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The Sudan
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag]
                1821/22 - 1881/85
 
 
[Governor-General's flag during
                                    the Condominium]
                      2 Sep 1898 - 1 Jan 1956
        Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Governor-general's flag
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
            2 Sep 1898 - 1 Jan 1956 Joint flag (U.K.)

[Flag
                                    of Egypt 1923-1953]
 19 Jan 1899 - 18 Jun 1953 Joint flag (Egypt)
 
[Flag
                                    of Sudan, 1956-70]
                    1 Jan 1956 - 20 May 1970
 
[Flag of
                                    Sudan]
                        Adopted 20 May 1970
 
Map of Sudan Hear National Anthem
"Nahnu Djundulla
Djundulwatan"
(We Are the Army of
God and of Our Land) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1956
Interim Constitution
(6 Jul 2005)
--------------------------------------

Former Constitution
(1 Jul 1998 - 6 Jul 2005)
Capital: Khartoum
(Omdurman 1881-1898)
Currency:  Sudanese Pound
(SDG) 1957-1992, 2007-;
Sudanese Dinar
(SDD)
1992-9 Jan 2007 
National Holiday: 1 Jan (1956)
Independence Day
Population: 34,847,910 (2013)
GDP: $89.9 billion (2013) Exports: $4.15 billion (2013)
Imports: $5.94 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, others 3% (2003)
note: demographic data includes South Sudan

Total Active Armed Forces: 109,300 (2010)
African Union-UN Darfur Force (UNAMID): 19,442 (2013)
Merchant marine: 2 ships (2010)
Religions: Sunni Muslim 68.4% (in north), Roman Catholic 9.5%,
 and Protestant 8.8% (of which Anglican 5.4%) (mostly in
south and in Khartoum),
traditional beliefs 10.8%,
other 2.5% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, APM, Arabsat, AU, BTWC, CAEU, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, OPEC (observer), PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
The Sudan
Index
Chronology

Nov 1820                   Egypt begins conquest.
12 Jun 1821/1822           Occupation and annexation by Egypt
                             (nominally under Ottoman suzerainty).
29 Jun 1881                Mahdiya established (Mahdi's "emergence").
26 Jan 1885                Egyptian Sudan fully occupied by the Mahdiya.
 2 Sep 1898                Mahdiya extinguished by Britain.
19 Jan 1899                Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (condominium).
24 Nov 1924                Egyptian troops and civil servants withdrawn.
 4 Jul 1940 - 17 Jan 1941  Italian occupation of Gallabat, Kurmak and Kassala.
22 Oct 1952                Self-rule granted.
 1 Jan 1956                Independence (Republic of The Sudan).
25 May 1969                Democratic Republic of The Sudan
 5 Jun 1983 -  9 Jan 2005  Civil war erupts, large parts of the southern
                             provinces under rebel control.
15 Dec 1985                Republic of The Sudan
 9 Jul 2011                Independence of South Sudan.

States
(from 1991)
Provinces
(1821-1889)

 Traditional
Polities

Abyei Area
Darfur Transitional
Authority
 Map of Civil War
1983-2005
Historical Maps
of Sudan
 

Egyptian Commanders
Nov 1820 - 1821            Isma`il Kamel Pasha                (b. 1795 - d. 1822)
Apr 1821 - Sep 1824        Muhammad Bey Defterdar             (d. 1833)
Sep 1824 - May 1825        Osman Bey Jarkas  
May 1825 - Mar 1826        Mahu Bey Urfali                    (d. 1826)
Governor
Mar 1826 - 1835            Ali Khurshid Agha                  (b. 1786 - d. 1845)
Governors-general (Hakimdar)
1835 - Jun 1838            Ali Khurshid Pasha                 (s.a.)

