b. c.1760 - d. 1835)
20 Dec 1820 - 13 Dec 1852  Andries Waterboer                  (b. c.1790 - d. 1852)
13 Dec 1852 - 27 Oct 1871  Nicolaas Waterboer                 (b. 1819 - d. 1896)
British Civil Commissioner
27 Oct 1871 - 10 Jan 1873  Joseph Millerd Orpen               (b. 1828 - d. 1923)
Administrator
10 Jan 1873 -  3 Aug 1875  Richard Southey                    (b. 1808 - d. 1901)
Governor
 3 Aug 1875 -  1 Oct 1875  Sir Henry Barkly                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
Administrators of the government
 1 Oct 1875 - 17 Nov 1875  Jacob Dirk Barry (acting)          (b. 1832 - d. 1905)
17 Nov 1875 - 15 Oct 1880  Sir William Owen Lanyon            (b. 1842 - d. 1887)
12 Mar 1877 - Jun? 1877    Jacob Dirk Barry
                             (acting for Lanyon)              (b. 1832 - d. 1905)
1879 - Oct 1879            Charles Warren (acting for Lanyon) (b. 1840 - d. 1927)
1879 - Jan 1880            Jacobus Petrus de Wet              (b. 1838 - d. 1900)
                             (acting for Lanyon)  
1880 - 15 Oct 1880         James Rose-Innes, Jr.              (b. 1824 - d. 1906)
                             (acting for Lanyon)    


Campbell (Kok's Land)
 
Capital: Campbell
Population: N/A

1813                      Campbell Lands
May 1824                  Renamed Cornelis Kok's Land.
1857                      Incorporated into Cape Colony.

Resident
1813 - 1819               John Campbell                      (b. 1766 - d. 1840)
Chieftains (Kaptyns)
1819 - 1824               Adam Kok II                        (s.a.)
1824 - 1857               Cornelis Kok II                    (b. 1778 - d. 1858)


Klipdrift Republic (Digger's Republic)
 
[Digger's
                          Republic (1870) in South Africa]
                  16 Sep 1870 - 1870 
 
[Digger's
                          Republic (1870) in South Africa - alternate]
                            Variant
 
Capital: Klipdrift
Population: N/A

30 Jul 1870                Republic of Griqualand West, also called 
                             Klipdrift Republic or Digger's Republic,
                             or Free Republic.
13 Dec 1870                Incorporated into Cape Colony.

President
30 Jul 1870 - 13 Dec 1870  Stafford Parker                    (b. 1833 - d. 1915)
British Special Magistrate
30 Nov 1870 - 21 Oct 1871  John Campbell
 1 Mar 1871 - 21 Oct 1871  Maximilian Jackson
                            (acting for Campbell)


Philippolis (Adam Kok's Land)
 
Capital: Philippolis
Population: N/A

25 Aug 1825                Philippolis also called Adam Kok's Land
26 Dec 1861                Incorporated into Orange Free State.

Chieftains (Kaptyns)
25 Aug 1825 - 1827         Adam Kok II (1st time)             (s.a.)
1827 - 1828                Cornelis Kok III
1828 - 12 Sep 1835         Adam Kok II (2nd time)             (s.a.)
12 Sep 1835 - 1836         Adam Kok III (1st time)            (b. 1811 - d. 1875) 
                             (provisional)
Feb 1836 - Jul 1837        Abraham Kok
Jul 1837 - Sep 1837        Brend Lucas (provisional)
Sep 1837 - 26 Dec 1861     Adam Kok III (2nd time)            (s.a.)


Griqualand East
 
Capital: Kokstad
Population: N/A

26 Dec 1861                Griqualand East (New Griqualand)
Oct 1874                   Incorporated into Cape Colony.

Chieftains (Kaptyns)
26 Dec 1861 - 31 Dec 1875  Adam Kok III                       (s.a.)
31 Dec 1875 - 1876         Adam "Eta" Kok (provisional)
1876 - 1879                Cornelis van der Westhuis

British Resident for Nomansland (in Kokstad)
Aug 1873 - 25 Mar 1875     Joseph Millerd Orpen               (b. 1828 - d. 1923)



South Africa

31 May 1910                Union of South Africa (Cape Colony, Natal, Orange Free State
                             and Transvaal united as a dominion).
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty to the 
                             British dominions (effective in South Africa with Royal
                             assent 22 Jun 1934).
31 May 1961                Republic of South Africa

