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United Kingdom
 
[Flag
                                    of England]
                    c.1277 - 12 Apr 1606; 
                22 Feb 1649 - 8 May 1660
  
[England, Scotland Union flag
                                    of 1606]
               12 Apr 1606 - 22 Feb 1649; 
                8 May 1660 -  1 Jan 1801 
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                       Adopted 1 Jan 1801
 
 
Map of the United Kingdom Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen" 
Text of National Anthem
first performed 1745
Constitution
  (None; all laws of Parliament)
Map of Administrative
Divisions
(does not reflect current divisions)
 Historical Maps of Britain  Statute of Westminster
  (11 Dec 1931)
Magna Carta
(15 Jun 1215)
Capital: London
(Winchester c.827 - af.1066)
Currency: British Pound
(GBP)
National Holiday:
2nd Sat.
in Jun (1926)
Birthday of Queen Elizabeth II
Population: 63,395,574 (2013)
GDP: $2.37 trillion (2013)
Exports: $475.7 billion (2013)
Imports: $646 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: white 87.1%, black 3%, Asian 7% (of
which Indian 2.3%, Pakistani 1.9%, Bangladeshi 0.7%,

Chinese 0.7%, other Asian 1.4%), mixed 2%, other 0.9% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 197,780 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 12,655 (2012)

Declared Nuclear Power (1952): 225 weapons (2012)
Merchant marine: 504 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 59.5% (of which Anglican 19.9%,
Roman Catholic 8.6%, Presbyterian 2.2%, Methodist 1.3%,
other Protestant 1.2%, other Christian 9.7%), Muslim 4.4%,

Hindu 1.3%, Sikh 0.7%, Jewish 0.4%, Buddhist 0.4%,
other 0.4%, no religions & not stated 32.8% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BIS, BSEC (dialogue partner), BTWC, C, CBSS (observer), CCM, CDB (nonregional), CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PIF (partner), SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
United Kingdom
Index
Chronology
c.881                      Kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons
902                        East Anglia incorporated.
12 Jul 927                 Kingdom of the English 
954                        Northumbria (York) incorporated.
fall 1013 -  3 Feb 1014    Danish rule.
23 Apr 1016 -  8 Jun 1042  Danish rule.
25 Dec 1066                Norman conquest.
21 Sep 1170                English rule in Ireland begins.
1189                       Kingdom of England
10 Jul 1296 - 11 Sep 1297  English occupation of Scotland.
 9 Feb 1304 -  7 Jul 1307  English occupation of Scotland.
21 Mar 1413 - 1453         Personal union with France (from 30 Oct 1422, 
                             in opposition to the French claimant).
18 Jun 1541                Ireland in nominal personal union with England.
24 Mar 1603                Personal union with the Kingdom of Scotland.
17 Mar 1649                Act Abolishing the Kingly Office in England,
                             Ireland, and the Dominions thereunto belonging
                             (Wales, islands of Guernsey and Jersey) passed.
19 May 1649                Commonwealth of England
16 Dec 1653                Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
 8 May 1660                Kingdom of England (restored).
12 May 1707                United Kingdom of Great Britain
 1 Aug 1714 - 20 Jun 1837  Personal union with Hanover.
 1 Jan 1801                United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
18 Jun 1922                Independence of Ireland (the 6 northern counties 
                             of Ulster remain part of U.K. as Northern 
                             Ireland).
12 Apr 1927                United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
                             Ireland (in official, non-statutory use 
                             from 6 Dec 1922).
Northern Ireland
Scotland
Wales
Palatine County
of Durham

(1071-1836)
Isles of Scilly
(1570-1920)
Guernsey
 Isle of Man
 Jersey
Church of England
 


Kings
¹
c.881 - 26 Oct 899         Ælfred (Alfred "the Great")       (b. c.849 - d. 899)
26 Oct 899 - 17 Jul 924    Eadweard (Edward "the Elder")     (b. c.870 - d. 924)
17 Jul 924 -  2 Aug 924    Ælfweard (Alfward)                (b. c.904 - d. 924)
17 Jul 924 – 27 Oct 939    Æthelstan (Athelstan)             (b. c.895 - d. 939)
27 Oct 939 - 26 May 946    Eadmund I (Edmund I)              (b. c.921 - d. 946)
23 May 946 - 23 Nov 955    Eadred                            (b. c.923 - d. 955)
                             (Edred "the Weak-in-the-Feet")
23 Nov 955 -  1 Oct 959    Eadwig (Edwy "the All-Fair")      (b. bf.943 - d. 959)
 9 May 957 -  8 Jul 975    Eadgar I (Edgar I "the Peaceable")(b. c.943 - d. 975)
 8 Jul 975 - 18 Mar 978    Eadweard (Edward "the Martyr")    (b. c.963 - d. 978)
18 Mar 978 - late 1013     Æthelred "Unraed" (1st time)      (b. 968? - d. 1016)
                            
(Ethelred "the Unready")
18 Mar 978 - 984           Queen Ælfthryth
(f) -Regent       (b. c.945 - d. c.1000)
                            
(Elfthryth)
late 1013 -  3 Feb 1014    Sweyn "Tveskaeg" (Swein Forkbeard)(b. c.960 - d. 1014)
Mar/Apr 1014 - 23 Apr 1016 Æthelred "Unraed" (2nd time)      (s.a.)
23 Apr 1016 - 30 Nov 1016  Eadmund II (Edmund II "Ironside") (b. c.993 - d. 1016)
23 Apr 1016 - 12 Nov 1035  Cnut (Canute)                     (b. c.955 - d. 1035)
12 Nov 1035 - 1037         Harthacnut (1st time)             (b. c.1018 - d. 1042)
12 Nov 1035 - 17 Mar 1040  Harold I "Harefoot"               (b. c.1016 - d. 1040)
                             (regent to 1037)
17 Mar 1040 -  8 Jun 1042  Harthacnut (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 8 Jun 1042 - 4/5 Jan 1066 Eadweard (Edward "the Confessor") (b. c.1002 - d. 1066)
 5 Jan 1066 - 14 Oct 1066  Harold II (Godwinesson)           (b. c.1020 - d. 1066)
14 Oct 1066 - 25 Dec 1066  Eadgar II "the Ætheling"          (b. c.1052 - d. 1125)
                            
(Edgar the "Atheling")
25 Dec 1066 -  9 Sep 1087  William I "the Conqueror"         (b. 1027/28 - d. 1087)
                            
(Guillaume "le Conquérant")
26 Sep 1087 -  2 Aug 1100  William II "Rufus"                (b. c.1060 - d. 1100)
                            
(Guillaume "le Roux")
 5 Aug 1100 -  1 Dec 1135  Henry I (Henri Beauclerc)         (b. 1068 - d. 1135)
22 Dec 1135 -  8 Apr 1141  Stephen (1st time)                (b. c.1096 - d. 1154)
                             (Étienne de Blois)
                             (prisoner of M
atilda 2 Feb 1141 - 1 Nov 1141)
Lady of the English (Anglorum Domina)

 8 Apr 1141 -  7 Dec 1141  Matilda (left England Feb 1148)   (b. 1102 - d. 1167)
Kings
 7 Dec 1141 - 25 Oct 1154  Stephen (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 6 Apr 1152 - 17 Aug 1153  Eustace (not recognized)          (b. c.1131 - d. 1153)
19 Dec 1154 -  6 Jul 1189  Henry II                          (b. 1133 - d. 1189)
14 Jun 1170 - 11 Jun 1183  Henry (III) "the Young King"      (b. 1155 - d. 1183)
Lord (Dominus Anglorum)

 6 Jul 1189 -  3 Sep 1189  Richard                           (b. 1157 - d. 1199)
King
 3 Sep 1189 -  6 Apr 1199  Richard I "the Lion-heart"        (s.a.)
                            (in France, on crusade, then prisoner
                             in Germany 12 Dec 1189 - 13 Mar 1194)
12 Dec 1189 - 13 Mar 1194  William de Longchamp, Bishop      (d. 1197)
                             of Ely -Regent

12 May 1194 -  6 Jun 1199  Hubert Walter, Bishop             (b. c.1160 - d. 1205)
                             of Canterbury
-Regent
Lord
(Dominus Anglorum)
 8 Apr 1199 - 27 May 1199  John "Lackland"                   (b. 1167 - d. 1216)
Kings¹
27 May 1199-18/19 Oct 1216 John "Lackland"                   (s.a.)
 2 Jun 1216 - 11 Sep 1217  Louis of France (pretender)       (b. 1187 - d. 1226)
                             (later King Louis VIII of France)
28 Oct 1216 - 16 Nov 1272  Henry III                         (b. 1207 - d. 1272)
11 Nov 1216 -  9 Apr 1219  William Marshal, Earl of          (b. 1146 - d. 1219)
                             Pembroke and Striguil -Governor  
Apr 1219 - Jan 1227        Hubert de Burgh -Regent           (b. c.1170 - d. 1243)
20 Nov 1272 -  7 Jul 1307  Edward I "Longshanks"             (b. 1239 - d. 1307)
20 Nov 1272 -  2 Aug 1274  Regency
                           - Walter Giffard, Archbishop      (b. c.1225 - d. 1279)
                              of York,
                           - Roger Mortimer, Lord of Wigmore (b. 1231 - d. 1282)
                           - Sir Philip Basset               (b. c.1184 - d. 1272)
                             (appointed, but died 29 Oct 1272)  
                           - Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath  (b. c.1239 - d. 1292)
13 May 1286 - 12 Aug 1289  Edmund, Earl of Cornwall -Regent  (b. 1249 - d. 1300)
 7 Jul 1307 - 20 Jan 1327  Edward II                         (b. 1284 - d. 1237)
24 Jan 1327 - 21 Jun 1377  Edward III                        (b. 1312 - d. 1377)
21 Jun 1377 - 30 Sep 1399  Richard II                        (b. 1367 - d. 1400)
                            (captive of Bolingbroke from 19 Aug 1399)
30 Sep 1399 - 20 Mar 1413  Henry IV (Bolingbroke)            (b. 1366/67 - d. 1413)
20 Mar 1413 - 31 Aug 1422  Henry V                           (b. 1387 - d. 1422)
31 Aug 1422 -  4 Mar 1461  Henry VI (1st time)               (b. 1421 - d. 1471)
                            (Yorkist prisoner 10 Jul 1460 - 17 Feb 1461
                             from 21 Oct 1421, King of France as Henri II)
 5 Dec 1422 -  6 Nov 1429  Protectors
                           - John, Duke of Bedford           (b. 1389 - d. 1435)
                           - Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester    (b. 1390 - d. 1447)
 3 Apr 1454 - Feb 1455     Richard Plantagenet, Duke         (b. 1411 - d. 1460)
                             of York -Protector (1st time)
19 Nov 1455 - 25 Feb 1456  Richard Plantagenet, Duke         (s.a.)
                             of York -Protector (2nd time)
 4 Mar 1461 -  2 Oct 1470  Edward IV (1st time)              (b. 1442 - d. 1483)
                            (prisoner at Warwick Castle Aug-Sep 1469)
 5 Oct 1470 - 11 Apr 1471  Henry VI (2nd time)               (s.a.)
                            (prisoner in Tower of London Jul 1456 - 5 Oct 1470) 
11 Apr 1471 -  9 Apr 1483  Edward IV (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 9 Apr 1483 - 25 Jun 1483  Edward V                          (b. 1470 - d. 1483)
30 Apr 1483 - 26 Jun 1483  Richard Plantagenet, Duke         (b. 1452 - d. 1485)
                             of Gloucester -Lord Protector
26 Jun 1483 – 22 Aug 1485  Richard III                       (s.a.) 
                             (= Richard Plantagenet)
22 Aug 1485 - 21 Apr 1509  Henry VII                         (b. 1457 - d. 1509)
24 May 1487 - 16 Jun 1487  Lambet Simnel                     (b. c.1477 - d. c.1525)
                             (in rebellion as 'Edward VI')
21 Apr 1509 - 28 Jan 1547  Henry VIII                        (b. 1491 - d. 1547)
28 Jan 1547 -  6 Jul 1553  Edward VI                         (b. 1537 - d. 1553)
 1 Feb 1547 - 13 Oct 1549  Edward Seymour, Duke              (b. 1500 - d. 1552)
                             of Somerset -Lord Protector
13 Oct 1549 -  6 Jul 1553  John Dudley, (from Oct 1551) Duke (b. 1502 - d. 1553)
                             of Northumberland -Regent

Queens
¹
 6 Jul 1553 - 19 Jul 1553  Jane (Lady Jane Grey)             (b. 1537 - d. 1554)
19 Jul 1553 - 17 Nov 1558  Mary I "Bloody Mary"              (b. 1516 - d. 1558)
25 Jul 1554 - 17 Nov 1558  Philip -King-consort              (b. 1527 - d. 1598)
17 Nov 1558 - 24 Mar 1603  Elizabeth I                       (b. 1533 - d. 1603)
Kings¹
24 Mar 1603 - 27 Mar 1625  James I                           (b. 1566 - d. 1625)
                             (James VI in Scotland from 24 Jul 1567)
27 Mar 1625 - 30 Jan 1649  Charles I                         (b. 1600 - d. 1649)
 6 Aug 1651 - 15 Oct 1651  Charles II (in dissidence)        (b. 1630 - d. 1685) 
                            (proclaimed in Carlisle 6 Aug 1651;
                             fled England
on 15 Oct 1651)
Speaker of Commons of England, in Parliament Assembled (from 19 May 1649,
Parliament of the Commonwealth of England)

 4 Jan 1649 - 20 Apr 1653  
William Lenthall (1st time)       (b. 1591 - d. 1652)
Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief
20 Apr 1653 -  4 Jul 1653  Oliver Cromwell (1st time)        (b. 1599 - d. 1658)  Mil
President of the Supreme Authority 
 5 Jul 1653 -  6 Jul 1653  Francis Rous                      (b. 1579 - d. 1658)
Speaker of the Parliament (from 7 Jul 1653, Parliament of the Commonwealth of England)
 6 Jul 1653 - 12 Dec 1653  Francis Rous                      (s.a.)
Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief
12 Dec 1653 - 16 Dec 1653  Oliver Cromwell (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Mil
Lord Protectors¹
16 Dec 1653 -  3 Sep 1658  Oliver Cromwell                   (s.a.)               Mil
 3 Sep 1658 -  7 May 1659  Richard Cromwell                  (b. 1626 - d. 1712) 
Speaker of the Parliament
 7 May 1659 - 13 Oct 1659  William Lenthall (2nd time)       (s.a.)
President of the Council of State
13 Oct 1659 - 25 Oct 1659  Bulstrode Whitelocke              (b. 1605 - d. 1675)
Committee of Safety
25 Oct 1659 - 23 Dec 1659  Members of the Committee of Safety
                           - Sir Henry Vane, Jr.             (b. 1613 - d. 1662)
                           - Bulstrode Whitelocke            (s.a.)
                           - William Sydenham                (b. 1615 - d. 1661)
                           - John Lambert                    (b. 1619 - d. 1683) 
                           - James Berry                     (d. 1691)
                           - Archibald Johnston, Lord        (b. 1611 - d. 1663)
                               Warriston 
                           - Edmund Ludlow                   (b. 1617 - d. 1692)
                           - Richard Salwey                  (b. 1615 - d. 1685)
                           - John Desborough (or Disbrowe)   (b. 1608 - d. 1680)
                           - Charles Fleetwood               (b. c.1618 - d. 1692)
                           - Sir James Harrington            (b. 1607 - d. 1680)
                           - William Steele                  (b. 1610 - d. 1680)
                           - Walter Strickland               (b. 1600 - d. 1671)
                           - Henry Laurence (or Lawrence)    (b. 1600 - d. 1664)
                           - John Ireton                     (b. 1615 - d. 1689)
                           - Robert Tichborne                (b. 1604 - d. 1682)
                           - Henry Brandreth                 (b. 1610 - d. 1672)
                           - Robert Thomson
                           - John Hewson                     (b. 1595 - d. 1663)
                           - John Clerk (or Clark)
                           - Robert Lilburne                 (b. 1613 - d. 1665)
                           - Robert Bennet                   (b. 1605 - d. 1683)
                           - Cornelius Holland               (b. 1599 - d. c.1671)
Speaker of the Parliament of England
24 Dec 1659 - 16 Mar 1660  William Lenthall (3rd time)       (s.a.)
President of the Council of State
16 Mar 1660 - 25 Apr 1660  Arthur Annesley                   (b. 1614 - d. 1686)
Speaker pro tempore of the House of Lords
25 Apr 1660 -
 8 May 1660  Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester(b. 1602 - d. 1671)
Speaker of the House of Commons
25 Apr 1660 -
 8 May 1660  Sir Harbottle Grimston            (b. 1603 - d. 1685)
Kings¹
 8 May 1660 -  6 Feb 1685  Charles II                        (s.a.) 
                            (landed at Dover 25 May 1660)
 6 Feb 1685 - 
12 Feb 1689  James II                          (b. 1633 - d. 1701) 
                            (in Scotland James VII)
                            (fled England 23 Dec 1688, declared to
                             have abdicated
12 Feb 1689; in Ireland, 
                             
in dissidence 12 Mar 1689 - 2 Jul 1690)
Chairmen of the Peers of the Realm

11 Dec 1688 - 11 Dec 1688  Laurence Hyde, Earl of            (b. 1642 - d. 1711)
                             Rochester
12 Dec 1688 - 28 Dec 1688 
George Savile, Marquess of Halifax(b. 1633 - d. 1695)
28 Dec 1688 - 
23 Feb 1689  William Henry Prince of Orange    (b. 1650 - d. 1702)
                            (administrator of affairs)
King¹
23 Feb 1689-8/19 Mar 1702  William III                       (s.a.)
                            (in Scotland William II; iGelderland Willem III) 
                           - jointly with the following -
Queens¹
23 Feb 1689 -  7 Jan 1695  Mary II                           (b. 1662 - d. 1695)
8/19 Mar 1702-12 Aug 1714  Anne                              (b. 1665 - d. 1714)
Kings¹
12 Aug 1714 - 22 Jun 1727  George I                          (b. 1660 - d. 1727)
22 Jun 1727 - 25 Oct 1760  George II                         (b. 1683 - d. 1760)
25 Oct 1760 - 29 Jan 1820  George III                        (b. 1738 - d. 1820)
29 Jan 1820 - 26 Jun 1830  George IV                         (b. 1762 - d. 1830)
                            (5 Feb 1811 - 29 Jan 1820 prince regent for George III)
26 Jun 1830 - 20 Jun 1837  William IV                        (b. 1765 - d. 1837)
Queen¹
20 Jun 1837 - 22 Jan 1901  Victoria                          (b. 1819 - d. 1901)
Kings¹
22 Jan 1901 -  6 May 1910  Edward VII                        (b. 1841 - d. 1910)
 6 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936  George V                          (b. 1865 - d. 1936)
20 Jan 1936 - 11 Dec 1936  Edward VIII                       (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
11 Dec 1936 -  6 Feb 1952  George VI                         (b. 1895 - d. 1952)
Queen¹
 6 Feb 1952 -              Elizabeth II                      (b. 1926)
 

Lord Chancellors
28 Feb 1403 -  2 Mar 1405
 Henry Beaufort, Bishop of         (b. c.1374 - d. 1447)
                             Lincoln (1st time)

 2 Mar 1405 - 30 Jan 1407  Thomas Langley, Dean of York      (b. c.1363 - d. 1437)
                             (from 14 May 1406, Bishop of York)
                             (1st time)
30 Jan 1407 - 21 Dec 1409  Thomas Arundel, Archbishop        (b. 1353 - d. 1414)
                             of Canterbury (4th time)      
31 Jan 1410 -  5 Jan 1412  Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter   (b. c.1377 - d. 1426)     
 5 Jan 1412 - 21 Mar 1413  Thomas Arundel, Archbishop
       (s.a.)
                             of Canterbury (5th time)      
21 Mar 1413 - 23 Jul 1417
 Henry Beaufort, Bishop of         (s.a.)
                             Winchester (2nd time)

23 Jul 1417 - 16 Jul 1424  Thomas Langley, Bishop of Durham  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
16 Jul 1424 - 16 Mar 1426  Henry Beaufort, Bishop of         (s.a.)
                             Winchester (3rd time)
16 Mar 1426 - 26 Feb 1432
 John Kemp, Archbishop of York     (b. c.1380 - d. 1454)
                             (1st time)
26 Feb 1432 - 31 Jan 1450  John Stafford, Bishop of Bath     (d. 1452)
                             and Wells
                             (from 13 May 1443, Archbishop of Canterbury)
31 Jan 1450 - 22 Mar 1454  John Kemp, Archbishop of York     (s.a.)
                             (from 31 Jul 1452, Archbishop of Canterbury)
                             (2nd time)
 2 Apr 1454 -  7 Mar 1455  Richard Nevill, Earl of Salisbury (b. 1400 - d. 1465)
 7 Mar 1455 - 11 Oct 1456  Thomas Bourchier,
Archbishop of   (b. c.1404 - d. 1486)
                             Canterbury
11 Oct 1456 -  7 Jul 1460  William Waynflete, Bishop of      (b. c.1398 - d. 14686)
                             Winchester
25 Jul 1460 - 10 Mar 1461
  George Neville, Bishop of Exeter  (b. c.1432 - d. 1476)
                             (1st time)
20 Jun 1467 - 29 Sep 1470  Robert Stillington, Bishop        (b. 1420 - d. 1491)
                             of Bath and Wells (1st time)
29 Sep 1470-af.4 Mar 1471  George Neville, Archbishop of     (s.a.)
                             York (2nd time)
11 Apr 1471 - 18 Jun 1473  
Robert Stillington, Bishop        (s.a.)
                             of Bath and Wells (2nd time)

24 Jul 1473 - 27 May 1474  Laurence Booth, Bishop of Durham  (b. c.1420 - d. 1480)
27 May 1474 - 10 Jun 1475
 Thomas Rotherham, Bishop of       (b. 1423 - d. 1500)
                             
Lincoln (1st time)
10 Jun 1475 - 29 Sep 1475  John Alcock, Bishop of Rochester  (b. c.1430 - d. 1500)
                             (1st time)(acing)
29 Sep 1475 - 22 Apr 1483  Thomas Rotherham, Bishop of       (s.a.)
                             
