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Turkey
 
[Ottoman flag 1307-1453]
1307 - 1453
[Ottoman flag
                                1453-1499]
1453 - 1499
[Ottoman flag
                                1499-1517]
1499 - 1517

[Ottoman Empire
                                flag 1517 - 1793]
1517 - 1793
[Ottoman flag 1783 - 1808,
                                    1826-67]
27 Jun 1793 - 1808,  1826 - 1867
[Ottoman flag 1808-1826]   1808 - 1826
[Flag of
                                    Turkey]
Adopted 1867 & 5 Jun 1936
 

 
Map of Turkey
Hear National Anthem
 "İstiklal Marşı"
(Independence March)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 12 Mar 1921
Constitution
(7 Nov 1982)
Map of  Ottoman Empire
1798-1923
 Former Ottoman Anthems
"Mahmudiye Marşı"
(March of Mahmud; 1918-22
as Ottoman National March)
(1829-1839, 1918-1 Nov 1922)

"Mecidiye Marşı"

(March of Abdülmecid)
(1839-1861, 1876)
Former Ottoman Anthems
"Aziziye Marşı" (1861-1876)
(March of Abdülâziz);
"Hamidiye Marşı" (1876-1909);
(March of Abdülhamid);
 "Reşadiye Marşı" (1909-1918)
(March of Mehmed Reşad)
Former Constitutions
(23 Dec 1876; 20 Jan 1921;
10 Apr 1924; 9 Jun 1961)

Capital: Ankara
(Kostantiniyye [Constantinople]
29 May 1453-13 Oct 1923;

Edirne [
Adrianople] 1365-1453;
Bursa 1326-1365;
Söğüt 1302-1326)
Currency: Turkish Lira (TRY);
1881-1922 Ottoman Empire Lira
(XOTL); 1688-1881 Ottoman
 Empire Piastre (XTOP)
National Holiday: 29 Oct (1923)
Cumhuriyet Bayramı
(Republic Day)
Population: 80,845,215 (2017)
23,800,000 (1914)
16,000,000 (1683)
GDP: $2.13 trillion (2017)
Exports: $157.3 billion (2017)
Imports: $196.8 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other
minorities 7-12% (2016)
Total Active Armed Forces: 662,719 (2013)
U.S. Forces: 1,917 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 1,285 ships (2017)
Religions: Muslim 97.5% (of which Sunni 82.5%, Shi'a [mostly
non-orthodox Alevi] 15%
), non-religious 2%, other
(mostly Christian)  0.5%
(2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, AIIB, ANT, APM, BIS, BSEC, BTWC, CD, CE, CERN (associate), CFE, CICA, CPLP (associate observer), CTBT, D-8, DC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, ENMOD (signatory), ESA (cooperating state), ESCR, EU (candidate), Eutelsat, FAO, FATF, G-20, GUAM (observer), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, Moon, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, OST, PA (observer), PAM, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SCO (dialogue partner), SECP, SELEC, SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA (signatory), UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Turkey Index
Chronology
c.1200                     Ertugrul (Ertoghul), leader of the Kayi tribe of Oghuz
                             Turks, leads his tribe from Central Asia to Anatolia
c.1231                     Ertugrul is given is given a small territory near the
                             ancient Dorylaeum (Dorılaion) in Phrygia (as Söğüt
                             beylik), by Kayqubad II Seljuq Sultan of Rûm.
27 Jul 1299                Independence declared from Seljuk Sultanate.
1326                       Following the death of Osman the tribe is renamed
                             the House of Osman (Hanedan-i Âl-i Osman).
1326                       Turks capture Bursa from the Byzantines.
Mar 1354                   Turks capture Gallipoli (Gelibolu) from Byzantines.
1357                       Karasid beylik annexed by the Ottomans.
Jul 1362                   Turks capture Adrianople (Edirne) from Byzantines.
1387                       Ottomans begin conquest of Thessaly (finished
                             1395/1396).
1390                       Eretnid beylik annexed by the Ottomans.
25 Sep 1395 -  5 Oct 1908  Bulgaria part of the Ottoman domain (autonomous
                             from 13 Jul 1878).
1417                       Albania (Arvanid sanjak) part of Ottoman domain.
1428                       Germiyanid beylik bequeathed to the Ottoman Sultan.
29 May 1430                Thessalonica reconquered by the Ottoman domain.
29 May 1453                Constantinople (Kostantiniyye) captured by the
                             Ottomans, end of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. 29 May 1453                Ottoman (or Osmanli) Empire or Sublime Ottoman State
                             (Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye)(in modern Turkish:
                             Osmanlı Devleti [Ottoman State] or Osmanlı
                             İmparatorluğu [Ottoman Empire])(capture of 
                             Constantinople is taken as notional date for the
                             beginning of the imperial polity style).
20 Jun 1459 - 13 Jul 1878  Serbia part of the Ottoman Empire (autonomous from
                             25 Oct 1817).
29 May 1460                Despotate of the Morea captured by the Ottomans.
1461                       Jandarid (Isfendiyarid) beylik incorporated into 
                             the Ottoman Empire.
15 Aug 1461                Trebizond (Trapezoús) Empire, the last of the
                             Byzantine successor states, is conquered by the
                             Ottoman Empire.
 3 Jun 1463 - 1878         Bosnia part of the Ottoman Empire (completed 1528).
1475 - 21 Jul 1774         Crimean Khanate part of the Ottoman Empire.
12 Jan 1479 - 13 Jul 1878  Zeta (Montenegro) part of Ottoman Empire.
11 Aug 1480 - 10 Sep 1481  Otranto in Apulia, Italy occupied by the Ottomans.
1487                       Karamanid beylik annexed by the Ottomans. 
1516                       Ramadanid (Ramazanid) beylik incorporated into the
                             Ottoman Empire (Ramadanid beys continue to rule
                             Adana sanjak until 1608).
24 Aug 1516                Syria and Palestine part of Ottoman Empire.
24 Jan 1517                Egypt and, from Aug 1517 the Hejaz, part of the
                             Ottoman  Empire.
1521 - 3 Oct 1911          Cyrenaica (and from 14 Aug 1551 Tripolitania) part
                             of the Ottoman Empire.
1522                       Dulkadirid beylik annexed by the Ottomans.
21 Dec 1522                Rhodes captured by Ottomans from Knights of St. John.
27 Sep 1529 – 15 Oct 1529  First Ottoman siege of Vienna.
1534                       Afshar beylik annexed by the Ottomans.
18 Nov 1534 - 30 Oct 1918  Mesopotamia part of the Ottoman Empire.
1536 -  5 Jul 1830         Algiers a province of the Ottoman Empire.
27 Jul 1538 - 19 Jan 1839  Aden part of the Ottoman Empire.
29 Aug 1541 - 26 Jan 1699  Hungary partitioned between Ottomans and Austria.
1541 - 23 Dec 1861         Moldavia and Wallachia part of Ottoman Empire. 
18 May 1565 -  8 Sep 1565  Ottoman siege of Malta.
 9 Sep 1570 - 13 Aug 1878  Cyprus part of the Ottoman Empire.
 7 Oct 1571                Battle of Lepanto, Ottomans defeated by the Holy
                             League (incl. Spain and Venice) off Patras, Morea.
 3 Sep 1574 - 10 Oct 1881  Tunis part of the Ottoman Empire.
1669 - 30 May 1913         Crete part of the Ottoman Empire (autonomous from
                             20 Mar 1898).
17 Jul 1683 - 12 Sep 1683  Second Ottoman siege of Vienna.
1821/22 - 26 Jan 1885      Sudan under Ottoman Empire suzerainty.
24 Jan 1822                Greece independent (recognized by the Ottomans
                             31 Mar 1833).
 6 May 1833 - Jan 1841     Egypt annexes Syria (incl. Lebanon, Palestine) and
                             to administer Crete, Adana, Hejaz by Convention of
                             Kütahya (revoked buy the Convention of London
                             of 27 Nov 1840).
19 Aug 1878                Bosnia-Hercegovina, occupied, and 7 Oct 1908 annexed
                             by Austria-Hungary.
22 Sep 1885                Eastern Rumelia annexed by Bulgaria.
29 Jul 1913                Albanian independent.              
10 Aug 1913                Serbia annexes Skopje (Vrdar), and Kosovo 7 Sep 1913.
 3 Nov 1914                Kuwait and Bahrain renounce Ottoman suzerainty.
19 Dec 1914                Egypt independent from the Ottoman Empire.
16 May 1915 - 12 Mar 1918  Russian occupation of western (Ottoman) Armenia.
Oct 1918                   Palestine, Syria, Mount Lebanon lost to U.K. and
                             and France.
10 Nov 1918 - 22 Oct 1923  Allied forces occupy the Bosporus, the Dardanelles,
                             islands of Imros, Lemnos, Samothrace, Tenedos, and
                             from 13 Nov 1918 Constantinople (see Straits Zone).
27 Nov 1918 - 23 Jul 1939  French administration of Hatay.
 2 Dec 1918 -  7 Jan 1922  French occupation of Cilicia.
29 Apr 1919 -  5 Jul 1921  Italian occupation of Antalya.
15 May 1919 -  8 Sep 1922  Greece occupies Smyrna (İzmir) and surrounding areas
                             and most of Eastern Thrace.
19 May 1919 - 11 Oct 1922  Turkish war of liberation.
23 Apr 1920                Grand National Assembly constituted at Ankara as a
                             dissident authority on the territory of the
                             Ottoman Empire.
10 Aug 1920                By Treaty of Sèvres (not ratified), Ottoman Empire
                             cedes Syria and Mount Lebanon to France, and 
                             French to occupy Cilicia; Cyprus, Palestine, 
                             Transjordan, and Mesopotamia (Iraq) ceded to 
                             the U.K.; the Dodecanese Islands and Rhodes 
                             recognized as Italian and Antalya to be 
                             occupied by Italy; Aegean islands of Imbros and
                             Tenedos, eastern Thrace (but not Constantinople)
                             and Izmir (Smyrna) district under sovereignty of
                             Greece; Hejaz and Armenia to be independent; 
                             with Kurdistan to be autonomous; and the 
                             Zone of the Straits de-militarized and under Allied
                             occupation. 
 7 Feb 1921                State of Turkey is declared, with executive and
                             legislative authority vested in the Grand
                             National Assembly.
 2 Nov 1922                Grand National Assembly is declared the sole state
                             authority of Turkey and successor to the Ottoman
                             imperial house, thus de-recognizing the authority
                             of the ruler of the Ottoman Empire (retroactively
                             from 16 Mar 1920).
 4 Nov 1922                Collapse of Ottoman government in Constantinople.
24 Jul 1923                By Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey regains all the lands
                             occupied by Greece; Turkish sovereignty over the
                             western Armenia, Kurdish areas, Cilicia, and 
                             Antalya is restored; and the Straits remain
                             de-militarized but allied occupation ended
                             (effective 6 Aug 1924).
29 Oct 1923                Republic of Turkey
 3 Mar 1924                Caliphate is abolished.
 1 Nov 1928                Latin alphabet adopted for Turkish
                             (effective 1 Jan 1929).
28 Mar 1930                Kostantiniyye (Constantinople) renamed İstanbul.
23 Jul 1939                Hatay re-incorporated into Turkey.
Antalya (Adalia)
(1919-1921)
Cilicia
(1919-1921)
Hatay
(1918-1939)
Smyrna (Izmir)
(1919-1922)
Zone of the
Straits

