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Russia 
 
[Russia
                                    flag]
    20 Jan 1705 - 11 Jun 1858 Merchant Flag;
    7 May 1883 - 12 Aug 1914 State Flag;
    14 Sep 1917 - 13 Apr 1918 (de jure)
[Russian Imperial flag
                                    1858-1914]
   11 Jun 1858 - 19 Nov 1914 Civil Ensign
 
 
[Russian flag in 1914-1917]
           12 Aug 1914 - 14 Sep 1917
   
 
[Russian
                                  Revolution flag 1917-1918 de facto]
             8 Nov 1917 - 13 Apr 1918 (de facto)
 
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                                  Russian SFSR in 1918]
              13 Apr 1918 - 19 Jul 1918
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                                  Russian SFSR, 1918-1920]
              19 Jul 1918 - 20 Sep 1920
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                                    of Russian SFSR, 1920-1923]
                   29 Sep 1920 - 6 Jul 1923
 
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                                    of USSR in 1923]
             6 Jul 1923 - 12 Nov 1923
 
[Flag of
                                  USSR, 1923-1955]
                    12 Nov 1923 - 19 Aug 1955
 
[Variant Flag of
                                  USSR, 1923-1924]
                   19 Aug 1955 - 25 Dec 1991
[Russia
                                    flag]
              Re-adopted 25 Dec 1991
 
Map of Russia
--------------------------------
Map of Administrative
Divisions
Hear National Anthem
"Gosudarstvennyy Gimn
 Rossiyskoy Federatsii"
(National Anthem of the
 Russian Federation)
Adopted 25 Dec 2000
Hear Former Anthem
"Patrioticheskaya Pesnya"
(Patriotic Song)
(23 Nov 1990-25 Dec 2000)
Constitution
 (12 Dec 1993)
Capital: Moscow
(Moskva)
Currency: Russian Ruble
(Rubl') (RUR)
National Holiday:
12 June (1990)

Russia Day
Population: 142,500,482 (2013)
GDP: $2.55 trillion (2013)
Exports: $515 billion (2013)
Imports: $341 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Russian 80.9%, Tatar 3.87%, Ukrainian 1.40%,
Bashkir 1.15%, Chuvash 1.05%, Chechen 1.04%, Armenian 0.86%,
 
Avar 0.66%, Mordvin 0.54%, Kazakh 0.45%, Azerbaijani 0.44%,
Dargin 0.43%, Udmurt 0.40%, Mari 0.40%, Ossetian 0.39%,
 
Belarusian 0.38%,
Kabardian 0.38%, Buryat 0.37%, Kumyk 0.37,
Lezgin 0.35%, Ingush 0.32%,
German 0.29%, Uzbek 0.21%,
 Komi 0.17%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.15%, Tajik 0.15%, others 2.88% (2010) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 1,040,000 (2010)
Declared Nuclear Power (1949): est. 8,000 weapons (2014)
Merchant marine: 1,143 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 58.4% (of which Russian Orthodox 53.1%,
 Roman Catholic 1%, Ukrainian Orthodox 0.9%, Protestant 0.9%),
 Muslim 8.2%, traditional beliefs 0.8%, Jewish 0.6%,
non-religious 25.8%, atheist 5%, other 1.2% (2005)
note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large
populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers
International Organizations/Treaties: AC, ACS (observer), AIIB, ANT (consultative), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, BTWC, CBSS, CE, CERN (observer), CES, CFE (withdrew), CICA, CIS, CSTO, CTBT, CWC, EAEU, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, G-8 (suspended), G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NDB, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD (applicant), OIC (observer), OPCW, OPEC (observer), OSCE, PAM (observer), PCA, PFP (suspended), SCO, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNSC (permanent), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Russia Index
Chronology
c.862                      Grand Principality of Rus' (later referred to as
                             Kievan Rus' [Kiyevskaya Rus'] by historians),
                             ruled by the Ryurikovich (Rurikid) dynasty
                             The dynasty follows agnatic seniority, and
                             in 1054, divides into three branches on
                             the basis of descent from three successive
                             ruling Grand Princes - Izyaslav Yaroslavich
                             (I)(1024-1078), Svyatoslav
Yaroslavich (II)
                             (1027-1076), and Vsevolod
Yaroslavich (I)
                             (1030-1093)
established first at Novgorod,
                             then from 882 at Kiev (see Ukraine).
 4 Apr 1147                Moscow first mentioned by the "Ipatiev Chronicle."
1157                       Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal' ("Suzdalia")
                            
(within the Grand Principality of Rus').
12 Mar 1169                Kiev sacked by the forces of Andrey Yuryevich (I)
                             "Bogolyubskiy" of Vladimir-Suzdal' (b. c.1111 -
                             d. 1174). The seat of the Grand Prince is
                             moved to Vladimir-Suzdal'.

Dec 1237/Feb 1241          The Mongols subdue most of the regional
                             principalities of Rus'(Kiev itself being
                             sacked and destroyed on 6 Dec 1240).
20 Jan 1238                Moscow is sacked and destroyed by the Mongols.

 
3 Feb 1238                Vladimir
is sacked and destroyed by the Mongols.
1238 - 11 Nov 1480         Under Mongol (from 1259, Golden Horde) suzerainty.
13 Nov 1263                Principality of Moscow established as an appanage
                             of Vladimir
-Suzdal'.
1299                       Metropolitan Maksim (d. 1305) moves the seat of
                             the Orthodox Metropolitanate of Rus' from Kiev
                             to Vladimir.
1301                       Kolomna annexed to Moscow.

1325                       Metropolitan Pyotr (d. 1326) moves the seat of the
                             Orthodox Metropolitanate of Rus'
from
Vladimir
                             to Moscow.
19 May 1389                Grand Principality of Moscow and Vladimir (referred
                            
to by Western Europeans as Moscovia ["Muscovy"]).
May 1463                   Yaroslavl' annexed by Moscow.
1474                       Rostov Veliky annexed by Moscow.
15 Jan 1478                Veliky Novgorod annexed by Moscow.
12 Sep 1485                Tver' annexed by Moscow.
Aug 1489                   Khlynov (Vyatka) annexed to Moscow.
24 Jan 1510                Pskov annexed by Moscow.

 1 Aug 1514                Smolensk annexed by Moscow.
1521                       Ryazan' annexed by Moscow.
16 Jan 1547                Russian Tsardom
 2 Oct 1552                Kazan Khanate annexed by Russia.
 2 Jun 1556                Astrakhan Khanate annexed.
26 Oct 1582                Siberian Khanate occupied (completed 20 Aug 1598).
21 Sep 1610 - 27 Oct 1612  Polish-Lithuanian occupation of Moscow (New Style
                             1 Oct 1610 - 6 Nov 1612).
 2 Nov 1721                Russian Empire (Old Style 22 Oct 1721).
29 Mar 1809 -  6 Dec 1917  Finland in (nominally) personal union with
                             Russia (formally from 17 Sep 1809).
14 Sep 1812 - 23 Oct 1812  French under Napoléon occupy Moscow.
 9 Jun 1815 -  5 Nov 1916  Poland in (nominally) personal union with Russia.
14 Nov 1860                Primorye annexed by Russia.
 3 Mar 1861                Serfdom abolished in Russia (by the Emancipation
                             Manifesto [Old Style 19 Feb 1861]).
 7 May 1875                Sakhalin Island, Northern Kurile Islands annexed.
22 Jan 1905 - 16 Jun 1907  Russian Revolution of 1905 throughout the empire.
 5 Sep 1905 - 25 Aug 1945  Southern Sakhalin Island and Kurile Islands
                             annexed by Japan.
8-15 Mar 1917              Russian "February" Revolution (O.S. 23 Feb - 2 Mar)
15 Mar 1917                Russia (abdication of Nikolay II; imperial style
                             dropped) no official style adopted; various 
                             styles were in use: Russia (after 15 Mar 1917),
                             Russian Republic (after 14 Sep 1917), Russian 
                             Soviet Republic (after 8 Nov 1917), etc.
6-7 Nov 1917               Bolshevik "October" Revolution (O.S. 25-26 Oct).
19 Jul 1918                Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
30 Dec 1922                Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet 
                             Union) including Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia,
                             and Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and 
                             Georgia).
13 May 1925                Accession of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
 5 Dec 1929                Accession of Tadzhikistan.
 5 Dec 1936                Accession of Kazakhstan and Kirgiziya.
31 Mar 1940 - 16 Jul 1956  Accession of Finno-Karelia.
 2 Aug 1940                Accession of Moldavia.
 3 Aug 1940                Accession of Lithuania.
 5 Aug 1940                Accession of Latvia.
 6 Aug 1940                Accession of Estonia.
Jul 1941 – Jul 1944        German occupation of western parts of Soviet Union.
11 Oct 1944                Incorporation of Tannu Tuva.
 6 Sep 1991                Recognition of Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian
                             independence.
 1 Nov 1991 -  6 Feb 2000  Attempted secession by Chechnya (not recognized).
12 Dec 1991                Russian S.F.S.R. Supreme Council passes a
                             resolution denouncing the Union Treaty of 1922.
25 Dec 1991                Final dissolution of the U.S.S.R.; Russian S.F.S.R.
                             becomes Russian Federation.
21 Mar 2014                Russia annexes the Crimea from Ukraine.
Russia
(since 1991)
Administrative
Divisions
(from 1991)
Civil War
Polities
(1917-1921)
Rus'
(1169-1389)
Muscovy
and Russia

(1389-1917)
Novgorod
(1136-1478)
Occupations
of Moscow

(1610-1612, 1812)
Alternative "White"
Government

(1918-1920)
 Soviet Union
(1922-1991)
Russian SFSR
(1917-1991)
Russian SFSR
Admin. Divisions
German
Occupation

(1941-1944)
Far Eastern
Republic
(1920-1922)
Ingria
(1601-1703, 1919-1920)
Kalmyk Khanate
(1672-1803)
Karafuto
(1905-1946)
Tannu Tuva
(1911-1944)
Chechnya
(1829-1878,
1917-1920)
Russian Orthodox
Church
 
Map of Soviet
Nationalities
(1982)
 
Note: Names are listed in Russian (some with notes) using the BGN/PCGN romanization system.
Dates before 22 Oct (
2 Nov) 1721 are recorded in Old Style (Julian) calendar. The New Style (Gregoria) calendar introduced in Russia effective (1) 14 Feb 1918.

Rus'

c.862                      Grand Principality of Rus' (later referred to as Kievan Rus'
                             [Kiyevskaya Rus'] by historians), ruled by the Ryurikovich
                             (Rurikid) dynasty. The dynasty follows agnatic seniority,
                             and in 1054, divides into three branches on the basis of descent
                             from three successive ruling Grand Princes - Izyaslav
                             Yaroslavich (I)(1024-1078), Svyatoslav Yaroslavich (II) (1027-
                             1076), and Vsevolod Yaroslavich (I) (1030-1093). Established

                             first at Novgorod, then from 882 at Kiev (see under Ukraine).