Lincoln (2nd time)
10 May 1483 - 29 Jul 1485  John Russell, Bishop of Lincoln   (s.a.)
18 Sep 1485 -  7 Oct 1485  Thomas Rotherham, Archbishop      (s.a.)
                             of York (3rd time)
 7 Oct 1485 -  6 Mar 1487  John Alcock, Bishop of Worcester  (s.a.)
                             (from 6 Oct 1486, Bishop of Ely)

                             (2nd time)
 6 Mar 1487 - 15 Sep 1500  John Morton, Archbishop of        (b. c.1420 – d. 1500)
                             Canterbury (from 1493 Cardinal)
13 Oct 1500 - 27 Jul 1502  Henry Deane, Archbishop of        (b. c.1440 - d. 1503)
                             Canterbury (acting)
11 Aug 1502 - 24 Dec 1515  William Warham, Archbishop        (b. c.1450 - d. 1532)
                             of Canterbury

                            (acting to 21 Jan 1504)           
24 Dec 1515 - 18 Oct 1529  Thomas Cardinal Wolsey,           (b. 1473 - d. 1530)
                             Archbishop of York
26 Oct 1529 - 16 May 1532  Sir Thomas More                   (b. 1478 - d. 1535)
20 May 1532 - 22 Apr 1544  Sir Thomas Audley,                (b. 1487/88 - d. 1544) 
                             (from 29 Nov 1538) Baron Audley of Walden
 3 May 1544 -  7 Mar 1547  Sir Thomas Wriothesley,           (b. 1505 - d. 1550)
                             (from 16 Feb 1547) Earl of Southampton
 7 Mar 1547 - 23 Oct 1547  Sir William Paulet                (b. c.1483 – d. 1572)

23 Oct 1547 - 21 Dec 1551  Richard Rich, Baron Rich          (b. 1496/97 - d. 1567)
Lord High Treasurers and Chief Advisors
 3 Feb 1550 - 10 Mar 1572  William Paulet, Earl of Wiltshire, 
                             Marquess of Winchester          (s.a.)
Jul 1572 -  4 Aug 1598     William Cecil, Baron Cecil of     (s.a.)
                             Burghley
 4 Aug 1598 - 15 May 1599  Sir Thomas Egerton (1st time)     (b. 1540 - d. 1617)
                             (acting)
15 May 1599 - 19 Apr 1608  Thomas Sackville, Baron Buckhurst, 
                             Earl of Dorset                  (b. 1536 - d. 1608)
19 Apr 1608 -  4 May 1608
 Thomas Egerton, Baron Ellesmere   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 4 May 1608 - 24 May 1612  Robert Cecil, Viscount Cranborne, 
                             Earl of Salisbury               (b. 1563 - d. 1612)
24 May 1612 - 16 Jun 1612  
Thomas Egerton, Baron Ellesmere   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)
16 Jun 1612 - 24 May 1613  Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton (b. 1540 - d. 1614)
24 May 1613 - 11 Jul 1614  Thomas Egerton, Baron Ellesmere   (b. 1540 - d. 1617)
                             (4th time)
11 Jul 1614 - 21 Jul 1618  Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk    (b. 1561 - d. 1626)
21 Jul 1618 - 14 Dec 1620  George Abbott, Archbishop         (b. 1562 - d. 1633)
                             of Canterbury   
14 Dec 1620 - 29 Sep 1621  Henry Montagu, Viscount Mandeville(b. 1563 - d. 1642)
29 Sep 1621 - 14 May 1624  Lionel Cranfield, Baron Cranfield, 
                             Earl of Middlesex               (b. 1575 - d. 1645)
14 May 1624 - 25 May 1624  Edward Somerset, Earl            
(b. 1553 - d. 1628)
                             of Worcester (acting)
25 May 1624 - 11 Dec 1624  Sir Richard Weston (1st time)     (b. 1577 - d. 1635)
                            (acting)
11 Dec 1624 - 15 Jul 1628  James Ley, Baron Ley of Ley, 
                             Earl of Marlborough             (b. 1552 - d. 1628)
15 Jul 1628 - 13 Mar 1635  Richard Weston, Baron Weston,     (s.a.)
                             Earl of Portland (2nd time)            
15 Mar 1635 -  6 Mar 1636  William Laud, Archbishop of       (b. 1573 - d. 1645)
                             Canterbury
 6 Mar 1636 - 21 May 1641  William Juxon, Bishop of London   (b. 1582 - d. 1663)
21 May 1641 -  3 Oct 1643  Edward Littleton, Baron Lyttleton (b. 1589 - d. 1645)
 3 Oct 1643 - 30 Jan 1649  Francis Cottington, 
                             Baron Cottington of Hanworth    (b. 1579 - d. 1652)
Chairman of the Council of State
30 Jan 1649 - 15 Feb 1649  Oliver Cromwell                   (s.a.)
Presidency of the member for the day of the Council of State

20 Feb 1649                Oliver Cromwell (1st time)        (s.a.)
22 Feb 1649                Oliver Cromwell (2nd time)        (s.a.)
23 Feb 1649                Oliver Cromwell (3rd time)        (s.a.)
24 Feb 1649                Basil Feilding, Earl of Denbigh   (b. c.1608 - d. 1675)
                             (1st time)
 3 Mar 1649                Basil Feilding, Earl of Denbigh   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 7 Mar 1649                Sir William Masham                (b. 1591 - d. 1656)
 7 Mar 1649                Sir Arthur Hesilrige              (b. 1601 - d. 1661)
                             (or Hesilrig, Haselrig)

Presidents of the Council of State (routinely styled in proceedings: Lord President)
12 Mar 1649 - 15 Feb 1650  John Bradshaw (1st time)          (b. 1602 - d. 1659)

15 Feb 1650 - 17 Feb 1650  Vacant
17 Feb 1650 - 29 Dec 1651  John Bradshaw (2nd time)          (s.a.)
29 Dec 1651 - 26 Jan 1652  Bulstrode Whitelocke (1st time)   (s.a.)
26 Jan 1652 - 23 Feb 1652  Sir Arthur Hesilrige (1st time)   (s.a.)
                           
(or Hesilrig, Haselrig)
23 Feb 1652 - 22 Mar 1652  Philip Sidney, Viscount Lisle     (b. 1619 - d. 1698)
22 Mar 1652 - 19 Apr 1652  John Lisle                        (b. 1610 - d. 1664)
19 Apr 1652 - 17 May 1652  Henry Rolle (1st time)            (b. 1589? - d. 1656)
17 May 1652 - 14 Jun 1652  Sir Henry Vane, Jr. (1st time)    (s.a.)
14 Jun 1652 - 12 Jul 1652  Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke  (b. 1584 - d. 1650)
                             and of Montgomery
12 Jul 1652 -  9 Aug 1652  Dennis Bond (1st time)            (b. 1588 - d. 1658)
 9 Aug 1652 -  7 Sep 1652  William Purefoy                   (b. 1580? - d. 1659)
 7 Sep 1652 -  5 Oct 1652  Sir James Harrington (1st time)   (s.a.) 
 5 Oct 1652 - 25 Oct 1652  Sir William Constable (1st time)  (b. 1590 - d. 1655)
25 Oct 1652 - 22 Nov 1652  Sir William Masham                (s.a.)
22 Nov 1652 -  1 Dec 1652  Sir William Constable (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1652 - 29 Dec 1652  .... [unknown]
29 Dec 1652 - 26 Jan 1653  Henry Rolle (2nd time)            (s.a.)
26 Jan 1653 - 23 Feb 1653  John Bradshaw (3rd time)          (s.a.)
23 Feb 1653 - 23 Mar 1653  Thomas Chaloner (or Challoner)    (b. 1595 - d. 1661)
23 Mar 1653 -  2 May 1653  Dennis Bond (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 2 May 1653 -  9 May 1653  John Lambert                      (s.a.)
 9 May 1653 - 13 May 1653  Sir Gilbert Pickering (1st time)  (b. 1610 - d. 1668)
13 May 1653 - 27 May 1653  .... [unknown]
27 May 1653 - 10 Jun 1653  John Desborough (or Disbrowe)     (s.a.)
10 Jun 1653 - 24 Jun 1653  .... [unknown]
24 Jun 1653 -  5 Jul 1653  Philip Jones                      (b. 1618 – d.1674)
 8 Jul 1653 - 21 Jul 1653  Sir Gilbert Pickering (2nd time)  (s.a.)
21 Jul 1653 -  4 Aug 1653  Edward Montagu (1st time)         (b. 1602 - d. 1671)
 4 Aug 1653 - 17 Aug 1653  .... [unknown]
17 Aug 1653 - 31 Aug 1653  Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper         (b. 1621 - d. 1683)
31 Aug 1653 - 14 Sep 1653  Robert Tichborne                  (s.a.)
14 Sep 1653 - 28 Sep 1653  .... [unknown]
28 Sep 1653 -  4 Oct 1653  Charles Howard                    (b. 1629 - d. 1685)  
 4 Oct 1653 -  3 Nov 1653  William Sydenham                  (b. 1615 - d. 1661)
 3 Nov 1653 -  6 Dec 1653  Edward Montagu (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 6 Dec 1653 - 10 Dec 1653  Walter Strickland                 (s.a.)
Dec 1653 - 19? May? 1659   Henry Laurence (or Lawrence)      (s.a.)
19? May 1659-2? Jun 1659
  Sir James Harrington (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 3? Jun 1659-27? Jun 1659  Archibald Johnston, Lord          (s.a.)
                             Warriston 
28? Jul 1659-16 Aug 1659   Bulstrode Whitelocke (2nd time)   (s.a.)
16 Aug 1659 - 17 Aug 1659  Sir Henry Vane, Jr. (2nd time)    (s.a.)
17 Aug 1659 - 31 Aug 1659  Sir 
Arthur Hesilrige (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1659 - 15 Sep 1659  Sir Henry Vane, Jr. (3rd time)    (s.a.)  
16 Sep 1659 - 29 Sep 1659  Richard Salway                    (s.a.) 
30 Sep 1659 - 13 Oct 1659  Thomas Scot
                       (b. 1604? - d. 1660)  
13 Oct 1659 - 25 Oct 1659
  Bulstrode Whitelocke (3rd time)   (s.a.)
25 Oct 1659 - 30 Dec 1659  the Council of Safety
30 Dec 1659 - 23 Feb 1660  .... [unknown]
23 Feb 1660 - 28 May 1660  Arthur Annesley                   (s.a.)
Lord High Treasurers
 8 Sep 1660 - 16 May 1667  Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of       (b. 1607 - d. 1667)
                             Southampton
 1 Jun 1667 -  3 Jan 1670  George Monk, Duke of Albemarle    (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1670 - 28 Nov 1672  Anthony Ashley Cooper, Baron Ashley, 
                             (from 23 Apr 1672, Earl of Shaftesbury)
                             (acting)                        (s.a.)
28 Nov 1669 - 19 Jun 1673  Thomas Clifford, Baron Clifford   (b. 1630 - d. 1673) 
                             of Chudleigh
19 Jun 1673 -  6 Mar 1678  Thomas Osborne, Viscount Osborne 
                             of Dunblane, (from 27 Jun 1674) (b. 1631 - d. 1712)
                             Earl of Danby 
First Lords of the Treasury (chief ministers)
 6 Mar 1679 - 19 Nov 1679  Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex       (b. 1632 - d. 1683)  
19 Nov 1679 - 25 Aug 1684  Laurence Hyde, Viscount Hyde of   (b. 1642 - d. 1711)  Tor
                             Kenilworth, (from 29 Nov 1682)
                             Earl of Rochester (1st time)
25 Aug 1684 - 16 Feb 1685  Sidney Godolphin,                 (b. 1645 - d. 1712)  Tor
                             Baron Godolphin (1st time)
16 Feb 1685 -  5 Jan 1686  Laurence Hyde, Viscount Hyde of   (s.a.)               Tor
                             Kenilworth, Earl of Rochester
                             (2nd time)
 5 Jan 1687 -  8 Apr 1689  John Belasyse, Baron Belasyse     (b. 1614 - d. 1689)  Tor
 8 Apr 1689 - 19 Mar 1690  Charles Mordaunt, Earl of Monmouth(b. 1658 - d. 1735)  Whg
19 Mar 1690 - 15 Nov 1690  John Lowther                      (b. 1655 - d. 1700)  Whg 
15 Nov 1690 -  1 May 1697  Sidney Godolphin,                 (s.a.)               Tor
                             Baron Godolphin (2nd time) 
 1 May 1697 - 25 Nov 1699  Charles Montagu (1st time)        (b. 1661 - d. 1715)  Whg
25 Nov 1699 - 12 Dec 1700  Forde Grey, Baron Grey of Werk,   (b. 1655 - d. 1701)  Whg
                             Earl of Tankerville 
12 Dec 1700 - 27 Dec 1701  Sidney Godolphin,                 (s.a.)               Tor
                             Baron Godolphin (3rd time) 
27 Dec 1701 -  8 May 1702  Charles Howard,                   (b. 1669 - d. 1738)  Whg
                             Earl of Carlisle (1st time)
 8 May 1702 - 11 Aug 1710  John Churchill,                   (b. 1650 - d. 1722)  Tor
                             Duke of Marlborough 
11 Aug 1710 - 29 Mar 1711  John Poulett, Earl Poulett        (b. 1663 - d. 1743)  Tor 
29 Mar 1711 - 30 Jul 1714  Robert Harley,                    (b. 1661 - d. 1724)  Tor
                             Earl of Oxford and Mortimer
30 Jul 1714 - 11 Oct 1714  Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury(b. 1660 - d. 1718)  Whg
11 Oct 1714 - 19 May 1715  Charles Montagu, Baron of Halifax (s.a.)               Whg
                             (2nd time)
23 May 1715 - 10 Oct 1715  Charles Howard,                   (s.a.)               Whg
                             Earl of Carlisle  (2nd time)
10 Oct 1715 -  9 Jun 1717  Robert Walpole (1st time)         (b. 1676 - d. 1745)  Whg
12 Jun 1717 - 21 Mar 1721  James Stanhope,                   (b. 1673 - d. 1721)  Whg
                             Viscount Stanhope of Mahon
                             (from 14 Apr 1718, James Stanhope, Earl of Stanhope) 
21 Mar 1721 -  4 Apr 1721  Charles Spencer,                  (b. 1674 - d. 1722)  Whg
                             Earl of Sunderland
 4 Apr 1721 - 26 May 1730  Robert Walpole (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Whg
                             (from 27 May 1725, Sir Robert Walpole) 
Prime ministers2
26 May 1730 - 11 Feb 1742  Sir Robert Walpole                (s.a.)               Whg
16 Feb 1742 -  2 Jul 1743  Spencer Compton,                  (b. 1673? - d. 1743) Whg
                             Earl of Wilmington
27 Aug 1743 -  6 Mar 1754  Henry Pelham                      (b. 1696 - d. 1754)  Whg
16 Mar 1754 - 16 Nov 1756  Thomas Pelham-Holles,             (b. 1693 - d. 1768)  Whg
                             Duke of Newcastle (1st time) 
16 Nov 1756 - 25 Jun 1757  William Cavendish,                (b. 1720 - d. 1764)  Whg
                             Duke of Devonshire 
25 Jun 1757 -  2 Jul 1757  James Waldegrave,                 (b. 1715 - d. 1763)  Whg
                             Earl of Waldegrave (acting)
 2 Jul 1757 - 26 May 1762  Thomas Pelham-Holles,             (s.a.)               Whg
                             Duke of Newcastle (2nd time) 
26 May 1762 - 16 Apr 1763  John Stuart, Earl of Bute         (b. 1713 - d. 1792)  Tor
16 Apr 1763 - 13 Jul 1765  George Grenville                  (b. 1712 - d. 1770)  Whg
13 Jul 1765 - 30 Jul 1766  Charles Watson-Wentworth,         (b. 1730 - d. 1782)  Whg
                             Marquess of Rockingham (1st time)
30 Jul 1766 - 14 Oct 1768  William Pitt, "the Elder"         (b. 1708 - d. 1778)  Whg
                             Earl of Chatham 
14 Oct 1768 - 28 Jan 1770  Augustus Henry Fitzroy,           (b. 1735 - d. 1811)  Whg
                             Duke of Grafton 
28 Jan 1770 - 22 Mar 1782  Frederick North, Lord North       (b. 1732 - d. 1792)  Tor
27 Mar 1782 -  1 Jul 1782  Charles Watson-Wentworth,         (s.a.)               Whg
                             Marquess of Rockingham (2nd time)
 4 Jul 1782 -  2 Apr 1783  William Petty-Fitzmaurice,        (b. 1737 - d. 1805)  Whg
                             Earl of Shelburne
 2 Apr 1783 - 19 Dec 1783  William Henry Cavendish-          (b. 1738 - d. 1809)  Whg
                             Bentinck, Duke of Portland
                             (1st time)
19 Dec 1783 - 14 Mar 1801  William Pitt "the Younger"        (b. 1759 - d. 1806)  Tor
                             (1st time) 
17 Mar 1801 - 10 May 1804  Henry Addington                   (b. 1757 - d. 1844)  Tor
10 May 1804 - 23 Jan 1806  William Pitt "the Younger"        (s.a.)               Tor
                             (2nd time) 
11 Feb 1806 - 31 Mar 1807  William Wyndham Grenville,        (b. 1759 - d. 1834)  Whg
                             Baron Grenville
31 Mar 1807 -  4 Oct 1809  William Henry Cavendish-          (s.a.)               Whg
                             Bentinck, Duke of Portland
                             (2nd time) 
 4 Oct 1809 - 11 May 1812  Spencer Perceval                  (b. 1762 - d. 1812)  Tor
 9 Jun 1812 - 10 Apr 1827  Robert Banks Jenkinson,           (b. 1770 - d. 1828)  Tor
                             Earl of Liverpool 
10 Apr 1827 -  8 Aug 1827  George Canning                    (b. 1770 - d. 1827)  Tor
31 Aug 1827 - 22 Jan 1828  Frederick John Robinson,          (b. 1782 - d. 1859)  Tor
                             Viscount Goderich 
22 Jan 1828 - 22 Nov 1830  Arthur Wellesley,                 (b. 1769 - d. 1852)  Tor
                             Duke Wellington (1st time) 
22 Nov 1830 - 16 Jul 1834  Charles Grey, Earl Grey           (b. 1764 - d. 1845)  Whg
16 Jul 1834 - 17 Nov 1834  William Lamb, (1st time)          (b. 1779 - d. 1848)  Whg
                             Viscount Melbourne 
17 Nov 1834 - 10 Dec 1834  Arthur Wellesley,                 (s.a.)               Tor
                             Duke of Wellington (2nd time)
10 Dec 1834 - 18 Apr 1835  Sir Robert Peel (1st time)        (b. 1788 - d. 1850)  Con
18 Apr 1835 - 30 Aug 1841  William Lamb, (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Whg 
                             Viscount Melbourne 
30 Aug 1841 - 30 Jun 1846  Sir Robert Peel (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Con
30 Jun 1846 - 23 Feb 1852  John Russell, Lord Russell        (b. 1792 - d. 1878)  Whg
                             (1st time) 
23 Feb 1852 - 19 Dec 1852  Edward Geoffrey Stanley,          (b. 1799 - d. 1869)  Con
                             Earl of Derby (1st time)
19 Dec 1852 -  6 Feb 1855  George Hamilton-Gordon,           (b. 1784 - d. 1860)  Peel
                             Earl of Aberdeen 
 6 Feb 1855 - 20 Feb 1858  Henry John Temple,                (b. 1784 - d. 1865)  Whg
                             Viscount Palmerston (1st time) 
20 Feb 1858 - 12 Jun 1859  Edward Geoffrey Stanley,          (s.a.)               Con
                             Earl of Derby (2nd time)
12 Jun 1859 - 18 Oct 1865  Henry John Temple,                (s.a.)               Lib
                             Viscount Palmerston (2nd time)
29 Oct 1865 - 28 Jun 1866  John Russell, Earl Russell        (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time) 
28 Jun 1866 - 27 Feb 1868  Edward Geoffrey Stanley,          (s.a.)               Con
                             Earl of Derby (3rd time) 
27 Feb 1868 -  3 Dec 1868  Benjamin Disraeli  (1st time)     (b. 1804 - d. 1881)  Con
 3 Dec 1868 - 20 Feb 1874  William Ewart Gladstone (1st time)(b. 1809 - d. 1898)  Lib
20 Feb 1874 - 23 Apr 1880  Benjamin Disraeli, (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Con
                             (from 12 Aug 1876) Earl of Beaconsfield 
23 Apr 1880 - 23 Jun 1885  William Ewart Gladstone (2nd time)(s.a.)               Lib
23 Jun 1885 -  1 Feb 1886  Robert Arthur Talbot              (b. 1830 - d. 1903)  Con
                             Gascoyne-Cecil,
                             Marquess of Salisbury (1st time) 
 1 Feb 1886 - 25 Jul 1886  William Ewart Gladstone (3rd time)(s.a.)               Lib
 3 Aug 1886 - 15 Aug 1892  Robert Arthur Talbot              (s.a.)               Con
                             Gascoyne-Cecil,
                             Marquess of Salisbury (2nd time) 
15 Aug 1892 -  5 Mar 1894  William Ewart Gladstone (4th time)(s.a.)               Lib
 5 Mar 1894 - 25 Jun 1895  Archibald Primrose,               (b. 1847 - d. 1929)  Lib
                             Earl of Rosebery 
25 Jun 1895 - 12 Jul 1902  Robert Arthur Talbot              (s.a.)               Con
                             Gascoyne-Cecil,
                             Marquess of Salisbury (3rd time) 
12 Jul 1902 -  5 Dec 1905  Arthur James Balfour              (b. 1848 - d. 1930)  Con
 5 Dec 1905 -  8 Apr 1908  Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman      (b. 1836 - d. 1908)  Lib
 8 Apr 1908 -  7 Dec 1916  Herbert Henry Asquith             (b. 1852 - d. 1928)  Lib
 7 Dec 1916 - 23 Oct 1922  David Lloyd George                (b. 1863 - d. 1945)  Lib
23 Oct 1922 - 22 May 1923  Andrew Bonar Law                  (b. 1858 - d. 1923)  Con
22 May 1923 - 22 Jan 1924  Stanley Baldwin (1st time)        (b. 1867 - d. 1947)  Con
22 Jan 1924 -  4 Nov 1924  Ramsay MacDonald (1st time)       (b. 1866 - d. 1937)  Lab
 4 Nov 1924 -  5 Jun 1929  Stanley Baldwin (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Con 
 5 Jun 1929 -  7 Jun 1935  Ramsay MacDonald (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Lab
 7 Jun 1935 - 28 May 1937  Stanley Baldwin (3rd time)        (s.a.)               Con
28 May 1937 - 10 May 1940  Neville Chamberlain               (b. 1869 - d. 1940)  Con
10 May 1940 - 26 Jul 1945  Winston Churchill (1st time)      (b. 1874 - d. 1965)  Con
26 Jul 1945 - 26 Oct 1951  Clement Richard Attlee            (b. 1883 - d. 1967)  Lab
26 Oct 1951 -  6 Apr 1955  Winston Churchill (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Con
                             (from 24 Apr 1953, Sir Winston Churchill) 
 6 Apr 1955 - 10 Jan 1957  Sir Robert Anthony Eden           (b. 1897 - d. 1977)  Con
10 Jan 1957 - 19 Oct 1963  Maurice Harold Macmillan          (b. 1894 - d. 1986)  Con
19 Oct 1963 - 16 Oct 1964  Alexander Frederick               (b. 1903 - d. 1995)  Con
                             Douglas-Home, Earl of Home
                             (from 23 Oct 1963, Sir Alec Douglas-Home)
16 Oct 1964 - 19 Jun 1970  James Harold Wilson (1st time)    (b. 1916 - d. 1995)  Lab
19 Jun 1970 -  4 Mar 1974  Edward Richard George Heath       (b. 1916 - d. 2005)  Con
 4 Mar 1974 -  5 Apr 1976  James Harold Wilson (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Lab
 5 Apr 1976 -  4 May 1979  Leonard James Callaghan           (b. 1912 - d. 2005)  Lab
 4 May 1979 - 28 Nov 1990  Margaret Thatcher (f)             (b. 1925 - d. 2013)  Con
28 Nov 1990 -  2 May 1997  John Major                        (b. 1943)            Con
 2 May 1997 - 27 Jun 2007  Anthony "Tony" Blair              (b. 1953)            Lab
27 Jun 2007 - 11 May 2010  Gordon Brown                      (b. 1951
)            Lab
11 May 2010 -              David Cameron                     (b. 1966)            Con