Kings/Queens¹
31 May 1910 - 31 May 1961  the Kings/Queens of the United Kingdom
Governors-general2 (representing the British monarch as head of state)
(to 6 Apr 1931 also High Commissioners for Southern Africa)
31 May 1910 -  8 Sep 1914  Herbert John Gladstone,            (b. 1854 - d. 1930)
                             Viscount Gladstone 
 2 Sep 1914 –  8 Sep 1914  Sir James Rose-Innes               (b. 1855 - d. 1942)
                             (acting for Gladstone)
11 Jul 1914 -  2 Sep 1914  Johan Henry de Villiers,           (b. 1842 - d. 1814)
                             Baron de Villiers
                            (acting for Gladstone)
 8 Sep 1914 - 20 Nov 1920  Sydney Charles Buxton,             (b. 1853 - d. 1934)
                             Viscount Buxton of Newtimber
                            (from 8 Nov 1920, Sydney Charles 
                             Buxton, Earl Buxton) 
 3 Sep 1920 - 20 Nov 1920  Sir James Rose-Innes               (s.a.)
                             (acting for Buxton)
20 Nov 1920 - 21 Jan 1924  Prince Arthur Frederick Patrick    (b. 1883 - d. 1938)
                             Albert of Connaught and Strathearn
11 Dec 1923 - 21 Jan 1924  Sir James Rose-Innes               (s.a.)
                             (acting for Prince Arthur)
21 Jan 1924 - 26 Jan 1931  Augustus Alexander George          (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
                             Cambridge, Earl of Athlone 
10 Dec 1930 - 26 Jan 1931  Jacob Abraham Jeremy de Villiers   (b. 1868 - d. 1932)
                             (acting for Earl of Athlone)
26 Jan 1931 -  5 Apr 1937  George Herbert Hyde Villiers,      (b. 1877 - d. 1955)
                             Earl of Clarendon         
19 Mar 1937 -  5 Apr 1937  John Stephen Curlewis              (b. 1863 - d. 1940)
                             (acting for Earl of Clarendon)
 5 Apr 1937 - 17 Jul 1943  Sir Patrick Duncan                 (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
17 Jul 1943 -  1 Jan 1946  Nicolaas Jacobus de Wet (acting)   (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
 1 Jan 1946 -  1 Jan 1951  Gideon Brand van Zyl               (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
 1 Jan 1951 - 25 Nov 1959  Ernest George Jansen               (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
25 Nov 1959 - 12 Jan 1960  Lucas Cornelius Steyn (1st time)   (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
                             (acting)
12 Jan 1960 -  1 May 1961  Charles Robberts Swart             (b. 1894 - d. 1982)
 1 May 1961 - 31 May 1961  Lucas Cornelius Steyn (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
State Presidents
31 May 1961 -  1 Jun 1967  Charles Robberts Swart             (s.a.)               NP
 1 Jun 1967 - 10 Apr 1968  Jozua François Naudé (acting)      (b. 1889 - d. 1969)  NP
10 Apr 1968 -  9 Apr 1975  Jacobus Johannes Fouché            (b. 1898 - d. 1980)  NP
 9 Apr 1975 - 19 Apr 1975  Johannes de Klerk (acting)         (b. 1903 - d. 1979)  NP
19 Apr 1975 - 21 Aug 1978  Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs       (b. 1903 - d. 1978)  NP
14 Aug 1978 - 10 Oct 1978  Marais Viljoen (1st time)          (b. 1915 - d. 2007)  NP
                             (acting [for Diederichs to 21 Aug 1978]) 
10 Oct 1978 -  4 Jun 1979  Balthazar Johannes "B.J." Vorster  (b. 1915 - d. 1983)  NP
 4 Jun 1979 -  3 Sep 1984  Marais Viljoen (2nd time)          (s.a.)               NP
                             (acting to 19 Jun 1979)
 3 Sep 1984 - 15 Aug 1989  Pieter Willem ("P.W.") Botha       (b. 1916 - d. 2006)  NP
                             (acting to 14 Sep 1984)
19 Jan 1989 - 15 Mar 1989  Jan Christian "Chris" Heunis       (b. 1927 - d. 2006)  NP
                             (acting for Botha)
15 Aug 1989 - 10 May 1994  Frederik Willem de Klerk           (b. 1936)            NP
                             (acting to 20 Sep 1989)
Presidents
10 May 1994 - 16 Jun 1999  Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela          (b. 1918 - d. 2013)  ANC 
16 Jun 1999 - 25 Sep 2008  Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki               (b. 1942)            ANC
25 Sep 2008                Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri (f)(acting)  (b. 1937 - d. 2009)  ANC
25 Sep 2008 -  9 May 2009  Kgalema Motlanthe                  (b. 1949)            ANC
 9 May 2009 -              Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma          (b. 1942)            ANC