1097                       Council of Lyubech amends the succession rule and divides Kievan
                             Rus' into several regional autonomous principalities that had
                             equal rights to obtain the throne in Kiev.
1157                       Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal' (originally Rostov-Suzdal'),
                             within the Grand Principality of Rus', with its capital
                             at Rostov-Suzdal' and later Vladimir.

12 Mar 1169                Kiev sacked by the forces of Andrey Yuryevich (I) "Bogolyubskiy"
                             of Vladimir-Suzdal' (b. c.1111 - d. 1174). The seat of the
                             Grand Prince is moved to
Vladimir-Suzdal'
 8 Sep 1173                Kiev sacked by the forces of Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich (III)
                             of Chernigov.
1201                       Kiev captured by Roman Mstislavich (I) of Galich-Volynia.
 2 Jan 1203                Kiev captured and sacked by Ryurik Rostislavich
(II) and his
                            
Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) allies.
1216 - 12..                Vladimir-Suzdal' divided into the principalities of
                             Rostov, Yaroslavl', and Pereslavl'-Zalesskiy. 
Dec 1237/Feb 1241          The Mongols subdue most of the regional principalities of Rus'
                             (Kiev itself being sacked and destroyed on 6 Dec 1240).
1238 - 19 May 1389         Under Mongol (from 1259, Golden Horde) suzerainty.
 
3 Feb 1238                Vladimir
is sacked and destroyed by the Mongols.
13 Nov 1263                Principality of Moscow established as an appanage of Vladimir-
                             Suzdal
'.
1299                       Metropolitan Maksim (d. 1305) moves the seat of the Orthodox
                             Metropolitanate of Rus' from Kiev to Vladimir.
19 May 1389               
Vladimir-Suzdal' is annexed by Moscow.

Grand Princes
of Rus' (title Velikiy knyaz')
1169 - 1170                Gleb Yuryevich I (1st time)        (d. 1171)
Mar 1170 - Apr 1170        Mstislav Izyaslavich III (3rd time)(s.a.)
Apr 1170 - 20 Jan 1171     Gleb Yuryevich I (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1171 - 30 May 1171         Vladimir Mstislavich III           (b. 1132 - d. 1171)
1171                       Mikhalko (Mikhail) Yuryevich I     (b. c.1145 - d. 1176)
1171                       Roman Rostislavich I (1st time)    (d. 1180
)
1171 - 1172                Vsevolod Yuryevich III             (b. 1154? - d. 1212)
                           - jointly with -
1171 - 1172                Yaropolk I                         (d. 1198
)
1172                       Ryurik Rostislavich I (1st time)   (b. 11.. - d. 1212)
1172                       Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich III       (b. c.1123 - d. 1194)
                             "Bolyshoe Gnezdoo" (1st time) 
1172 - 1173                Yaroslav Izyaslavich II (1st time) (b. c.1132 - d. c.1176)

1173                       Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich III       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1173 - 1174                Yaroslav Izyaslavich II (2nd time) (s.a.)

1174 - 1176                Roman Rostislavich I (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1176 - 1178                Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich III       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
1178                       Roman
Rostislavich I (3rd time)    (s.a.)
1178 - 1180                Svyatoslav III Vsevolodovich       (s.a.)
                             (4th time) 
1180 - 1202                Ryurik Rostislavich I (2nd time)   (s.a.
)
                           - jointly with -
1181 - 27 Jul 1194         Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich III      
(s.a.)
                             (5th time)  
1202                       Roman Mstislavich "Galitskiy"      (b. c.1150 - d. 1205)
1202 - 1203                Ingvar' Yaroslavich (1st time)     (b. c.1152 - d. 1220
)
1203                       Ryurik Rostislavich I (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1203 - 1204                Ingvar' Yaroslavich (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1204 - 1205                Rostislav Ryurikovich II           (b. 1172 - d. af.1218
)
Jun 1205 - 1206            Ryurik Rostislavich I (4th time)   (s.a.)
1206                       Vsevolod Svyatoslavich IV          (d. 1212/15)
                            
"Chermnyy" (1st time)
1206 - 120
8                Ryurik Rostislavich I (5th time)   (s.a.)
1208                       Vsevolod IV Svyatoslavich IV       (s.a.)
                            
"Chermnyy" (2nd time)  
1208 - 1211                Ryurik Rostislavich I (6th time)   (s.a.)

1211 - 1214                Vsevolod Svyatoslavich IV (s.a.)
                            
"Chermnyy" (3rd time)
1214 - 1219                Mstislav Romanovich IV (1st time)  (d. 1223)

1219 - 1250                Vladimir Ryurikovich IV (1st time) (b. 1187 - d. 1239)
1220 -  2 Jun 1223         Mstislav Romanovich IV (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1223 - 1235                Vladimir Ryurikovich IV (2nd time) (s.a.)
1235                       Izyaslav Vladimirovich IV          (b. 1186 - d. 1238?)
1235 - 1236                Vladimir Ryurikovich IV (3rd time) (s.a.)
1236 - 1237                Yaroslav Vsevolodovich III         (b. 1191 - d. 1246)
                             (1st time) 
1237 - 1238                Mikhail
Vsevolodovich I (1st time) (b. 1179 - d. 1245)
1238                       Yaroslav Vsevolodovich IV          (b. 1191 - d. 1246)
1238 - 1239                Rostislav Mstislavich II           (d. af.1239)
1239 - 1240                Daniil Romanovich                  (b. 1201 - d. 1264)
                             (= Danylo Halyts'kyy)
1240 - 1243                Mikhail
Vsevolodovich I (2nd time) (s.a.)
1243 - 30 Sep 1246         Yaroslav
Vsevolodovich III         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)  
30 Sep 1246 - 14 Nov 1263  Aleksandr Yaroslavich "Nevskiy"    (b. 1221 - d. 1263)

14 Nov 1263 - 16 Sep 1272  Yaroslav Yaroslavich "Tverskoy"    (b. 1230 - d. 1272)
1272 - Jan 1276            Vasily
Yaroslavich "Kostromskoy"   (b. c.1236 - d. 1276)
1276 - 1281                Dmitriy
Aleksandrovich             (b. 1250 - d. 1294)
                             "Pereyaslavskiy" (1st time)
1281 - 1283                Andrey
Aleksandrovich "Gorodetskiy"(b. c.1255 - d. 1304)
                             (1st time)
1283 - 1294
                Dmitriy Aleksandrovich             (s.a.)
                             "Pereyaslavskiy" (2nd time)
1294 - 27 Jul 1304
         Andrey Aleksandrovich "Gorodetskiy"(s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1304 - 1318                Mikhail
Yaroslavich "Tverskoy"     (b. 1271/72 - d. 1318)   
1319 - 1322                Yuriy Danilovich "Moskovskiy"      (b. 1281 - d. 1325)
1322 - 15 Sep 1326         Dmitriy Mikhaylovich
"Tverskoy"    (b. 1298 - d. 1326)
                             "Groznye Ochi"

15 Sep 1326 - 1327         Aleksandr M
ikhaylovich "Tverskoy"  (b. 1301 - d. 1339)
1328 - 1331                Aleksandr Vasilyevich "
Suzdalskiy" (d. 1331)
1331 - 31 Mar 1340         Ivan I Danilovich "Kalita"         (b. c.1283 - d. 1340)
31 Mar 1340 - 26 Apr 1353  Semyon Ivanovich "Gordyy"          (b. 1317 - d. 1353)
26 Apr 1353 - 13 Nov 1359  Ivan II Ivanovich "Krasnyy"        (b. 1326 - d. 1359)

13 Nov 1359 - 1360        
Dmitriy Ivanovich "Donskoy"        (b. 1350 - d. 1389)
                             (1st time)
22 Jun 1360 - 1363         Dmitriy Konstantinovich            (b. 1322 - d. 1383)

                             "Suzdalskiy", "Odnook"
1363 - 19 May 1389         Dmitriy Ivanovich "Donskoy"        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Russia (and "Muscovy" 1389-1547)
 
[Russia flag]
   20 Jan 1705 - 11 Jun 1858 Merchant Flag;
    7 May 1883 - 12 Aug 1914 State Flag;
   14 Sep 1917 - 13 Apr 1918 (de jure)
[Russian
                            Imperial flag 1858-1914]
  11 Jun 1858 - 12 Aug 1914 Civil Ensign
 
[Russian flag in 1914-1917]
           12 Aug 1914 - 14 Sep 1917
Map of Russian Empire Hear National Anthem
"Bozhe, Tsarya khrani!"
(God, Save the Czar!)
(31 Dec 1833 -15 Mar 1917)
--------------------------------------
Unofficial Provisional Anthem
"Kol' slaven nash Gospod' v Sione" (How Glorious is
 Our Lord in Zion)
(Mar 1917 - 9 Nov 1917)
Hear Provisional Anthems
"Internatsional"
 (The Internationale)
(1918-30 Dec 1922)(de facto)
---------------------------------
Former National  Anthem
"Molitva Russkikh"
(Prayer of the Russians)
(1816-31 Dec 1831)
Fundamental Law
 (23 Apr 1906-23 Mar 1917)
Capital: Saint Petersburg
(Petrograd 18 Aug 1914 -
16 Mar 1918;

Saint Petersburg 1713-1728, 1732 - 18 Aug 1914;
Moscow 1331-1713, 1728-1732,
and from 16 Mar 1918
;
Vladimir-Suzdal' 1169-1331)

Currency: 1755-1922
Russian Ruble (Rubl')
 (RUFS)

National Holiday:
1918-1922: 7 Nov (1917)
Anniversary of the Great
 October Socialist Revolution
---------------------------------------
1894-1917: 18 (6) May (1868)

Birthday of Emperor Nicholas II
Population: 156,500,000 (c.1914)
125,640,021 (1897)

(excluding Finland)

GNP: $N/A
Exports: $348.9 million (1914)
Imports: $365.7 million (1914)
Ethno-Linguistic groups: Russian 44.3%, Little Russian (Ukrainian) 17.81%, Turkic,Tatar 10.64%, Polish 6.31%,
White Russia (Belorussian) 4.68%, Jewish (Yiddish) 4.02%,
Finnish, Estonian, Karelian and Livonian 2.78%,
 German 1.42%, Latvian 1.14%, Georgian, Mingrelian and
 Svan 1.07%, Lithuanian 0.96%,
Armenian 0.93%,
Moldavian and Romanian 0.89%,
Dagestani, Chechen,
Ingush and Avar 0.86%, Samogitian (
Zhmud) 0.35%,
Tajik 0.27%,
Greek 0.14%,
Bulgarian 0.13%, and
Ossetian 0.13% (1897) (excluding Finland)

Total Armed Forces: 1,300,000 (1914)
Merchant marine: 906 (1908)

Religions: Pravoslavs (Eastern Orthodox, incl. Russian
Orthodox, Greek Orthodox and Georgian Orthodox) 69.34%, Muslim 11.07%, Roman Catholic 9.13%, Jews 4.15%,
Lutheran 2.84%, Old Believers and others split from
Pravoslavs 1.75%, Armenian Gregorians & Armenian
Catholics 0.97%, Buddhists, Lamaists 0.34%, other
Protestants 0.15%, and Karaites 0.01% (1897)
(excluding Finland)