(1918-1923)
South-Western
Caucasus
(1918-1919)
Kurdish Polities
(1816-1835, 1927-1931)
Western
Armenia

(1915-1918)
Pera and
Galatea

(1273-1453)
Ecumenical
Orthodox
Patriarchate of
Constantinople
Historic Maps
of Turkey
 

Beys
27 Jul 1299 – 29 Jul 1326  Osman I "Gazi"                     (b. c.1258 - d. 1326)
                             (Osman Hân)
29 Jul 1326 - Mar 1362
    Orhan "Gazi"                       (b. 1281 – d. 1362)
                             (Orhan bin Osman Hân)
Mar 1362 - 1383            Murad I "Hüdavendigâr", "Şehit"    (b. 1326 - d. 1389)
                             (Murad bin Orhan Hân)
Sultans
1383 - 15
Jun 1389         Murad I "Hüdavendigâr", "Şehit"    (s.a.)
                             (Murad bin Orhan Hân)
15 Jun 1389 - 20 Jul 1402 
Bayezid I "Yıldırım",              (b. 1354 - d. 1403)
                             "Sultân-î İklim-i Rûm"
                            
(
Bayezid bin Murad Hân)
20 Jul 1402 -  5 Jul 1413  Interregnum, various claimants:
20 Jul 1402 - 17 Feb 1411  Süleyman "Çelebi"                  (b. 1377 - d. 1411)
                             (Süleyman bin Bayezid Hân)
                            
(co-sultan in Rumelia)
20 Jul 1402 – 26 May 1421  Mehmed I "Çelebi"                  (b. 1389 - d. 1421)
                             (Mehmed bin Bayezid Hân)
                             (
in eastern Anatolia to 5 Jul 1413)
1403 - 1405                İsa "Çelebi"                       (b. 1380 - d. 1406)
                             (İsa bin Bayezid Hân)
                             (
in dissidence; in western Anatolia)
18 Feb 1411 -  5 Jul 1413  Musa
"Çelebi"                      (b. 1388 - d. 1413)
                             (Musa bin Bayezid Hân)
                            
(co-sultan in Rumelia)
26 May 1421 - Dec 1444     Murad II "Koca", "Gazi" (1st time) (b. 1404 - d. 1451)
                             (Murad bin Mehmed Hân)
Dec 1444 - May 1446       
Mehmed II (1st time)               (b. 1432 - d. 1481)
                             (Mehmed bin Murad Hân)
May 1446 -  3 Feb 1451  
   Murad II "Koca", "Gazi" (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (Murad bin Mehmed Hân)
 3 Feb 1451 – 29 May 1453  
Mehmed II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
                             (Mehmed bin Murad Hân)
Emperors (titles Padışah, Sultan

29 May 1453 –  3 May 1481  Mehmed II "Fatih", "Ebulfeth",     (s.a.)
                            
"Gazi"
                             (Mehmed bin Murad Hân)
c.20 May 1481–24 Apr 1512
  Bayezid II "Adlî", "Sofu", "Veli"  (b. 1446 - d. 1512)
                            
(Bayezid bin Mehmed Hân)
31 May 1481 - 20 Jun 1481  Cem
(in dissidence)                (b. 1459 - d. 1795)
                            
(Cem bin Mehmed Hân)
24 Apr 1512–21/22 Sep 1520
Selim I "Yavuz"                    (b. 1467 - d. 1520)
                            
(Selim-şah bin Bayezid Hân)
30 Sep 1520 –  7 Sep 1566  
Süleyman I "Kanuni", "Gazi",       (b. 1494 - d. 1566)
                             "Muhteşem"
, "Sahib-i Kiran",
                             "Sahib-ul Aşeret-el Kamilet"
                            
(Süleyman-şah bin Selim-şah Hân)
30 Sep 1566 – 15 Dec 1574 
Selim II "Sarı", "Mest",           (b. 1524 - d. 1574)
                             "Sarhoş",
"Sığır"
                             (Selim-şah bin Süleyman-şâh Hân)
22 Dec 1574 – 16 Jan 1595  
Murad III                          (b. 1546 - d. 1595)
                            
(Şah Murad bin Selim-şah Hân)
27 Jan 1595 – 21 Dec 1603  
Mehmed III "Adlî", "Eğri-fatihi"   (b. 1566 - d. 1603)
                            
(Mehmed bin Murad Hân)
21 Dec 1603 – 22 Nov 1617  
Ahmed I "Bahtî"                    (b. 1590 - d. 1617)
                             (Şah Ahmed bin Mehmed Hân
)
22 Nov 1617 – 26 Feb 1618
 Mustafa I "Deli" (1st time)        (b. 1592 - d. 1639)
                             (Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Hân
)
26 Feb 1618 – 19 May 1622 
Osman II "Genç", "Şehit"           (b. 1603 - d. 1622)
                            
(Şah Osman bin Ahmed Hân)
19 May 1622 – 10 Sep 1623
 Mustafa I "Deli" (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (
Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Hân)
10 Sep 1623 –  9 Feb 1640
 Murad IV "Gazi", "Fatih-i Bağdad", (b. 1612 - d. 1640)
                             "Sahib-i Kiran"
                            
(Şah Murad bin Ahmed Hân)
 9 Feb 1640 –  8 Aug 1648
  İbrahim I "Deli"                   (b. 1615 - d. 1648)
                            
(Şah İbrahim bin Ahmed Hân)
 8 Aug 1648 –  9 Nov 1687
 Mehmed IV "Avcı"                   (b. 1641 - d. 1692)
                            
(Şah Mehmed bin İbrahim Hân)
 9 Nov 1687 – 22 Jun 1691 
Süleyman II "Gazi"                 (b. 1644 - d. 1691)
                            
(Şah Süleyman bin İbrahim Hân)
23 Jun 1691 –  6 Feb 1695  
Ahmed II                           (b. 1642 - d. 1695)
                            
(Şah Ahmed bin İbrahim Hân)
 6 Feb 1695 - 22 Aug 1703  Mustafa II "Gazi"                  (b. 1664 - d. 1703)

                            
(Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Hân)
22 Aug 1703 -  1 Oct 1730  Ahmed III                          (b. 1673 - d. 1736)

                            
(Şah Ahmed bin Mehmed Hân)
 1 Oct 1730 - 13 Dec 1754  Mahmud I "Gazi", "Kambur"          (b. 1696 - d. 1754)

                             (Mahmud Hân bin Mustafa Hân)
13 Dec 1754 - 30 Oct 1757  Osman III                          (b. 1696 - d. 1757)
                            
(Osman Hân bin Mustafa Hân)
30 Oct 1757 - 21 Jan 1774  Mustafa III                        (b. 1717 - d. 1774)

                            
(Mustafa Hân bin Ahmed Hân)
21 Jan 1774 -  7 Apr 1789  Abdülhamid I                       (b. 1725 - d. 1789)

                            
(Abdülhamid Hân bin Ahmed Hân)
 7 Apr 1789 - 29 May 1807  Selim III "Cihandar", "İlhami"     (b. 1761 - d. 1808)

                            
(Selim Hân bin Mustafa Hân)
29 May 1807 - 28 Jul 1808  Mustafa IV                         (b. 1779 - d. 1808)

                            
(Mustafa Hân bin Abdülhamid Hân)
28 Jul 1808 -  1 Jul 1839  Mahmud II                          (b. 1785 - d. 1839)