 
Prime ministers
31 May 1910 - 27 Aug 1919  Louis Botha                        (b. 1862 - d. 1919)  1911: SAP 
 3 Sep 1919 - 30 Jun 1924  Jan Christian Smuts (1st time)     (b. 1870 - d. 1950)  SAP
30 Jun 1924 -  5 Sep 1939  James Barry Munnik Hertzog         (b. 1866 - d. 1942)  NP;
                                                                                5 Dec 1934: UP
 5 Sep 1939 -  4 Jun 1948  Jan Christian Smuts (2nd time)     (s.a.)               UP
 4 Jun 1948 - 29 Oct 1954  Daniel François Malan              (b. 1874 - d. 1959)  NP
29 Oct 1954 - 30 Nov 1954  Nicolaas Christiaan Havenga        (b. 1882 - d. 1957)  NP
                             (acting) 
30 Nov 1954 - 24 Aug 1958  Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom        (b. 1893 - d. 1958)  NP
24 Aug 1958 -  3 Sep 1958  Charles Robberts Swart (acting)    (s.a.)               NP
 3 Sep 1958 -  6 Sep 1966  Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd           (b. 1901 - d. 1966)  NP
 6 Sep 1966 - 13 Sep 1966  Theophilus Ebenhaezer Dönges       (b. 1898 - d. 1968)  NP
                             (acting) 
13 Sep 1966 - 28 Sep 1978  Balthazar Johannes "B.J." Vorster  (s.a.)               NP
28 Sep 1978 - 14 Sep 1984  Pieter Willem Botha                (s.a.)               NP
14 Sep 1984                Post abolished
 

Chairmen of the minister's councils3
- House of Assembly (White)-
Sep 1984 - Dec 1984        Sarel Hayward (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1924 - d. 1999)  NP
Dec 1984 - Apr 1985        Cornelius "Nak" van der Merwe      (b. 1921 - d. 1985)  NP
Apr 1985 - Jul 1985        Sarel Hayward (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)               NP
Jul 1985 - Sep 1989        Frederik Willem de Klerk           (s.a.)               NP
Sep 1989 - Jan 1992        Jacobus "Kobie" Coetsee            (b. 1931 - d. 2000)  NP
Jan 1992 - Mar 1993        Magnus André de Merindol Malan     (b. 1930 - d. 2011)  NP
Mar 1993 - Mar 1994        Adriaan Johannes Vlok              (b. 1937)            NP
- House of Representatives (Colored)-
Sep 1984 - Feb 1992        Helenand "Allan" Hendrickse        (b. 1927 - d. 2005)  LP
Feb 1992 - Mar 1994        Jakobus "Jac" A. Rabie             (b. 1938 - d. 2008)  NP
- House of Delegates (Indian)-
Sep 1984 - Jan 1989        Amichand Rajbansi                  (b. 1942 - d. 2011)  NPP
Jan 1989 - Mar 1989        Kassipershad "Kessi" Ramduth       (b. 1921 - d. 2001)  Non-party
                             (acting)
Mar 1989 - Feb 1993        Jayaram N. Reddy                   (b. 1925)            Sol
Feb 1993 - Mar 1994        Bhadra Galu Ranchod                (b. 1944)            NP

  ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) 31 May 1910 - 13 May 1927: "By the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India; in Dutch: "Bij de Gratie Gods van het Verenigde Koninkrijk van Groot-Brittanje en Ierland en van de Britse Overzeese Bezittingen Koning, Verdediger van het Geloof, Keizer van Indië";
(b) 13 May 1927 - 6 Feb 1952: "By the Grace of God of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India"; in in Afrikaans: "By die Grasie Gods van Groot-Brittanje, Ierland en die Britse Dominiums oorsee Koning, Verdediger van die Geloof, Keiser van Indië"; the title "Emperor of India" was dropped as of 15 Aug 1947 by retroactive proclamation dated 22 Jun 1948;
(d) 6 Feb 1952 - 29 May 1953: "By the Grace of God of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith"; in Afrikaans: "By die Grasie Gods van Groot-Brittanje, Ierland en die Britse Dominiums oorsee Koningin, Verdediger van die Geloof";
(e) 29 May 1953 - 31 May 1961: "Queen of South Africa and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth";
 in Afrikaans: "Koningin van Suid-Afrika en van Haar Ander Koninkryke en Gebiede, Hoof van die Statebond."