International Organizations/Treaties to 1922: CED, ICRM, IOC, IMO, IPU, ITU, PCA, UIBPIP, UPU


Grand Princes (title Velikiy knyaz' vseya Rusi)
19 May 1389 - 27 Feb 1425  Vasiliy Dmitriyevich I             (b. 1371 - d. 1425)
27 Feb 1425 - 30 Mar 1434  Vasiliy Vasilyevich II "Tyomnyy"   (b. 1415 - d. 1462)
                             (the Blind) (1st time)
25 Apr 1433 - Sep? 1433    Yuriy Dmitriyevich (1st time)      (b. 1374 - d. 1434)
Sep 1433 - 31 Mar 1434     Vasiliy Vasilyevich II "Tyomnyy"   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
31 Mar 1434 -  5 Jun 1434  Yuriy Dmitriyevich (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 5 Jun 1434 - Jul 1434     Vasiliy Yuryevich "Kosoy"          (b. 1421 - d. 1447/48)
Jul 1434 -  7 Jul 1445     Vasiliy Vasilyevich II "Tyomnyy"   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 7 Jul 1445 - 26 Oct 1445  Dmitriy Yuryevich Shemyaka         (b. 14.. - d. 1453)
                             (1st time)
26 Oct 1445 - 12 Feb 1446
  Vasiliy Vasilyevich II "Tyomnyy"   (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
12 Feb 1446 - 17 Feb 1447  Dmitriy Yuryevich Shemyaka         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
17 Feb 1447 - 27 Mar 1462  Vasiliy Vasilyevich II "Tyomnyy"   (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
28 Mar 1462 - 27 Oct 1505  Ivan Vasilyevich III "Velikiy"     (b. 1440 - d. 1505)
1477 -  7 Mar 1490         Ivan Ivanovich "Molodoy" -Co-ruler (b. 1458 - d. 1490)
 
4 Feb 1498 - 14 Apr 1502  Dmitriy Ivanovich "Vnuk" -Co-ruler (b. 1483 - d. 1509)
14 Apr 1502 -  3 Dec 1533  Vasiliy Ivanovich III              (b. 1479 - d. 1533)
                             (co-ruler to 27 Oct 1505)
 3 Dec 1533 - 16 Jan 1547  Ivan Vasilyevich IV "Groznyy"      (b. 1530 - d. 1584)
 3 Dec 1533
- Aug 1534    
Knyaz Mikhail L'vovich             (b. 1470 - d. 1534)
                            
Glinskiy -Regent
 
3 Dec 1533 -  4 Apr 1538  Velikaya Knyaginya Yelena          (b. c.1508 - d. 1538)
                            
Vasilyevna Glinskaya (f) -Regent
1534 - 13 Apr 1538         Knyaz Ivan Fyodorovich Ovchina-    (d. 1539)
                             Telepnev-Obolenskiy -Regent
13 Apr 1538 - 16 Jan 1547  Regency disputed:
                           - Knyaz Vasiliy Vasilyevich        (b. c.1478 - d. 1538)
                               Shuiskiy (to Nov 1538)
                           - Knyaz Ivan Vasilyevich Shuiskiy  (d. 1542)
                              (Oct 1538 - 1540 and 1542 - 14 May 1542)
                           - Knyaz Ivan Fyodorovich Belskiy   (d. af.1541)
                              (Jul 1540 - 25 Dec 1541)
                           - Ioasaf I, Patriarkh Moskovskiy   (d. 1555)
                              (1540 - 25 Dec 1541)
                           - Andrey Mikhaylovich Shuiskiy     (d. 1543)
                              (1542 - 30 Dec 1543)
                           - Ivan Ivanovich Kubenskiy         (d. 1546)
                              (1544 and 1545 - 1546)
                           - Fyodor Semyonovich Vorontsov     (d. 1546)
                               (1543 - 21 Jul 1546)
                           - Mikhail Vasilyevich Glinskiy     (d. 1559)
                              (1546 - 16 Jan 1547)
                           - Yuriy Vasilyevich Glinskiy       (d. 1547)
                              (1543 - 16 Jan 1547)
Tsars¹
16 Jan 1547 - 18 Mar 1584  Ivan Vasilyevich IV "Groznyy"      (s.a.)
                            
(co-ruler 1575 - 1576)
1575 - 1576                Semyon Bekbulatovich (II)          (b. 15.. - d. 1616)
18 Mar 1584 -  7 Jan 1598  Fyodor Ivanovich I "Blazhennyy"    (b. 1557 - d. 1598)

19 Mar 1584 -  6 Jan 1598  Regency Council
                           - Knyaz Ivan Fyodorovich           (b. c.1529 - d. 1586)
                               Mstislavskoy (to 1586)
                              (head of the Supreme Duma)
                           - Knyaz Ivan Petrovich Shuyskoy    (b. 15.. - d. 1588)

                               (to 1587)
                           - Knyaz Bogdan Yakovlevich Bel'skiy(b. 15.. - d. 1611) 
                               (to Apr 1584)
                           - Nikita Romanovich Yuryev         (b. c.1522 - d. 1586) 

                               (to Aug 1584)
                           - Boris Fyodorovich Godunov        (b. 1552 - d. 1605)
 
7 Jan 1598 - 11 Feb 1598  Irina Fyodorovna                   (b. 1557 - d. 1603) 
                             Godunova (f) -Regent
11 Feb 1598 - 13 Apr 1605  Boris Fyodorovich                  (s.a.)
                            
(= Boris Fyodorovich Godunov)
13 Apr 1605 -  1 Jun 1605  Fyodor Borisovich II               (b. 1589 - d. 1605)

13 Apr 1605 -  1 Jun 1605  Mariya Grigoryevna                 (b. 156. - d. 1605)
                             Skuratova (f) -Regent
 
1 Jun 1605 - 17 May 1606  Dmitriy Ivanovich I "Lzhedmitriy"  (b. 1581 - d. 1606)
                            ("False" Dmitriy; claimed to be Dmitriy
                             [b. 1582 - d. 1591] son of Ivan IV)
19 May 1606 - 17 Jul 1610  Vasiliy Ivanovich V                (b. 1522 - d. 1612)
11 Jun 1607 - 21 Dec 1610  Dmitriy Ivanovich (I) "Lzhedmitriy"(b. 15.. - d. 1610)
                             (second "False" Dmitriy [real name unknown],
                              claimed to be the first "False" Dmitriy)

                            
(in dissidence)
17 Jul 1610 - 27 Oct 1612 
Council of Seven Boyars 
                           (from 27 Aug 1610 for absent Vladislav)
                           - Knyaz Fyodor Ivanovich           (d. 1622)
                               Mstislavskiy 
                           - Knyaz Ivan Mikhaylovich          (d. 1627)
                               Vorotynskiy (to Mar 1611)
                           - Mikhail Fyodorovich Nagoy        (d. 1612)
                               (from Mar 1611)
                           - Knyaz Andrey Vasilyevich         (b. 156. - d. 1612)
                               Trubetskoy 
                           - Knyaz Vasiliy Vasilyevich        (b. 155. - d. 1611)
                               Golitsyn (to 30 Mar 1611) 
                           - Knyaz Ivan Semyonovich Kurakin   (d. 1632) 
                               (from 30 Mar 1611)
                           - Knyaz Boris Mikhaylovich Lykov-  (b. 1576 - d. 1646)
                               Obolenskiy
                           - Ivan Nikitich Romanov            (b. c.1560 - d. 1640)
                           - Fyodor Ivanovich Sheremetev      (d. 1650)
27 Aug 1610 -  5 Oct 1613  Vladislav Zhigimontovich           (b. 1595 - d. 1648)
                             (=Władysław IV of Poland)
                             (
remained in Poland)

 
7 Apr 1611 - 11 Jul 1613  Council of All the Land
                           (in opposition to Vladislav and Polish rule)
                           - Prokopy Petrovich Lyapunov       (d. 1611)
                              (to 22 Jul 1611)
                           - Knyaz Dmitriy Timofeyevich       (b. 157. - d. 1625)
                               Trubetskoy 
                           - Ivan Martynovich Zarutskiy       (d. 1614)
                              (to 29 Jul 1612)
 1 Sep 1611 - 27 Oct 1612  Knyaz Dmitriy Mikhaylovich         (b. 1578 - d. 1624)
                             Pozharskiy (head of People's Militia)
                            (in opposition to Polish rule)
11 Jul
1613 - 13 Jul 1645  Mikhail Fyodorovich III            (b. 1596 - d. 1645)
11 Jul 1613 - 25 Jul 1619  Knyaginya Kseniya (Xenia) Ivanovna (b. 1560 - d. 1631)
                             Shestova (f) -Regent
25 Jun 1619 -  1 Oct 1633  Filaret, Patriarkh                 (b. 1554 - d. 1633)
                             Moskovskiy -Regent
14 Jul 1645 - 29 Jan 1676  Aleksey Mikhaylovich               (b. 1629 - d. 1676)
14 Jul 1645 - 18 Jul 1645  Yevdokiya Lukyanovna               (b. 1608 - d. 1645)
                             Streshneva (f) -Regent
29 Jan
1676 - 27 Apr 1682  Fyodor Alekseyevich III            (b. 1661 - d. 1682)
27 Apr 1682 - 22 Oct 1721  Pyotr Alekseyevich I "Velikiy"     (b. 1672 - d. 1725)
              /7 Nov 1721    (
Peter I "the Great")  
                           -
jointly with -
 2 Jun 1682 - 29 Jan 1696  Ivan Alekseyevich V                (b. 1666 - d. 1696)
                             (specified to be First Tsar 4 Jun 1682)
27 Apr 1682 - 26 May 1682  Velikaya Knyaginya Natalya         (b. 1651 - d. 1694)
                             Kirillovna Naryshkina (f) -Regent
26 May
1682 -  7 Sep 1689  Velikaya Knyazhna Sofya            (b. 1657 - d. 1704)
                             Alekseyevna Romanova (f) -Regent
Emperors¹ (also Grand Dukes of Finland 1809-1917 and Kings of Poland 1815-1915)²
 2 Nov 1721 -  8 Feb 1725  Pyotr I "Velikiy"                  (s.a.)
                             (Peter I "the Great")
 8 Feb 1725 - 17 May 1727  Yekaterina I (Catherine I)-Empress (b. 1684 - d. 1727)
18 May 1727 - 30 Jan 1730  Pyotr II (Peter II)                (b. 1715 - d. 1730)
30 Jan 1730 - 15 Feb 1730  Supreme Privy Council
                           - Gavrilo Ivanovich Graf Golovkin  (b. 1660 - d. 1734)
                           - Knyaz Dmitriy Mikhaylovich       (b. 1665 - d. 1737)

                               Golitsyn 
                           - Andrey Ivanovich Graf Osterman   (b. 1686 - d. 1747)
                              (= Heinrich Johann Friedrich Graf Ostermann)
                           - Knyaz Vasiliy Lukich Dolgorukiy  (b. 1672 - d. 1739)

                           - Knyaz Aleksey Grigoryevich       (b. 167. - d. 1734)