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) Anglo-Saxon royal styles (9th-11th century): evidence found in contemporary sources suggests that the Anglo-Saxon rulers of England in the 9th-11th century used a number of forms of royal title, which loosely varied. As a matter of fact, the royal title was a conflation of the word 'king', usually inscribed in Latin Rex or Old English Cing (cyng, or cyngc, etc.), with an attribution to national authority — 'English', 'Anglo-Saxon', 'West-Saxon'. The combination which became most common since the reign of King Æthelstan was rex Anglorum ("king of the English"), but it was usually coupled with colorful epithets in charters and writs. Occasionally, Rex was dropped in favor of other titles emphasizing imperium over other peoples in Britain. The charters of the first decade of Ælfred's reign mostly referred to him as rex Saxonum ("king of the Saxons"). After the capture of London (886), Alfred's royal style shifted to variations on rex Angulsaxonum ("king of the Anglo-Saxons") and rex Anglorum et Saxonum ("king of the English and Saxons"); Eadred was styled regis qui regimina regnorum Angulsaxna, Northhymbra, Paganorum, Brettonumque ("king of the Anglo-Saxons, Northumbrians, Pagans, and Britons") in a charter of 946, and again in 949-950. He was reduced to rex Anglorum in 951, and raised back to "king of the Anglo-Saxons, Northumbrians, pagans, and Britons" in 954. A charter of 974 styled Eadgar totius Albionis finitimorumque regum basileus ("of all Britain and of the neighboring kings basileus"); Edward "the Confessor" was rex Anglorum on coins, Rex Anglorum or Anglorum Basileus in charters and on his seal;
(b) 25 Dec 1066 - 12 Aug 1189: (in old English): Englena cyning; (in French): Roy d'Engleis; (in Latin): Rex Anglorum ("King of the English");
(c) 12 Aug 1189 - 25 Jan 1340:
Rex Angliae; (in French): Roy d'Engleterre ("King of England");
(d) 25 Jan 1340 - 25 Oct 1415: Rex Angliae et Franciae; (in French): Roy d'Engleterre et de France ("King of England and France);
(e) 25 Oct 1415 - 11 Oct 1521: Dei gratia Rex Angliae et Franciae Dominus Hiberniae (
"by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Lord of Ireland");
(f) 
11 Oct 1521 - 15 Jan 1535: Dei gratia Rex Angliae et Franciae, Fidei Defensor et Dominus Hiberniae ("by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith, Lord of Ireland");
(g) 15 Jan 1535 - 6 Feb 1542: Dei gratia Rex Angliae et Franciae, Fidei Defensor, Dominus Hiberniae, et in terra ecclesiae Anglicanae (from 1536 et Hiberniae) supremum caput ("by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith, Lord of Ireland, and of the Church of England [from 1536 and of Ireland] in Earth Supreme Head");

(h) 6 Feb 1542 - 25 Jul 1554: Dei gratia Angliae Franciae et Hiberniae Rex/Regina, Fidei Defensor, et in terra ecclesiae Anglicanae et Hiberniae supremum caput ("by the Grace of God, King/Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and of the Church of England and of Ireland in Earth Supreme Head"); 
(i) 25 Jul 1554 - 17 Nov 1554: Dei Gratia Rex et Regina Angliae Franciae Neapolis Ierusalem et Hiberniae, Fidei Defensores, Principes Hispaniae et Siciliae, Archiduces Austriae, Duces Mediolani Burgundiae et Brabanciae, Comites Haspurgi Flandriae et Tirolis ("by the grace of God King and Queen of England, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Princes of Spain and Sicily, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Milan, Burgundy, and Brabant, Counts of Hapsburg, Flanders, and Tyrol");
(j) 17 Nov 1558 - 31 Mar 1603: Dei gratia Angliae Franciae et Hiberniae Rex/Regina, Fidei Defensor, etc. ("by the Grace of God, King/Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc.");

(k) 31 Mar 1603 - 30 Jan 1649: Dei gratia Angliae Scotiae Franciae et Hiberniae Rex, Fidei Defensor, etc. ("by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc.");
from 24 Oct 1604, James I also began to use the style of "King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." (Dei gratia, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae et Hiberniae Rex, Fidei Defensor, etc.) this was formalized from 12 May 1707;  
(l) 16 Dec 1653 - 7 May 1659: "by the Grace of God, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland (and the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging)," often shorted to "By the Grace of God and Republic, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland" (Dei Gratia Reip[ublicae] Angliae Scotiae et Hiberniae, &c Protector); 
(m) from 8 May 1660:
"by the Grace of God, King/Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. (Dei gratia Angliae Scotiae Franciae et Hiberniae Rex/Regina, Fidei Defensor, etc.);
(n) from 12 May 1707: "by the Grace of God, King/Queen of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." (Dei gratia, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae et Hiberniae Rex/Reina, Fidei Defensor, etc.);
(o) from 1 Jan 1801: "by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King/Queen, Defender of the Faith"; in 1 Jul 1876 the title "Empress of India" was added;
(p) from 4 Nov 1901: "by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India";
(q) from 13 May 1927: "by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India"; the title "Emperor of India" was dropped as of 15 Aug 1947 by retroactive proclamation dated 22 Jun 1948;
(r) from 29 May 1953: "by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith."

 2The origin of the term prime minister and the question to whom it should originally be applied have long been issues of scholarly and political debate. Although the term was used as early as the reign of Queen Anne (1702-1714), it acquired wider currency during the reign of George II (1727-1760), when it began to be used as a term of reproach toward Sir Robert Walpole. It was not until early 20th century when the Prime Minister's precedence in England was established 10 Dec 1905 that placed the Prime Minister, mentioned as such, in the order of precedence in England immediately after the Archbishop of York. 
  The first Act of Parliament to mention the office of Prime Minister was the Chequers Estate Act, which received the Royal Assent on 20 Dec 1917. The title was finally given full recognition in 1 Jul 1937, when the Salaries of the Ministers of the Crown Act made provision for paying "the First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister" - the two offices that since the 18th century, have usually been held by the Prime Minister, though some exceptions existed. The Act made a certain distinction between "position" (Prime Minister) and "office" (First Lord of the Treasury) emphasizing the unique character of the position and recognized the existence of the Cabinet. Nevertheless, in spite of this recognition, the brass plate outside the Prime Minister's front door still bears the title of First Lord of the Treasury. 

Territorial Disputes: In Nov 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproves of U.K. plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory); in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago, evicted 1967 - 1973, were granted U.K. citizenship and the right of return, followed by Orders in Council in 2004 that banned rehabitation, a High Court ruling reversing the ban, a Court of Appeal refusal to hear the case, and a Law Lords' decision in 2008 denying the right of return; in addition, the United Kingdom created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein; U.K. rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, which claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark and Iceland remains dormant; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim is not recognized by the Argentina, Chile, the United Nations, U.S., Russia, or by most other countries (other than Australia, France, New Zealand and Norway); Iceland, the U.K., and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faeroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm. 

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative Party (center-right, est.1840s); Lab = Labour Party (social-democratic, center-left, first officially named 1868);
- Former parties - Note: Before the development of the Conservative and Liberal parties in the mid-19th century, parties were largely simply alliances of prominent groups or aristocratic families. The designations Whig and Tory tend often to be approximate - Lib = Liberal Party
(liberal, 1859-1988, united with Social Democratic Party on 19 Mar 1988 as Social and Liberal Democrats, renamed Liberal Democrats Oct 1989); Peel = Peelite (named for Robert Peel, breakaway faction of Con. party, 1846-1859); Tor = Tory Party (conservative, royalist, pro-Anglican, remnants became the Conservative party by the 1840's); Whg = Whig Party (moderate conservative, aristocratic, pro-reform, later elements became the Liberal party by the 1850's)


Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms


East Anglia

5..                        Kingdom of the East Angles (Éast-Englena ríce;
                             in Latin regnum Anglorum orientalium).
651 - c.653                Occupied by Merica.             
20 May 794 - 826           Direct rule by Mercia.
826                        independence.
20 Nov 869 - 13 Dec 902    Danish suzerainty.
13 Dec 902                 Annexed to England.
917                        Re-conquered following failed revolt.

Kings
(title Éast-Englena cyning/Rex Anglorum orientalium;
from 20 Nov 869,
Éast-Engla lande cyning/Rex Angliae orientalis)
5.. - c.599                Tytila                            (b. 5.. - d. c.599)
c.599 - c.624              Raedwald Tytlan
sunu              (b. 56. - d. c.624)
c.624 - 4 Oct c.627        Eorpwald Raedwaldes
sunu          (b. 58. - d. c.627)
 4 Oct c.627 - c.630       R
ícberht (Ricbryht)               (b. 59. - d. c.630)
c.630 - c.634              Sigeberht (
Sigebryht)             (b. 58. - d. c.636)             
c.630 -
29 Oct? c.636      Ecgríc (co-ruler to c.634)        (b. 59. - d. c.636)
29 Oct? c.636 - 651        
Ánna (Onna) Enan sunu (1st time)  (b. 60. - d. 653?)
651 - c.653                Mercia rule               
c.653 - 653?               Ánna Enan sunu (2nd time)         (s.a.)
653? - 15 Nov 655          Æthelhére Enan
sunu               (b. 61. - d. 655)
653? - 664                 Æthelwald Enan
sunu               (b. 61. - d. 664)
664 - 713                  Ealdwulf Æthelríces
sunu          (b. 64. - d. 713)
c.713 - 749                Ælfwald Ealdwulfes
sunu           (b. 67. - d. 749)  
749 - 76.                  Beorna (Beornraed)                (b. 71. - d. 769?)
749 - 
20 May 794           Æthelberht Æthelraedes sunu       (b. 74. - d. 794)
                             (
Æthelbryht)(co-ruler to c.769?)
20 May 794 - 826           Mercia rule
826 - c.847                Æthelst
án I                       (b. 79. - d. c.847)
c.847 - 854                Æthelweard                        (b. 81. - d. 854)
854 - 20 Nov 869           Éadmund                           (b. c.840 - d. 869)

20 Nov 869 - 87.           Óswald        
87. - c.878                Æthelraed II                 
c.878 - c.890              Æthelstán II
(Guththorm)          (b. 8.. - d. c.890) 
c.890 - 13 Dec 902         Eohríc (Eríkr)                    (b. 8.. - d. 902)
917                        Guthrum
(in rebellion)            (d. 918) 


Essex

5..                        Kingdom of the East Saxons (Éastseaxena ríce;
                             
in Latin regnum orientalium Saxonum).
67. - 812                  Mercian overlordship.
812 - 825                  Part of Mercia.
825 - 860                  Wessex rule (administered from Kent).
20 Dec 860                 Annexed to Wessex.

Kings (title
Éastseaxena cyning/Rex orientalium Saxonum)
5.. - c.597                Slédda Æscwines
sunu              (b. 5.. - d. c.597)
c.597 - c.616              Saeberht Sl
éddan sunu             (b. 5.. - d. c.616)
c.616 - 617                Seaxraed Saeberhtes
sunu          (b. 5.. - d. 617)
c.616 - 617                Saeward Saeberhtes
sunu           (b. 5.. - d. 617)
617 - c.653                Sigebeorht Saewardes sunu       
 (b. 6.. - d. c.653)        
                             
(Sigebryht)(Sigeberht "the Little")
c.653 - 29 Aug 660         Sigebeorht (
Sigebryht)            (b. 6.. - d. 660)           
                             (Sigeberht II "the Good")
                             (Saint Sigeberht)
29 Aug 660 - 664           Sw
íthhelm Seaxbaldes sunu         (b. 6.. - d. 664)
664 - c.683                Sigeh
ére Sigebeorhtes sunu        (b. 6.. - d. c.683)
664 - c.694                Saebbi Sigebeorhtes sunu          (b. 6.. - d. c.695)    
                            
(Saebeorht)(co-ruler to c.683)
c.694 - c.709              Sigeheard Saebban
sunu            (b. 6.. - d. c.709)
c.694 - c.704              Swaefraed Saebban sunu -Co-ruler  (b. 6.. - d. c.704)
c.709 - c.709              Offa Sigeheardes
sunu             (b. 6.. - 7..)
c.709 - c.746              Saelraed Sigebeorhtes
sunu        (b. 6.. - d. c.746)
c.715 - c.738              Swaefbryht (Swaefbeorht)
-Co-ruler (b. 6.. - d. c.738)
c.746 - c.758              Sw
íthraed Sigemundes sunu         (b. 6.. - d. c.758)
                             (Swaefred)
c.758 - c.798              Siger
íc                           (b. 7.. - d. c.800)
c.798 - 812                Sigeraed Siger
íces sunu           (b. 7.. - d. 83.)
                             (continues as Duke [Dux] to 825)



Kent     

bf.560                     Kingdom of Kent (Cant ríce; in Latin Cantii regnum)
                             founded by the Jutes.
 4 Jul 673 - 674           Mercian rule.
31 Aug 686 - 687           West Saxon (Wessex) rule.
687 - 688                  East Saxon (Essex) rule.
688                        Mercian intervention.
c.739 - Sep? 796           Mercian overlordship.
Sep? 796                   Independence restored.
798                        Definitely subdued by Mercia.
825 - 860                  Wessex rule.
20 Dec 860                 Annexed to Wessex.
            
Kings (
title Cantwara cyning/Rex Cantuariorum; from 686-687, 688-691,
c.739-796 and 825-860
Cantes cyning/Rex Cantae)
51. - 55.                  Octa (Octha)                      (d. 55.)
55. - 58.                  Eormenríc                         (b. 5.. - d. 58.)    
58. - 24 Feb 616           Æthelberht Eormenr
íces sunu       (b. 56. - d. 616)
24 Feb 616 - 20 Jan 640    Éadbald Æthelberhtes
sunu         (b. 59. - d. 640)
24 Feb 616 - 62.           Æthelwald Æthelberhtes
           (b. 59. - d. 62.)
                             sunu -Co-ruler  
20 Jan 640 - 14 Jul 664    Eorcenberht 
Éadbaldes sunu        (b. 62. - d. 664)
14 Jul 664 -  4 Jul 673    Ecgberht Eorcenberhtes
sunu       (b. 64. - d. 673)
14 Jul 664 - 666           Seaxburh (f) -Regent
             (b. 62. - d. c.699)
                             (Saint Sexburga)
 4 Jul 673 - 674           Mercian rule      
674 -  6 Feb 685           Hlóthhere Eorcenberhtes
sunu      (b. 64. - d. 685)     
c.679 - 31 Aug 686        
Éadríc Ecgberhtes sunu            (b. 66. - d. 686)
                             (co-ruler to 6 Feb 685)  
31 Aug 686 - 687           Múl Cénbehrtes
sunu               (b. 66. - d. 687) 
687 - c.692                Swaefheard Saebban
sunu           (b. 6.. - d. 69.) 
                             (Suebhardus, Sueaberdus
)
688 - Jul? 691             Óswyn                             (b. 6.. - d. 691?)             
Jul? 691 - 
23 Apr 725      Wihtraed Ecgberhtes sunu          (b. 66. - d. 725)   
                             (Wihtredus, Wythredus) 
23 Apr 725 - c.730         Éadberht Wihtraedes sunu          (b. 69. - d. 748)      
23 Apr 725 - 72.           Ælfr
íc Wihtraedes sunu -Co-ruler  (b. 69. - d. 72.?)
c.730 - 762                Æthelberht Wihtraedes
sunu        (b. 69. - d. 762) 
748 - 7..                  Eardwulf 
Éadberhtes sunu -Co-ruler(b. 72. - d. 7..)
762 - c.763
               Éadberht Æthelberhtes sunu        (b. 7.. - d. c.763?)
762 - c.763                Sigeraed
-Co-ruler                (b. 7.. - d. c.763?) 
c.763 - c.764             
Éanmund                           (b. 7.. - d. c.764?)    
c.764 - 765                H
éaberht Æthelberhtes sunu        (b. 7.. - d. 765?)
c.764 - 78.                Ecgberht Æthelberhtes
sunu        (b. 7.. - d. 78.)          
78. - 785                  Ealhmund Eafes sunu               (b. 74. - d. 785)
785 - Sep? 796             Vacant                 
Sep? 796 - 798            
Éadbearht Ealhmundes sunu Praen   (b. 7.. - d. 8..)
798 - 807                  Cuthraed Cuthberhtes sunu         (b. 7.. - d. 807)
                             (Cuthred)
807 - 821                  the king of Mercia                  
821 - 825                  Baldraed (Baldred)             
825 -  4 Feb 839           Æthelwulf Ecgbehrtes sunu         (b. c.795 - d. 858)
 4 Feb 839 - 855?          Æthelstán Æthelwulfes sunu        (b. 81. - d. 855?)    
855? - 20 Dec 860          Æthelberht Æthelwulfes sunu       (b. c.832 - d. 865)


Mercia

5..                        Myrce/Mercia kingdom (Myrcena ríce; in Latin regnum Merciorum).
Apr 656 - c.658            Northumbria occupation. 
c.658 - 679                Mercia restored as tributary to Northumbria.
679                        Independence restored.
829 - 830                  Wessex rule.
874 - c.881                Under Danish suzerainty.
c.881                      English rule.