                             
(Mahmud Hân bin Abdülhamid Hân)
 1 Jul 1839 - 25 Jun 1861  Abdülmecid I "Gazi"                (b. 1823 - d. 1861)

                             (Abdülmecid Hân bin Mahmud Hân) 

25 Jun 1861 - 30 May 1876  Abdülaziz I                        (b. 1830 - d. 1876)
                            
(Abdülâziz Hân bin Mahmud Hân)
30 May 1876 - 31 Aug 1876  Murad V                            (b. 1840 - d. 1904)

                            
(Mehmed Murad Hân bin Abdülmecid Hân)
31 Aug 1876 - 27 Apr 1909  Abdülhamid II "Kanlı",
"Bedros"    (b. 1842 - d. 1918)
                            
(Abdülhamid Hân bin Abdülmecid Hân)
27 Apr 1909 -  3 Jul 1918  Mehmed V                           (b. 1844 - d. 1918)
                            
(Mehmed Hân bin Abdülmecid Hân)
 4 Jul 1918 -  4 Nov 1922  Mehmed VI "Kara"                   (b. 1861 - d. 1926)
                             (Mehmed Vahideddin Hân bin Abdülmecid Hân)
                             (left 
Constantinople 17 Jun 1922,
                             derecognized 2 Nov 1922, deposed
                             as caliph [Halife] on 19 Nov 1922)

24 Nov 1922 -  3 Mar 1924  Abdülmecid II                      (b. 1868 - d. 1944)
                             (Abdülmecid bin Abdülâziz Hân
                             (caliph [Halife] only, deposed 3 Mar 1924)
Presidents of the Turkish Grand National Assembly
(in opposition to the government in Constantinople to 4 Nov 1922)
23 Apr 1920 - 24 Apr 1920  Şerif Bey (acting)                 (b. 1845 - d. 1929)  Non-party
                           
(= Mehmet Şerif Avcıoğlu)
24 Apr 1920 - 11 Aug 1923 
Gazı Mustafa Kemal (1st time)      (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  Mil 
11 Aug 1923                Abdürrahman Şeref Bey (acting)     (b. 1853 - d. 1925)  Non-party  
11 Aug 1923 - 13 Aug 1923  Ali Fuad Paşa (provisional)        (b. 1882 - d. 1968)  Mil
13 Aug 1923 - 29 Oct 1923  Gazı Mustafa Kemal (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Mil
Presidents

29 Oct 1923 - 10 Nov 1938  Gazı Mustafa Kemal                 (s.a.)               CHP 
                            (from 24 Nov 1934, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk)
10 Nov 1938 - 11 Nov 1938  Mustafa Abdülhalik Renda (acting)  (b. 1881 - d. 1948)  CHP
11 Nov 1938 - 22 May 1950  Mustafa İsmet İnönü                (b. 1884 - d. 1973)  CHP
22 May 1950 - 27 May 1960  Mahmud Celâleddin Bayar            (b. 1883 - d. 1986)  DP
27 May 1960 - 28 Mar 1966  Cemal Gürsel                       (b. 1895 - d. 1966)  Mil; 1961
                            (chairman of the Committee of National Unity to        Non-party
                             28 May 1960, Head of State 28 May 1960 - 26 Oct 1961)
 2 Feb 1966 - 28 Mar 1966  İbrahim Şevki Atasagun             (b. 1899 - d. 1984)  Non-party  
                             (acting for Gürcel)
28 Mar 1966 - 28 Mar 1973  Cevdet Sunay                       (b. 1900 - d. 1982)  Non-party
28 Mar 1973 -  6 Apr 1973  Mehmet Tekin Arıburun (acting)     (b. 1905 - d. 1993)  Non-party
 6 Apr 1973 -  6 Apr 1980  Fahri Sabit Korutürk               (b. 1903 - d. 1987)  Non-party
 6 Apr 1980 - 12 Sep 1980  İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil (acting)   (b. 1908 - d. 1993)  AP
12 Sep 1980 -  9 Nov 1989  Ahmet Kenan Evren                  (b. 1917 - d. 2015)  Non-party 
                            (Head of State and chairman of
                             National Security Council to 9 Nov 1982)
 9 Nov 1989 - 17 Apr 1993  Halil Turgut Özal                  (b. 1927 - d. 1993)  AnaP 
17 Apr 1993 - 16 May 1993  Hhmet Hüsamettin Cindoruk (acting) (b. 1933)            DYP
16 May 1993 - 16 May 2000  Süleyman Demirel                   (b. 1924 - d. 2015)  DYP
16 May 2000 - 28 Aug 2007  Ahmet Necdet Sezer                 (b. 1941)            Non-party
28 Aug 2007 - 28 Aug 2014  Abdullah Gül                       (b. 1950)            AKP
28 Aug 2014 -              Recep Tayyip Erdoğan               (b. 1954)            AKP
15 Jul 2016 - 16 Jul 2016  Peace at Home Council                                   Mil
                             (in rebellion)