                               Dolgorukov (Dolgorukiy)
                           - Knyaz Mikhail Vladimirovich      (b. 1667 - d. 1750)
                               Dolgorukiy 
                           - Knyaz Mikhaylo Mikhaylovich      (b. 1675 - d. 1730) 
                               Golitsyn 
                           - Knyaz Vasiliy Vladimіrovich      (b. 1667 - d. 1746)
                               Dolgorukiy 
                          
(acting)
15 Feb 1730 - 28 Oct 1740  Anna -
Empress                      (b. 1693 - d. 1740)
28 Oct 1740 -  6 Dec 1741  Ivan III (unofficial style Ivan IV)(b. 1740 - d. 1764)
28 Oct 1740 - 19 Nov 1740  Ernst Johann von Biron Herzog zu   (b. 1690 - d. 1772)
                             
Kurland -Regent
19 Nov 1740 -  6 Dec 1741  Anna Leopoldovna (f) -
Regent       (b. 1718 - d. 1746)
 6 Dec 1741 -  5 Jan 1762  Yelizaveta (Elizabeth) -Empress    (b. 1709 - d. 1762)
 5 Jan 1762 -  9 Jul 1762  Pyotr III (Peter III)              (b. 1728 - d. 1762)
 9 Jul 1762 - 17 Nov 1796  Yekaterina II "Velikaya" -Empress  (b. 1729 - d. 1796)
                             (Catherine II "the Great")
 5 Oct 1773 - 15 Sep 1774  Emelyan Ivanovich Pugachev         (b. c.1742 - d. 1775)
                             (in rebellion; from 1774 claiming to be Pyotr III) 
17 Nov 1796-23/24 Mar 1801 Pavel I (Paul I)                   (b. 1754 - d. 1801)
24 Mar 1801 -  1 Dec 1825  Aleksandr I "Blagoslovennyy"       (b. 1777 - d. 1825)
                             (Alexander I "the Blessed")
 
1 Dec 1825 - 24 Dec 1825  Konstantin I (Constantine I)       (b. 1779 - d. 1831)
                             (proclaimed, but did not accept)
24 Dec 1825 -  2 Mar 1855  Nikolay I (Nicholas I)             (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
                            
(enthronement retroactive to 1 Dec 1825)
 2 Mar 1855 - 13 Mar 1881  Aleksandr II "Osvoboditel'"        (b. 1818 - d. 1881)

                             (Alexander II "the Liberator")
13 Mar 1881 -  1 Nov 1894  Aleksandr III "Mirotvorets"        (b. 1845 - d. 1894)
                             (Alexander III "the Peacemaker")
 1 Nov 1894 - 15 Mar 1917  Nikolay II (Nicholas II)³             (b. 1868 - d. 1918)
Acting Heads of state
15 Mar 1917 -  8 Nov 1917  the heads of government


State (Imperial) Chancellors
1709 - 31 Jan 1734         Gavriil Ivanovich Graf Golovkin    (b. 1660 - d. 1734)
                             (from 21 Nov 1731, also First Cabinet Minister)
31 Jan 1734 - 21 Nov 1740  Baron Heinrich Johann Friedrich    (s.a.) 
                             von Ostermann -First cabinet minister
21 Nov 1740 - 15 Nov 1742  Knyaz Aleksey Mikhaylovich         (b. 1680 - d. 1742)
                             Cherkasskiy
15 Nov 1742 - 26 Feb 1758  Aleksey Petrovich Graf Bestuzhev-  (b. 1693 - d. 1766)
                             Ryumin (acting to 15 Jul 1744)
26 Feb 1758 - Mar 1765     Mikhail Illarionovich Graf         (b. 1714 - d. 1767)
                             Vorontsov (acting to 23 Nov 1758)
Mar 1765 -  9 Mar 1775     Knyaz Aleksandr Mikhaylovich       (b. 1723 - d. 1807)
                             Golitsyn (acting)
 9 Mar 1775 - 13 Apr 1775  Graf Nikita Ivanovich Panin        (b. 1718 - d. 1783)
                             (acting)
13 Apr 1775 -  2 May 1797  Ivan Andreyevich Graf Ostermann    (b. 1725 - d. 1811)
                             (acting to 20 Nov 1796)
 2 May 1797 - 17 Apr 1799  Aleksandr Andreyevich Graf         (b. 1747 - d. 1799)
                             Bezborodko
17 Apr 1799 -  6 Oct 1799  Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey (acting) (b. 1768 - d. 1834)
 6 Oct 1799 - 18 Nov 1800  Nikita Petrovich Graf Panin        (b. 1770 - d. 1837)
                             (acting)
18 Nov 1800 -  4 Mar 1801  Stepan Alekseyevich Kolychev       (b. 1746 - d. 1805) 
                             (acting)
 4 Mar 1801 - 20 Sep 1802  Knyaz Aleksandr Borisovich         (b. 1752 - d. 1818)
                             Kurakin (acting)
20 Sep 1802 - 28 Jan 1804  Aleksandr Romanovich Graf          (b. 1741 - d. 1805)
                             Vorontsov
Chairmen of the State Council and Chairmen of the Committee of Ministers

28 Jan 1804 - 29 Jun 1806  Knyaz Adam Jerzy Czartoryski       (b. 1770 - d. 1861)
                             (de facto)
29 Jun 1806 - 11 Sep 1807  Baron Andreas Eberhard Budberg,    (b. 1750 - d. 1812)
                             gen. von Bönninghausen (de facto)
11 Sep 1807 - 13 Jan 1810  Nikolay Petrovich Rumyantsev       (b. 1751 - d. 1826)
                             (de facto)

13 Jan 1810 -  1 Apr 1812  Nikolay Petrovich Graf Rumyantsev  (
s.a.)
10 Apr 1812 - 28 May 1816  Nikolay Ivanovich Graf Saltykov    (b. 1736 - d. 1816)
                            (from 1814, Knyaz Nikolay 
                             Ivanovich Saltykov) 
 6 Jun 1816 - 18 Apr 1827  Knyaz Pyotr Vasilyevich Lopukhin   (b. 1753 - d. 1827)
11 May 1827 - 15 Jun 1834  Viktor Pavlovich Graf Kochubey     (s.a.)
                            
(from 1834, Knyaz Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey)
20 Jul 1834 - 20 Apr 1838  Nikolay Nikolayevich Graf          (b. 1761 - d. 1838)

                             Novosiltsov
21 Apr 1838 -  5 Mar 1847  Ilarion Vasilyevich Vasilchikov    (b. 1777 - d. 1847) 
                             (from 1839, Knyaz Ilarion 
                             Vasilyevich Vasilchikov)
21 Jan 1848 -  5 Oct 1848  Vasiliy Vasilyevich, Graf Levashov (b. 1783 - d. 1848)
13 Nov 1848 - 17 Apr 1856  Aleksandr Ivanovich Chernyshov     (b. 1785 - d. 1857)
                             (from 1849, Knyaz Aleksandr
                             Ivanovich Chernyshov)
17 Apr 1856 - 20 Jan 1861  Aleksey Fyodorovich Orlov          (b. 1786 - d. 1861)
                             (from 1856, Knyaz Aleksey 
                             Fyodorovich Orlov)
20 Jan 1861 -  2 Mar 1864  Dmitriy Nikolayevich Graf Bludov   (b. 1785 - d. 1864)
Chairmen of the Committee of Ministers
 7 Mar 1864 -  4 Mar 1872  Pavel Pavlovich Gagarin            (b. 1789 - d. 1872)
10 Mar 1872 -  1 Jan 1880  Pavel Nikolayevich Ignatyev        (b. 1797 - d. 1880)
                             (from 24 Dec 1877, Pavel 
                             Nikolayevich Graf Ignatyev) 
 6 Jan 1880 - 16 Oct 1881  Pyotr Aleksandrovich Valuyev       (b. 1815 - d. 1890)
                             (from 2 Mar 1880, Pyotr 
                             Aleksandrovich Graf Valuyev) 
16 Oct 1881 - 11 Jan 1887  Mikhail Khristoforovich Reytern    (b. 1820 - d. 1890)
                             (Mikhail von Reutern)
13 Jan 1887 - 15 Jun 1895  Nikolay Khristianovich Bunge       (b. 1823 - d. 1895)
27 Oct 1895 - 11 Jun 1903  Ivan Nikolayevich Durnovo          (b. 1834 - d. 1903)  Non-party
29 Aug 1903 -  6 Nov 1905  Sergey Yulyevich Witte (Vitte)     (b. 1849 - d. 1915)  Non-party
                             (from 1 Oct 1905, Sergey Yulyevich Graf Witte)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
 6 Nov 1905 -  5 May 1906  Sergey Yulyevich Graf Witte        (s.a.)               Non-party
 5 May 1906 - 21 Jul 1906  Ivan Logginovich Goremykin         (b. 1839 - d. 1917)  Non-party
                             (1st time) 
21 Jul 1906 - 18 Sep 1911  Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin         (b. 1862 - d. 1911)  Non-party
15 Sep 1911 - 12 Feb 1914  Vladimir Nikolayevich Kokovtsov    (b. 1853 - d. 1943)  Non-party
                             (acting [for Stolypin to 18 Sep 1911] to 22 Sep 1911)
12 Feb 1914 -  2 Feb 1916  Ivan Logginovich Goremykin         (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
 
2 Feb 1916 - 23 Nov 1916  Boris Vladimirovich Shtyurmer      (b. 1848 - d. 1917)  Non-party
23 Nov 1916 -  9 Jan 1917  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Trepov       (b. 1862 - d. 1928)  Non-party
 9 Jan 1917 - 12 Mar 1917  Knyaz Nikolay Dmitriyevich         (b. 1850 - d. 1925)  Non-party
                             Golitsyn
Minister-presidents (prime ministers) of the Provisional Government
15 Mar 1917 - 20 Jul 1917  Knyaz Georgiy Yevgenyevich L'vov   (b. 1861 - d. 1925)  KDP
20 Jul 1917 -  8 Nov 1917  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kerenskiy    (b. 1881 - d. 1970)  PSR
                             (deposed, continues opposition to May 1918)
 
7 Nov 1917 -  8 Nov 1917  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Kishkin       (b. 1864 - d. 1930)  KDP
                             (acting for Kerenskiy)
18 Nov 1917 -  2 Dec 1917  Sergey Nikolayevich Prokopovich    (b. 1871 - d. 1955)  PSR

                             (acting [for Kerenskiy] in opposition)

Alternative "White" Governments

[Russian flag]