Kings
(
title Myrcena cyning/Rex Merciorum)
5.. - c.593                Créoda Cynewaldes
sunu            (b. 54. - d. c.593)
c.593 - c.606              Pybba Cr
éodan sunu                (b. 57. - d. c.606)
c.606 - c.626              Cearl                             (b. 57. - d. c.626)
c.626 - 15 Nov 655         Penda Pybban 
sunu                 (b. 60. - d. 655)
c.635 -  5 Aug 642         Éowa Pybban
sunu -Co-ruler        (b. 60. - d. 642)
c.653 - 17 Apr 656         P
éada Pendan sunu -Co-ruler       (b. 62. - d. 656)   
Apr 656 - c.658            Northumbria rule
 
c.658 - 675                Wulfh
ére Pendan sunu              (b. 64. - d. 675)
675 - 704                  Æthelraed Pendan 
sunu             (b. 64. - d. 716)
704 - 709                  Coenraed Wulfh
éres sunu           (b. 66. - d. 71.)
709 - 716                  C
éolraed Æthelraedes sunu         (b. 67. - d. 716)
716 - 757                  Æthelbald Alw
éowes sunu           (b. 69. - d. 757)
                             (
Aetthlbalt)
757 - 757                 
Beornraed                         (b. 71. - d. 769?) 
757 - 26 Jul 796           Offa Thingfr
íthes sunu            (b. 73. - d. 796)
787 - 
14 Dec 796           Ecgfríth Offan sunu               (b. 77. - d. 796)
                             (co-ruler to 26 Jul 796)
    
Dec 796 - 821              Coenwulf
Cuthberhtes sunu         (b. 7.. - d. 821)
                             (C
énwulf)  
821 - 823                  Ceolwulf Cuthberhtes sunu         (b. 7.. - d. 823?)     
823 - 826                  Beornwulf                         (b. 7.. - d. 825) 
826 - 827                  Ludeca                            (b. 7.. - d. 827)
827 - 829                  W
ígláf (1st time)                 (d. c.839)
829 - 830                  Wessex rule
830 - c.839                W
ígláf (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
c.839                      Ælfflæd (f) -Regent

c.839 - 852                Beorhtwulf
(Berhtwulf)            (b. 8.. - d. 852)
852 - 874                  Burgraed                          (b. 8.. - d. 88.?) 
874 - c.881                Ceolwulf II                       (b. 8.. - d. c.881)
      


Sussex

c.645                      Separated from Wessex by Mercian intervention;
                             Kingdom of South Saxons (thseaxena ríce; in Latin
                             regnum Sussaxonum
).
686 - 688                  Wessex rule.
688                        Sussex Kingdom restored.
75. - c.772                Mercian overlordship.
c.772 - 825                Annexed by Mercia, ruling dynasty continue as governors
                             styled Dux (Duke).
825 - 860                  Wessex rule (administered from Kent).
20 Dec 860                 Annexed to Wessex.

Kings
(
title Súthseaxena cyning/Rex Sussaxonum)
c.645 - 685                Æthelwealh                        (b. 62. - d. 685)
685 - 686                  Beorhthun -Duke 
(acting)          (b. 6.. - d. 686) 
685 - 686                  Andhun
-Duke (acting)               
686 - 688                  Wessex rule                  
688 - 71.                  Nóthhelm (Nunna)                  (b. 6.. - d. 71.)
71. - 72.                  Æthelstán                         (b. 6.. - d. 72.)
72. - 75.                  Æthelberht                        (b. 7.. - d. 75.)
75. - c.772                Ósmund                            (b. 7.. - d. 77.)



Wessex


c.538                      Gewisse kingdom                     
c.645 - c.648              Mercian rule.  
685 - 688                  Caedwalla (Catgvallavn) claims kingship over all the Saxons.
688                        Kingdom of West Saxons (Westseaxena ríce; in Latin
                             regnum occidentalium Saxonum).
802                        Wessex independent from Mercia.
825                        Wessex takes over Essex, Sussex and Kent from Mercia under
                             a separate (subordinate) kingship.
20 Dec 860                 Kent, Essex, Sussex fully merged with Wessex.
15 Apr 871                 Ælfraed the claims title 'king of the Anglo-Saxons.'

Kings of the Gewissae
(title Gewisinga cyning/Rex Gewissae)
c.538 - c.554              Cerdic (Ceretic)                  (b. 5.. - d. c.554)
c.554 - c.581              Cynr
íc                            (b. 5.. - d. c.581)
c.581 - c.588              Ceawlin                           (b. 5.. - d. c.589)  
c.588 - c.594              C
éolríc Cúthwulfes sunu           (b. 5.. - d. c.594)
c.594 - c.611              C
éolwulf Cúthwulfes sunu          (b. 5.. - d. c.611)
c.611 - c.636              Cwichelm                          (b. 59. - d. c.636)   
c.611 - c.643              Cynegils                          (b. 5.. - d. c.643)
c.643 - c.645              C
énwealh Cynegilses sunu          (b. 6.. - d. c.674)
                            
(Kyngvallavn)(1st time)
c.645 - c.648              Mercian rule                  
c.648 - c.674              C
énwealh Cynegilses sunu          (s.a.)
                             (Kyngvallavn)(2nd time)
c.674 - c.676              Æscwine C
énfúsing sunu            (b. 6.. - d. c.676)
c.676 - 685                Centwine (C
énwine)                (b. 6.. - d. 69.)    
King of the Saxons (title Seaxena cyning/Rex Saxonum)
685 - 688                  Caedwalla C
énbehrting sunu        (b. c.659 - d. 689)
                             (Catgvallavn)       
Kings of the West Saxons (title Westseaxena cyning/Rex occidentalium Saxonum)
688 - 726                  Ine Cénraeding
sunu               (b. 6.. - d. 728)
726 - 740                  Æthelheard                        (b. 7.. - d. 740)
740 - 756                  Cúthraed                          (b. 7.. - d. 756)
756 - 757                  Sigebeorht                        (b. 7.. - d. c.759)
757 - 786                  Cynewulf                          (b. 7.. - d. 786)
786 - 802                  Beorhtríc                         (b. 7.. - d. 802)
802 -  4 Feb 839           Ecgberht Ealhmundes
sunu          (b. c.770 - d. 839)  
 4 Feb 839 - 13 Jan 858    Æthelwulf Ecgbehrtes
 sunu         (b. c.795 - d. 858)   
855 - 856                  Æthelbald Æthelwulfes
sunu        (b. c.834 - d. 860)  
                             (subregulus [acting for
Æthelwulf]) 
856 - 
20 Dec 860           Æthelbald Æthelwulfes sunu        (s.a.)  
                             (co-ruler to 13 Jan 858)
13 Jan 858 - 
Sep? 865      Æthelberht Æthelwulfes sunu       (b. c.832 - d. 865) 
                             (co-ruler to 20 Dec 1860)
Sep? 865 -  1 Apr 871      Æthelraed Æthelwulfes
sunu        (b. c.843 - d. 871)
King of the Saxons (title Seaxena cyning/Rexs Saxonum)  
 1 Apr 871 - c.881         Ælfraed Æthelwulfes
sunu          (b. c.849 - d. 899)
                             (Ælfred "the Great")            


Northumbria


5..                        Bernicia (Beornice, Bernice) kingdom.
c.559                      Deira (Dere, Derenrice) kingdom.
Nov 655                    Unification of Bernicia and Deira (definitively from 679);
                             Kingdom of the Northumbrians (Northanhymbra ríce;
                             in Latin regnum Northanhymbrorum).
21 Nov 866                 Danish occupy York (Jorvík).
21 Nov 866 - c.883         Danish rule.     
 5 Aug 910 - 918           English rule.
927 - Nov? 939             English rule.
944 - 947                  English rule.
948 - 949                  English rule.
954                        Annexed to England.
     

Kings (
title Beornice & Dere cyning/Rex Beorniciorum et Deirorum;
from Nov 655, Northanhymbra cyning/Rex Northanhymbrorum)         
c.547 - c.559              Ida Eoppan
 sunu                   (b. 5.. - d. c.559)     
c.559 - c.588              Ælla Yffan
sunu                   (b. 5.. - d. c.588)     
c.588 - c.592              Æthelr
íc Idan sunu                (b. 55. - d. c.592)  
c.592 - 616                Æthelfrith Æthelr
íces sunu        (b. 57. - d. 616)
616 - 14 Oct 633           
Éadwine Ællan sunu                (b. c.586 - d. 633)
14 Oct 633 - 634           
Éanfrith Æthelfrithes sunu        (b. 60. - d. 634)    
Nov 633 - 634              
Ósríc Ælfríces sunu (in Deira)    (b. 58. - d. 634)  
                             (in rebellion)
634 -  5 Aug 642           
Óswald Æthelfrithes sunu          (b. c.604 - d. 642)  
 5 Aug 642 - Nov 655       
Óswéo Æthelfrithes sunu           (b. c.611 - d. 670)
 5 Aug 642 - 20 Aug 651    
Óswine Ósríces sunu (in Deira)    (b. 61. - d. 651)  
                             (in rebellion)
20 Aug 651 - Nov 655       Æthelwald 
Óswaldes sunu -Co-ruler (b. 63. - d. 655?)
                             (in Deira)
Nov 655 - 15 Feb 670
      Óswéo Æthelfrithes sunu           (b. c.611 - d. 670)
Nov 655 - 664              Ealhfrith 
Óswéowes sunu -Co-ruler (b. 63. - d. 664)
                             (in Deira)
664 - 15 Feb 670           Ecgfrith Óswéowes sunu -Co-ruler  (b. c.645 - d. 685)
                             (in Deira)
15 Feb 670 - 20 May 685    Ecgfrith 
Óswéowes sunu            (s.a.)
15 Feb 670 - 679           Ælfwine 
Óswéowes sunu -Co-ruler   (b. c.661 - d. 679)
                             (in Deira)
20 May 685 - 14 Dec 704    Ealdfrith Ósw
éowes sunu           (b. c.648 - d. 704)
14 Dec 704 - Feb 705      
Éadwulf                           (b. 6.. - d. 717)            
Feb 705 - 716              
Ósraed Ealdfrithes sunu           (b. c.697 - d. 716)
716 - 718                  Coenraed Cúthwines
sunu           (b. 69. - d. 718)    
718 -  9 May 729          
Ósríc Ealdfrithes sunu            (b. 70. - d. 729)
 9 May 729 - 737           Ceolwulf (Saint Ceolwulf)      
  (b. 70. - d. 764)
737 - Sep? 758            
Éadberht Eates sunu               (b. 71. - d. 768)
Sep? 758 - 24 Jul 759      
Óswulf Éadberhtes sunu            (b. 73. - d. 759)
24 Jul 759 - 30 Oct 765    Æthelwald Moll                    (b. 74. - d. af.765)
30 Oc 765 - Apr 774        Ealhraed Éanwines
sunu            (b. 73. - d. af.774)
Apr 774 - Feb? 779         Æthelraed Æthelwaldes sunu        (b. 77. - d. 796)
                             (1st time)
Feb? 779 - 23 Sep 788      Ælfwald 
Óswulfes sunu             (b. 75. - d. 788)
23 Sep 788 - 790          
Ósraed Ealhraedes sunu            (b. 77. - d. 792)
790 - 18 Apr 796           Æthelraed Æthelwaldes sunu        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
18 Apr 796 - 14 May 796   
Ósbald                            (b. 74. - d. 799)
14 May 796 - c.806         Eardwulf Eardwulfes sunu          (b. 7.. - d. c.814)
                             (1st time)
c.806 - c.808              Ælfwald                           (b. 7.. - d. c.808?)   
c.808 - c.814              Eardwulf Eardwulfes sunu          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
c.814 - c.844              
Éanraed Eardwulfes sunu           (b. 79. - d. c.844)
c.844 - c.848              Æthelraed 
Éanraedes sunu          (b. 8.. - d. c.848)
                             (1st time)
c.848 - c.848              Raedwulf                          (b. 8.. - d. c.848)           
c.848 - c.853              Æthelraed 
Éanraedes sunu          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
c.853 - 21 Nov 866
        Ósberht                           (b. 8.. - d. 867)    
21 Nov 866 - c.883         Danish rule
Dec 866 - 21 Mar 867       Ælle (
Ælla) (in rebellion)        (b. 8.. - d. 867)    
21 Mar 867 - 872           Ecgberht
(in rebellion)           (b. 8.. - d. 873)  
872 - 876                  Rícsige
(in rebellion)            (b. 8.. - d. 876)
876 - c.878                Ecgberht
(in rebellion)           (b. 8.. - d. c.878?)
c.883 - 24 Aug 895         Godhefridhr Hardheknútsson        (b. 8.. - d. 895)    
24 Aug 895 - 896           Sightryggr 
Ívarsson               (b. 8.. - d. 896)  
                             (Sitriuc mac Ímhair)
896 - Dec 899              Knútr                    
Dec 899 - 13 Dec 902       Æthelwald Æthelraedes
sunu        (b. c.868 - d. 902)
                             (Adhalvaldr Adhalrádhsson)
13 Dec 902 - 904          
Ívarr (Ímhar ua Ímhair)           (b. 8.. - d. 904) 
904 -  5 Aug 910           H
álfdan                           (b. 8.. - d. 910)
 5 Aug 910 - 918           
English rule                
918 - 921                  Røgnvaldr 
(Raghnall ua Ímhair)    (b. 8.. - d. 921)
921 - 927                  Sigtryggr                        
(b. 8.. - d. 927)
                             (Sitriuc c
áech ua Ímhair)      
927 - Nov? 939             
English rule                
Nov? 939 - 941
            Óláfr Gudhfridharson              (b. 9.. - d. 941) 
                             (Amhlaíbh mac Gofraidh) 
941 - 944                  
Óláfr kváran Sigtryggsson         (b. 90. - d. 981)   
                             (Amhlaíbh cuar
án mac Sitriuca)
                             (1st time)
944 - 947                  English rule                  
947 - 948                  Eir
íkr blódhøx Haraldsson         (b. c.895 - d. 954)
                             (1st time) (Eric "Bloodaxe")        
948 - 949                  
English rule             
949 - 952                 
Óláfr kváran Sigtryggsson         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)        
952 - 954                  Eir
íkr blódhøx Haraldsson         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)    



Northern Ireland
 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
 From 18 Jun 1922, Only Legal Flag from 30 Mar 1972
 
[Northern
                          Ireland Governor's flag]
          15 Aug 1924 - 18 Jul 1973 Governor's Flag
 
[Northern
                          Ireland Former government ensign]
           1929 - 30 Mar 1972 Government Ensign
 
[Flag of
                          Northern Ireland, 1924-1953]
           2 Aug 1924 - 29 May 1953 Civil Ensign
 
[Flag of
                          Northern Ireland, 1953-1972]
         29 May 1953 - 30 Mar 1972 Civil Ensign

Map of Northern Ireland Former National Song
"A Londonderry Air"
Text of National Song
(to 1972)
Northern Ireland Act
(19 Nov 1998)
Capital: Belfast Currency: British Pound
(GBP)
Local Holidays: 12 Jul (1690)
Battle of the Boyne
(Orangemen's Day)
---------------------------------

 17 Mar (461)
Saint Patrick's Day
Population: 1,823,634 (2012)

Feb/Jun 1177               English rule begins in Ulster.
18 Jun 1541                Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with England.
 1 Jan 1801                Part of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
18 Jun 1922                Independence of southern counties as Irish Free State,
                             six counties of Ulster remain part of Britain.
18 Jun 1922                Irish Free State (south) independent (see Ireland).
 5 Oct 1968                Irish separatist violence begins.
30 Mar 1972 -  1 Jan 1974  Britain imposes direct rule.
28 May 1974 -  1 Jul 1998  Britain imposes direct rule.
11 Feb 2000 - 30 May 2000  Home rule suspended.
10 Aug 2001 - 11 Aug 2001  Home rule suspended.
22 Sep 2001 - 23 Sep 2001  Home rule suspended.
15 Oct 2002 -  8 May 2007  Home rule suspended.

Governors
12 Dec 1922 -  7 Sep 1945  James Albert Edward Hamilton,     (b. 1869 - d. 1953)
                             Duke of Abercorn 
 7 Sep 1945 -  1 Dec 1952  William Spencer Leveson Gower,    (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
                             Earl Granville 
 3 Dec 1952 -  1 Dec 1964  John de Vere Loder,               (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
                             Baron Wakehurst 
 3 Dec 1964 -  2 Dec 1968  John Maxwell Erskine,             (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
                             Baron Erskine of Rerrick 
 3 Dec 1968 - 18 Jul 1973  Ralph Francis Alnwick Grey,       (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
                             Baron Grey of Naunton 
Secretaries of State for Northern Ireland
(in London)
 1 Apr 1972 -  2 Dec 1973  William Shepard Ian Whitelaw      (b. 1918 - d. 1999)  Con
 2 Dec 1973 -  5 Mar 1974  Francis Leslie Pym                (b. 1922 - d. 2008)  Con
 5 Mar 1974 - 10 Sep 1976  Merlyn Rees                       (b. 1920 - d. 2006)  Lab
10 Sep 1976 -  5 May 1979  Roy Mason                         (b. 1924)            Lab
 5 May 1979 - 14 Sep 1981  Humphrey Edward Atkins            (b. 1922 - d. 1996)  Con
14 Sep 1981 - 10 Sep 1984  James Michael Leathes Prior       (b. 1927)            Con
10 Sep 1984 -  2 Sep 1985  Douglas Richard Hurd              (b. 1930)            Con
 2 Sep 1985 - 24 Jul 1989  Thomas "Tom" Jeremy King          (b. 1933)            Con
24 Jul 1989 -  2 Apr 1992  Peter Leonard Brooke              (b. 1934)            Con
 9 Apr 1992 -  3 May 1997  Sir Patrick Barnabas Burk Mayhew  (b. 1929)            Con
 3 May 1997 - 11 Oct 1999  Marjorie "Mo" Mowlam (f)          (b. 1951 - d. 2005)  Lab 
11 Oct 1999 - 24 Jan 2001  Peter Benjamin Mandelson          (b. 1953)            Lab
24 Jan 2001 - 24 Oct 2002  John Reid                         (b. 1947)            Lab
24 Oct 2002 -  6 May 2005  Paul Murphy                       (b. 1948)            Lab
 6 May 2005 - 28 Jun 2007  Peter Hain                        (b. 1950)            Lab
                             (also Secretary of State for Wales)
28 Jun 2007 - 12 May 2010  Shaun Woodward                    (b. 1958)            Lab
12 May 2010 -  4 Sep 2012  Owen Paterson                     (b. 1956)            Con
 4 Sep 2012 -              Theresa Villiers (f)              (b. 1968
)            Con