Grand Viziers
23 Feb 1688 -  2 May 1688  Nisanci Ismail Pasha               (b. 1619? - d. 1690)
30 May 1688 -  7 Nov 1689  Bekri Mustafa Pasha                (d. 1690)
10 Nov 1689 - 19 Aug 1691  Fazil Mustafa Pasha Köprülü        (b. 1637 - d. 1691)
24 Aug 1691 - 21 Mar 1692  Arabaci Ali Pasha                  (b. 1620/22 - d. 1693)
23 Mar 1692 - 17 Mar 1693  Haci Ali Pasha                     (b. 1640 - d. 1698)
17 Mar 1693 - 13 Mar 1694  Biyikli Mustafa Pasha              (b. 1638 - d. 1698)
13 Mar 1694 - 22 Apr 1695  Sürmeli Ali Pasha                  (b. c.1645 - d. 1695)
 3 May 1695 - 11 Sep 1697  Elmas Mehmed Pasha                 (b. 1662 - d. 1697)
17 Sep 1697 -  4 Sep 1702  Amcazade Hüseyin Pasha Köprülü     (b. 1644 - d. 1702)
 4 Sep 1702 - 24 Jan 1703  Daltaban Mustafa Pasha             (d. 1703)
24 Jan 1703 - 22 Aug 1703  Rami Mehmed Pasha                  (b. 1654 - d. 1706)
22 Aug 1703 - 17 Nov 1703  Kavanoz Nisanci Ahmed Pasha        (d. 1705)
17 Nov 1703 - 28 Sep 1704  Damad Hasan Pasha                  (b. 1655 - d. 1713)
28 Sep 1704 - 25 Dec 1704  Kalaylikoz Haci Ahmed Pasha        (b. 1645 - d. 1715)
25 Dec 1704 -  3 May 1706  Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (1st time)    (b. 1660 - d. 1712)
 3 May 1706 - 16 Jun 1710  Damad Çorlulu Ali Pasha            (b. 1670 - d. 1711)
16 Jun 1710 - 18 Aug 1710  Köprülüzade Damad Numan Pasha      (b. 1670 - d. 1719)
18 Aug 1710 - 20 Nov 1711  Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)    (s.a.)
20 Nov 1711 - 12 Nov 1712  Aga Yusuf Pasha                    (d. 1713)
12 Nov 1712 -  6 Apr 1713  Silahdar Süleyman Pasha            (d. 1715)
 6 Apr 1713 - 27 Apr 1713  Hoca Ibrahim Pasha                 (d. 1713)
27 Apr 1713 -  5 Aug 1716  Silahdar Damad Ali Pasha           (b. 1667 - d. 1716)
 5 Aug 1716 - 26 Aug 1717  Haci Halil Pasha                   (b. 1655 - d. 1733)
26 Aug 1717 -  9 May 1718  Nisanci Mehmed Pasha               (b. 1670 - d. 1728)
 9 May 1718 -  1 Oct 1730  Nevsehirli Damad Ibrahim Pasha     (b. 1670 - d. 1730)
 1 Oct 1730 - 22 Jan 1731  Silahdar Damad Mehmed Pasha        (d. 1737)
22 Jan 1731 - 10 Sep 1731  Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha            (d. 1743)
10 Sep 1731 - 12 Mar 1732  Topal Osman Pasha                  (b. 1663? - d. 1733)
12 Mar 1732 - 12 Jul 1735  Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1689 - d. 1758)
12 Jul 1735 -  9 Jan 1736  Gürcü Ismail Pasha                 (d. 1738)
 9 Jan 1736 -  6 Aug 1737  Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha       (d. 1756)
 6 Aug 1737 - 19 Dec 1737  Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha          (b. 1660 - d. 1749)
19 Dec 1737 - 22 Mar 1739  Yegen Mehmed Pasha                 (d. 1745)
22 Mar 1739 - 23 Jun 1740  Haci Ivazzade Mehmed Pasha         (b. 1675 - d. 1743)
22 Jul 1740 - 21 Apr 1742  Nisanci Haci Ahmed Pasha           (d. 1753)
21 Apr 1742 - 23 Sep 1742  Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
23 Sep 1742 -  9 Aug 1746  Said Hasan Pasha                   (b. 1679 - d. 1748)
 9 Aug 1746 - 24 Aug 1747  Tiryaki Haci Mehmed Pasha          (b. 1680 - d. 1751)
24 Aug 1747 -  3 Jan 1750  Boynuegri Seyyid Abdullah Pasha    (d. 1761)
 3 Jan 1750 -  1 Jul 1752  Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha         (d. 1753)
 1 Jul 1752 - 15 Feb 1755  Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha   (d. 1765)
                             (1st time) 
15 Feb 1755 - 18 May 1755  Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (3rd time)     (s.a.)
18 May 1755 - 24 Aug 1755  Naili Abdullah Pasha               (b. 1698 - d. 1758)
24 Aug 1755 - 25 Oct 1755  Silahdar Biyikli Ali Pasha         (d. 1755)
25 Oct 1755 -  1 Apr 1756  Mehmed Said Pasha                  (d. 1761)
 1 Apr 1756 - 11 Jan 1757  Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
11 Jan 1757 -  8 Apr 1763  Koca Mehmed Ragib Pasha            (b. 1698 - d. 1763)
 8 Apr 1763 -  1 Nov 1763  Hamza Hamid Pasha                  (b. 1700 - d. 1770)
 1 Nov 1763 - 28 Mar 1765  Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
28 Mar 1765 -  7 Aug 1768  Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1st time) (b. 1706 - d. 1773)
 7 Aug 1768 - 20 Oct 1768  Silahdar Hamza Mahir Pasha         (b. 1727 - d. 1768)
20 Oct 1768 - 12 Aug 1769  Yaglikçizade Nisanci Mehmed Emin   (b. 1723 - d. 1769)
                             Pasha 
12 Aug 1769 - 12 Dec 1769  Moldovanci Ali Pasha               (d. 1773)
12 Dec 1769 - 25 Dec 1770  Ivazzade Halil Pasha               (b. 1724 - d. 1777)
25 Dec 1770 - 11 Dec 1771  Silahdar Mehmed Pasha              (b. 1710 - d. 1771)
11 Dec 1771 -  4 Aug 1774  Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.)
 4 Aug 1774 -  6 Jul 1775  Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time)      (b. 1732 - d. 1783)
 6 Jul 1775 -  5 Dec 1777  Dervis Mehmed Pasha                (b. 1729/30 - d. 1777)
 5 Dec 1777 -  1 Sep 1778  Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha  (b. 1716 - d. 1784)
 1 Sep 1778 - 21 Aug 1779  Kalafat Mehmed Pasha               (d. 1792)
21 Aug 1779 - 20 Feb 1781  Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha       (b. 1735 - d. 1781)
20 Feb 1781 - 25 Aug 1782  Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)
25 Aug 1782 - 31 Dec 1782  Yegen Haci Mehmed Pasha            (b. 1726 - d. 1786)
31 Dec 1782 - 31 Mar 1785  Halil Hamid Pasha                  (b. 1736 - d. 1785)
31 Mar 1785 - 24 Jan 1786  Sahin Ali Pasha                    (d. 1789)
25 Jan 1786 - 28 May 1789  Koca Yusuf Pasha (1st time)        (b. 1730 - d. 1800)
20 May 1789 -  3 Dec 1789  Kethüda Çerkes Hasan Pasha         (d. 1810)
 3 Dec 1789 - 30 Mar 1790  Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha         (b. 1713 - d. 1790)
30 Mar 1790 - 15 Feb 1791  Rusçuklu Çelebizade Serif Hasan    (d. 1791)
                             Pasha 
15 Feb 1791 -  4 May 1792  Koca Yusuf Pasha (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 4 May 1792 - 19 Oct 1794  Damad Melek Mehmed Pasha           (b. 1720 - d. 1802)
19 Oct 1794 - 30 Aug 1798  Izzet Mehmed Pasha                 (b. 1743 - d. 1812)
30 Aug 1798 - 24 Apr 1805  Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1st time)   (d. 1819)
24 Apr 1805 - 14 Nov 1806  Hafiz Ismail Pasha                 (b. 1758 - d. 1807)
14 Nov 1806 - 18 Jun 1807  Ibrahim Hilmi Pasha                (b. 1747 - d. 1817)
18 Jun 1807 - 28 Jul 1808  Çelebi Mustafa Pasha               (d. 1811)
28 Jul 1808 - 15 Nov 1808  Alemdar Mustafa Pasha "Bayrakdar"  (b. 1755 - d. 1808)
15 Nov 1808 -  1 Jan 1809  Çavusbasi Memis Pasha              (d. 1809)
 1 Jan 1809 - Mar 1809     Çarhaci Ali Pasha                  (d. 1823)
Mar 1809 - 10 Apr 1811     Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (2nd time)   (s.a.)
10 Apr 1811 -  5 Sep 1812  Laz Aziz Ahmed Pasha               (d. 1819)
 5 Sep 1812 -  1 Apr 1815  Hursid Ahmed Pasha                 (d. 1822)
 1 Apr 1815 -  5 Jan 1818  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1st time)  (b. 1780 - d. 1859)
 5 Jan 1818 -  5 Jan 1820  Dervis Mehmed Pasha                (b. 1765 - d. 1837)
 5 Jan 1820 - 26 Mar 1821  Seyyid Ali Pasha                   (b. 1756 - d. 1826)
28 Mar 1821 - 30 Apr 1821  Benderli Ali Pasha                 (d. 1821)
30 Apr 1821 - 10 Nov 1822  Haci Salih Pasha                   (d. 1823)
10 Nov 1822 - 10 Mar 1823  Bostancibasi Deli Abdullah Pasha   (d. 1823)
10 Mar 1823 - 13 Dec 1823  Silahdar Ali Pasha                 (d. 1829)
13 Dec 1823 - 14 Sep 1824  Mehmed Said Galip Pasha            (b. 1763 - d. 1829)
14 Sep 1824 - 24 Oct 1828  Benderli Selim Sirri Pasha         (b. 1771 - d. 1831)
24 Oct 1828 - 28 Jan 1829  Izzet Mehmet Pasha (1st time)      (b. 1792 - d. 1855)
28 Jan 1829 - 18 Feb 1833  Resid Mehmed Pasha                 (b. 1780 - d. 1836)
18 Feb 1833 -  2 Jul 1839  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 2 Jul 1839 -  8 Jun 1840  Koca Mehmed Hüsrev Pasha           (b. 1769 - d. 1855)
 8 Jun 1840 -  4 Dec 1841  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 4 Dec 1841 - 30 Aug 1842  Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)
30 Aug 1842 - 28 Sep 1846  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (4th time)  (s.a.)
28 Sep 1846 - 29 Apr 1848  Koca Mustafa Resid Pasha (1st time)(b. 1800 - d. 1858)
29 Apr 1848 - 12 Aug 1848  Ibrahim Sarim Pasha                (b. 1801 - d. 1853)
12 Aug 1848 - 26 Jan 1852  Koca Mustafa Resid Pasha (2nd time)(s.a.)
26 Jan 1852 -  5 Mar 1852  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (5th time)  (s.a.)
 5 Mar 1852 -  6 Aug 1852  Koca Mustafa Resid Pasha (3rd time)(s.a.)
 6 Aug 1852 -  3 Oct 1852  Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (1st time)   (b. 1815 - d. 1871)
 3 Oct 1852 - 14 May 1853  Damad Mehmed Ali Pasha             (b. 1813 - d. 1868)
14 May 1853 - 29 May 1854  Mustafa Naili Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1798 - d. 1871)
29 May 1854 - 23 Nov 1854  Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (1st time)   (b. 1813 - d. 1865)
23 Nov 1854 -  2 May 1855  Koca Mustafa Resid Pasha (4th time)(s.a.)
 2 May 1855 -  1 Nov 1856  Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1856 -  6 Aug 1857  Koca Mustafa Resid Pasha (5th time)(s.a.)
 6 Aug 1857 - 22 Oct 1857  Mustafa Naili Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
22 Oct 1857 -  7 Jan 1858  Koca Mustafa Resid Pasha (6th time)(s.a.)
 7 Jan 1858 - 18 Oct 1859  Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (3rd time)   (s.a.)
18 Oct 1859 - 24 Dec 1859  Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)   (s.a.)
24 Dec 1859 - 28 May 1860  Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha        (b. 1811 - d. 1882)
                             (1st time) 
28 May 1860 -  6 Aug 1861  Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 6 Aug 1861 - 22 Nov 1861  Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (4th time)   (s.a.)
22 Nov 1861 -  5 Jan 1863  Keçecizade Mehmed Emin Fuad Pasha  (b. 1815 - d. 1869)
                             (1st time)               
 5 Jan 1863 -  1 Jun 1863  Yusuf Kamil Pasha                  (b. 1808 - d. 1876)
 1 Jun 1863 -  5 Jun 1866  Keçecizade Mehmed Emin Fuad Pasha  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 5 Jun 1866 - 11 Feb 1867  Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
11 Feb 1867 -  7 Sep 1871  Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (5th time)   (s.a.)
 7 Sep 1871 - 31 Jul 1872  Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1st time)      (b. 1818 - d. 1883)
31 Jul 1872 - 19 Oct 1872  Midhat Pasha (1st time)            (b. 1822 - d. 1884)
19 Oct 1872 - 15 Mar 1873  Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
15 Mar 1873 - 15 Apr 1873  Ahmed Esad Pasha (1st time)        (b. 1828 - d. 1875)
15 Apr 1873 - 15 Feb 1874  Sirvanlizade Mehmed Rüstü Pasha    (b. 1828 - d. 1874)
15 Feb 1874 - 26 Apr 1875  Hüseyin Avni Pasha                 (b. 1820 - d. 1876)
26 Apr 1875 - 26 Aug 1875  Ahmed Esad Pasha (2nd time)        (s.a.)
26 Aug 1875 - 12 May 1876  Mahmud Nedim Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)
12 May 1876 - 19 Dec 1876  Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha        (s.a.)
                             (4th time) 
19 Dec 1876 -  5 Feb 1877  Midhat Pasha (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1877 - 11 Jan 1878  Ibrahim Edhem Pasha                (b. 1818 - d. 1893)
Chief ministers
11 Jan 1878 -  4 Feb 1878  Ahmed Hamdi Pasha                  (b. 1826 - d. 1885)
 4 Feb 1878 - 18 Apr 1878  Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1st time)       (b. 1823 - d. 1891)
18 Apr 1878 - 28 May 1878  Mehmed Sadik Pasha                 (b. 1825 - d. 1901)
28 May 1878 -  4 Jun 1878  Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha        (s.a.)
 4 Jun 1878 -  4 Dec 1878  Mehmed Esad Saffet Pasha           (b. 1814 - d. 1883)
 4 Dec 1878 - 29 Jul 1879  Tunuslu Hayreddin Pasha            (b. 1821 - d. 1890)
29 Jul 1879 - 18 Oct 1879  Ahmed Arifi Pasha                  (b. 1830 - d. 1895)
18 Oct 1879 -  9 Jun 1880  Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time) (b. 1838 - d. 1914)
 9 Jun 1880 - 12 Sep 1880  Mehmed Kadri Pasha                 (b. 1832 - d. 1884)
12 Sep 1880 -  2 May 1882  Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.)
 2 May 1882 - 12 Jul 1882  Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha         (b. 1833 - d. 1912)
12 Jul 1882 -  1 Dec 1882  Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1882 -  3 Dec 1882  Ahmed Vefik Pasha (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Grand viziers
 3 Dec 1882 - 25 Sep 1885  Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time) (s.a.)               Non-party
25 Sep 1885 -  4 Sep 1891  Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha        (b. 1832 - d. 1913)  Non-party
                             (1st time) 
 4 Sep 1891 -  8 Jun 1895  Ahmed Cevad Pasha                  (b. 1851 - d. 1900)  Non-party
 8 Jun 1895 -  2 Oct 1895  Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.)               Non-party
 2 Oct 1895 -  7 Nov 1895  Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time) 
 7 Nov 1895 -  9 Nov 1901  Halil Rifat Pasha                  (b. 1820 - d. 1901)  Non-party
13 Nov 1901 - 14 Jan 1903  Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Jan 1903 - 22 Jul 1908  Avlonyali Mehmed Ferid Pasha       (b. 1852 - d. 1914)  Non-party
22 Jul 1908 -  5 Aug 1908  Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (4th time) (s.a.)               Non-party
 5 Aug 1908 - 14 Feb 1909  Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (3rd time) 
14 Feb 1909 - 14 Apr 1909  Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1855 - d. 1922)  Non-party
14 Apr 1909 -  5 May 1909  Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (1st time)      (b. 1845 - d. 1936)  Non-party
 5 May 1909 - 12 Jan 1910  Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Jan 1910 - 30 Sep 1911  Ibrahim Hakki Pasha                (b. 1863 - d. 1918)  Non-party
30 Sep 1911 - 22 Jul 1912  Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (5th time) (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Jul 1912 - 29 Oct 1912  Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha            (b. 1839 - d. 1918)  Mil
29 Oct 1912 - 23 Jan 1913  Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (4th time) 
23 Jan 1913 - 11 Jun 1913  Mahmud Sevket Pasha                (b. 1856 - d. 1913)  CUP
12 Jun 1913 -  4 Feb 1917  Said Halim Pasha                   (b. 1865 - d. 1921)  CUP
 4 Feb 1917 - 14 Oct 1918  Mehmed Talat Pasha                 (b. 1874 - d. 1921)  CUP
14 Oct 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  Ahmed Izzet Pasha                  (b. 1864 - d. 1937)  Mil
11 Nov 1918 -  4 Mar 1919  Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
 4 Mar 1919 -  2 Oct 1919  Damad Mehmed Ferid Pasha (1st time)(b. 1854 - d. 1923)  Non-party
 2 Oct 1919 -  8 Mar 1920  Ali Riza Pasha                     (b. 1859 - d. 1932)  Mil
 8 Mar 1920 -  5 Apr 1920  Hulusi Salih Pasha                 (b. 1864 - d. 1939)  Non-party
 5 Apr 1920 - 21 Oct 1920  Damad Mehmed Ferid Pasha (2nd time)(s.a.)               Non-party
21 Oct 1920 -  4 Nov 1922  Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (3rd time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
Prime ministers
24 Jan 1921 - 12 Jul 1922  Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak Pasha         (b. 1876 - d. 1950)  Mil
                             (in opposition)
12 Jul 1922 - 14 Aug 1923  Hüseyin Rauf Orbay                 (b. 1881 - d. 1964)  Non-party
                             (in opposition until 4 Nov 1922)
14 Aug 1923 - 30 Oct 1923  Ali Fethi Okyar Bey (1st time)     (b. 1880 - d. 1943)  CHP
30 Oct 1923 - 21 Nov 1924  Mustafa İsmet Pasha (1st time)     (s.a.)               CHP
21 Nov 1924 -  6 Mar 1925  Ali Fethi Okyar (2nd time)         (s.a.)               CHP
 6 Mar 1925 - 27 Sep 1937  Mustafa İsmet Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)               CHP
                             (from 1 Jan 1935, İsmet Inönü)
27 Sep 1937 - 25 Jan 1939  Mahmud Celâleddin Bayar            (s.a.)               CHP
25 Jan 1939 -  8 Jul 1942  İbrahim Refik Saydam               (b. 1881 - d. 1942)  CHP
 8 Jul 1942 -  9 Jul 1942  Ahmet Fikri Tüzer                  (b. 1878 - d. 1942)  CHP
 9 Jul 1942 -  7 Aug 1946  Mehmet Şükrü Saracoğlu             (b. 1887 - d. 1953)  CHP
 7 Aug 1946 -  9 Sep 1947  Mehmet Recep Peker                 (b. 1888 - d. 1950)  CHP
 9 Sep 1947 - 16 Jan 1949  Hasan Hüsnü Saka                   (b. 1886 - d. 1960)  CHP
16 Jan 1949 - 22 May 1950  Mehmet Şemsettin Günaltay          (b. 1883 - d. 1961)  CHP
22 May 1950 - 27 May 1960  Ali Adnan Ertekin Menderes         (b. 1899 - d. 1961)  DP
28 May 1960 - 30 Oct 1961  Cemal Gürsel                       (s.a.)               Mil
30 Oct 1960 - 20 Nov 1961  Emin Fahrettin Özdilek (acting)    (b. 1898 - d. 1989)  Mil
20 Nov 1961 - 21 Feb 1965  Mustafa İsmet İnönü (3rd time)     (s.a.)               CHP
21 Feb 1965 - 27 Oct 1965  Suat Hayri Ürgüplü                 (b. 1903 - d. 1981)  Non-party
27 Oct 1965 - 26 Mar 1971  Süleyman Demirel (1st time)        (s.a.)               AP
26 Mar 1971 - 17 Apr 1972  İsmail Nihat Erim                  (b. 1912 - d. 1980)  Non-party
17 Apr 1972 - 15 Apr 1973  Ferit Sadi Melen                   (b. 1906 - d. 1988)  GCP
                             (acting to 22 May 1972)
15 Apr 1973 - 25 Jan 1974  Mehmet Naim Talu                   (b. 1919 - d. 1998)  Non-party