Presidents of the All-Russian Provisional Government (PARG)("Ufa Directory")
24 Sep 1918 - 18 Nov 1918  Nikolay Dmitriyevich Avksentyev    (b. 1878 - d. 1943)  PSR
                             (in Ufa to 8 Oct 1918, then in Omsk)
 7 Nov 1918 - 18 Nov 1918  Vasiliy Georgiyevich Boldyrev      (b. 1875 - d. 1933)  Mil
                             (acting for Avksentyev, in Omsk)
Supreme Rulers (Verkhovnyy Pravitel')
18 Nov 1919                Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (b. 1863 - d. 1928)  PSR
                             (acting)(chairman of council of ministers)
18 Nov 1918 - 15 Jan 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak      (b. 1874 - d. 1920)  Mil
                             (in Omsk to 12 Nov 1919, then Nizhneudinsk)
Commanders-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the South Russia
15 Jan 1920 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  Mil
                             (in Novorossiysk to Mar 1920, then Sevastopol)
 4 Apr 1920 - 16 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (from 11 Apr 1920 styled Governor and Commander-in-Chief of
                             the Armed Forces in the South of Russia; from 19 Aug 1920
                             Governor of the South of Russia and Commander-in-Chief of
                             the Russian Army)(in Sevastopol)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 4 Nov 1918 - 22 Nov 1919  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (s.a.)         KDP;Dec 1918 PSR
                             (appointed by the PARG; discharged by Kolchak) 
22 Nov 1919 - 15 Jan 1920  Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev     (b. 1885 - d. 1920)  KDP
                             (appointed by Kolchak; arrested 15 Jan 1920)
Chairman of the Government of the South of Russia
11 Apr 1920 - 11 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (b. 1857 - d. 1921)  Non-party
                             (in Sevastopol)

Polish and French Occupations of Moscow

Commanders of the Polish-Lithuanian garrison in Moscow
21 Sep 1610 - Oct 1610     Stanisław Żółkiewski               (b. 1547 - d. 1620)
Oct 1610 - 1612            Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski        (b. c.1570 - d. 1639)
1612 - Sep 1612            Jan Karol Chodkiewicz              (b. 1560 - d. 1621)
Sep 1612 - 27 Oct 1612     Mikołaj Struś                      (b. 1580 - d. 1627)

French Military Governor of Moscow

14 Sep 1812 - 23 Oct 1812  Adolphe Édouard Casimir Joseph     (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
                             Mortier, duc de Trévise  

 ¹The full style of the ruler was:
(a) 16 Jan 1547 - 22 Nov 1721: Bozhiyeyu Milostiyu Velikiy/Velikaya Gosudar'/Gosudarynya Tsar'/Tsaritsa i Velikiy/Velikaya Knyaz'/Knyaginya N.N. vseya Rossiy Samodyerzhets ("By the Grace of God Great Sovereign Tsar/Tsarina and Grand Prince/Princess, N.N., of All Russia, Autocrat");
(b) from 22 Nov 1721: Bozhiyeyu milostiyu, N.N., Imperator/Imperatritsa i Samodyerzhets/Samodyerzhitsa Vserossiysky/Vserossiyskaya, Moskovskiy, Kiyevskiy, Vladimirskiy, Novgorodskiy; Tsar'Tsar'/Tsaritsa Kazanskiy, Tsar'/Tsaritsa Astrakhanskiy, Tsar'/Tsaritsa Sibirskiy, Gosudar'/Gosudarynya Pskovskiy i Velikiy/Velikaya Knyaz'/Knyaginya Smolenskiy; Knyaz'/Knyaginya Estlyandskiy, Liflyandskiy, Koryel'skiy, Tverskiy, Yugorskiy, Permskiy, Vyatskiy, Bolgarskiy i inykh; Gosudar'/Gosudarynya i Velikiy/Velikaya Knyaz'/Knyaginya Novagoroda nizovskiya zemli, Chernigorskiy, Ryazanskiy, Rostovskiy, Yaroslavskiy, Byelozerskiy, Udorskiy, Obdorskiy, Kondiyskiy i vseya severnyya strany Povelitel'; i Gosudar'/Gosudarynya Iverskiya zemli i Kartalinskikh i Gruzinskikh Tsarey/Tsarina; i Kabardinskiya zemli, Cherkasskikh i Gorskikh Knyazey/Knyaginya i inykh Naslednyy Gosudar'/Gosudarynya i Obladatel'. ("by the grace of God, N.N., All-Russian Emperor/Empress and Autocrat of Moscow, of Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod; King/Queen of Kazan, King/Queen of Astrakhan, King/Queen of Siberia; Lord/Lady of Pskov; Grand Prince/Princess of Smolensk; Prince/Princess of Estonia, Livonia, Courland, Tver, Yongoria, Perm, Vlatsk, [Volga] Bulgaria, and of other lands; Lord/Lady and Grand Prince/Princess of Lower Novgorod, Chernigov, Ryazan, Rostov, Yaroslav, Byelozersk, Oudoria, Obdoria, Kondia, and all the Northern Region; Lord/Lady and Sovereign of the lands of Imeretia, Kartlia, Kabardinia; Lord/Lady of the Circassian and Mountain princes and of other lands");
(c) style 6 May 1906 - 15 Mar 1917: Bozhiyeyu pospeshestvuyushcheyu milostiyu, N.N., Imperator i Samodyerzhets Vserossiysky, Moskovskiy, Kiyevskiy, Vladimirskiy, Novgorodskiy; Tsar'  Kazanskiy, Tsar' Astrakhanskiy, Tsar' Pol'skiy, Tsar' Sibirskiy, Tsar' Khersonisa Tavricheskogo, Tsar' Gruzinskiy; Gosudar' Pskovskiy i Velikiy Knyaz' Smolenskiy, Litovskiy, Volynskiy, Podol'skiy i Finlyandskiy; Knyaz' Estlyandskiy, Liflyandskiy, Kurlyandskiy i Semigal'skiy, Samogitskiy, Byelostokskiy, Koryel'skiy, Tverskiy, Yugorskiy, Permskiy, Vyatskiy, Bolgarskiy i inykh; Gosudar' i Velikiy Knyaz' Novagoroda nizovskiya zemli, Chernigorskiy, Ryazanskiy, Polotskiy, Rostovskiy, Yaroslavskiy, Byelozerskiy, Udorskiy, Obdorskiy, Kondiyskiy, Vitebskiy, Mstislavskiy i vseya severnyya strany Povelitel'; i Gosudar' Iverskiya, Kartalinskiya i Kabardinskiya zemli i oblasti Armenskiya; Cherkasskikh i Gorskikh Knyazey i inykh Naslednyy Gosudar' i Obladatel'; Gosudar' Turkestanskiy; Naslednik Norvezhskiy, Gertsog Shlesvig-Golstinskiy, Stormarnskiy, Ditmarsenskiy i Oldenburgskiy i prochaya, i prochaya, i prochaya. ("by the grace of God, N.N., All-Russian Emperor and Autocrat of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod; King of Kazan, King/Queen of Astrakhan, King of Poland, King of Siberia, King of the Chersonnese Taurics, and King of Georgia; Lord of Pskov; Grand Prince of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia and Finland; Prince of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigallia, Samogitia, Bialystok, Karelia, Tver, Yongoria, Perm, Vlatks, [Volga] Bulgaria, and of other lands; Lord and Grand Duke of Lower Novgorod, Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslav, Byelozersk, Oudoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislav, and all the Northern Region; Lord and Sovereign of the lands of Imeretia, Kartlia, Kabardinia and the provinces of Armenia; Lord of the Circassian and Mountain princes; Lord of Turkestan; Heir of Norway; Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Ditmarschen and Oldenburg, and of other lands");
- The shortened style was: Bozhiyeyu pospeshestvuyushcheyu milostiyu, N.N.,
Imperator i Samodyerzhets Vserossiysky, Tsar' Pol'skiy, Velikiy Knyaz' Finlyandskiy, i prochaya, i prochaya, i prochaya. ("by the grace of God, N.N., All-Russian Emperor/Empress 
and Autocrat, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, and of other lands").

  ²The colloquial use of the term "tsar" for the emperor is strictly incorrect. Since 2 Nov 1721 the correct style was Bozhiyeyu milostiyu, N.N., Imperator/Imperatritsa i Samodyerzhets/Samodyerzhitsa Vserossiysky/Vserossiyskaya ("By the Grace of God, N.N., All-Russian Emperor/Empress and Autocrat"); the term tsar was used in the full style for subsidiary (and partially imaginary) polities; in particular, it was used to mean "king" with regard to Poland.

 ³on 15 Mar 1917 Emperor Nikolay II (s.a.) abdicated 15 Mar 1917 for himself and the Tsarevich, Alexis, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (b. 1878 - d. 1918), who in manifesto on 17 Mar 1917 neither accepted nor rejected the crown as Mikhail II. 

Noble Titles: Velikiy/Velikaya Knyaz'/Knyaginya = Grand Prince/Princess; Knyaz/Knyaginya = Prince/Princess; Graf = Count; and Baron = Baron.

Party abbreviations: KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-12 Dec 1917); Okt = Soyuz 17 Oktyabrya (Union of October 17, "Octobrists", conservative, moderate constitutionalist, Nov 1905-1918); PSR = Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries, "SRs", democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, split Aug 1917 into Left and Right wings, 1902-1921); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks]Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)]); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, Marxist communist, from 8 Nov 1917 state party, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); RSDRP-M = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Men'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP-B, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922); Mil = Military


Novgorod

c.862                      Grand Principality of Rus' (later referred to as Kievan Rus'
                             [Kiyevskaya Rus'] by  historians)
established first at
                             Novgorod, then from 882 at Kiev.

1136                       Novgorod
establishes a feudal republican government.
1348                       Pskov independent by Treaty of Bolotovo.
1356 - 1478                Novgorod part of Hanseatic League (kontor closed 1494).
15 Jan 1478                Velikiy Novgorod annexed by Moscow.


Princes of Novgorod
(title Knyaz' Novgorodskiy)
1136 - 1138                Svyatoslav Olgovich II (1st time)  (b. c.1106 - d. 1164
)
1138                       Svyatopolk Mstislavich II          (d. 1154)
                             (1st time)
1138 - 1140                Rostislav Yuryevich I (1st time)   (d. 1151)
1140 - 1141                Svyatoslav Olgovich II (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1141                       Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich III       (b. c.1123 - d. 1194)
1141 - 1142                Rostislav Yuryevich I (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1142 - 1148                Svyatopolk Mstislavich II          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1148 - 1154                Yaroslav Izyaslavich II            (b. c.1132 - d. 1176)
1154                       Rostislav Mstislavich II           (b. c.1108 - d. 1167)
1154 - 1155                Davyd Rostislavich II              (b. 1140 - d. 1197)
1155 - 1158                Mstislav Yuryevich II              (d. af.1161)
1158 - 1161                Svyatoslav Rostislavich IV         (d. 1170)
                            
(1st time)
1161                       Mstislav Rostislavich III          (d. 1178)
                             (1st time)
1161 - 1168                Svyatoslav Rostislavich VI         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1168 - 1170                Roman Mstislavich I "Galitskiy"    (b. c.1150 - d. 1205
)
1170 - 1171                Ryurik Rostislavich II             (d. 1214)
1171 - 1175                Yuriy Andreyevich I "Bogolyubskiy" (d. af.1180)
1175                       Svyatoslav Mstislavich             (d. af.1176)
1175 - 1176                Mstislav Rostislavich III         
(s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1176 - 1177                Yaroslav Mstislavich III "Krasnyy" (d. 1199)
1177 - 1178                Mstislav Rostislavich III          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