Prime Ministers
 7 Jun 1921 - 24 Nov 1940  Sir James Craig                   (b. 1871 - d. 1940)  UUP
                            (from 20 Jan 1927, James Craig, Viscount Craigavon) 
24 Nov 1940 -  1 May 1943  John Miller Andrews               (b. 1871 - d. 1956)  UUP
                            (acting to 27 Nov 1940)
 1 May 1943 - 26 Mar 1963  Sir Basil Stanlake Brooke         (b. 1888 - d. 1973)  UUP
                            (from 4 Jul 1952, Basil Stanlake Brooke,
                             Viscount Brookeborough of Colebrooke)
26 Mar 1963 -  1 May 1969  Terence O'Neill                   (b. 1914 - d. 1990)  UUP
 1 May 1969 - 23 Mar 1971  James Dawson Chichester-Clark     (b. 1923 - d. 2002)  UUP
23 Mar 1971 - 30 Mar 1972  Arthur Brian Faulkner             (b. 1921 - d. 1977)  UUP
Chief executive
 1 Jan 1974 - 28 May 1974  Arthur Brian Faulkner             (s.a.)               UUP
28 May 1974 -  1 Jul 1998  Post abolished
First ministers
 1 Jul 1998 -  1 Jul 2001  William David Trimble (1st time)  (b. 1944)            UUP
                            (suspended 11 Feb - 30 May 2000)
 1 Jul 2001 - 18 Oct 2001  Sir Reginald Norman Morgan Empey  (b. 1947)            UUP
                            (acting)(suspended 10-11 Aug 2001
                             and 22-23 Sep 2001)
 6 Nov 2001 - 15 Oct 2002  William David Trimble (2nd time)  (s.a.)               UUP
15 Oct 2002 -  8 May 2007  Post suspended
 8 May 2007 -  5 Jun 2008  Ian Richard Kyle Paisley          (b. 1926)            DUP
 5 Jun 2008 -              Peter David Robinson              (b. 1948)            DUP
11 Jan 2010 -  3 Feb 2010  Arlene Foster (f)                 (b. 1970)
           DUP
                             (acting for Robinson)

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative Party (center-right, est.1840s); DUP = Democratic Unionist Party (unionist, nationalist, mainly Protestant, est.1971); Lab = Labour Party (social-democratic, center-left, first officially named 1868); UUP = Ulster Unionist Party (conservative, unionist, mainly Protestant, est.1905)



Scotland
 
[Flag of
                          Scotland]
                1512 - 12 May 1707
 
[Royal banner
                          of Scotland]
             Royal Banner adopted c.1250
 
Map of Scotland Hear National Song
"Fhlùir na h-Alba"
"Flower of Scotland"
(in use from 1974)

Hear National Song
"Scotland the Brave"
Scotland Act
(19 Nov 1998)
Capital: Edinburgh
(Perth 1210-1437;
Scone 847-1210;
 Dunfermline 1057-1603)
Currency: British Pound
(GBP); Scottish Pound (SSP)
Local Holiday: 30 Nov
Saint Andrew's Day
Population: 5,313,600 (2012)


c.430                      Legendary foundation of the Kingdom of the Picts (Pictavia)
                             (in Gaelic: Fortriu), first historical reign from c.555.
c.498                      Dál Riata (Dalriada) Kingdom
c.842                      Cináedh mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpine) unites the Picts with
                             remnants of Dál Riata.
858                        Formal unification of kingdoms of the Picts and Dál Riata
                             (of the Scots) as Kingdom of the Scots and Picts.
866 - 871                  Under suzerainty of Norse kingdom of Dublin.
889                        Kingdom of Alba
973                        Lothian (Laudian) incorporated.
c.1018                     Strathclyde (Ystrad Clud [Alclud]) annexed.
25 Nov 1034                Kingdom of Scotia
 6 Jan 1156 - 19 May 1493  Lordship of the Isles (Hebrides Islands from 2 Jul 1266,
                             under Scottish suzerainty).
 2 Jul 1266                Isle of Man (to 1333) and Hebrides ceded to Scotland.
18 Mar 1286                Kingdom of Scotland
 8 Dec 1174 -  5 Dec 1189  King of England acknowledged as overlord of Scotland.
13 Jun 1291 -  2 Jan 1293  King of England acknowledged as overlord of Scotland.
10 Jul 1296 - 11 Sep 1297  Occupied by England.
 9 Feb 1304 -  7 Jul 1307  Occupied by England.
24 Jun 1314                De facto independence following Battle of Bannockburn.
1326                       First Scottish parliament convenes.
17 Mar 1328                Independence recognized by England in Treaty of Edinburgh.
12 Aug 1332 -  7 Jul 1339  Perth occupied by England (in Edinburgh to 17 Apr 1341).
 8 Sep 1468                Shetland Islands mortgaged to Scotland by Denmark-Norway.
28 May 1439                Orkney Islands mortgaged to Scotland by Denmark-Norway.
21 Jan 1590                Denmark formally resigns all pretensions to the sovereignty
                             over Orkney and Shetland Islands.
24 Mar 1603                Personal union with England (kingship abolished in England
                             on 17 May 1649, it is restored 8 May 1660).
 5 Feb 1649                Charles II is proclaimed king in Edinburgh (he lands in Scotland
                             24 Jun 1650, crowned on 1 Jan 1651 and left Scotland 6 Aug 1651).
23 Jun 1650 -  3 Sep 1650  English occupation of Edinburgh and most of Scotland.
 4 Feb 1652                Declaration of 28 Oct 1651 known as the "Tender of Union" which
                             declared that Scotland was "under authority of the Commonwealth
                             of England," proclaimed a Edinburgh.
16 Dec 1653 -  8 May 1660  Part of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
 4 May 1654                Kingship in Scotland abolished upon proclaiming the Ordinance for
                             uniting Scotland into one Commonwealth with England ("Ordinance
                             of Union").
 8 May 1660                Kingdom of Scotland (restored).  
12 May 1707                Act of Union formally unites Scotland and England as the
                             United Kingdom of Great Britain.
 2 Jan 1716 - 16 Feb 1716  "Jacobite" (Stewart) restoration rebellion by James Francis Stuart.
28 Sep 1745 -  1 Oct 1746  "Jacobite" restoration rebellion by Charles Edward Stuart.
 1 May 1979                Referendum on devolution fails. 51.6% voted in favor, but
                             this was only 32.9% of the electorate not the required 40%.
11 Sep 1997                Referendum on devolution endorses home rule 74.3% to 25.7%.
 1 Jul 1999                First Scottish parliament since 1707 opens.
 1 Jul 1999                Scottish Office replaced by Scotland Office.
18 Sep 2014                Referendum on independence scheduled.
 

Kings¹
(Old Irish and English names with Modern Gaelic in parentheses to 1286)
c.842 - Feb 858            Cin
áedh mac Ailpín = Kenneth I (III)  (b. c.810 - d. 858)
                             MacAlpin (Coinneach mac Ailpein)
c.842 - c.843              
Bruide mac Feradaidh (in rebellion)   (b. 82. - d. c.843)
c.843 - c.844              Cináedh mac Feradaigh
                 (b. 82. - d. c.844) 
                             (in rebellion)

c.844 - c.846              
Bruide mac ...thail (in rebellion)    (b. 82. - d. c.846)
c.844 - c.847              
Drest mac Feradaigh (in rebellion)    (b. 82. - d. c.847)
Feb 858 - Apr 862         
Domhnall mac Ailpín = Donald I        (b. c.812 - d. 862)
                             (
Dòmhnall mac Ailpein)
Apr 862 - 877            
 Causantín mac Cináedh = Constantine   (b. c.836 - d. 877)
                             (in rebellion)                    
877 - 878                  Áedh mac Cináedh (Aodh mac Choinnich) (b. 84. - d. 878)
878 - 889                  Giric mac Dúnghail = Giric I          (b. 84. - d. 889)
                             (Griogair mac Dhunghail
)
                           - jointly with -
878 - 889                 
Eochaid mac RhunEochaid            (d. 889)
889 - 900                  Domhnall mac Causantín
Donald II    (b. c.862 - d. 900)
                             (Dòmhnall mac Chòiseim)
900 - 943                 
Constantín mac Áedha = Constantine II (b. 87. - d. 952)
                             (Còiseam mac Aoidh)
943 - 954                  Máel Choluim mac Domhnaill
= Malcolm I(b. c.897 - d. 954)
                             (Maol Chaluim mac Dhòmhnaill)
954 - 962                  Ildulb mac Causantín
= Indulf         (b. 89. - d. 962)
962 - 20 Jul 966           Dubh mac Maíl Choluim = Duff          (b. 92. - d. 967)
                             (Dubh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
20 Jul 966 - 971           Cuilén mac Ilduilb
Colin            (b. 92. - d. 971)
971 - 995                  Cináedh mac Maíl Choluim = Kenneth II (b. c.932 - d. 995)
                             (Coinneach mac Mhaoil Chaluim)        
995 - 997                  Causantín mac Cuiléin =               (b. 95. - d. 997)
                             Constantine III (Còiseam mac Chailein)
997 - 25 Mar 1005          Cináedh mac Duibh
= Kenneth III       (b. 96. - d. 1005)
                             (Coinneach mac Dhuibh)
25 Mar 1005 - 25 Nov 1034  Máel Choluim mac Cináedha = Malcolm II(b. c.954 - d. 1034)
                             (Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich)
25 Nov 1034 - 14 Aug 1040 
Donnchadh mac Crínáin = Duncan I      (b. 1001 - d. 1040)
                             (Donnchadh mac Crìonain)
15 Aug 1040 - 15 Aug 1057 
Macbethad mac Finnláigh = Macbeth     (b. c.1005 - d. 1057)
                             (MacBheatha mac Fhionnlaigh)  
15 Aug 1057 - 17 Mar 1058  Lulach mac Gilla Choimhgháin = Lulach (b. c.1032 - d. 1058)
                             (Lughlagh mac Gille Chomghain)
17 Mar 1058 - 13 Nov 1093 
Máel Choluim mac Donnchada =          (b. 1031 - d. 1093)
                             Malcolm III Canmore                 
                             (Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh)
                             (in rebellion
at Cumbria from 27 Jul 1054)
13 Nov 1093 -  1 May 1094 
Domhnall Bán mac Donnchadha =         (b. c.1033 - d. 1099)
                             Donald III Bane (1st time)          
                             (Dòmhnall Bàn mac Dhonnchaidh)
 1 May 1094 - 12 Nov 1094  Donnchadh mac Maíl CholuimDuncan II(b. 106. - d. 1094)
                             (Donnchadh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
12 Nov 1094 - c.8 Oct 1097 Domhnall Bán mac Donnchadha =         (s.a.)
                             Donald III Bane (2nd time)          
                             (Dòmhnall Bàn mac Dhonnchaidh)

                           - jointly with following -
12 Nov 1094 - Oct 1097     Etmond mac Maíl Coluim = Edmund       (b. af.1070 - d. af.1097)
12 Nov 1094 -  8 Jan 1107  Étgar mac Maíl Choluim = Edgar        (b. c.1074 - d. 1107)
                             (Eagar mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
                             (in rebellion
to c.8 Oct 1097)       
 8 Jan 1107 - 23 Apr 1124  Alaxandar mac Maíl Choluim =          (b. c.1078 - d. 1124)
                             Alexander I "the Fierce"    
                             (Alasdair mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
23 Apr 1124 - 24 May 1153 
Dabhíd mac Maíl Choluim = David I     (b. 1084 - d. 1153)
                             (Dàibhidh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
24 May 1153 -  9 Dec 1165 
Máel Choluim Cennmór mac Eanric       (b. 1141 - d. 1165)
                             = Malcolm IV "the Maiden" 
                             (Maol Chaluim Ceannmór mac Eanraig)
 9 Dec 1165 -  4 Dec 1214 
Uilliam Garbh mac Eanric = William I  (b. 1143 - d. 1214)
                             "the Rough" (Uilleam mac Eanraig)
                             (English prisoner 13 Jul 1174 - 2 Feb 1175)
13 Jul 1174 -  2 Feb 1175  Walter de Bidun -Regent               (b. 113. - d. 1178)

                             (for absent Uilliam)
 4 Dec 1214 -  8 Jul 1249 
Alaxandar mac Uilliam = Alexander II  (b. 1198 - d. 1249)
                             (Alasdair mac Uilleim)
 8 Jul 1249 - 19 Mar 1286 
Alaxandar mac Alaxandair =            (b. 1241 - d. 1286)
                             Alexander III "the Glorious"        
                             (Alasdair mac Alasdair)
 8 Jul 1249 - 1251         Robert de Keldeleth, Abbot            (b. 120. - d. 1273)
                             of Dunfermline -Regent
1251 - 20 Sep 1255         Walter Comyn, Earl of Menteith-Regent (b. c.1198 - d. 1258)
20 Sep 1255 - 1257         Ailean mac Tomáis Dorsair -Regent    
(b. c.1218 - d. c.1270)
                             (Alan Durward)    
1258 -  3 Sep 1262         Alexander Comyn, Earl
                (b. 121. - d. 1289)
                             of Buchan -Regent
19 Mar 1286 - 26 Sep 1290  Maighread = Margaret                  (b. 1283 - d. 1290)
                             "the Maid of Norway" -Queen
                             (did not come to Scotland)
19 Mar 1286 - 11 Apr 1286  Thomas Charteris (de Carnoto) -Regent (b. 124. - d. af.1291)
11 Apr 1286 - 30 Nov 1292  Wardens
(Regency)
                           - William Fraser, Bishop              (b. c.1230 - d. 1297)
                               of St. Andrews
                           - Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow   (b. 123. - d. 1316)
                           - Donnchadh mac Colbáin MacDubh
                             = Duncan MacDuff, Earl of Fife      (b. 1262 - d. 1288)
                              (to 25 Sep 1288)
                           - Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan     (s.a.) 
                              (to Sep? 1289)
                           - James Stewart, High Steward         (b. c.1243 - d. 1309)
                           - John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch     (b. c.1242 - d. 1302)
30 Nov 1292 - 10 Jul 1296  John de Balliol                       (b. c.1249 - d. 1314)
10 Jul 1296 - 11 Sep 1297  John de Warenne, Earl of              (b. 1231? - d. 1304)
                             Surrey -Regent (acting to 29 Aug 1296)
11 Sep 1297 - 25 Mar 1306  Wardens (Regency)
                           - Sir William Wallace (to Aug 1298)   (b. c.1270 - d. 1305)
                           - John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch
    (b. 126. - d. 1306)
                              (Aug 1298 - 21 Feb 1302 and
                               130. - 9 Feb 1304)
                           - Robert de Bruce, Earl of Carrick
   (b. 1274 - d. 1329)
                              (Aug 1298 - 10 May 1300)    
                           - William de Lamberton, Bishop        (b. 126. - d. 1328)
                               of St. Andrews
                              (Aug 1299 - 21 Feb 1302) 

                           - Sir Ingram de U
mfraville            (b. 127. - d. c.1325) 
                              (10 May 1300 - 21 Feb 1302)
                           - Sir John de Soulis (or de Soules)   (b. 126. - d. 1310)
                              (21 Feb 1302 - 130.)
                           - Sir John de Segrave                 (b. 1256 - d. 1325)
                              (9 Feb 1304 - 25 Mar 1306)
25 Mar 1306 -  7 Jun 1329  Robert I (= Robert de Bruce
)          (s.a.)
                             (Raibeart Bruis)     
1316 - 1317                Walter Stewart, High Steward -Regent  (b. c.1296 - d. 1327)
 7 Jun 1329 - 12 Aug 1332  David II (1st time)                   (b. 1324 - d. 1371)
                             (Dáibhidh a Briuis)
 7 Jun 1329 - 20 Jul 1332  Thomas Randolph, Earlof Moray -Regent (b. c.1277 - d. 1332)
                             (Guardian of the Kingdom) 
 2 Aug 1332 - 12 Aug 1332  Domnall (Donald), Earl of Mar -Regent (b. c.1302 - d. 1332)
12 Aug 1332 -  7 Jul 1339  
Edward de Balliol                     (b. c.1282 - d. 1364)
 
7 Jul 1339 - 22 Feb 1371  David II (2nd time)                   (s.a.)  
                             (in France until 2 Jun 1341; English
                             prisoner 17 Oct 1346 - 3 Oct 1357)

 7 Jul 1339 -  2 Jun 1341  
Robert Stewart, High Steward -Regent  (b. 1316 - d. 1390)
                             (1st time)
(Lieutenant of the Kingdom)
17 Oct 1346 -  3 Oct 1357  Robert Stewart, Earl of Atholl,       (s.a.)
                             High Steward
-Regent (2nd time)
                             (Lieutenant of the Kingdom)
22 Feb 1371 - 19 Apr 1390  Robert II (= Robert Stewart)          (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1388 - 19 Apr 1390  Robert Stewart, Earl of Fife -Regent  (b. c.1340 - d. 1420)
                             (Custodian of the Kingdom)
19 Apr 1390 -  4 Apr 1406  Robert III                            (b. c.1337 - d. 1406)
27 Jan 1399 - 26 Jan 1402  David Stewart, Duke of                (b. 1378 - d. 1402)
                             Rothesay -Regent
                             (Lieutenant of the Kingdom)
 4 Apr 1406 - 20 Feb 1437  James I                               (b. 1394 - d. 1437)
                             (English prisoner 22 Mar 1406 - c.5 Apr 1424)
 6 Apr 1406 -  3 Sep 1420  Robert Stewart, Duke of               (b. c.1340 - d. 1420)
                             Albany -Regent (Governor of Kingdom)
 3 Sep 1420 - c.5 Apr 1424 Murdoch Stewart, Duke of              (b. c.1362 - d. 1425)
                             Albany -Regent (Governor of Kingdom)
20 Feb 1437 -  3 Aug 1460  James II                              (b. 1430 - d. 1460)
20 Feb 1437 - 26 Jun 1439  Archibald, Earl of Douglas -Regent    (b. c.1390 - d. 1439)
                             (Lieutenant of the Kingdom)
26 Jun 1439 -  3 Jul 1449  Sir Alexander Livingstone -Regent     (b. c.1382 - d. 1451)
                             (
Governor of the Kingdom)
1443 -  3 Jul 1449         William, Earl of Douglas and          (b. c.1425 - d. 1452)
                             of Avondale 
-Regent  
                             (Lieutenant of the Kingdom)

 3 Aug 1460 - 11 Jun 1488  James III                             (b. 1452 - d. 1488)
 3 Aug 1460 -  1 Dec 1463  Queen Marie of Guelders (f) -Regent   (b. 1432 - d. 1463)
 1 Dec 1463 - 24 May 1465  James Kennedy, Bishop of
             (b. c.1406 - d. 1465)
                             St. Andrews -Regent    
 9 Jul 1466 - 13 Oct 1466  Robert, Lord Fleming 
-Regent          (b. c.1416 - d. 1491)
13 Oct 1466 - 22 Nov 1469  Robert, Lord Boyd 
-Regent             (b. c.1425 - d. 1482)
                             (Governor of the Kingdom)
11 Jun 1488 -  9 Sep 1513  James IV                              (b. 1473 - d. 1513)
 9 Sep 1513 - 14 Dec 1542  James V                               (b. 1512 - d. 1542)
                             (in France 24 Jul 1536 - 19 May 1537)
 9 Sep 1513 - 12 Jul 1515  Queen Margaret Tudor (f) -Regent      (b. 1489 - d. 1541)
                             (1st time)
12 Jul 1515 - 16 Nov 1524
  John Stewart, Duke of Albany          (b. c.1481 - d. 1536) 
                             (Governor and Protector of the Realm)
                             (12 Jul 1515 - 16 Nov 1524)
Jun 1524 - 16 Nov 1524     James Beaton, Archbishop of           (b. 1473 - d. 1539)
                             St. Andrews -Regent
                             (acting for Duke of Albany)

16 Nov 1524 - 23 Nov 1524  Queen Margaret Tudor (f) -Regent      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
23 Nov 1524 - 13 Jun 1526  Archibald Douglas, Earl of            (b. c.1489 - d. 1557)
                             Angus -Regent  
14 Dec 1542 - 24 Jul 1567  Mary I
-Queen "Mary Queen of Scots"   (b. 1542 - d. 1587)
                             (in France Aug 1548 - Aug 1561; Queen
                             Consort of France 10 Jul 1559 - 5 Dec 1560;
                             in dissidence 3-16 May 1568)

14 Dec 1542 -  3 Jan 1543  Cardinal David Beaton, Archbishop     (b. c.1494 - d. 1546)
                             of St. Andrews -Regent          
 3 Jan 1543 - 12 Apr 1554  James Hamilton, Earl of Arran -Regent (b. c.1517 - d. 1575)  
                             (from 8 Feb 1548, duc de Châtellerault)
12 Apr 1554 - 11 Jun 1560  Queen Marie de Guise -Regent          (b. 1515 - d. 1560)
11 Jun 1560 - 19 Aug 1561  George Gordon, Earl of Huntly -Regent (b. 1513 - d. 1562)

24 Jul 1567 - 27 Mar 1625  James VI                              (b. 1566 - d. 1625)
                            (from 24 Mar 1603, James II in England)
27 Mar 1625 – 30 Jan 1649  Charles I                             (b. 1600 - d. 1649)
 5 Feb 1649 -  4 Sep 1650  Charles II (in dissidence)            (b. 1630 - d. 1685) 
                            (proclaimed in Edinburgh 5 Feb 1649,
                             crowned 1 Jan 1651;
in Scotland 24
                             Jun 1650 - 6 Aug 1651, fled
15 Oct 1651)
English Commanders-in-Chief (in Edinburgh)
 4 Sep 1650 -  4 Aug 1651  Oliver Cromwell                       (b. 1599 - d. 1658)
 4 Sep 1650 -  7 Sep 1650  John Lambert (acting for Cromwell)    (b. 1619 - d. 1684)
 4 Aug 1651 - 21 Jan 1652  George Monck                          (b. 1608 - d. 1670)

Commissioners of the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England,
for ordering and managing affairs in Scotland
21 Jan 1652 - 21 Apr 1652  Commissioners (appointed 23 Oct 1651)
                           - Oliver St. John                     (b. 1598? - d. 1673)
                           -
Sir Henry Vane, Jr.                 (b. 1613 - d. 1662)
                           - Richard Salwey                      (b. 1615 - d. 1685)
                           - George Fenwick                      (b. 1603 – d. 1657)
                           - John Lambert                        (s.a.) 
                           - Richard Deane                       (b. 1610 – d. 1653) 
                           - 
Robert Tichborne                    (b. 1604 - d. 1682)
                           - George Monck                        (s.a.)
English Commanders-in-Chief (in Edinburgh)
21 Apr 1652 - Dec 1652     Richard Deane                         (s.a.)
Dec 1652 - 22 Apr 1654     Robert Lilburne                       (b. 1613 - d. 1665)
22 Apr 1654 - 25 May 1660  George Monck                          (s.a.)  