25 Jan 1974 - 17 Nov 1974  Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (1st time)   (b. 1925 - d. 2006)  CHP
17 Nov 1974 - 31 Mar 1975  Mahmut Sadi Irmak                  (b. 1904 - d. 1990)  Non-party
31 Mar 1975 - 21 Jun 1977  Süleyman Demirel (2nd time)        (s.a.)               AP
21 Jun 1977 - 11 Jul 1977  Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (2nd time)   (s.a.)               CHP
11 Jul 1977 -  5 Jan 1978  Süleyman Demirel (3rd time)        (s.a.)               AP
 5 Jan 1978 - 12 Nov 1979  Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (3rd time)   (s.a.)               CHP
12 Nov 1979 - 12 Sep 1980  Süleyman Demirel (4th time)        (s.a.)               AP
20 Sep 1980 - 13 Dec 1983  Saim Bülend Ulusu                  (b. 1923 - d. 2015) Mil/Non-party
13 Dec 1983 - 31 Oct 1989  Halil Turgut Özal                  (s.a.)               AnaP
31 Oct 1989 -  9 Nov 1989  Ali Hüsrev Bozer (acting)          (b. 1925)            AnaP
 9 Nov 1989 - 23 Jun 1991  Yıldırım Akbulut                   (b. 1935)            AnaP
23 Jun 1991 - 20 Nov 1991  Ahmet Mesut Yılmaz (1st time)      (b. 1947)            AnaP
20 Nov 1991 - 16 May 1993  Süleyman Demirel (5th time)        (s.a.)               DYP
16 May 1993 - 25 Jun 1993  Erdal İnönü (acting)               (b. 1926 - d. 2007)  SHP
25 Jun 1993 -  6 Mar 1996  Tansu Penbe Çiller (f)             (b. 1946)            DYP
 6 Mar 1996 - 28 Jun 1996  Ahmet Mesut Yılmaz (2nd time)      (s.a.)               AnaP
28 Jun 1996 - 30 Jun 1997  Necmettin Erbakan                  (b. 1926 - d. 2011)  RP
30 Jun 1997 - 11 Jan 1999  Ahmet Mesut Yılmaz (3rd time)      (s.a.)               AnaP
11 Jan 1999 - 18 Nov 2002  Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (4th time)   (s.a.)               DSP
18 Nov 2002 - 14 Mar 2003  Abdullah Gül                       (s.a.)               AKP
14 Mar 2003 - 28 Aug 2014  Recep Tayyip Erdoğan               (s.a.)               AKP
28 Aug 2014 - 24 May 2016  Ahmet Davutoğlu                    (b. 1959)            AKP
                             (acting to 29 Aug 2014)
24 May 2016 -              Binali Yıldırım                    (b. 1955)            AKP