1178                       Yaropolk Rostislavich II           (d. af.1196)
1178 - 1179                Roman Rostislavich II              (d. 1180)
1179 - 13 Jun 1180         Mstislav Rostislavich IV           (d. 1180)
1180 - 1181                Vladimir Svyatoslavich III         (d. 1200)
1182 - 1184                Yaroslav Vladimirovich IV          (d. af.1207)
                             (1st time)
1184 - 1187                Mstislav Davydovich V              (d. 1189)
1187 - 1196                Yaroslav Vladimirovich IV          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1196 - 1197                Yaropolk Yaroslavich III           (d. af.1212
)
1197 - 1199                Yaroslav Vladimirovich IV          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
Jan 1200 - 1204            Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich V         (d. 1252)
                             (1st time)
1205 - 1208                Konstantin Vsevolodovich           (b. 1186 - d. 1218)
1208 - 1210                Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich V         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1210 - 1214                Mstislav Mstislavich IV "Udatnyy"  (b. c.1176 - d. 1228)
                             (1st time)
1214 - 1216                Yaroslav Vsevolodovich V (1st time)(b. 1191 - d. 1246)
1216 - 1217                Mstislav VI Mstislavich "Udatnyy"  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1217 - 1218                Svyatoslav Mstislavich VI          (d. 1239)
1218 - 1221                Vsevolod Mstislavich II            (d. af.1240)
1221                       Vsevolod Yuryevich III (1st time)  (b. 1212? - d. 1238)
1221 - 1223                Yaroslav Vsevolodovich V (2nd time)(s.a.)
1223 - 1224                Vsevolod Yuryevich III (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1224 - 1226                Mikhail Vsevolodovich (1st time)   (b. 1179 - d. 1246)
1226 - 1228                Yaroslav Vsevolodovich V (3rd time)(s.a.)
1228 - 1229                Fyodor Yaroslavich                 (d. 1233)
                          
- jointly with -
1228 - 1229                Aleksandr Yaroslavich "Nevskiy"    (b. 1221 - d. 1263)
                             (1st time)

1229                       Mikhail Vsevolodovich (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1229 - 1230                Rostislav Mikhaylovich IV          (b. 1227 - d. 1262)
1231 - 1236                Yaroslav Vsevolodovich V (4th time)(s.a.)
1236 - 1240                Aleksandr Yaroslavich "Nevskiy"    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1240 - 1241                Andrey Yaroslavich I               (d. 1264?)
1241 - 1252                Aleksandr Yaroslavich "Nevskiy"    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

1252 - 1255                Vasiliy Aleksandrovich II          (d. 1271)
                             (1st time)
1255                       Yaroslav Yaroslavich VI (1st time) (b. 1230 - d. 1272)
1255 - 1257                Vasiliy Aleksandrovich II          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1257 - 1259                Aleksandr Yaroslavich "Nevskiy"    (s.a.)
                             (4th time)

1259 - 1264                Dmitriy
Aleksandrovich I (1st time)(b. 1250 - d. 1294)
1263 - 1264                Yaroslav Yaroslavich VI (2nd time) (s.a.)
1264 - 1266                Dmitriy Aleksandrovich I (2nd time)(s.a.)
1266 - 1267                Yaroslav Yaroslavich VI (3rd time) (s.a.)
1267 - 1269                Yuriy Andreyevich II               (d. 1279
)
1269 - 1270                Yaroslav Yaroslavich VI (4th time) (s.a.)
1272 - 1273                Dmitriy Aleksandrovich I (2nd time)(s.a.)
1273 - 1276                Vasily Yaroslavich III             (b. c.1236 - d. 1276)
1276 - 1281                Dmitriy Aleksandrovich I (3rd time)(s.a.)
1281 - 1285                Andrey Aleksandrovich II (1st time)(b. c.1255 - d. 1304)
1285 - 1292                Dmitriy Aleksandrovich I (4th time)(s.a.)
1292 - 1304                Andrey Aleksandrovich II (2nd time)(s.a.)
1304 - 1314                Mikhail Yaroslavich I (1st time)   (b. 1271? - d. 1318)
1314 - 1315                Afanasiy Danilovich (1st time)     (d. c.1322)
1316 - 1318                Mikhail Yaroslavich I (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1318 - 1322                Afanasiy Danilovich (2nd time)     (s.a.)               
1322 - 1325                Yuriy (Georgiy) Danilovich         (b. 1281 - d. 1325)
1325 - 1327                Aleksandr Mikhaylovich             (b. 1301 - d. 1339)
1327 - 31 Mar 1340         Ivan I Danilovich "Kalita"         (b. c.1283 - d. 1340)
31 Mar 1340 - 26 Apr 1353  Semyon Ivanovich "Gordyy"          (b. 1317 - d. 1353)
26 Apr 1353 - 13 Nov 1359  Ivan II Ivanovich "Krasnyy"        (b. 1326 - d. 1359)

1359 - 1362                Dmitriy Konstantinovich II         (b. 1322 - d. 1383)
1362 - 15 Jan 1478         the princes of Moscow

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 
[Flag of USSR, 1923]
           6 Jul 1923 - 12 Nov 1923
[Flag of USSR,
                        1923-1955]
                   12 Nov 1923 - 19 Aug 1955
[Variant Flag
                          of USSR 1923-1924]
               12 Nov 1923 - 18 Apr 1924 (Variant)
[Flag of USSR]
                   19 Aug 1955 - 25 Dec 1991


Map of the U.S.S.R
Hear National Anthem
"Gimn Sovyetskogo Soyuza"
(National Anthem of
 the Soviet Union)

(1953-27 May 1977 no lyrics)
Adopted 15 Mar 1944
Hear Former Anthem
 "Internatsional"
(The Internationale)
(30 Dec 1922-15 Mar 1944)
(de facto)
Constitution
 (7 Oct 1977)
Capital: Moscow
(temporary capital: Kuybyshev
 16 Oct 1941 - 31 Jul 1943)
Currency: 1922-1991
 Soviet Ruble
(Rubl')
(SUR)

National Holiday:
7 Nov (1917)

Anniversary of the Great
 October Socialist Revolution

Population: 293,047,571 (1991)
GNP: $2,660 billion (1990)
Exports: $109.3 billion (1989)
Imports: $114.7 billion (1989)
Ethnic groups: Russian 50.78%, Ukrainian 15.45%,
Uzbek 5.84%, Belorussian (Byelorussian) 3.51%,
Kazakh 2.85%, Azeri 2.38%, Armenian 1.62%,
Tajik 1.48%, Georgian 1.39%, Moldovan 1.17%,
Lithuanian 1.07%, Turkmen 0.95%, Kirghiz 0.89%,
Latvian 0.51%, Estonian 0.36%, other 9.75%
Total Armed Forces: 3,750,000 (1989)
Declared Nuclear Power (1949): 28,595 weapons (1991)
Merchant marine: 1,565 ships (1990)
Religions: atheist 60%, Russian Orthodox 20%,
Muslim 10%, Protestant, Georgian Orthodox,
Armenian Orthodox, and Roman Catholic 7%,
Jewish less than 1%  Note: State was officially atheist 
International Organizations/Treaties: ANT (consultative), BTWC, CCC, CFE (signatory), Comecon, CSCE, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR, IAEA, IBEC, ICAO, ICFTU, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NPT, NTBT, OPNAL, PCA, UIBPIP, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNSC (permanent), UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WP, WToO
Soviet Republics

30 Dec 1922                Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) including 
                             Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, and Transcaucasia (TSFSR).
13 May 1925                Accession of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
 5 Dec 1929                Accession of Tadzhikistan.
 5 Dec 1936                Accession of Kazakhstan and Kirgiziya; TSFSR dissolved, 
                             Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan become full union republics.
 2 Aug 1940                Accession of Moldavia
 3 Aug 1940                Accession of Lithuania.
 5 Aug 1940                Accession of Latvia.
 6 Aug 1940                Accession of Estonia.
 6 Sep 1991                Recognition of Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian independence.
25 Dec 1991                Final dissolution of the U.S.S.R.; R.S.F.S.R. independent
                             as Russia.

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
(from 31 Dec 1925, All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])
 
3 Apr 1922 - 13 Oct 1952  Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin        (b. 1878 - d. 1953)
                            (= Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili
                             [Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili])
                            (from 21 Dec 1929, personal style Vozhd [Leader])
General Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
13 Oct 1952 -  5 Mar 1953 
Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin        (s.s.)
 5 Mar 1953 - 14 Mar 1953 
Secretaries
                           - Georgiy Maksimilianovich Malenkov(b. 1902 - d. 1988)
                               (to 14 Mar 1953)(senior member)
                           -
Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov       (b. 1902 - d. 1982)
                           - Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev    (b. 1894 - d. 1971)

                           - Semyon Denisovich Ignatyev       (b. 1904 - d. 1983)
                           - Pyotr Nikolayevich Pospelov      (b. 1898 - d. 1979)
                           - Nikolay Nikolayevich Shatalin    (b. 1904 - d. 1984)
                         
(acting)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
14 Mar 1953 - 14 Oct 1964  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)

                            (Khrushchyov)(secretariat chairperson to 7 Sep 1953)
14 Oct 1964 -  8 Apr 1966  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev             (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
General Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
 8 Apr 1966 - 10 Nov 1982  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev             (s.a.)

12 Nov 1982 -  9 Feb 1984  Yuriy Vladimirovich Andropov       (b. 1914 - d. 1984)
 9 Feb 1984 - 10 Mar 1985  Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko    (b. 1911 - d. 1985)
11 Mar 1985 - 24 Aug 1991  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev      (b. 1931)
                            
(Gorbachyov)
24 Aug 1991 - 29 Aug 1991  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko
       (b. 1932 - d. 1994)
                             (Volodymyr Antonovych Ivashko)
                             (acting)

                          ("leading role" of party abolished 13 Mar 1990)

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee (serving jointly)¹
30 Dec 1922 - 12 Jan 1938  Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin          (b. 1875 - d. 1946)RKP;1925 VKP
                             (Russian RSFSR)
30 Dec 1922 - 12 Jan 1938  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskiy      (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  VKP
                             (Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovsʹkyy)
                             (Ukrainian SSR) 

30 Dec 1922 - 16 Jun 1937  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Chervyakov  (b. 1892 - d. 1937)  VKP
                             (Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Charvyakow)
                             (Byelorussian SSR) 

30 Dec 1922 - 19 Mar 1925  Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf-ogly      (b. 1870 - d. 1925)  VKP
                             Narimanov (Transcaucasian SFSR)
                             (Nariman Karbalayi Nacaf oğlu Narimanov)

21 May 1925 - Jun 1937     Gazanfar Makhmud-ogly Musabekov    (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  VKP
                             (Qazanfar Mahmud oğlu Musabayov)
                             (T
ranscaucasian SFSR) 
21 May 1925 - 21 Jul 1937  Nedirbay Aytakov (Turkmen SSR)     (b. 1894 - d. 1938)  VKP
                            
(Nadirbay Aytaç)
21 May 1925 - 17 Jun 1937  Fayzulla Gubaydullayevich          (b. 1896 - d. 1938)  VKP

                             Khodzhayev (Uzbek SSR)
                            