 2 Jan 1660 - 25 May 1660  Sir Thomas Morgan (acting for Monck)  (b. 1604 - d. 1679)
Kings
¹
11 May 1660 - 23 Aug 1660  Commissioners
of the Parliament
                           (from 25 May 1660, on bebalf of the king)
                           - Sir Thomas Morgan                   (s.a.)
                           - Philip Twistleton                   (b. 16.. - d. 1701)
                           - William Daniel (or Daniell)
                           - Molyneux Disney                     (b. 1614 - d. 1694)
25 May 1660 –  6 Feb 1685  Charles II                            (s.a.)
 6 Feb 1685 – 11 Apr 1689 
James VII                             (b. 1633 - d. 1701) 
                            (in England James II)
                            (fled England 23 Dec 1688, declared to have 
                             forfeited the throne
11 Apr 1689; in Ireland, 
                             
in dissidence 12 Mar 1689 - 2 Jul 1690)
14 Jan 1689 - 11 Mar 1689 
William Henry Prince of Orange        (b. 1650 - d. 1702)
                             (administrator of affairs)
14 Mar 1689 - 11 May 1689  William Douglas-Hamilton,             (b. 1634 - d. 1694)
                             Duke of Hamilton
                            (
President of the Estates of the Kingdom of Scotland)
11 May 1689-8/19 Mar 1702  William II                            (s.a.)

                           - jointly with the following -

11 May 1689 - 28 Dec 1694  Mary II -Queen                        (b. 1662 - d. 1695)
8/19 Mar 1702-12 May 1707  Anne -Queen                           (b. 1665 - d. 1714)
12 May 1707 -              
the kings/queens of Great Britain
 2 Jan 1716 - 16 Feb 1716  James (VIII)(1st time)(in dissidence) (b. 1688 - d. 1766)
                            (James Francis Stuart "the Old Pretender")
28 Sep 1745 -  1 Oct 1746  James (VIII)(2nd time)(in dissidence) (s.a.)
28 Sep 1745 -  1 Oct 1746  Charles, Prince of Wales -Regent      (b. 1720 - d. 1788)
                            (Charles Edward Stuart "the Young Pretender,"
                             "Bonnie Prince Charlie")(in dissidence)

Lord Chancellors
 6 Jul 1460 - 17 Jun 1482  Andrew Stewart, Lord Avandale         (b. c.1426 - d. 1488)
 
25 Aug 1482 - 10 Jan 1483  John Laing, Bishop of Glasgow         (d. 1483)
10 Jan 1483 - 28 Aug 1483  James Livingston, Bishop of Dunkeld   (d. 1483)
 6 Sep 1483 - 21 Feb 1488  
Colin Campbell, Earl of Argyll        (b. c.1433 - d. 1493)
                             (1st time)
21 Feb 1488 - 11 Jun 1488  William Elphinstone, Bishop           (b. 1431 - d. 1514)
                             of Aberdeen
15 Jun 1488 - 22 Oct 1492  Colin Campbell, Earl of Argyll        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 9 Jan 1493 - 22 Sep 1497  Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus      (b. 1449 - d. 1513)
12 Nov 1497 - c.8 Jun 1501 George Gordon, Earl of Huntly         (b. 1430 - d. 1501)
 5 Jul 1501 - 13 Jan 1504  James Stewart, Duke of Ross,          (b. 1476 - d. 1504)
                             
Archbishop of St. Andrews
13 Jan 1504 - 14 Jun 1510  Vacant
14 Jun 1510 -  9 Sep 1513  Alexander Stewart, 
Archbishop         (b. 1481 - d. 1513)
                             of St. Andrews
29 Sep 1513 - 24 Jul 1526  James Beaton, Archbishop of Glasgow   (s.a.)
                             (from 5 Jun 1523
, Archbishop of St. Andrews)
 6 Aug 1527 - 28 May 1528
  Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus      (s.a.)
26 Jun 1528 - 10 Jan 1543  Gavin Dunbar, Archbishop of Glasgow   (b. c.1490 - d. 1547)
                             (1st time)
10 Jan 1543 - end Jan 1543
Cardinal David Beaton, Archbishop     (s.a.)
                             of St. Andrews (1st time) 
end Jan 1543 - 18 Sep 1543 Gavin Dunbar, Archbishop of Glasgow   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
26 Sep 1543 - 29 May 1546  Cardinal David Beaton, Archbishop     (s.a.)
                             of St. Andrews (2nd time) 
 5 Jun 1546 - 28 Oct 1562  George Gordon, Earl of Huntly         (b. 1514 - d. 1562)         
 7 Jan 1563 - 20 Mar 1566  James Douglas, Earl of Morton         (b. c.1516 - d. 1581)
                             (1st time)
20 Mar 1566 - 11 Nov 1567  George Gordon, Earl of Huntly         (b. c.1535 - d. 1576)
11 Nov 1567 - 17 Jan 1573  James Douglas, Earl of Morton         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
17 Jan 1573 - 12 Sep 1573  Archibald Campbell, Earl of Argyll    (b. c.1532 – d. 1573)

 8 Oct 1573 - 17 Mar 1578  John Lyon, Lord Glamis                (b. c.1544 - d. 1578)
29 Mar 1578 - 24 Apr 1579  John Stewart, Earl of Atholl          (b. c.1528 - d. 1579)
17 Aug 1579 - 15 May 1584  Colin Campbell, Earl of Argyll        (b. c.1542 - d. 1584)
15 May 1584 - 10 Dec 1585  James Stewart, Earl of Arran (acting) (b. c.1553 - d. 1595)
10 Dec 1585 - 31 May 1586  Vacant
31 May 1586 -  3 Oct 1595  Sir John Maitland                     (b. 1537 - d. 1595)
                             (from 18 May 1590, Lord Thirlestane
)
                             (acting to 29 Jul 1587)
 3 Oct 1595 - 18 Jan 1599  Vacant
18 Jan 1599 - 13 Dec 1604  John Graham, Earl of Montrose         (b. 1648 - d. 1608)
13 Dec 1604 - 16 Jun 1622  Alexander Seton, Lord Fyvie           (b. 1555 - d. 1622)
                             (from 4 Mar 1605, Earl of Dunfermline)
 3 Jul 1622 - 14 Jan 1634  Sir George Hay      
                  (b. 1572 - d. 1634) 
                             (from 4 May 1627, Viscount Dupplin;
                             from 25 May 1633, E
arl of Kinnoull)    
14 Jan 1634 - 13 Nov 1638  John Spottiswood, Archbishop of       (b. 1565 - d. 1639)
                             St. Andrews
13 Nov 1638 - 30 Sep 1641  James Hamilton, Marquess of Hamilton  (b. 1606 - d. 1649)
                             (acting)
30 Sep 1641 - Aug 1651     John Campbell, Earl of Loudoun        (b. 1598 - d. 1662)
Aug 1651 - 
May 1652        Vacant
May 1652 - Feb 1656        Alexander Jaffray (acting)            (b. 1614 - d. 1673)
Feb 1656 - May 1660        Samuel Disbrowe (acting)              (b. 1619 - d. 1690)
Aug 1660 – 30 May 1664     William Cunningham, Earl of Glencairn (b. 1610 - d. 1664)
14 Oct 1664 – 27 Jul 1681  John Leslie, (from 29 May 1680)
                             Duke of Rothes                      (b.c.1630 - d. 1681)
27 Jul 1681 -  1 May 1682  Vacant
 1 May 1682 – 13 Jun 1684  George Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen       (b. 1637 - d. 1720)
13 Jun 1684 – Dec 1688     James Drummond, Earl of Perth         (b. 1648 - d. 1716)
Dec 1688 -  5 Jan 1692     Vacant
 5 Jan 1692 -  2 May 1696  John Hay, Earl of Tweeddale           (b. 1625 - d. 1697)
 2 May 1696 - 21 Nov 1702  Patrick Hume, Earl of Marchmont       (b. 1641 - d. 1724)
21 Nov 1702 - 17 Oct 1704  James Ogilvy, Earl of Seafield        (b. 1664 - d. 1730)
                             (1st time)
17 Oct 1704 -  9 Mar 1705  John Hay, Marquess of Tweeddale       (b. 1645 - d. 1713)  Tor
 9 Mar 1705 - 25 May 1708  James Ogilvy, Earl of Seafield        (s.a.)               Tor
                             (2nd time)
25 May 1708 - 14 Sep 1713  Vacant
14 Sep 1713 - 15 Aug 1730
  James Ogilvy, Earl of Seafield        (s.a.)               Tor  
                             (3rd time)
Secretary of State in Scotland 
29 Sep 1705 -  3 Feb 1709  John Erskine, Earl of Mar             (b. 1675 - d. 1732)  Whg
Secretaries of State for Scotland  
 3 Feb 1709 -  6 Jul 1711  James Douglas, Duke of Queensberry    (b. 1662 - d. 1711)  Tor
                             and Dover
30 Sep 1713 - Sep 1714     John Erskine, Earl of Mar             (s.a.)               Tor 
24 Sep 1714 - Aug 1715     James Graham, Duke of Montrose        (b. 1684 - d. 1742)  Tor
13 Dec 1716 - 25 Aug 1725  John Ker, Duke of Roxburghe           (b.c.1680 - d. 1741) Whg
25 Aug 1725 - 16 Feb 1742  Vacant
16 Feb 1742 -  3 Jan 1746  James Hay, Marquess of Tweeddale      (b. 1695 - d. 1762)  Whg
 3 Jan 1746 - 17 Aug 1885  Post abolished
Secretaries for Scotland (in London)
17 Aug 1885 - 17 Feb 1886  Charles Gordon-Lennox,                (b. 1818 - d. 1893)  Con
                             Duke of Richmond and Gordon
17 Feb 1886 -  3 Apr 1886  Sir George Otto Trevelyan (1st time)  (b. 1838 - d. 1928)  Lib
 3 Apr 1886 -  5 Aug 1886  John William Ramsay Dalhousie,        (b. 1847 - d. 1887)  Lib
                             Earl of Dulhousie
 5 Aug 1886 - 25 Mar 1887  Arthur James Balfour                  (b. 1848 - d. 1930)  Con
25 Mar 1887 - 18 Aug 1892  Schomberg Henry Kerr,                 (b. 1833 - d. 1900)  Con
                             Marquess of Lothian
18 Aug 1892 - 29 Jun 1895  Sir George Otto Trevelyan (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Lib
29 Jun 1895 -  9 Oct 1903  Alexander Hugh Bruce,                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)  Con
                             Baron Balfour of Burleigh 
 9 Oct 1903 -  4 Feb 1905  Andrew Graham Murray                  (b. 1849 - d. 1942)  Con
 4 Feb 1905 - 11 Dec 1905  John Adrian Louis Hope,               (b. 1860 - d. 1908)  Con
                             Marquess of Linlithgow
11 Dec 1905 - 29 Feb 1912  John Sinclair, (from 16 Feb 1909)     (b. 1860 - d. 1925)  Lib
                             Baron Pentland
29 Feb 1912 - 12 Jul 1916  Thomas MacKinnon Wood                 (b. 1855 - d. 1927)  Lib
12 Jul 1916 - 11 Dec 1916  Harold John Tennant                   (b. 1865 - d. 1933)  Lib
11 Dec 1916 - 25 Oct 1922  Robert Munro                          (b. 1868 - d. 1955)  Lib
 2 Nov 1922 - 23 Jan 1924  Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson,       (b. 1860 - d. 1934)  Con
                             Viscount Novar 
23 Jan 1924 -  7 Nov 1924  William Adamson                       (b. 1863 - d. 1936)  Lab
 7 Nov 1924 - 26 Jul 1926  Sir John Gilmour                      (b. 1876 - d. 1940)  Con
Secretaries of State for Scotland
(in London) 
26 Jul 1926 -  7 Jun 1929  Sir John Gilmour                      (s.a.)               Con
 7 Jun 1929 - 26 Aug 1931  William Adamson                       (s.a.)               Lab
26 Aug 1931 -  1 Oct 1932  Sir Archibald Henry Sinclair          (b. 1890 - d. 1970)  Lib
 1 Oct 1932 - 13 Oct 1936  Sir Godfrey Pattison Collins          (b. 1875 - d. 1936)  Lib
13 Oct 1936 - 16 May 1938  Walter Elliot Elliot                  (b. 1888 - d. 1958)  Con
16 May 1938 - 15 May 1940  David John Colville                   (b. 1894 - d. 1954)  Con
15 May 1940 - 12 Feb 1941  Ernest Brown                          (b. 1882 - d. 1962)  Con
12 Feb 1941 - 28 May 1945  Thomas Johnston                       (b. 1882 - d. 1965)  Con
28 May 1945 -  3 Aug 1945  Albert Edward Harry Mayer Archibald   (b. 1882 - d. 1974)  Con
                             Primrose, Earl of Rosebery 
 3 Aug 1945 - 14 Oct 1947  Joseph Westwood                       (b. 1884 - d. 1948)  Lab
14 Oct 1947 -  2 Mar 1950  Arthur Woodburn                       (b. 1890 - d. 1978)  Lab
 2 Mar 1950 - 30 Oct 1951  Hector MacNeil                        (b. 1910 - d. 1955)  Lab
30 Oct 1951 - 14 Jan 1957  James Stuart                          (b. 1897 - d. 1971)  Con
14 Jan 1957 - 13 Jul 1962  John Scott Maclay                     (b. 1905 - d. 1992)  Con
13 Jul 1962 - 19 Oct 1964  Michael Antony Cristobal Nobel        (b. 1913 - d. 1984)  Con
19 Oct 1964 - 20 Jun 1970  William Ross (1st time)               (b. 1911 - d. 1988)  Lab
20 Jun 1970 -  5 Mar 1974  Graham Gordon Campbell                (b. 1921 - d. 2005)  Con
 5 Mar 1974 -  8 Apr 1976  William Ross (2nd time)               (s.a.)               Lab
 8 Apr 1976 -  5 May 1979  Bruce Millan                          (b. 1927 - d. 2013)  Lab
 5 May 1979 - 11 Jan 1986  George Kenneth Hostson Younger        (b. 1931 - d. 2003)  Con
11 Jan 1986 - 29 Nov 1990  Malcolm Leslie Rifkind                (b. 1946)            Con
29 Nov 1990 -  5 Jul 1995  Ian Lang                              (b. 1940)            Con
 5 Jul 1995 -  3 May 1997  Michael Forsyth                       (b. 1954)            Con
 3 May 1997 - 17 May 1999  Donald Campbell Dewar                 (b. 1937 - d. 2000)  Lab
17 May 1999 - 24 Jan 2001  John Reid                             (b. 1947)            Lab
24 Jan 2001 - 13 Jun 2003  Helen Liddell (f)                     (b. 1950)            Lab
13 Jun 2003 -  5 May 2006  Alistair Darling                      (b. 1953)            Lab 
 5 May 2006 - 28 Jun 2007  Douglas Alexander                     (b. 1967)            Lab
28 Jun 2007 -  3 Oct 2008  Des Browne                            (b. 1952)            Lab
 3 Oct 2008 - 12 May 2010  Jim Murphy                            (b. 1967)            Lab
12 May 2010 - 29 May 2010  Danny Alexander                       (b. 1972)            LDP
29 May 2010 -  7 Oct 2013  Michael Moore                         (b. 1965)            LDP
 7 Oct 2013 -              Alistair Carmichael                   (b. 1965)            LDP


First ministers

17 May 1999 - 11 Oct 2000  Donald Campbell Dewar                 (s.a.)               Lab
11 Oct 2000 - 26 Oct 2000  Jim Wallace (1st time)(acting)        (b. 1954)            LDP
26 Oct 2000 -  8 Nov 2001  Henry McLeish                         (b. 1948)            Lab
 8 Nov 2001 - 22 Nov 2001  Jim Wallace (2nd time)(acting)        (s.a.)               LDP
22 Nov 2001 - 17 May 2007  Jack McConnell                        (b. 1960)            Lab
17 May 2007 -             
Alexander "Alex" Salmond              (b. 1954)            SNP

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) 877 - 30 Nov 1292: Rí Alban; in Latin: Rex Scottorum ("King of the Scots");
(b) 30 Nov 1292 - 31 Mar 1603: Dei gratia Rex/Regina Scotorum (to 1460 spelled Scottorum
)("by the Grace of God King/Queen of the Scots");
(c) 31 Mar 1603 - 12 May 1707: Dei gratia Scotiae Angliae Franciae et Hiberniae Rex, Fidei Defensor, etc. ("by the Grace of God, King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc.").

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative Party (center-right, est.1840s)Lab = Labour Party (social-democratic, center-left, first officially named 1868); LDP = Liberal Democratic Party (social-liberal, center-left, est.1988); SNP = Scottish National Party (social-democratic, center-left, Scottish nationalist, est.1934);
- Former parties: Lib = Liberal Party (liberal, 1859-1988, united with Social Democratic Party on 19 Mar 1988 as Social and Liberal Democrats, renamed Liberal Democrats Oct 1989); Tor = Tory Party (conservative, royalist, pro-Anglican, remnants became the Conservative party by the 1840's); Whg = Whig Party (moderate conservative, aristocratic, pro-reform, later elements became the Liberal party by the 1850's)


Picts

c.430                      Legendary foundation of the Kingdom of the Picts (Pictavia)
                             (in Gaelic: Cruithentuath or Fortriu), first historical reign
                             dates from c.555.
c.842                      Cináedh mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpine) unites the Picts
                             with remnants of Dál Riata (formally from 858).

Kings (title in Latin Rex Pictorum)       
(Old Irish and English names with Modern Gaelic in parentheses)
c.555 - c.584              
Bruide mac Maílcon = Bridei I         (b. 5.. - d. c.584)
                             (Bredhei map Mailcon)  
c.584 - c.601             
Gartnaidh mac Domhnaill = Gartnait II (b. 5.. - d. c.601)   
                             (Gartnait map Domhnell)   
c.601 - c.612              
Nechtan mac Canainn, nepos Uerb       (b. 5.. - d. c.612)   
                             (Nehhton map
Canainn)            
c.612 - 631               
Cináedh mac Lugthréine = Kenneth I    (b. 5.. - d. 631)   
                             (Cemoydh map Lutrin)             
631 - 635                  
Gartnaidh mac Foith = Gartnait III    (b. 58. - d. 635)
                             (Gartnait map Úid)
635 - 641                 
Bruide mac Foith = Bridei II          (b. 59. - d. 641)
                             (Bredhei map Úid)               
641 - 653                 
Talorcán mac Foith = Talorc III       (b. 59. - d. 653)
                             (Talorg map Úid)  
653 - 657                 
Talorcán mac Ainfrith = Talorgan I    (b. 61. - d. 657)  
                             (Talorg map Éanfríth)        
657 - 663                  
Gartnaidh mac Domhnaill = Gartnait IV (b. 62. - d. 663) 
                             (Gartnait map Domhnell)      
663 - 672                 
Drest mac Domhnaill = Drest VI        (b. 62. - d. 678)   
                             (Drost map Domhnell)         
672 - 693                 
Bruide mac Bili = Bridei III          (b. 62. - d. 693)
                             (Bredhei map Bili)      
693 - 697                 
Taran mac Ainfidaigh                  (b. 6.. - d. 7..)   
                             (Taran map Enfidech)    
697 - 706                 
Bruide mac Der Ilei = Bridei IV       (b. 66. - d. 706)   
                             (Bredhei map Der Ilei)     
706 - 724                  
Nechtan mac Der Ilei (1st time)       (b. 66. - d. 732)    
                             (Nehhton map Der Ilei)      
724 - 726                 
Drest (Drost) = Drest VII             (b. 69. - d. 729)   
726 - 728                 
Alpín (Elpin or Ælfwine) = Alpin I      
728                        
Óenghus (Onuist)                                        
728 - 732                 
Nechtan mac Der Ilei (2nd time)       (s.a.) 
                             (Nehhton map Der Ilei)       
732 - 761                  
Óenghus mac Ferghusa = Angus I        (b. 69. - d. 761)   
                             (Onuist map Úrguist) 
761 - 763                  
Bruide mac Ferghusa = Bridei V        (b. 70. - d. 763)
                             (Bredhei map 
Úrguist)   
763 - 775  
               Cináedh mac Feradaigh = Kenneth II    (b. 72. - d. 775)  
                             (Cemoydh map Úroidech)       
775 - 780                 
Ailpín mac Feradaigh = Alpin II       (b. 72. - d. 780)
                             (Elpin map Úroidech)
780 - 782                 
Talorcán mac Óenghusa = Talorgan II   (b. 73. - d. 782) 
                             (Talorg map Oinuist)             
782 - c.787  
             Drest mac Talorcáin = Drest VIII      (b. 74. - d. 787)
                             (Drost map Talorgen)  
c.787 - 820                
Causantín mac Ferghusa = Constantine I(b. 75. - d. 820)  
                             (Castantin map Úrguist)            
820 - 834                  
Óenghus mac Ferghusa = Angus II       (b. 76. - d. 834)   
                             (Onuist map Úrguist)             
834 - c.836               
Drest mac Causantín = Drest IX        (b. 77. - d. c.836)
                             (Drost map Castantin)         

c.836 - 839               
Eógan mac Óenghusa en map Oinuist)  (b. 78. - d. 839)       
839 - c.842               
Feradach mac Bargoit                  (b. 80. - d. c.842)    
                             (Ú
rad map Bargoit)


Dál Riata

c.498                      Dál Riata ('portion of Reuda') kingdom founded.
6.. - 685                  Tributary to Northumbria.
685 - 736                  Tributary to the Picts.
736 - c.750                Pictish rule.
781                        Pictish rule.
839                        Norse rule over coastal Dál Riata.
c.842                      Cináedh mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpine) unites the Picts
                             with remnants of Dál Riata as Alba (formally from 858).