 ¹in this record, the only term denoting the ruler's style is Padışah (Padishah), which was recognized by all as signifying his "imperial" status, and is routinely used when referring to the Ottoman sovereigns. In addition to Padışah, each ruler used a variety of additional titles, varying from one use to another couched in elaborate formula, made up of a mixture of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Turkish probably left to each secretary to elaborate as the occasion demanded.  An instrument issued under the authority of Süleyman I "Muhteşem" ("Magnificent") which reads in translation as: 
  "The Sultan of Sultans, the proof of Emperors, the distributor of crowns to the monarchs of the surface of the earth, the shadow of God on the lands, the Sultan and the Padışah of the White Sea, the Black Sea, Rumelia, Anatolia, Karaman, of Rum, of the provinces of the Zulkadırs, of Diyarbakır, of Kurdistan, of Azerbaycan, of Acem [Persia], of Şam [Damascus], of Halep [Aleppo], of Mısır [Cairo], of Mecca and Medina, of Jerusalem, of all the lands of Arabia, of the Yemen, and of the many lands conquered by the irresistible power of my noble fathers and illustrious ancestors - may God illuminate their manifestations -, and of the many lands which my glorious and august majesty has conquered with a flaming sword." 
  A document addressed to the Venetian state in 1641 from İbrahim I found in Theunissen (1998, p. 626) and recorded as: "sultan-i selatin-i cihan ve bürhan-i havakin-i devran tacbahş-i husrevan-i ru-i zemin sultan İbrahim han ibn Ahmed han ibn Mehemmed han ibn Murad han ibn Selim han ibn Süleyman han ibn Selim hanın."  
  The office of Halife (Caliph): the claim that, upon the conquest of Egypt in 1517 and the displacement of the last Abbasid holder of the office, al-Mutawakkil III, the office and style of Khalifat Rasul Allah, Amir al-Mu’minin (Halife-i Resulullah, Emirülmüminin)("Successor to the Messenger of God, Commander of the Faithful") was transferred to the Ottoman ruler by a formal deed of assignment has no corroboration from any contemporary source. A variety of "khalifal" titles were used by Ottoman rulers, and accorded to them by others in diplomatic correspondence and treaties. The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (21 Jul 1774) between the Ottoman and the Russian Empires the Ottoman side consequently forcefully asserted the remaining authority of the Ottoman ruler in his capacity as halife (khalifa) over all Muslims in the ceded territories. The status of the Padışah as halife was given formal sanction in the Ottoman Constitution of 23 Nov 1876 (rescinded 13 Feb 1878, restored 24 Jul 1908). Upon the extinction of the Ottoman Empire by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 1 Nov 1922, the ruler, Mehmed Vahideddin (s.a.), continued to be recognized as halife; after his flight from Istanbul on 17 Nov 1922, he was declared deposed from the office of halife by a fetva, endorsed by the Şeyhülislam (Sheikh al-Islam) and ratified by the Grand National Assembly on 19 Nov 1922, and replaced on that date by Abdülmecid bin Abdülaziz, who was installed on 24 Nov 1922. The office of halife was abolished by the Grand National Assembly on 3 Mar 1924.

 
Territorial Disputes: Complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; Syria did not surrender its irredentist claim to Hatay until 2005; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord re-establishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Tomb of Suleyman Shah (Turkish: Süleyman Şah Türbesi) is a sovereign exclave of Turkey situated within Syria's Aleppo governorate in accordance with the Ankara Agreement of 20 Oct 1921 - it is the burial place of Süleyman Shah grandfather of Osman I the founder of the Ottoman Empire; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley.
 
Party abbreviations: AKP = Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (Justice and Development Party, Muslim-democratic, social conservative, est.2001); AnaP = Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party, social conservative, nationalist, 20 May 1983-2009, re-est.2011); CHP = Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party, social-democratic, Kemalist, est.1923); DSP = Demokratik Sol Parti (Democratic Left Party, social-democratic, Kemalist, est.1985); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AP = Adalet Partisi (Justice Party, populist, former DP, 11 Feb 1961 - 16 Oct 1981); CGP = Cumhuriyetçi Güven Partisi (Republican Reliance Party, to 1972 called National Reliance Party, split from CHP, 1967-1981); CUP = Ittihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti (Committee of Union and Progress, "Young Turks", 1913-18 only legal party, 1909-1919); DP = Demokrat Türkiye Partisi (Democratic Turkey Party, conservative, 7 Jan 1946 - 29 Sep 1960); DYP = Doğru Yol Partisi (True Path Party, conservative, former AP, renamed Demokrat Parti in 2007, merged with AnAP, 23 Jun 1983-2009); RP = Refah Partisi (Welfare Party, conservative, Sunni Islamist, 1983-1998); SHP = Sosyaldemokrat Halkçı Parti (Social Democratic People's Party, reformist, populist, nationalist, 1983-1995, merged with CHP)

Antalya (Adalia)
[Kingdom of Italy flag]

29 Apr 1919                Italian occupation of Antalya (Adalia).
 
5 Jul 1921                Italian evacuation of Antalya.

Commanders of the Italian forces in Adalia
29 Apr 1919 - 24 Jul 1919  Giuseppe Battistoni
24 Jul 1919 - 17 Aug 1919  Luigi Bongiovanni                  (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
17 Aug 1919 - 18 Dec 1919  Vittorio Elia                      (b. 1859 - d. 1944)
18 Dec 1919 -  7 Aug 1920  Achille Porta
 7 Aug 1920 - 29 Apr 1922  Giorgio Fusoni

Governors of Antalya
1919                       Mustafa Ebrişimoğlu                (b. 1875 - d. 1944)
1919 - 1920                Hasan Bey
1920 - 1923                Kahramanzade Hacı Sait Efendi  



Cilicia

 2 Dec 1918                Cilicia (Adana and Jebel Bereket vilayets) occupied by British
                             and French troops.
 9 Mar 1921                France signs treaty with Turkey ending fighting in Cilicia.
 3-7 Jan 1922              French troops evacuate Cilicia. 

French Chief administrators
 2 Dec 1918 -  1 Jan 1919  Louis Romieu                         (b. 1872 - d. 1943)
Administrative Delegates
 1 Jan 1919 -  4 Sep 1920  Édouard Brémond                      (b. 1868 - d. 1948)
 4 Sep 1920 -  7 Jan 1922  Julien Claude Marie Sosthène Dufieux (b. 1873 - d. 1959)

Governors of Adana (appointed by French)
Nov 1919 - Jun 1920        Mehmet Celâl Bey                     (b. 1863 - d. 1926)
 1 Jun 1920 - 20 Dec 1920  Bağdadi Abdurrahman Efendi           (b. 1857 - d. 1952)



Hatay
 
[French Syria
                          Mandate Alawite State (or Latakia) 1923-1938]
1923 - 5 Sep 1938 
[Republic of
                          Hatay, 1938-1939]
5 Sep 1938 - 23 Jul 1939
Map of Hatay
Hear National Anthem
 "Istiklâl Marsi"
(The March of Independence)
[also the Turkish anthem]
Text of National Anthem
Fundamental Law
(29 Nov 1937)
Capital: Antakya (Antioch)

Currency: 1938-1939
 Lebanon-Syria Pound
 (XLSP);
from 13 Mar 1939
Turkish Lira (TRY)

National Holiday: N/A
Population: 234,379 (1938)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Arabs 46%; Alawis 28%; Sunni Arab 10%;
Turks 39%; Armenians 11%; Melkites and other
Christians 8%; Circassians, Jews and Kurds 4% (1936)
Total Armed Forces: N/A
French Troops: 2,500 (1938)
Turkish Troops: 2,500 (1938)
Religions: Sunni Muslim, Alawite, Orthodox Christian,
Roman Catholic, and Jewish
International Organizations/Treaties: N/A

27 Nov 1918                British and French occupation.
10 Aug 1920                Sandjak of Alexandretta part of French Syria Mandate.
20 Oct 1921                Ceded to France by Turkey by the Ankara Agreement (confirmed in
                             the Treaty of Lausanne 24 Jul 1923).
23 Sep 1923                Part of Alawite (Latakia) State of French Syria.
Mar 1926 - Jun 1926        Separate State of Alexandretta within French Syria declared,
                             under Ali Efendi Odahli (not recognized by French authorities).
1934                       Adoption the Latin alphabet for Turkish in Alexandretta (Hatay).
29 May 1936                Dispute regarding future status of Alexandretta (Hatay) referred

                             to the League of Nations.
27 Jan 1937                Autonomy of Hatay agreed between Turkey, France and Syria.
 5 Sep 1938                Sandjak of Alexandretta proclaims independence from Syria
                             as State of Hatay (under French protection).
29 Jun 1939                Parliament votes to join Turkey.
23 Jul 1939                Re-incorporated into Turkey.

French Military governors
Nov 1918 - 1918?           Mathiot
1918? - Jan 1919           Malinjoud
Jan 1919 - c.1920          Georges Capdejelle                 (b. 1870 - d. 19..)