(Fayzullo Ubaydulloyevich Xojayev)
18 Mar 1931 -  4 Jan 1934  Nusratullo Makhsum (Lutfulayev)    (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  VKP
                             (Nusratullo Maxsum)(Tadzhik SSR)
 4 Jan 1934 - Sep 1937     Abdullo Rakhimbayevich Rakhimbayev (b. 1896 - d. 1938)  VKP
                             (Abdullo Raximboyevich Raximboyev)
                             (Tadzhik SSR)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
12 Jan 1938 - 17 Jan 1938  Andrey Andreyevich Andreyev        (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  VKP
                           + Nikolay Mikhaylovich Shvernik    (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  VKP
                           (acting)
17 Jan 1938 - 19 Mar 1946  Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin          (s.a.)               VKP
19 Mar 1946 - 15 Mar 1953  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Shvernik      (s.a.)             VKP;1952 KPSS
15 Mar 1953 -  7 May 1960  Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov     (b. 1881 - d. 1969)  KPSS
                             (Klyment Okhrimovych Voroshylov)
 7 May 1960 - 15 Jul 1964  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (1st time)  (s.a.)               KPSS
15 Jul 1964 -  9 Dec 1965  Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan          (b. 1895 - d. 1978)  KPSS
                             (Anastas Hovhannesi Mikoyan)
 9 Dec 1965 - 16 Jun 1977  Nikolay Viktorovich Podgornyy      (b. 1903 - d. 1983)  KPSS
                             (Mykola Viktorovych Pidhornyy)
16 Jun 1977 - 10 Nov 1982  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (2nd time)  (s.a.)               KPSS
10 Nov 1982 - 16 Jun 1983  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Kuznetsov      (b. 1901 - d. 1990)  KPSS
                             (1st time) (acting)
16 Jun 1983 -  9 Feb 1984  Yuriy Vladimirovich Andropov       (s.a.)               KPSS
 9 Feb 1984 - 11 Apr 1984  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Kuznetsov      (s.a.)               KPSS
                             (2nd time) (acting)
11 Apr 1984 - 10 Mar 1985  Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko    (s.a.)               KPSS
10 Mar 1985 -  2 Jul 1985  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Kuznetsov      (s.a.)               KPSS
                             (3rd time) (acting)
 2 Jul 1985 -  1 Oct 1988  Andrey Andreyevich Gromyko         (b. 1909 - d. 1989)  KPSS
                             (Andrey Andreyevich Hramyka)
 1 Oct 1988 - 25 May 1989  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev      (s.a.)               KPSS
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
25 May 1989 - 15 Mar 1990  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev      (s.a.)               KPSS
President
15 Mar 1990 - 25 Dec 1991  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev      (s.a.)               KPSS;
                             (suspended 19-21 Aug 1991)                  24 Aug 1991 Non-party
19 Aug 1991 - 21 Aug 1991² Gennadiy Ivanovich Yanayev         (b. 1937 - d. 2010)  KPSS
                             (acting; in dissidence)

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars ("Sovnarkom")
 
6 Jul 1923 - 21 Jan 1924  Vladimir Ilyich Ul'yanov (Lenin)   (b. 1870 - d. 1924)  RKP
 6 Jul 1923 -  2 Feb 1924  Lev Borisovich Kamenev             (b. 1883 - d. 1936)  RKP
                             (Rozenfel'd)
                           +
Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov          (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  RKP
                           + Aleksandr Dmitriyevich Tsyurupa  (b. 1870 - d. 1928)  RKP
                          
+ Khristiyan Georgiyevich Rakovskiy(b. 1873 - d. 1941)  KPU-B
                             (Khrystyyan Heorhiyovych Rakovs'kyy)
                             (to 15 Jul 1923)
                           + Vlas Yakovlevich Chubar'         (b. 1891 - d. 1939)
  KPU-B
                             (Vlas Yakovych Chubar)
                             (from 15 Jul 1923)
                           +
Ivan (Mamia) Dmitriyevich        (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                              Orakhelashvili
                             (Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili)
                           (acting [for Lenin to 21 Jan 1924])

 
2 Feb 1924 - 19 Dec 1930  Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov            (s.a.)              RKP;1925 VKP
19 Dec 1930 -  6 May 1941  Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov    (b. 1890 - d. 1986)  VKP
                             (Skryabin)
 6 May 1941 - 15 Mar 1946 
Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin        (s.a.)               VKP
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
15 Mar 1946 -  5 Mar 1953  Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin        (s.a.)             VKP;1952 KPSS
 6 Mar 1953 -  8 Feb 1955  Georgiy Maksimilianovich Malenkov  (s.a.)               KPSS
 8 Feb 1955 - 27 Mar 1958  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Bulganin    (b. 1895 - d. 1975)  KPSS
27 Mar 1958 - 15 Oct 1964  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               KPSS
                             (Khrushchyov)
15 Oct 1964 - 23 Oct 1980  Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin       (b. 1904 - d. 1980)  KPSS

23 Oct 1980 - 27 Sep 1985  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Tikhonov    (b. 1905 - d. 1997)  KPSS
27 Sep 1985 - 14 Jan 1991  Nikolay Ivanovich Ryzhkov          (b. 1929)            KPSS
Prime minister
14 Jan 1991 - 22 Aug 1991  Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov        (b. 1937 - d. 2003)  KPSS
22 Aug 1991 -  6 Sep 1991  Vacant
Chairman of the Committee on Operational Management of the National Economy (from 20 Sep

1991, also Chairman of the Inter-republican Economic Committee; from 14 Nov 1991, Chairman
of the Interstate Economic Committee - Prime Minister of the Economic Community)
 6 Sep 1991 - 25 Dec 1991  Ivan Stepanovich Silayev           (b. 1930)            Non-party

 ¹chairmen of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union was a collective body comprised by several chairmen, in principle one of each constituent soviet republic, although Kalinin (from Russian S.F.S.R.) was often viewed as the single chairman.

 ²The State Council for the State of Emergency took the power on 19 August 1991, the failed coup and was disbanded two days after. The paramount Soviet leaders comprised it: Vice President Gennadiy Ivanovich Yanayev (s.a.); Prime minister Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (s.a.); KGB chairman Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov (b. 1924 - d. 2007); Defense minister Dmitriy Timofeyevich Yazov (b. 1924); Interior minister Boris Karlovich Pugo (b. 1937 - d. 1991); First deputy chairman of the Defense Council Oleg Dmitriyevich Baklanov (b. 1932); chairman of the Peasants' Union Vasiliy Alexandrovich Starodubtsev (b. 1931 - d. 2011); and chairman of the Association of State Enterprises Aleksandr Ivanovich Tizyakov (b. 1926).

Territorial Disputes (1945-1991): Bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve disputed sections of the boundary with China; U.S. Government has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union; Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the Habomai island group occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by Japan; maritime dispute with Norway over portion of Barents Sea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the U.S.S.R.

Party abbreviations: KPSS = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza (Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Marxist-Leninist communist, USSR state party to 13 Mar 1990, former VKP, 13 Oct 1952 - 29 Aug 1991);
- Former parties: KPU-B = Komunistychna Partiya (Bil'shovykiv) Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Ukrainy (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Ukraine, communist, separated 1 Mar 1919 from RKP, 12 Jul 1918-13 Oct 1952, renamed Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Ukrainy [Communist Party of Ukraine]); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed VKP); KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, communist, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed Communist Party of Georgia); VKP = Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, USSR state party, former RKP, 31 Dec 1925-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPSS)


Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
 
[Russian
                          Revolution flag 1917-1918 de facto]
             8 Nov 1917 - 13 Apr 1918 (de facto)
[Flag of
                          Russian SFSR in 1918]
            13 Apr 1918 - 19 Jul 1918
[Flag of
                          Russian SFSR, 1918-1920]
            19 Jul 1918 - 29 Sep 1920
[Flag of Russian
                          SFSR in 1920-1937]
                    29 Sep 1920 - 21 Jan 1937
[Flag of Russian
                          SFSR in 1937-1954]
                    21 Jan 1937 - 2 Jun 1954
[Flag of Russian
                          SFSR, 1954-1991]
                    2 Jun 1954 - 21 Aug 1991
Flag of Russian SFSR
                          in 1991
           22 Aug 1991 - 25 Dec 1991
 

Capital: Moscow
(Petrograd to 12 Mar 1918)
Hear Local Anthem
(same as Soviet Union)
Constitution
(10 Jul 1918)
Population: 137,551,000 (1980)
R.S.F.S.R.
Admin. Divisions

18 Nov 1917                No official style adopted; various styles used: Russian Soviet
                             Republic, Russian Republic, etc.
19 Jul 1918                Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
30 Dec 1922                Part of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union).
 5 Dec 1936                Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Jul 1941 – Jul 1944        German occupation of western parts of the Russian S.F.S.R.
12 Jun 1991                Declaration of state sovereignty adopted.

25 Dec 1991                U.S.S.R. dissolved, Russian S.F.S.R. independent as Russia.

Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Workers'
Party (Bolsheviks)(from 8 Mar 1918, Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks])
 9 Nov 1917 - 25 Mar 1919  Vladimir Ilyich Ul'yanov (Lenin)   (b. 1870 - d. 1924)
                           + Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov      (b. 1885 - d. 1919)
                              (to 16 Mar 1919)
                           + Lev Davidovich Trotskiy          (b. 1879 - d. 1940)
                              (Bronshteyn)
                           + Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin      (b. 1878 - d. 1953)
                              (= Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili
                              [Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili])

                           + Grigoriy Yakovlevich Sokolnikov  (b. 1888 - d. 1939)
                              (= Hirsh Yankelevich Brilliant)
                              (8 Mar - 29 Jul 1918, 11-18 Mar 1919)
                           + Yelena Dmitriyevna Stasova (f)   (b. 1873 - d. 1966)
                              (from 8 Mar 1918)
Political Bureau of the Central Committee of Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
25 Mar 1919 -  3 Apr 1922  Vladimir Ilyich Ul'yanov (Lenin)   (s.a.)
                           + Lev Davidovich Trotskiy          (s.a.)
                           + Lev Borisovich Kamenev           (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
                               (
Rozenfel'd)
                           + Nikolay Nikolayevich Krestinskiy (b. 1883 - d. 1938)

                               (to 16 Mar 1921)
                           + Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin      (s.a.)
                           + Nikolay Ivanovich Bukharin       (b. 1888 - d. 1938)
                           + Grigoriy Yevseyevich Zinovyev    (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
                             (= Hersh Aronovich Radomysl'skiy)
                           +
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin        (b. 1875 - d. 1946)
                           + Yelena Dmitrievna Stasova (f)    (s.a.)
                              (Jul - 26 Sep 1919)
                           + Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov  (b. 1890 - d. 1966)
                              (Skryabin)(from 16 Mar 1921)
 3 Apr 1922 - 22 Jun 1990  part of the Communist Party of the
                           Soviet Union
(and predecessors)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of Communist Party of the Russian
Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

22 Jun 1990 -  6 Aug 1991  Ivan Kuz'mich Polozkov             (b. 1935)
 6 Aug 1991 - 25 Aug 1991  Valentin Aleksandrovich Kuptsov    (b. 1937)
                         (party activities suspended 23 Aug 1991)