Jun 1838 -  6 Oct 1843     Ahmad Pasha abu Widan              (d. 1843)
1843 - 1845                Ahmad Pasha Manikli (Manlilki)     (b. c.1795 - d. 1862)
1845 - 1850                Khalid Khusraw Pasha   
1850 - Jan 1851            'Abd al-Latif Pasha                (b. c.1805 - d. 1883)
Jan 1851 - May 1852        Rustum Pasha Jarkas                (d. 1852)
May 1852 - 1853            Isma'il Haqqi Pasha abu Jabal      (b. 1818 - d. 1882)
1853 - 1854                Salim Pasha Sa'ib al-Jaza'irli
Jul 1854 - Nov 1854        Ali Pasha Sirri al-Arna'ut         (b. 1814 - d. 1866)
Governors
1854 - 1855                Ali Pasha Jarkas

1856 - 1858                Arakil Bey al-Armani               (b. 1826 - d. 1858)
1859 - 1861                Hasan Bey Salama Jarkas            (d. 1861)
1861 - 1862                Muhammad Rasikh Bey                (b. c.1834 - d. 1883)
Governors-general 
1862 - 1865                Musa Pasha Hamdi                   (b. c.1800 - d. 1865)

1865 - Nov 1865            'Umar Bey Fakhri (acting)          (d. 1866)
Nov 1865 - 1866            Ja'afar Pasha Sadiq                (b. 1805 - d. af.1884)
1866 -  5 Feb 1871         Ja'afar Pasha Mazhar               (d. 1878)
 5 Feb 1871 - Oct 1872     Ahmad Mumtaz Pasha                 (b. c.1825 - d. 1874)
Oct 1872 - 1872            Edhem Pasha al-Arifi at-Atqalawi   (b. c.1815 - d. af.1872)
                             (acting)
1872 - 18 May 1877         Isma'il Pasha al- Aiyub            (d. 1884)
May 1877 - Dec 1879        Charles George Gordon (1st time)   (b. 1833 - d. 1885)
                             "Gordon Pasha"
Dec 1879 - Feb 1882        Muhammad Ra'uf Pasha               (b. 1832 - d. c.1888)
Feb 1882 - May 1882        Giegler Pasha (acting)
May 1882 - Mar 1883        'Abd al-Qadir Pasha Hilmi          (b. 1837 - d. 1908)
Mar 1883 -  5 Nov 1883     'Ala al-Din Pasha Siddiq (2nd time)(d. 1883)
 5 Nov 1883 - Feb 1884     William Hicks "Hicks Pasha"        (b. 1830 - d. 1884)
Feb 1884 - 18 Feb 1884     Henry Watts Russell de Coetlogon   (b. 1839 - d. 1908)
                             (acting)
18 Feb 1884 - 26 Jan 1885  Charles George Gordon (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             "Gordon Pasha"
Mahdi
29 Jun 1881 - 22 Jun 1885  Muhammad Ahmad                     (b. 1844 - d. 1885)
Khalifa
22 Jun 1885 -  2 Sep 1898  `Abd Allah                         (b. 1846 - d. 1899)
Military governor
 2 Sep 1898 - 19 Jan 1899  Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (b. 1850 - d. 1916)
                             Baron Kitchener 
Governors-general
19 Jan 1899 - 22 Dec 1899  Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (s.a.)
                             Baron Kitchener 
22 Dec 1899 - 31 Dec 1916  Sir Francis Reginald Wingate       (b. 1861 - d. 1953)
 1 Jan 1917 - 20 Nov 1924  Sir Lee Oliver Fitzmaurice Stack   (b. 1868 - d. 1924)
21 Nov 1924 -  5 Jan 1925  Wasey Sterry (acting)              (b. 1866 - d. 1955)
 5 Jan 1925 -  6 Jul 1926  Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer        (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
31 Oct 1926 - 10 Jan 1934  Sir John Loader Maffey             (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
10 Jan 1934 - 19 Oct 1940  Sir George Stewart Symes           (b. 1882 - d. 1962)
19 Oct 1940 -  8 Apr 1947  Sir Hubert Jervoise Huddleston     (b. 1880 - d. 1950)
 8 Apr 1947 - 29 Mar 1954  Sir Robert George Howe             (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
29 Mar 1954 - 12 Dec 1955  Sir Alexander Knox Helm            (b. 1893 - d. 1964)
12 Dec 1955 -  1 Jan 1956  Muhammad Ahmad Abu Rannat (acting) (b. 1902 - d. 1979)
Presidents