Chief Civil Administrator
27 Nov 1918 - 12 Sep 1921  Édouard Brémond                    (b. 1868 - d. 1948)
Delegates of the High Commissioner
1921 - 1923                ....
1923 - 17 Jul 1937         Pierre Marie André Durieux
        (b. 1884 - d. 1947)
1937                       Mentque (acting)
 
6 Sep 1937 -  3 Jun 1938  Roger Garreau                      (b. 1891 - d. 1991)
 3 Jun 1938 - 1939         Philibert Collet                   (b. 1896 - d. 1945)
Governors
Dec 1936 - 1938            Husni al-Barazi                    (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
1938                       Aladdin Bey
Head of State (title Hatay Devleti Reisi)
 5 Sep 1938 - 23 Jul 1939  Tayfur Sökmen                      (b. 1892 - d. 1980)

Prime Minister
 5 Sep 1938 - 23 Jul 1939  Abdurrahman Melek                  (b. 1896 - d. 1978)



Smyrna (İzmir)

[Greece]]

Map of Smyrna 1920
Population: 999,855 (1920)

15 May 1919                Smyrna (Smırni/İzmir) district occupied by Greece.
10 Aug 1920                Treaty of Sèvres transferred 'the exercise of her rights of
                             sovereignty to a local parliament' which was to hold a
                             plebiscite in 5 years on incorporation into Greece, but left
                             area under Ottoman sovereignty, Greek occupation continued.
30 Jul 1922                Greece declares Smyrna a protectorate.
 9 Sep 1922                Turkey forces reoccupy the area.

High Commissioner
21 May 1919 -  7 Sep 1922  Aristeídis Stergiádis              (b. 1861 - d. 1950)



South-Western Caucasus

[Flag of Turkey]
1 Dec 1918 - 17 Jan 1919
[South-Western Caucasus Government possible
                      flag 1919]
17 Jan 1919 - 10 Apr 1919 (Possible)

Map of South-
Western Caucasian
Republic
Capital: Kars Fundamental Law
(17 Jan 1919)
Ethnic groups: Turkish
 27%, Armenian 25%,
 Kurdish 15%, Greek 11%,
 Russian 10%, Azerbaijani
9%, other 3%
(1915, Kars oblast)
Population: 300,000
(1918 Kars oblast);
403,000
(1915, Kars oblast);
43,000 (1915, Oltu district)

 3 Mar 1878                Kars region (including Ardahan) Russia from the Ottoman Empire
                             in the Treaty of San Stefano (confirmed by the Treaty of Berlin
                             13 Jul 1878).
28 Nov 1917 – 25 Apr 1918  Under the Transcaucasian Commissariat.
 3 Mar 1918                Russia cedes the Kars region to the Ottoman Empire under provisions
                             of Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (ratified 29 Mar 1918; annulled by
                             armistice of Moudros 30 Oct 1918).
25 Apr 1918 – 15 Jan 1919  Ottoman occupation of Kars region (departed 30 Jan 1919).
 4 Jun 1918                Cession to the Ottoman Empire is recognized by Armenia in the
                             Treaty of Batum.
15 Nov 1918                Kars National Council (Kars Milli Şura) established (from 1 Dec
                             1918, claimed authority over the Kars, Batum, and Nakhichevan
                             regions).
15 Jan 1919 – 28 Apr 1919  Allied (British) occupation of Kars (departed 17 May 1919), claims
                             by Armenia are not recognized.
18 Jan 1919                South-Western Caucasus Government (Cenub-i Garbi Kafkas Hükumeti)
                             established by the Great Congress, convened on 17 Jan 1919
                            (claimed authority over the Kars, Batum, and Nakhichevan regions).
10 Apr 1919                Declared abolished by British High Commissioner to Turkey, Somerset
                             Arthur Gough-Calthorpe (b. 1865 - d. 1937).
12 Apr 1919                Dissolved by British troops.
28 Apr 1919                Kars region transferred by the Allies (British) to Armenia (Armenian
                             troops entered 24 Apr 1919), except Ardahan district (transferred
                             to Georgia) and Oltu district (nominally under British
                             administration of Batum, administered by a local government the
                             Oltu Şura Hükumeti).
17 May 1920                Oltu district annexed to Turkey.
30 Oct 1920                Kars occupied by the Turkish troops (annexed 1 Nov 1920).
 2 Dec 1920                Kars region ceded by Armenia to Turkey by the Treaty of Alexandropol
                             (Gümrü Antlaşması)(not ratified by Armenia).
16 Mar 1921                By the Treaty of Moscow, Kars region and Ardahan recognized as
                             part of Turkey (confirmed by the Armenian S.S.R -Turkish Treaty
                             of Kars on 13 Oct 1921).

Ottoman Commander of the (to 8 Jun 1918, 2nd Caucasus Corps) 9th Army
25 Apr 1918 – Jan 1919     Yakup Şevki Pasha                 (b. 1876 - d. 1939)  Mil
British Military Governors in Kars
15 Jan 1919 –  2 Mar 1919  Clive Errington Temperley         (b. 18.. - d. 1956)  Mil
 2 Mar 1919 – 29 Mar 1919  Verney Asser                      (b. 1873 - d. 1944)  Mil
29 Mar 1919 – 28 Apr 1919  George Allen Preston              (b. 1868 - d. 1919)  Mil

Ottoman Mütesarrif (lieutenant-governor) of Kars
25 Apr 1918 – Nov 1918     Mustafa Hilmi Bey                 (b. 1886 - d. 1957)
Heads of Kars National Council
15 Nov 1918 –  1 Dec 1918  Emin Ağa Borçali                  (b. 1868 - d. 1937)
                           + Fahrettin Bey Piroğlu           (b. 1874 - d. 1958)
Head of the Kars National Council Government
 1 Dec 1918 - 18 Jan 1919  Cihangirzade İbrahim Bey          (b. 1874 - d. 1948)
Head of the South-Western Caucasus Government (title: Hükumet Reisi)
18 Jan 1919 - 12 Apr 1919  Cihangirzade İbrahim Bey          (s.a.)
Chairman of Provisional Administrative Council for Kars Region
15 Apr 1919 – 30 Apr 1919  Esat Bey Çildirli                 (b. 1887 - d. 1971)
Chairman of Oltu Assembly Administration
 2 May 1919 – 25 May 1919  Mehmet Ramiz Bey
Head of Oltu Council Government
25 May 1919 – 17 May 1920  Yusuf Ziya Bey                    (b. 1886 - d. 1928)  OITF

Party abbreviations: OITF = Oltu İslam Terakki Fırkası (Oltu Islamic Progress Party, nationalist, 1919-1920); Mil - Military



Zone of the Straits
 
Map of the Zone
of the Straits
Headquarters:
 Constantinople
Population: 1,000,000
 (1920 est.)

10 Nov 1918                Allied occupation of the Bosporus, the Dardanelles, the eastern
                             coast of the Sea of Marmara, islands of Imros, Lemnos, 
                             Samothrace, Tenedos, and 15 km deep into eastern and
                             eastern shores; entire area demilitarized (Zone of the Straits).
                             Istanbul occupation zones: Italians in Üsküdar; French in Old
                             City and Western suburbs; British in Pera, Galata and Şişli.

16 Mar 1920                Allies occupy Constantinople (de facto from 13 Nov 1918).
22 Oct 1923                Termination of Allied occupation (troops depart 23 Sep 1923). 

British Senior Allied High Commissioners
31 Oct 1918 - Jul 1919     Sir Somerset Arthur Gough-         (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
                             Calthorpe
Jul 1919 - Nov 1920        Sir John Michael de Robeck         (b. 1862 - d. 1928)
Nov 1920 - 22 Oct 1923     Sir Horace George Montagu          (b. 1869 - d. 1941)
                             Rumbold 
Nov 1922 - 1923            Sir Nevile Meyrick Henderson       (b. 1882 - d. 1942)
                             (acting for Rumbold)

French High Commissioners
Nov 1918 - Jan 1919        Jean François Charles Amet         (b. 1861 - d. 1940)
Jan 1919 - 30 Mar 1919     Louis Félix Marie François         (b. 1856 - d. 1942)
                             Franchet d'Espèrey (acting)
30 Mar 1919 - Dec 1920     Jules Albert Defrance              (b. 1860 - d. 1936)

1921 - 22 Oct 1923         Maurice César Joseph Pellé         (b. 1863 - d. 1924)
Greek High Commissioners
1919 - 1921                Efthımios Kanellópoulos            (b. 1872 - d. 1933)
1921 – 15 Jul 1922         Nik
ólaos Triantafyllákos           (b. 1855 - d. 1939)
15 Jul 1922 – 1923         Charálampos Simópoulos             (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
Italian High Commissioners

Nov 1918 - Jun 1919        Conte Carlo Sforza                 (b. 1873 - d. 1952)
1919 - 1920                Romano Lodi Fé (acting)            (b. 1881 - d. 1971)
Sep 1920 - 22 Oct 1923     Antonio Giovanni Luigi Camillo     (b. 1852 - d. 1935)
                             Adolfo Edoardo Eugenio Adele
                             Garroni Carbonara
Japanese High Commissioners

18 Apr 1921 - 15 Jun 1923  Uchida Sadatsuchi                  (b. 1865 - d. 1942)
15 Jun 1923 - 22 Oct 1923  Kasama Akio (acting)               (b. 1885 - d. 1945)
U.S. High Commissioners