  2Full title:
(a) 31 May 1910 - 5 Apr 1937: "Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Union of South Africa"; in Dutch: "Goeverneur-Generaal en Opperbevelhebber van de Unie van Zuid-Afrika";
 from 27 May 1925 in Afrikaans: "Goewerneur-Generaal en Opperbevelhebber van die Unie van Suid-Afrika";
(b) 5 Apr 1937 - 31 May 1961: "Governor-General of the Union of South Africa";
 in Afrikaans: "Goewerneur-Generaal van die Unie van Suid-Afrika."

  3the tricameral, three-chamber, parliament was created by the apartheid based constitution of 1983. The House of Assembly, was the elected white chamber; the House of Representatives was elected by coloured, or mixed race persons; and the House of Delegates was elected by the Indian community. Each chamber had its own cabinet charged with defending the interests of their communities. The House of Representatives and House of Delegates were purely advisory bodies and any bills they passed needed be passed by the House of Assembly and needed the ascent of the white government to become law. Cases of disagreements between the three houses of Parliament on specific legislation would be resolved by the President's Council. The constitution made no provision for the representation of Black South Africans.

Territorial Disputes: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River

Party abbreviations: ANC = African National Congress (democratic socialist, African nationalist, largely black, banned 1960-1990, est.1912); IFP = Inkatha Freedom Party/Iqembu Lenatha Yenkululeko (conservative, federalist, mainly Zulu, est.1975);
- Former parties: LP = Labour Party (liberal, largely coloured, 1969-1994); NNP = New National Party (conservative, mainly Afrikaner, former NP, 1997-2005, merged into ANC); NP = National Party-Nasionale Party (Afrikaner nationalist, conservative, Apartheid 1948-1989, 1934-39 merged into UP, succeeded by NNP, 1915-1997); NPP = National People's Party (South Asian/Indian, 1981-1994); SAP = South African Party (Boer nationalist, social-democratic, merged into UP, 1911-5 Dec 1934); Sol = Solidarity (South Asian/Indian, liberal, est.1984); UP = United National South African Party (liberal conservative, centrist, 5 Dec 1934-1977)



Prince Edward and Marion Islands

 4 Mar 1663                Discovered by Dutch explorer Barent Barentszoon Lam, named
                             Diana Eiland (northern island) and Maerseveen Eiland (southern).
13 Jan 1772                Re-discovered by French Capt. Marc Joseph Marion du Fresne,
                             named Iles Froide ("Cold Islands").
12 Dec 1776                Claimed for Britain by Capt. James Cook, named Prince Edward
                             Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island).
Dec 1803/Jan 1804          First recorded landing, by sealers under Capt. Henry Fanning.
 1 Feb 1908                Granted for 21 years to William Newton to exploit guano.
 9 Oct 1926 - 21 Mar 1934  Prince Edward Islands, McDonald and Heard Islands leased by U.K.
                             to Kerguelen Sealing and Whaling Company of Cape Town.
17 Dec 1947                Prince Edward Island claimed by South Africa.
29 Dec 1947                Marion Island annexed for South Africa by Lt. Cmdr. John Fairburn.
 4 Jan 1948                Prince Edward Island annexed by South Africa.
 8 Jan 1960                First South African National Antarctic Expedition (SANAE).
 3 Nov 1995                Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve.

Directors of Antarctica and Islands, South African National Antarctic Programme (SANAP)
c.1975                     C.J.J. van Rensburg
19.. - 1985                G.G. Nieuwoudt
1986 - 1989                F. Gaum
1990 - 1998                Dirk J. van Schalkwyk
1999 - 2000                Richard N. Skinner (acting)
2000 - 2013?               Henry Richard Valentine
2013? -                    Nishendra "Nish" Devanunthan









©  Ben Cahoon