 1 Jan 1956 - 17 Nov 1958  Sovereignty Council
                           - Abdel Fattah Muhammad 
                               al-Maghrabi
                           - Muhammad Ahmad Yasin
                           - Ahmad Muhammad Salih             (b. 1896 - d. 1971)
                           - Muhammad Othman ad-Dardiri
                           - Siricio Iro Wani
17 Nov 1958 - 16 Nov 1964  Ibrahim Abboud                     (b. 1900 - d. 1983)  Mil
                             (chairman Supreme Council to 31 Oct 1964)
16 Nov 1964 -  3 Dec 1964  Sirr al-Khatim al-Khalifah         (b. 1919 - d. 2006)  UNF
                             (acting)
 3 Dec 1964 - 10 Jun 1965  Committee of Sovereignty
                           (chair rotating weekly)
                           - Abdel Halim Muhammad (1st time)  (b. 1910 - d. 2009)
                           - Tijani al-Mahi                   (b. 1911 - d. 1970)
                           - Mubarak Shaddad                  (b. 1913)
                           - Ibrahim Yusuf Sulayman
                              (to 31 May 1965)
                           - Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho        (b. 1929 - d. 2010)
                              (1st time)(from Dec 1964)
10 Jun 1965 -  8 Jul 1965  Committee of Sovereignty
                           (chair rotating weekly)
                           - Ismail al-Azhari                 (b. 1900 - d. 1969)
                           - Abdullah al-Fadil al-Mahdi       (b. 1892 - d. 1966)
                           - Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho        (s.a.)
                              (2nd time)(to 14 Jun 1965)
                           - Abdel Halim Muhammad (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           - Khidr Hamad
 8 Jul 1965 - 25 May 1969  Ismail al-Azhari                   (s.a.)               NUP
                             (chairman Sovereignty Council)
25 May 1969 - 19 Jul 1971  Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiry (1st time) (b. 1930 - d. 2009)  Mil
                             (chairman Revolutionary Command Council)
19 Jul 1971 - 22 Jul 1971  Babiker al-Nur Osman               (d. 1971)            Mil
                             (chairman Revolutionary Council)
22 Jul 1971 -  6 Apr 1985  Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiry (2nd time) (s.a.)              Mil;1972 SSU
                             (chairman Revolutionary Command Council to 12 Oct 1971)
 6 Apr 1985 -  6 May 1986  Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab         (b. 1934)            Mil
                             (Commander-in-Chief to 9 Apr 1985, 
                             then chairman Transitional Military Council)
 6 May 1986 - 30 Jun 1989  Ahmad Ali al-Mirghani              (b. 1941 - d. 2008)  DUP
                             (chairman Supreme Council)
30 Jun 1989 -              Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir        (b. 1944)           Mil;1996 NCP
                             (president of Revolutionary Command 
                             Council for National Salvation to 16 Oct 1993)
 