30 Nov 1918 –  3 May 1919  Lewis J. Heck (acting to Jan 1919) (b. 1889 - d. 19..)
 3 May 1919 - 12 Aug 1919  Gabriel Bie Ravndal (acting)       (b. 1865 - d. 1950)

12 Aug 1919 - 22 Oct 1923  Mark Lambert Bristol               (b. 1868 - d. 1939)

Commanders-in-chief of Allied Forces
12 Nov 1918 -  5 Apr 1920  Louis Félix Marie François         (s.a.)
                             Franchet d'Espèrey (France)

 5 Apr 1920 - 1923?        Pierre-Émile Nayral Martin de      (b. 1862 - d. 1949)
                             Bourgon (France)
Commanders of the (Constantinople) Army of Occupation in Turkey

16 Mar 1920 - 1920         George Francis Milne (U.K.)        (b. 1866 - d. 1948)
1920 - 23 Sep 1923         Sir Charles Harington (U.K.)       (b. 1872 - d. 1940)

Mayors of Constantinople
 5 May 1919 - 28 Feb 1920  Cemil Pasha Topuzlu                (b. 1866 - d. 1958) 
Jul 1921 - Mar 1922        Mehmet C
elâl Bey                   (b. 1863 - d. 1926)



Kurdish Polities
[Emirate of
                          Soran, 1816-1835]
1816 - 1835  Emirate of Soran
[Republic of
                          Ararat, 1927-1931]
 Oct 1927 - 1931 Republic of Ararat
[Kurdish
                          Parliament in exile flag 1995-1999]
  12 Apr 1995 - 26 Sep 1996
Exile Parliament Flag
Map of Kurdish Areas
Capital: Kurdava (1927-1931)
Soran: Rawanduz
(1818-1835)
Population: N/A

1514                       Kurds voluntarily accept Ottoman rule and as a result
                             the Sultan formally recognized the existing Kurdish 
                             principalities (Baban, Botan, Badinan, Soran, etc.) as 
                             independent states under Osmanli supervision.
1870                       Last of the Kurdish principalities abolished. 
10 Aug 1920                Treaty of Sèvres contains provisions for a Kurdish state
                             under U.S. mandate, this is never implemented.
24 Apr 1920                Mosul declared a part of Iraq.
28 Oct 1927 - 1931         Republic of Ararat (Komara Agiriye) proclaimed in northeastern
                             part of Turkey(primarily a rebellion of Kurmanji Kurds).
12 Apr 1995 - 1999         Kurdistan Parliament in Exile (Parlamana Kurdistane Li Derveyi Welat)
                             (PKDW) founded in Brussels, Belgium.

24 May 1999                Kurdistan National Congress (KNC)) founded in exile as successor
                             to PKDW.


Emirs of Soran
.... - ....                Kelos
.... - ....                Isa
.... - ....                Shah Ali Bey
.... - ....                Pir Budak bin Shah Ali Bey
.... - ....                Mir Saifeddin
.... - ....                Mir Hussain
.... - ....                Mir Saidi bin Shah Ali Bey
.... - ....                Saifeddin bin Mir Hussain bin 
                             Pir Budak
.... - ....                Kuli Bey bin Sulaiman Bey Mir
                             Saidi
.... - ....                Budak Bey bin Kuli Bey bin
                             Sulaiman Bey
.... - ....                Sulaiman Bey bin Kuli Bey 
                             bin Sulaiman Bey
.... - ....                Ali Bey bin Sulaiman Bey
.... - ....                Shkali Bey
17.. - 1816                Sulaiman Bey
1816 - 1825                Khanzad
1825 - 1836                Mohammed Pasha Mir Kor

Governor of the Republic of Ararat
28 Oct 1927 - Sep 1930     İbrahim Heski                    (d. 1931)
                            (İbrahim Paşa Haski Tello)   
Military leader of the Republic of Ararat
28 Oct 1927 - Sep 1930     İhsan Nuri Paşa                  (b. 1893 - d. 1976)

Presidents of the Kurdistan Parliament in Exile
26 Mar 1995 - 12 Apr 1995  İsmet Chériff Vanly (acting)     (b. 1924 - d. 2011)
12 Apr 1995 - 26 Sep 1999  Yaşar Kaya                       (b. 1938)
                             (in The Hague, Netherlands;
                             later in Brussels, Belgium exile)
President of the Kurdistan National Congress
24 May 1999 - ....         Jawad Mella (in London, UK exile)(b. 1946)

Occupied Western Armenia
 
[Russian flag]
        Feb 1916 - Mar 1918
 
16 May 1915 – 13 Aug 1915  Russians briefly occupy Van.
Jan 1916 - May 1916        Russians occupy provinces of Turkish (Western) Armenia
                             (Erzerum 16 Feb 1916, Bitlis 3 Mar 1916 - 5 Aug 1916,
                             Trebizond 18 Apr 1916, and Van 1916).
 4 Jun 1916                Administration of Occupied Turkish Provinces (from 9 May 1917,
                             of Turkish Armenia and Other Occupied Turkish Provinces)
                             established by Russia in Tiflis (from Dec 1917, under
                             Transcaucasian Commissariat which acts on behalf of Russian
                             Republic).
18 Dec 1917                Armistice of Erzincan which leads to withdrawal by Jan 1918 of
                             ethnic Russian component of the Russian Caucasus Army.
12 Feb 1918 –  7 Apr 1918  Turkish forces re-occupy the area (Trebizond 24 Feb 1918,
                             Erzerum 12 Mar 1918, and Van 7 Apr 1918).
 3 Mar 1918                Soviet Russia agrees to evacuate the Russian Caucasus Army by
                             the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (not recognized by Transcaucasian
                             Commissariat).

Russian Commander (of the Caucasus Army)
May 1915 – Jul 1916        Nikolay Nikolayevich Yudenich    (b. 1862 - d. 1933)
Governors-general
18 Jul 1916 – 1916         Nikolay Nikolayevich Peshkov     (b. 1857 - d. af.1917)
1916 – 30 Jan 1917         Mikhail Nikolayevich Dryagin     (b. 1852 - d. af.1917)
30 Jan 1917 – May 1917     Boris Stepanovich Romanovskiy-   (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
                             Roman'ko
Commissar-general
28 May 1917 – Apr 1918     Pyotr Ivanovich Averyanov        (b. 1867 - d. 1937)

Assistants for Civil Affairs
28 May 1917 – Apr 1918     Yakov Khristoforovich Zavriyev   (b. 1864 - d. 1920)  HHD
                             (Akop Zavriyan)
                           + Fyodor Igorevich Ivanitskiy    (b. 1861 - d. 1929)  KDP
                              (21 Aug 1917 – Dec? 1917)
Party abbreviations: HHD = Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutyun (Armenian Revolutionary Federation, "Dashnak", socialist, nationalist, 1890-1920); KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-12 Dec 1917)


Pera and Galatea

1273                       Republic of Genoa granted Pera & Galatea suburbs of Constantinople.
29 May 1453                Constantinople captured by the Ottomans.

Podestas (mayors)
1273                       Oberto Sardena
1276                       Ingueto Spinola
1279                       Niccolò Doria
1285                       Guideto de Nigro (acting)
1300                       Bernabo Spinola
1300 - 1302                Govino Tartaro
1304                       Rosso Doria
1315 - 1316                Montano de Marinis
1335                       Andalo de Maris
1338                       Costantino Doria
1348                       Benedetto d'Arco
1356                       Lanzarotto de Castro
1357                       Bartolomeo Rubeo
13..                       Jacopo Grillo (acting)
1367                       Tommaso di Iglione
1376                       Bartolomeo Pindeberi
1379                       Luciano de Nigro
1382                       Lorenzo Gentile
1386                       Eliano de Camilla
1386 - 1387                Raffaele Doria
1387                       Giovanni de Mezzano
1390                       Antonio Leardo
1391 - 1392                Niccolò Zoagu
1392                       Dorino Usodimare
1396 - 1397                Luchino de Bonavey
1397                       Gentile Grimaldi
1402                       Lodovico Bavoso
1402                       Bartolomeo Rubeo
1403                       Giannoto Lomellino (1st time)
                             (acting)
1404                       Giovanni Sauli (1st time)
1404                       Giovanni Botto
1405                       Napoleone Salvago
1405                       Giannoto Lomellino (2nd time)
1405                       Giovanni Sauli (2nd time)
1410                       Tommaso de Campofregoso
1411                       Quilico de Taddei
1413                       Corrado Cigala
1418                       Thedisio Doria
1423                       Zacaria Spinola
1425 - 1426                Imperiale Lomellino
1426                       Taddeo de Zoagli
1427                       Giannotto Spinola
1430 - 1431                Filippo de Franchi
1432 - 1433                Ilairo Imperiale
1434                       Agostino Montalolo
1435                       Ansaldo Doria
1435                       Stefano de Marinis
1438                       Giovanni di Levanto
1439                       Simone Macie
1440 - 1442                Niccolò Antonio Spinola
1443 - 1444                Baruel de Grimaldi
1445 - 1446                Baldassarre Maruffo
1446 - 1447                Luchino de Facio
1447                       Pietro di Marco (acting)
1448 - 1449                Benedetto di Vivaldi
1449                       Francisco Cavallo
1451 - 1452                Angelo Giovanni Lomelino 
                             (acting to 1452)
1452 - 29 May 1453         Francesco Giustiniani


You can find many traveling tips for your next travel to Turkey on the portal: Holidaycheck



© Ben Cahoon