Kings
(names in Middle Irish)

c.498 - c.501              Ferghus m
ór mac Eirc                  (b. 4.. - d. c.501)  
c.501 - c.507              Domangart mac Ferghusa                (b. 4.. - d. 5..)    
c.507 - c.542              Comghall mac Domangairt               (b. 4.. - d. c.542)
c.542 - c.558              Garb
án mac Domangairt                 (b. 5.. - d. c.558)
c.558 - 574                Conall mac Comghaill                  (b. 5.. - d. 574)
c.574 - 17 Apr 609         
Áedán mac Garbáin                     (b. 5.. - d. 609)
609 - 629                  Connadh cerr mac Conaill              (b. 5.. - d. 629)
629                        Eochaidh buidhe mac Áedh
áin           (b. 5.. - d. 629)    
629 - Dec 642              Domhnall brecc mac Echdhaigh          (b. 6.. - d. 642)
Dec 642 - c.649            Ferchar mac Connaidh                  (b. 6.. - d. c.649)
649 - 654                  D
únchad mac Conain                    (b. 6.. - d. 654)
654 - 660                  Conall mac Echdhaigh                  (b. 6.. - d. 660)      
                             (Crannamna, Crandomna)
660 - 673                  Domangart mac Domhnaill brecc         (b. 6.. - d. 673)
c.673 - 689                M
áel Dúin mac Conaill                 (b. 6.. - d. 689) 
689 - 697                  Ferchar fota mac Feradhaigh           (b. 6.. - d. 697)    
689 - 696                  Domhnall donn mac Conaill             (b. 6.. - d. 696)
                             (in rebellion)
696 - 697                  Eochaidh mac Domangairt (in rebellion)(b. 6.. - d. 697)  
697 - 698                  Ainbhchellach mac Ferchair fota       (b. 6.. - d. 719)
698 - 700                  Fiannamail ua D
únchada                (b. 6.. - d. 700)
700 - 707                  Bécc ua D
únchada                      (b. 6.. - d. 707)
707 - 721                  Dúnchadh Becc                         (b. 6.. - d. 721)       
                             (king of Cenn Tíre)
721 - 723                  Selbach mac Ferchair fota             (b. 6.. - d. 730)
723 - 726                  D
únghal mac Selbaigh                  (b. 6.. - d. 736?)
726 - 733                  Eochaidh mac Echdhaigh                (b. 6.. - d. 733)
733 - 736                  Muiredhach mac Ainbhchellaigh         (b. 6.. - d. 744?)
736 - c.750                Pictish rule
 
c.750 - 778               
Áedh find mac Eochadha                (b. 7.. - d. 778?)
778 - 781                  Ferghus mac Eochadha                  (b. 7.. - d. 781)
781 - c.805                Selbach mac E
óghain                   (b. 7.. - d. 805)
c.805 - 807                Conall mac Taidhc                     (b. 7.. - d. 807) 
807 -  c.811               Conall mac 
Áedáin                     (b. 7.. - d. c.811)
c.811 - c.835              Domhnall mac Caustantín               (b. 7.. - d. c.835)
c.835 - 839               
Áedh mac Boanta                       (b. 7.. - d. 839)


Strathclyde (Alt Clut)

5..                        Legendary foundation of Briton Alt Clut kingdom
                             (Teyrnas Ystrad Clut).
c.756                      Submits to the Picts.
870                        Norse rule.
c.872                      Strathclyde kingdom
c.872                      Under suzerainty of Alba (Scotland).
c.1015                     Incorporated into Scotland.

Kings
5.. – 5..                  Ceretic Guletic (Coroticus)
5.. – 5..                  Cinuit (Cynwyd)
5.. – 5..                  Dumnagual Hen (Dyfnwal Hen)
5.. – 5..                  Clinoch (Clynog)
5.. - 5..                  Tutagual (Tudwal)
c.580 – c.614              R
iderch Hael                          (d. c.614)
c.614 - c.621              Neithon                               (d. c.621)
c.621 – c.642              Beli map Neithon                      (d. c.642)
c.642  - 6..               Eugein map Beli (Hoan)
6.. - c.658                Guret                                 (d. c.658)
6.. - c.693                
Alpín (Elpin                        (d. c.693)
c.693 - c.694              Dumnagual (Dyfnwal ap Owain)          (d. c.694)
6.. - c.720                Beli map 
Alphin                       (d. c.722)
c.722 – c.752              Teudebur map Beli                     (d. c.752)
c.752 - c.760              Dumnagual (Dyfnwal ap Tewdwr)         (d. c.760)
c.760 - c.780              Eugein
c.780 - c.800              Riderch
8.. - c.849               
Domhnall = Dumnagual IV
8.. - 872                  Artgal (Norse prisoner from 870)      (d. 872)
c.872 – c.878              Run (Rhun)                            (d. c.878)
c.878 – c.889              Eochaid mac Run                       (d. c.889)
c.889 - c.908/16          
Domhnall = Dyfnwal I                  (d. c.908/16)
c.908/16 – bf.934          Domhnall mac Aoidh
= Dyfnwal II       (d. bf.934)
bf.934 – c.937             Eògan
= Owen I                        (d. c.937)
c.937 – c.973              D
omhnall mac Eógain = Dyfnwal III     (d. 975)
                             (Dyfnwal ab Owein)
c.973 - c.997              Máel Coluim                           (d. c.997)
c.997 – c.1015             Eógan
mac Domhnall = Owen II          (d. c.1015)
                             (Owen "the Bald")  



Wales
 
[Wales Former
                          variant]
                         1807 - 11 Mar 1953 
 
[Wales Flag of
                          1953]
              11 Mar 1953 - 23 Feb 1959 
 
[Flag of
                          Wales]
                  Adopted 23 Feb 1959
 
Maps of Wales
Hear National Song
"Hen wlad fy nhadau"
(Land of My Fathers)
Text of National Song
First played 1858
Government of Wales Act
(31 Jul 1998)
Capital: Cardiff
(London 1284-1955)
Currency: British Pound
(GBP)
Local Holiday: 1 Mar (589)
Saint David's Day
Population: 3,074,100 (2012)

844 - 878                  Rhodri II Mawr "the Great" (d. 909) unifies most Welsh kingdoms
                             (from 844 Gwynedd, Deheubarth, and Dyfed; from 854 Powys; and 
                             from 872 Ceredigion/Kereddigyawn).
910 - 949                  Hywel I Dda (the Good) ap Cadell (d. 949/50) unifies Deheubarth,
                             Powys and (from 942) Gwynedd under his rule.
1093                       Dyfed under permanent English rule. 
1258                       Llywelyn III ap Gruffyd (d. 1282) takes the style Princeps Wallie 
                             (Prince of Wales).
11 Dec 1282                Gwynedd (the most important of the Welsh kingdoms) is conquered 
                             by England.
 3 Mar 1284                Act of union between England and Wales enacted by the
                             Statute of Rhuddlan; Northern Wales lands were organized 
                             into the Principality of Wales and shired after the English
                             fashion, as were part of the King's lands in the North East of
                             Wales which became the County of Flint. The remaining lands of
                             Wales were in the hands of the Marcher lords and a handful of 
                             native Welsh.
 7 Feb 1301                Edward (future King Edward II) becomes the first English
                             "Prince of Wales." From this period on all the heirs to the
                             English (from 1701, British) throne will bear the same title.
16 Sep 1400 - Feb 1409     Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr (b. 1359? - d. 1415?), who proclaims 
                             himself Prince of Wales.
20 Sep 1415                Glyndyfrdwy and Cynllaith, last independent Welsh areas, are 
                             subdued by England.
14 Apr 1536                First Act of union between England and Wales; Wales is 
                             officially annexed to England and the act also brought
                             Welsh law and legal practice into line with that of 
                             England and formed the County of Monmouthshire.
Jan 1542                   Second Act of union between England and Wales; this act
                             abolished most of the powers of the Marcher lords 
                             and divided the remainder of Wales into shires.
 1 Mar 1979                Referendum on devolution fails 20.3% to 79.7%.
18 Sep 1997                Referendum on devolution endorses home rule 50.3% to 49.7%.
16 May 1999                National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) opens.
 1 Jul 1999                Welsh Office replaced by Wales Office.  


Lord Presidents of the Council of Wales and the Marches
1473 -  1 Oct 1500         John Alcock, Bishop of  
           (b. c.1430 - d. 1500)
                             Rochester (from 15 Jul 1576,
                             Bishop of Worcester; from
                             6 Oct 1486, Bishop of Ely)          
1500 - 1501                Sir James Croft (acting)           (b. c.1518 - d. 1590)
1501 - 1512                William Smyth, Bishop              (b. c.1460 - d. 1514) 
                             of Lincoln
1512 - 1525                Godfrey Blyth, Bishop of        
                             Coventry and Lichfield
1525 - 1534                John Vesey, Bishop of Exeter       (b. 1462? - d. 1554)
May 1534 - 28 Jan 1543     Rowland Lee, Bishop of  
          (b. c.1487 - d. 1543)
                             Coventry and Lichfield
1543 - 1549                Richard Sampson, Bishop of         (b. c.1470 - d. 1554)
                             Coventry and Lichfield
1549 - 1550                John Dudley, Earl  of              (b. 1504 - d. 1553)
                             Warwick
1550 - 1553                William Herbert, Earl              (b. c.1501 - d. 1570)
                             of Pembroke (1st time)
1553 - 1555                Nicholas Heath, Archbishop         (b. c.151 - d. 1578)
                             of York
1555 - 1558                William Herbert, Earl              (s.a.)
                             of Pembroke (2nd time)  
1558 - 1559                Gilbert Bourne, Bishop             (d. 1569)
                             of Bath and Wells
1559 - 14 Oct 1559         John Williams, Baron Williams      (b. 1500 - d. 1559)
                             de Thame
1560 -  5 May 1586         Sir Henry Sidney                   (b. 1529 - d. 1586)
24 Feb 1587 - 19 Jan 1601  Henry Herbert, Earl of Pembroke    (b. c.1538 - d. 1601)
1601 - 1602                Sir Richard Lewkenor (acting)      (b. 1542 - d. 1616)
20 Jul 1602 – 12 Sep 1607  Edward la Zouche, Baron Zouche     (b. 1556 - d. 1625)
12 Sep 1607 –  7 Mar 1617  Ralph Eure, Baron Eure             (b. 1558 - d. 1617)
 7 Mar 1617 – 24 Nov 1617  Thomas Gerard, Baron Gerard        (b. c.1564 - d. 1618)
24 Nov 1617 – 24 Jun 1630  William Compton, Baron Compton     (b. 1560 - d. 1630)
                             (from 2 Aug 1618, Earl of Northampton)
11 Jul 1631 - 1642         John Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater  (b. 1579 - d. 1649)
1642 - 1660                dis-established by Parliament
22 Dec 1660 – 20 Jul 1672  Richard Vaughan, Earl of Carbery   (b. c.1600 - d. 1686)
20 Jul 1672 – 22 Mar 1689  Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort   (b. 1629 - d. 1700)
22 Mar 1689 - 25 Jul 1689  Charles Gerard, Earl of            (b. c.1618 - d. 1694) 
                             Macclesfield
25 July 1689               Post abolished
Minister of State for Welsh Affairs (also Home Office Secretary; in London)
27 Oct 1951 - 19 Oct 1954  Sir David Maxwell Fyfe, Earl of    (b. 1900 - d. 1967)  Con
                             Kilmuir 
19 Oct 1954 - 14 Jan 1957  Gwilym Lloyd George, Viscount      (b. 1894 - d. 1967)  Con
                             Tenby 
Ministers of Housing, Local government, and Welsh Affairs (in London)
14 Jan 1957 -  9 Oct 1961  Henry Brooke                       (b. 1903 - d. 1984)  Con
 9 Oct 1961 - 13 Jul 1962  Charles Hill                       (b. 1904 - d. 1989)  Con
13 Jul 1962 - 18 Oct 1964  Sir Keith Sinjohn Joseph           (b. 1918 - d. 1994)  Con
Secretaries of State for Wales (in London)
18 Oct 1964 -  5 Apr 1966  James Griffiths                    (b. 1890 - d. 1975)  Lab
 5 Apr 1966 -  5 Apr 1968  Cledwyn Hughes                     (b. 1916 - d. 2001)  Lab
 5 Apr 1968 - 20 Jun 1970  Thomas George Thomas               (b. 1909 - d. 1997)  Lab
20 Jun 1970 -  5 Mar 1974  Peter John Mitchell Thomas         (b. 1920 - d. 2008)  Con
 5 Mar 1974 -  5 May 1979  John Morris                        (b. 1931)            Lab
 5 May 1979 - 13 Jun 1987  Roger Nicholas Edwards             (b. 1934)            Con
13 Jun 1987 -  4 May 1990  Peter Walker                       (b. 1932 - d. 2010)  Con
 4 May 1990 - 27 May 1993  David Hunt (1st time)              (b. 1942)            Con
27 May 1993 - 26 Jun 1995  John Redwood                       (b. 1951)            Con
26 Jun 1995 -  5 Jul 1995  David Hunt (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Con
 5 Jul 1995 -  3 May 1997  William Hague                      (b. 1961)            Con
 3 May 1997 - 27 Oct 1998  Ron Davies                         (b. 1946)            Lab
27 Oct 1998 - 28 Jul 1999  Alun Michael                       (b. 1943)            Lab
28 Jul 1999 - 24 Oct 2002  Paul Murphy (1st time)             (b. 1948)            Lab
24 Oct 2002 - 24 Jan 2008  Peter Hain (1st time)              (b. 1950)            Lab
                            (also Northern Ireland Secretary 6 May 2005 - 28 Jun 2007)
24 Jan 2008 -  5 Jun 2009  Paul Murphy (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Lab
 5 Jun 2009 - 12 May 2010  Peter Hain (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Lab
12 May 2010 -  4 Sep 2012  Cheryl Gillan (f)                  (b. 1952)            Con
 4 Sep 2012 -              David Jones                        (b. 1952)            Con 
 
First Secretaries
12 May 1999 -  9 Feb 2000  Alun Michael                       (s.a.)               Lab
 9 Feb 2000 - 16 Oct 2000  Rhodri Morgan                      (b. 1939)            Lab
                            (acting to 15 Feb 2000)
First ministers
16 Oct 2000 - 10 Dec 2009  Rhodri Morgan                      (s.a.)               Lab
10 Dec 2009 -              Carwyn Jones                       (b. 1967)            Lab
Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative Party (center-right, est.1840s)Lab = Labour Party (social-democratic, center-left, first officially named 1868)


Gwynedd

bf.550                     Gwynedd kingdom (Teyrnas Gwynedd).
942 - 950                  Ruled by Deheubarth.
989 - 999                  Ruled by Deheubarth.
1018 - 1023                Ruled by Powys.
1039 - 1075                Ruled by Powys.
1081 - 1101                Occupied by England.
Dec 1170                   Principality of Gwynedd (Tywysogaeth Gwynedd).
11 Dec 1282                Annexed by England.

Kings (title Teyrn Gwynedd)
5.. - c.547                
Maelgwn ap Cadwallon               (b. 50. - d. c.547)
                             (Maelgwn "the Tall")
c.547 - c.586              Rhun Hir ap Maelgwn                (b. 52. - d. c.586)
                             (Rhun "the Tall")
c.586 - c.599              Beli ap Rhun                       (b. 54. – d. c.599)
c.599 - 616                Iago ap Beli                       (b. 56. – d. c.616)
616 - c.625                Cadfan ap Iago                     (b. c.580 – d. c.625)
c.625 - 634                Cadwallon ap Cadfan                (b. 59. - d. 634)
634 - c.655               
Cadafael Cadomedd ap Cynfeddw      (b. 60. - d. c.655)
                             (Cadafael "the Battle-Shirker")
c.655 - c.682             
Cadwaladr Fendigaid ap Cadwallon   (b. 62. - d. c.682)
                             (Cadwallader "the Blessed")
c.682 - 7..                Idwal Iwrch ap Cadwaladr
                             (Idwal "Roebuck")
7.. - c.754                Rhodri Molwynog ap Idwal           (b. 6.. - d. c.754)
                             (Rhodri "the Bald and Grey")
c.754 - c.798              Caradog ap Meirchion               (b. 7.. - d. c.798)
c.798 - 816                Cynan Dindaethwy ap Rhodri         (b. 7.. - d. 818)
816 - 826                  Hywel ap Caradog                   (b. 7.. - d. c.826)
826 - 845                  Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad             (b. 78. - d. c.845)
                             (Merfin "the Freckled")
845 - 878                  Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn              (b. 8.. - d. 878)
                             (Rhodri "the Great")
878 - 916                  Anarawd ap Rhodri                  (b. 8.. - d. 916)
916 - 942                  
Idwal Foel ab Anarawd              (b. 88. - d. 942)
                             (Idwal "the Bald")
942 - 950                 
the king of Deheubarth
950 - 979                  
Iago ab Idwal                      (b. 91. - d. 979?)
950 - 969                  
Idwal Ieuaf ab Idwal -Co-ruler     (b. 91. - d. 988?)
979 - 985                  Hywel Foel ab Ieuaf                (b. 94. - d. 985)
985 - 986                 
Cadwallon ab Ieuaf                 (b. 95. - d. 986)
989 - 999                  the king of Deheubarth
999 - 1005                 Cynan ap Hywel                     (b. 97. - d. 1005)
1005 - 1018                Aeddan ap Blegywryd                (b. 98. - d. 1018)
1018 - 1023                the king of Powys
1023 - 1039                Iago ab Idwal                      (b. 99. - d. 1039)
1039 - 1075                the kings of Powys

1075 - 1081               
Trahaearn ap Caradog               (b. 102. - d. 1081)
1081 - 1101                English rule
1101 - 1137                
Gruffydd ap Cynan                  (b. c.1055 - d. 1137)
1137 - 28 Nov 1170         
Owain ap Gruffydd                  (b. c.1100 - d. 1170)
28 Nov 1170 - Dec 1170     Hywel ab Owain                     (b. c.1120 - d. 1170)
Princes (title Tywyssog Gwynedd)
Dec 1170 - 1195            
Dafydd ab Owain                    (b. 113. - d. 1203)
Dec 1170 - 1175            Maelgwn ab Owain -Co-ruler         (b. 112. - d. 117.)
                             (in Ynys Mon) 
1176 - 1195               
Rhodri ab Owain (in opposition)    (b. 1135? - d. 1195)
1195 - 10 Apr 1240        
Llywelyn Fawr ap Iorwerth          (b. c.1173 - d. 1240)
                             (Llywelyn "the Great")
10 Apr 1240 - 25 Feb 1246  
Dafydd ap Llywelyn                 (b. c.1208 - d. 1246)
25 Feb 1246 - Jun 1254    
Owain Goch ap Gruffydd             (b. 122. - d. 1282?)
                             (Owen "the Red")
25 Feb 1246 - 
11 Dec 1282  Llywelyn ap Gruffydd               (b. c.1223 - d. 1282)
                             (Llywelyn "the Last")
                             (from 1258, self-styled Prince of Wales)

11 Dec 1282 - 22 Jun 1283  
Dafydd ap Gruffydd (in dissidence) (b. 1238 - d. 1283)
                             (self-styled Prince of Wales) 
16 Sep 1400 - 21 Sep 1415
 Owain Glyndwr ap Gruffydd          (b. c.1359 - d. c.1416)
                             (self-styled Prince of Wales)   
                             (
in dissidence)


Powys

c.540                      Powys kingdom (Teyrnas Powys).
c.656 - c.717              Occupied by Mercia.
855 - 878                  Ruled by Gwynedd.     
942 - 999                  Ruled by Deheubarth.  
1023 - 1033                Ruled by Deheubarth.
1033 - 1039                Ruled by Gwynedd.
1063                       Under English overlordship (Principality of Powys
                             [Tywysogaeth Powys]).
1160                       Division into southern part at Y Trallwng, later called
                             Powys Wenwynwyn, and northern part at Dinas Bran, later
                             called Powys Fadog.
1208 - 1282                South Powys annexed by Gwynedd.
1236                       Powys Wenwynwyn falls to England.
10 May 1277                English occupation.  
11 Dec 1282                Annexed by England.              