Chief ministers
22 Oct 1952 - Nov 1953     Sayid Abdel Rahman al-Mahdi        (b. 1885 - d. 1959)  UMMA
 6 Jan 1954 -  1 Jan 1956  Ismail al-Azhari                   (s.a.)               NUP
Prime ministers
 1 Jan 1956 -  5 Jul 1956  Ismail al-Azhari                   (s.a.)               NUP
 5 Jul 1956 - 17 Nov 1958  Abdullah Khalil                    (b. 1892 - d. 1970)  UMMA
18 Nov 1958 - 30 Oct 1964  Ibrahim Abboud                     (s.a.)               Mil
30 Oct 1964 -  2 Jun 1965  Sirr al-Khatim al-Khalifah         (s.a.)               Non-party
10 Jun 1965 - 25 Jul 1966  Muhammad Ahmad Mahgoub (1st time)  (b. 1908 - d. 1976)  UMMA
27 Jul 1966 - 18 May 1967  Sadiq al-Mahdi (1st time)          (b. 1935)            UMMA 
18 May 1967 - 25 May 1969  Muhammad Ahmad Mahgoub (2nd time)  (s.a.)               UMMA
25 May 1969 - 27 Oct 1969  Babiker Awadalla                   (b. 1917)            Non-party
28 Oct 1969 - 11 Aug 1976  Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiry (1st time) (s.a.)              Mil;1972 SSU
11 Aug 1976 - 10 Sep 1977  Rashid Bakr                        (b. 1930)            SSU
10 Sep 1977 -  6 Apr 1985  Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiry (2nd time) (s.a.)               SSU
22 Apr 1985 -  6 May 1986  al-Jazuli Dafalla                  (b. 1935)            Non-party
 6 May 1986 - 30 Jun 1989  Sadiq al-Mahdi (2nd time)          (s.a.)               UMMA
 
No Political Parties Are Now Allowed.

Territorial Disputes: The effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of 2006, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda provided shelter for over a half million Sudanese refugees, which include 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military forces; as of Jan 2011, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 138,700 Eritreans, 43,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 Jan 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan.

Party abbreviations: DUP = Al Hizb Al-Ittihadi Al-Dimuqrati (Democratic Unionist Party, nationalist, Umma opposition, merger of NUP and Popular Democratic Party, est.1967); NCP = al-Mu'tamar al-Watani (National Congress Party, Arab nationalist, islamist, conservative, only legal party 1996-2000, est.1996); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: NUP = National Unionist Party (social democratic, nationalist, federalist, 1951-1967, merged into DUP); SSU = Sudan Socialist Union (Arab nationalist, socialist, only legal party 1972-1985); UMMA = (conservative, Sunni Islamist, 1945-1989); UNF = United National Front (alliance of most parties, est.1964)


Abyei Area Administration

Map of Abyei Area Capital: Abyei Town Population: 80-100,000 (2010)
UNISFA Force: 4,107 (2014)

31 Aug 2008                Abyei Area Administration formed in disputed region between
                             Southern Sudan and government of Sudan.
 9 Jan 2011                Proposed referendum on joining South Sudan, postponed
                             indefinitely.
21 May 2011 - 27 Jun 2011  Occupied by The Sudan.
27-29 Oct 2013             Unilateral referendum held by Ngok Dinka, 99% vote to
                             join South Sudan (not recognized).

Chiefs of Administration
31 Aug 2008 - 30 Dec 2009  Arop Moyak Toc                                         SPLM
30 Dec 2009 - 21 May 2011  Deng Arop Kuol                                         SPLM
21 May 2011 -  7 Jun 2011  Vacant
 7 Jun 2011 -              Ahmed Hussein al-Imam                                  NCP

Commanders of UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
27 Jul 2011 - 24 Jan 2013  Tadesse Werede Tesfay (Ethiopia)   (b. 1958)
12 Mar 2013 - 19 Jun 2014  Yohannes Gebremeskel Tesfamariam   (b. 1960)
                             (Ethiopia)
 

Party abbreviation: NCP = Sudanese National Congress Party (mainly Arab/Muslim, Islamist, est.1996);
- Former partiesSPLM = Sudan People's Liberation Movement (pro-southern autonomy, political arm of Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army SPLA, est.1983, from 9 Jul 2011 northern branch renamed SPLM-North, banned 3 Sep 2011)


Southern Sudan: see South Sudan





Ben Cahoon