Kings
(title Teyrn Powys)
5.. - c.616                Selyf ap Cynan
                    (b. 5.. - d. c.616) 
c.616 - c.616              Manwgan ap Selyf                   (b. 60. - d. c.655)
c.616 - c.642              
Eiludd ap Cynan                    (b. 58. - d. c.642)
c.642 - c.655             
Manwgan ap Selyf                   (b. 60. - d. c.655) 
c.655 - c.656              
Beli ab Eiludd                     (b. 61. - d. c.656?)
c.656 - c.717              under Mercia
c.717 - 75.  
             Elisedd ap Gwylog                  (b. 69. - d. 75.)       
75. - c.773               
Brochfael ap Elisedd               (b. 72. - d. c.773)           
c.773 - c.808              
Cadell ap Brochfael                (b. 75. - d. c.808)  
c.808 - 855                
Cyngen ap Cadell                   (b. 78. - d. 855) 
855 - 878                  part of Gwynedd
878 - 900                 
Merfyn ap Rhodri                   (b. 84. - d. 900)   
900 - 942
                 Llywelyn ap Merfyn                 (b. 87. - d. 942)           
942 - 999                 
part of Deheubarth
999 - 1023
                Llywelyn ap Seisyll                (b. 96. - d. 1023)       
1023 - 1033               
part of Deheubarth
1033 - 1039                part of
Gwynedd
1039 -  5 Aug 1063        
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn               (b. c.1007 - d. 1063)
Princes (
title Tywyssog Powys)
1063 - 1075                
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn                  (b. 102. - d. 1075) 
1075 - 1110                
Cadwgan ap Bleddyn                 (b. c.1051 - d. 1111)
1075 - 1103               
Iorwerth ap Bleddyn -Co-ruler      (b. c.1053 - d. 1111)    
                             (
captive 1103-1010)
1110 - 1111
               Iorwerth ap Bleddyn                (s.a.)
1111                       
Cadwgan ap Bleddyn                 (s.a.)
1111 - 1116               
Owain ap Cadwgan                   (b. 107. - d. 1116)
1116 - 1132  
             Maredudd ap Bleddyn                (b. 106. - d. 1132)    
1132 - 1160                
Madog ap Maredudd                  (b. 110. - d. 1160)         
1160 - 1195                
Owain ap Gruffydd                  (b. c.1130 - d. 1197)
                             (in Y Trallwng)
1160 - 1191                
Gruffydd Maelor ap Madog           (b. 112. - d. 1191)
                             (in Dinas Bran)      
1191 - 1236               
Madog ap Gruffydd (in Dinas Bran)  (b. 114. - d. 1236)           
1195 - 1208                
Gwenwynwyn ab Owain                (b. 115. - d. 1216?)



Deheubarth

c.500                      Dyfed kingdom (Teyrnas Dyfed).
920                        Deheubarth kingdom (Teyrnas Deheubarth)
                             (Dyfed and Ceredigyawn united).
999 - 1005                 Part of Gwynedd.
1018 - 1023                Part of Powys.
1023 - 1033                Part of Morgannwg.  
1043 - 1045                Part of Gwynedd.
1045 - 1055                Part of Morgannwg.  
1055 - 1063                Part of Gwynedd.
1087 - 1093                Occupied by Powys.
Jul 1093 - 1135            Occupied by England.
1135                       Partly (Ceredigyawn) restored, Deheubarth Principality
                             (Tywysogaeth Deheubarth).
1234 - 11 Dec 1282         Part of Gwynedd.
11 Dec 1282                Annexed along with Gwynedd by England.

Kings of Dyfed (
title Teyrn Dyfed)
c.495 - 540                Vortipor (Vortiporious)
c.550                      Cyngar ap Gwrthefyr
c.570                      Pedr ap Cyngar
c.595 - c.615              Arthur map Petr
c.625                      Nowy Hen

c.650                      Cloten ap Nowy
c.670                      Caten ap Cloten
c.690                      Cadwgan Tredylig ap Caten
c.710                      Rhain ap Cadwgan
c.730                      Tewdos ap Regin
7.. - 798                  Meredydd ap Teuder
798 - 808                  Rhein ap Maredydd
808 - c.810                Triffyn ap Rhein
c.810 - c.811              Owain ap Meredydd
8.. - 893                  
Hyfaidd ap Bledrig                   (b. 81. - d. 893)
893 - 904                  Llywarch ap Hyfaidd                  (b. 84. - d. 904)
904 - 905                  Rhodri ap Hyfaidd                    (b. 84. - d. 905)
905 - 920                  Hywel Dda ap Cadell                  (b. c.880 - d. 950)
Kings of Deheubarth
(title Teyrn Deheubarth)
920 - 950                  
Hywel Dda ap Cadell                  (s.a.)
                             (Howell the Good)
950 - 987                  
Owain ap Hywel                       (b. 90. - d. 987)
950 - 953                  Rhodri ap Hywel (in rebellion)       (b. 91. - d. 953)
950 - 954                  Edwin ap Hywel (in rebellion)        (b. 91. - d. 954)
987 - 999                  
Maredudd ab Owain                    (b. 93. - d. 999)
999 - 1005                
part of Gwynedd
1005 - 1018                Edwin ap Einion
1018 - 1023                part of Powys
1023 - 1033
               part of Morgannwg   
1033 - 1043               
Hywel ab Edwin                       (b. 100. - d. 1044)
1033 - 1035                Maredudd ab Edwin -Co-ruler          (b. 101. - d. 1035)
1043 - 1045                part of Gwynedd
1045 - 1055                part of Morgannwg  
1055 - 1063                part of Gwynedd
1063 - 1072               
Maredudd ab Owian                    (b. 104. - d. 1072)
1072 - 1078                Rhys ab Owain                        (b. 105. - d. 1078)
1078 - Apr 1093            Rhys ap Tewdwr                       (b. 106. - d. 1093)
Apr 1093 - Jul 1093        Gwronwy ap Rhys                      (b. 108. - d. 1093)
Jul 1093 - 1135            English rule
Princes
(title Tywyssog Deheubarth)
1135 - 1137                Gruffydd ap Rhys                     (b. 109. - d. 1137)
1137 - 1143                Anarawd ap Gruffydd                  (b. 112. - d. 1143)
1143 - 1153               
Cadell ap Gruffydd                   (b. 112. - d. 1175)
1153 - 1155  
             Maredudd ap Gruffydd                 (b. c.1130 - d. 1155)
1155 - 28 Apr 1197        
Rhys ap Gruffydd                     (b. c.1132 - d. 1197)
28 Apr 1197 - 25 Jul 1201  Gruffydd ap Rhys                     (b. 116. - d. 1201)
1199 - 1231                Maelgwyn ap Rhys
                    (b. c.1170 - d. 1231)
                             (in rebellion to 25 Jul 1201)
1216 - 1234               
Rhys Gryg ap Rhys (Rhys "the Hoarse")(b. 116. - d. 1234)  
                             (co-ruler to 1231)



County Palatine of Durham
 
[former banner of
              Palatine Bishopric of Durham (England)]

Map of County Palatine
 of Durham
Capital: Durham
Population: 253,910 (1831)

 
995                        Roman Catholic diocese of Durham (Dunelmensis) erected and is a
                             lineal continuation of the See of Lindisfarne founded in 635.
1071                       Bishops granted palatine powers and Durham becomes one of the
                             three English Counties Palatine¹.
 4 Feb 1536                Bishop's semi-regal power abolished and much of the civil and
                             judicial independence of the palatinate is ended by the
                             Act of Resumption.
31 Dec 1540                Durham Abbey surrendered to dissolution.
28 Sep 1559                Becomes an Anglican diocese after the removal of the last Catholic
                             bishop, and the Durham mint ceases.
 2 Sep 1640 - 20 Aug 1641  Durham occupied by the Scots.
 1 Jul 1644 -  8 May 1660  Controlled by Parliament (from 1649 Commonwealth).
 9 Oct 1646 -  2 Dec 1660  County Palatine of Durham abolished by Parliament, the separate
                             courts are abolished in 1649.
Jun 1654                   Durham returns its first members to Parliament (absent 1659-75).
24 Dec 1660                Tenures Abolition Act ends the bishop's rights as chief feudal
                             lord in the Palatinate.
21 Feb 1836                Semi-independence ends when the territory is fully integrated
                             into England (re-stated 23 Jul 1858); separate courts are
                             retained until abolished on 12 May 1971.

Prince-Bishops of Durham
Mar 1071 - 14 May 1080     (William) Walcher                 (d. 1080)
 9 Nov 1080 -  2 Jan 1096  William de St-Calais (or Carilef) (d. 1096)
                             (provisional to 27 Dec 1080 or 3 Jan 10881) 
29 May 1099 -  5 Sep 1128  Ranulf Flambard                   (b. c.1060 - d. 1128)
                             (provisional to 5 Jun 1099) 
14 May 1133 -  6 May 1141  Geoffrey Rufus                    (d. 1141)
                             (provisional to 6 Aug 1133) 
14 Mar 1143 - 13 Nov 1152  William of St. Barbe              (d. 1152) 
                             (provisional to 20 Jun 1143) 
12 Jan 1153 -  3 Mar 1195  Hugh du Puiset                    (b. c.1125 - d. 1195)
                             (provisional to 20 Dec 1153) 
Nov 1195 - 22 Apr 1208     Philip of Poitiers                (d. 1208)
                             (provisional to 20 Apr 1197) 
29 Jun 1217 -  1 May 1226  Richard Marsh (Richard de Marisco)(d. 1226)
                             (provisional to 2 Jul 1217) 
14 May 1228 - 15 Apr 1237  Richard le Poor (Richard Poore)   (d. 1237)
                             (provisional to to 22 Jul 1228) 
10 Feb 1241 -  2 Feb 1249  Nicholas Farnham                  (d. 1257)
                             (provisional to 26 May/9 Jun 1241) 
20 Oct 1249 -  9 Aug 1260  Walter Kirkham                    (d. 1260)
                             (provisional to 5 Dec 1249) 
 5 Dec 1260 -  4 Aug 1274  Robert Stitchill                  (d. 1274)
                             (provisional to 13 Feb 1261) 
 8 Nov 1274 -  7 Jun 1283  Robert of Holy Island             (d. 1283)
                             (provisional to 9 Dec 1274) 
 4 Sep 1283 -  3 Mar 1311  Antony Bek (Beck)                 (b. c.1245 - d. 1311)
                             (provisional to 9 Jan 1284) 
20 May 1311 -  9 Oct 1316  Richard Kellaw                    (d. 1316)
 9 Feb 1317 - 24 Sep 1333  Lewis de Beaumont                 (d. 1333)
                             (provisional to 26 Mar 1318) 
14 Oct 1333 - 14 Apr 1345  Richard de Bury                   (b. 1287 - d. 1345)
                             (= Richard Aungerville)
                             (provisional to 15 Dec 1333) 
 1 Jun 1345 -  8 May 1381  Thomas Hatfield                   (d. 1381)
 9 Sep 1381 -  3 Apr 1388  John Fordham                      (d. 1425) 
                             (provisional to 5 Jan 1382) 
 3 Apr 1388 - 23 Mar 1406  Walter Skirlaw                    (d. 1406)
                             (provisional to 13 Sep 1388) 
14 May 1406 - 20 Nov 1437  Thomas Langley                    (b. 1363 - d. 1437)
                             (provisional to 8 Aug 1406) 
27 Jan 1438 -  9 Jul 1457  Robert Neville                    (b. 1408 - d. 1457)
                             (provisional to 8 Apr 1438) 
22 Aug 1457 -  1 Sep 1476  Laurence Booth                    (b. c.1420 - d. 1480) 
                             (provisional to 25 Sep 1457) 
 1 Sep 1476 - 29 Sep 1483  William Dudley                    (d. 1483)
29 Mar 1484 - 14 Jan 1494  John Shirwood                     (d. 1494)
                             (provisional to 26 May 1484) 
30 Jul 1494 - 20 Aug 1501  Richard Foxe                      (b. c.1448 - d. 1501)
                             (provisional to 18 Dec 1494) 
15 Oct 1502 - 1505         William Senhouse (or Sever)       (b. 14.. - d. 1505)
27 Aug 1507 - 20 Sep 1508  Christopher Bainbridge            (b. 1464? - d. 1514)
                             (provisional to 12 Dec 1507) 
12 Jun 1509 -  4 Feb 1523  Thomas Ruthall                    (b. 14.. - d. 1523)
                             (provisional to 3 Jul 1509) 
30 Apr 1523 -  8 Feb 1529  Thomas Cardinal Wolsey            (b. 1473 - d. 1530) 
21 Feb 1530 - 28 Sep 1559  Cuthbert Tunstal                  (b. 1474 - d. 1559)
 2 Mar 1561 - 23 Jan 1576  James Pilkington                  (b. 1520 - d. 1576)
 9 May 1577 - 24 Aug 1587  Richard Barnes                    (b. 1532 - d. 1587)
27 Jul 1589 - 24 Mar 1595  Matthew Hutton                    (b. 1529 - d. 1606) 
13 Apr 1595 - 28 Aug 1606  Tobias Matthew                    (b. 1546 - d. 1628) 
 7 Sep 1606 - 12 May 1617  William James                     (b. 1542 - d. 1617)
 9 Oct 1617 -  7 Feb 1628  Richard Neile                     (b. 1562 - d. 1640)
19 Feb 1628 -  1 Jul 1628  George Monteigne                  (b. 1569 - d. 1628) 
17 Sep 1628 -  6 Feb 1632  John Howson                       (b. 1557 - d. 1632)
 2 Jul 1632 -  9 Oct 1646  Thomas Morton                     (b. 1564 - d. 1659) 
                             (nominal title of Bishop to 22 Sep 1659)    
 
9 Oct 1646 -  2 Dec 1660  Vacant
 2 Dec 1660 - 15 Jan 1672  John Cosin                        (b. 1594 - d. 1672)
 6 Dec 1674 - 18 Sep 1721  Nathaniel Crewe                   (b. 1633 - d. 1721)
                             (from from 30 Sep 1697, Nathaniel
                             Crew, Baron Crew of Stene)
 7 Nov 1721 - 10 Oct 1730  William Talbot                    (b. 1658 - d. 1730)
21 Nov 1730 - 20 Jul 1750  Edward Chandler                   (b. 1668 - d. 1750)
16 Oct 1750 - 16 Jun 1752  Joseph Butler                     (b. 1692 - d. 1752)
 7 Dec 1752 -  9 Jun 1771  Richard Trevor                    (b. 1707 - d. 1771)
20 Jul 1771 - 30 Jan 1787  John Egerton                      (b. 1721 - d. 1787)
19 Feb 1787 - 27 May 1791  Thomas Thurlow                    (b. 1737 - d. 1791)
 7 Jul 1791 - 25 Mar 1826  Shute Barrington                  (b. 1734 - d. 1826)
24 Apr 1826 - 21 Feb 1836  William Van Mildert               (b. 1765 - d. 1836)

 ¹Counties Palatine were erected in the 11th century to defend the northern (Scottish) and western (Welsh) frontiers of the Kingdom of England. In order to allow them to do so in the best way they could, their counts were granted royal or palatine ("from the palace") powers within their territories, making these territories nearly sovereign jurisdictions with their own administrations and courts. The two other Counties Palatine were Chester (or Cheshire) 1071-1246, and the only of the three English medieval Counties Palatine which survived until the present-day, the Duchy of Lancaster, created in 1351 but in 1399 united as a separate holding to the English Crown. The Prince-Bishops of Durham were so powerful, that medieval historians often styled them the "second kings of England."



Isles of Scilly (Scilly Islands)

[Isles of Scilly (Scilly
                  Islands) unofficial flag]
              Adopted 22 Feb 2002 Unofficial
Map of the Scilly Islands
Capital: Hugh Town
Population: 2,100 (2010)
650 (1651)

938                        Part of the Kingdom of England (St Martin's, St Mary's, Tresco,
                             St Agnes, and Bryher islands [uninhabited: Annet, Eastern Isles,
                             Norrad Rocks, St Helen's, Samson, Tean and Western Rocks]).
1114 -  3 Mar 1539         Granted to the Abbey of Tavistock.
 3 Mar 1539                Reunited to the Crown, part of the Duchy of Cornwall.
1570 - 1834                Leased by the crown to the Godolphin family
                             (interrupted 1646-48 and 1649-60).
12 Sep 1646 - Sep 1648     Occupied by Parliamentary forces.
Sep 1648 - 23 May 1651     Garrisoned by Royalist forces, Prince Charles names
                             Sir John Grenville governor Feb 1649.
23 May 1651 -  8 May 1660  Part of the Commonwealth of England.
30 Jun 1660                Restored to the Godolphin family.
10 Oct 1834                Leased by Augustus John Smith (and later his heirs).
1920                       Lease is limited to only Tresco, Samson and Tean Islands.

Governors of Scilly
1570 - Apr 1608            Sir Francis Godolphin             (b. 1535 - d. 1608) 
Apr 1608 -  2 Sep 1613     William Godolphin                 (b. 1567 - d. 1613)
 2 Sep 1613 - 1636         William Godolphin                 (b. 1611 - d. 1636) 
1613 - 1625                Francis Godolphin -Regent         (d. 1625) 
1636 -  9 Feb 1643         Sidney Godolphin                  (b. 1610 - d. 1643) 
 9 Feb 1643 - Feb 1649     Sir Francis Godolphin (1st time)  (b. 1605 - d. 1667)
Feb 1649 - 23 May 1651     Sir John Grenville (royalist)     (b. 1643 - d. 1701)
1651 - 1660                Joseph Hunkyn (Hunkin)(parliament)(b. 1610 - d. 1661?)

30 Jun 1660 - 22 Mar 1667  Sir Francis Godolphin (2nd time)  (s.a.)
22 Mar 1667 - 15 Sep 1712  Sidney, Earl Godolphin            (b. 1645 - d. 1712) 
15 Sep 1712 - 17 Jan 1766  Francis, Earl Godolphin           (b. 1678 - d. 1766) 
17 Jan 1766 - 1785         Thomas Osborne, Duke of Leeds     (b. 1713 - d. 1789) 
1785 - 31 Jan 1799         Francis Godolphin Osborne,        (b. 1751 - d. 1799)
                             Duke of Leeds
31 Jan 1799 - 10 Oct 1834  Frederick Godolphin Osborne,      (b. 1775 - d. 1838)
                             Duke of Leeds
Governors of Scilly (self styled Lord Proprietors of the Scilly Islands and Tenants)

10 Oct 1834 - 31 Jul 1872  Augustus John Smith               (b. 1804 - d. 1872)
31 Jul 1872 -  6 Aug 1918  Thomas Algernon Smith-Dorrien     (b. 1846 - d. 1918)
                            (from ... 1872, Thomas Algernon Dorrien-Smith)
 6 Aug 1918 - 1920         Arthur Algernon Dorrien-Smith     (b. 1876 - d. 1955)

Garrison commanders
1646 - Jan 1647            Sir George Ayscue (Askew)         (b. c.1616 - d. 1672)
                             (parliament)
Apr 1648 - Sep 1648        Anthony Buller 
(parliament)       (b. 1613 – d. 1679)
1648 - 1649                Charles Grosse (royalist)  
Feb 1649 - 23 May 1651     Sir John Grenville (royalist)     (s.a.)
1651 - 1660                Joseph Hunkyn (Hunkin)(
parliament)(b. 1610 - d. 1661?)


In the history of UK,  bingo games mentioned in the late 19th century although bingo was invented in Italy it's well ingrained in the Culture of the kingdom. Bingo is considered to be a family game both for youngsters and elderly people.





© Ben Cahoon