Chairmen of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
 9 Nov 1917 - 21 Nov 1917  Lev Borisovich Kamenev             (b. 1883 - d. 1936)  RSDRP-B/RKP
                             (Rozenfel'd)
21 Nov 1917 - 16 Mar 1919  Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov        (b. 1885 - d. 1919)  RKP

16 Mar 1919 - 30 Mar 1919  Mikhail Fyodorovich V
ladimirskiy   (b. 1874 - d. 1951)  RKP
                             (acting)
30 Mar 1919 - 15 Jul 1938  Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin          (b. 1875 - d. 1946) RKP;1925 VKP
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
15 Jul 1938 - 19 Jul 1938  Andrey Aleksandrovich Zhdanov      (b. 1896 - d. 1948)  VKP
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
19 Jul 1938 -  4 Mar 1944  Aleksey Yegorovich Badayev         (b. 1883 - d. 1951)  VKP
 9 Apr 1943 -  4 Mar 1944  Ivan Alekseyevich Vlasov           (b. 1903 - d. 1969)  VKP
                             (acting for Badayev)
 4 Mar 1944 - 25 Jun 1946  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Shvernik      (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  VKP
25 Jun 1946 -  7 Jul 1950  Ivan Alekseyevich Vlasov           (s.a.)               VKP
 7 Jul 1950 - 16 Apr 1959  Mikhail Petrovich Tarasov          (b. 1899 - d. 1970)VKP;1952 KPSS
16 Apr 1959 - 26 Nov 1959  Nikolay Grigoryevich Ignatov       (b. 1901 - d. 1966)  KPSS
                             (1st time) 
26 Nov 1959 - 20 Dec 1962  Nikolay Nikolayevich Organov       (b. 1901 - d. 1982)  KPSS
20 Dec 1962 - 14 Nov 1966  Nikolay Grigoryevich Ignatov       (s.a.)               KPSS
                             (2nd time)
14 Nov 1966 - 23 Dec 1966  Timofey Arkadyevich Akhazov        (b. 1907 - d. 1979)  KPSS
                           + Pyotr Petrovich Sysoyev          (b. 1912 - d. 1986)  KPSS
                           (acting)
23 Dec 1966 - 26 Mar 1985  Mikhail Alekseyevich Yasnov        (b. 1906 - d. 1991)  KPSS
26 Mar 1985 -  3 Oct 1988  Vladimir Pavlovich Orlov           (b. 1921 - d. 1999)  KPSS
 3 Oct 1988 - 29 May 1990  Vitaliy Ivanovich Vorotnikov       (b. 1926 - d. 2012)  KPSS
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

29 May 1990 - 10 Jul 1991  Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin         (b. 1931 - d. 2007)  KPSS:12 Jul
                                                                                1990 Non-party

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars ("Sovnarkom")
 9 Nov 1917 - 21 Jan 1924  Vladimir Ilyich Ul'yanov (Lenin)   (b. 1870 - d. 1924)  RSDRP-B/RKP
23 May 1922 -  2 Oct 1922  Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov            (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  RKP
                           + A
leksandr Dmitriyevich Tsyurupa  (b. 1870 - d. 1928)  RKP
                           + Lev Borisovich Kamenev           (s.a.)               RKP
                              (from 14 Sep 1922)
                           (acting for Lenin)
13 Dec 1922 -  2 Feb 1924 
Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov            (s.a.)               RKP
                           + Aleksandr Dmitriyevich Tsyurupa  (s.a.)               RKP
                           + Lev Borisovich Kamenev           (s.a.)               RKP
                           (acting [for Lenin to
21 Jan 1924])
 2 Feb 1924 - 18 May 1929  Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov            (s.a.)              RKP;1925 VKP
18 May 1929 -  3 Nov 1930  Sergey Ivanovich Syrtsov           (b. 1893 - d. 1937)  VKP
 3 Nov 1930 - 22 Jul 1937  Daniil Yegorovich Sulimov          (b. 1890 - d. 1937)  VKP
22 Jul 1937 - 17 Sep 1938  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Bulganin    (b. 1895 - d. 1975)  VKP
17 Sep 1938 -  2 Jun 1940  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Vakhrushev     (b. 1902 - d. 1947)  VKP
                             (acting to 29 Jul 1939)
 2 Jun 1940 - 23 Jun 1943  Ivan Sergeyevich Khokhlov          (b. 1895 - d. 1973)  VKP
 5 May 1942 -  2 May 1943  Konstantin Dmitriyevich Pamfilov   (b. 1901 - d. 1943)  VKP
                             (acting for Khokhlov) 
23 Jun 1943 - 23 Mar 1946  Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin       (b. 1904 - d. 1980)  VKP
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (presidents of the council)
23 Mar 1946                Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin       (s.a.)               VKP
23 Mar 1946 -  9 Mar 1949  Mikhail Nikolayevich Rodionov      (b. 1907 - d. 1950)  VKP
 9 Mar 1949 - 20 Oct 1952  Boris Nikolayevich Chernousov      (b. 1908 - d. 1978)  VKP
20 Oct 1952 - 24 Jan 1956  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Puzanov     (b. 1906 - d. 1998)  KPSS
24 Jan 1956 - 19 Dec 1957  Mikhail Alekseyevich Yasnov        (s.a.)               KPSS
19 Dec 1957 - 31 Mar 1958  Frol Romanovich Kozlov             (b. 1908 - d. 1965)  KPSS
31 Mar 1958 - 23 Nov 1962  Dmitriy Stepanovich Polyanskiy     (b. 1917 - d. 2001)  KPSS
23 Nov 1962 - 23 Jul 1971  Gennadiy Ivanovich Voronov         (b. 1910 - d. 1994)  KPSS
23 Jul 1971 - 28 Jul 1971  Aleksey Mikhaylovich Shkolnikov    (b. 1914 - d. 2003)  KPSS
                           + Nikolay Fyodorovich Vasilyev     (b. 1916 - d. 2011)  KPSS
                           (acting)
28 Jul 1971 - 24 Jun 1983  Mikhail Sergeyevich Solomentsev    (b. 1913 - d. 2008)  KPSS
24 Jun 1983 -  3 Oct 1988  Vitaliy Ivanovich Vorotnikov       (s.a.)               KPSS
 3 Oct 1988 - 15 Jun 1990  Aleksandr Vladimirovich Vlasov     (b. 1932 - d. 2002)  KPSS
15 Jun 1990 - 26 Sep 1991  Ivan Stepanovich Silayev           (b. 1930)            Non-party
26 Sep 1991 -  6 Nov 1991  Oleg Ivanovich Lobov (acting)      (b. 1937)            Non-party
                            (deputy chairman of the government)

Party abbreviation: KPSS = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza (Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Marxist-Leninist communist, USSR state party to 13 Mar 1990, former VKP, 13 Oct 1952 - 29 Aug 1991);
- Former parties: RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed VKP); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist communist, state party from 8 Nov 1917, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); VKP = Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RKP, 31 Dec 1925-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPSS)


Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Note: Although the U.S.S.R. was "Soviet Socialist" from its founding, all the republics began as "Socialist Soviet" and did not change to the other order until various dates in 1937. In addition, in the national languages of several republics the word "Council/Conciliar" in the respective language was only quite late changed to an adaptation of the Russian "Soviet" - and never in others, e.g., Ukraine.

For the individual Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union see individual listings:

Armenian S.S.R.
Azerbaidzhan S.S.R.
Byelorussian S.S.R.
Estonian S.S.R.
Georgian S.S.R.
Karelo-Finnish S.S.R.
(1940-1956)
Kazakh S.S.R.
Kirghiz S.S.R.
Latvian S.S.R.
Lithuanian S.S.R.
Moldavian S.S.R.
Russian S.F.S.R.
Tadzikh S.S.R.
Transcaucasian S.F.S.R.
(1922-1936)
Turkestan S.S.R.
(1922-1924)
Turkmen S.S.R.
Ukrainian S.S.R.
Uzbek S.S.R.



Russian Federation
 
[Russian flag]
               Re-adopted 21 Aug 1991
   
12 Jun 1991                Russian S.F.S.R. adopts a declaration of state sovereignty.
12 Dec 1991                Russian S.F.S.R. Supreme Council passes a resolution denouncing
                             the Union Treaty of 1922.

25 Dec 1991                Russian S.F.S.R. independent as Russia Federation (Russia)
                             (style not endorsed constitutionally until 21 Apr 1992).

Presidents
10 Jul 1991 - 31 Dec 1999  Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin         (b. 1931 - d. 2007)  Non-party
21 Sep 1993 -  4 Oct 1993  Aleksandr Vladimirovich Rutskoy    (b. 1947)            Non-party
                             (acting; in dissidence)
 5 Nov 1996 -  6 Nov 1996  Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin    (b. 1938 - d. 2010)  NDR
                             (acting for Yeltsin) 
31 Dec 1999 -  7 May 2008  Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin       (b. 1952)            Non-party;
                             (1st time)(acting to 7 May 2000)                      2008: YR
 7 May 2008 -  7 May 2012  Dmitriy Anatolyevich Medvedev      (b. 1965)            YR
 7 May 2012 -              Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin       (s.a.)               YR
                             (2nd time)  

Prime ministers (chairman of the government 6 Nov 1991 - 14 Dec 1992 and
from 23 Dec 1993,
chairman of the council of ministers 14 Dec 1992 - 23 Dec 1993)
 6 Nov 1991 - 14 Apr 1992  Gennadiy Eduardovich Burbulis      (b. 1945)            Non-party

                             (first deputy chairman of the government)
                             (acting) 
14 Apr
1992 - 14 Dec 1992  Yegor Timurovich Gaydar (Gaidar)   (b. 1956 - d. 2009) 
Non-party
                            
(first deputy chairman of the government to
                             15 Jun 1992, then acting
chairman of government)
                             (acting)
14 Dec 1992 - 23 Mar 1998  Viktor Stepanovich C
hernomyrdin    (s.a.)               NDR
                             (1st time)
23 Mar 1998 - 23 Aug 1998  Sergey Vladilenovich K
iriyenko     (b. 1962)            Non-party
                             (acting to 24 Apr 1998) 
23 Aug 1998 - 11 Sep 1998  Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin    (s.a.)               NDR
                             (2nd time) (acting)
11 Sep 1998 - 12 May 1999  Yevgeniy Maksimovich Primakov      (b. 1929 - d. 2015)  Non-party
12 May 1999 -  9 Aug 1999  Sergey Vadimovich Stepashin        (b. 1952)            Non-party
                             (acting to 19 May 1999)
 9 Aug 1999 -  7 May 2000  Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (1st time)(acting to 16 Aug 1999)
 7 May 2000 - 24 Feb 2004  Mikhail Mikhaylovich Kasyanov      (b. 1957)            Non-party
                             (acting to 17 May 2000)
24 Feb 2004 -  5 Mar 2004  Viktor Borisovich Khristenko       (b. 1957)            Non-party
                             (acting)
 5 Mar 2004 - 14 Sep 2007  Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov         (b. 1950)            Non-party
                             (acting 7-12 May 2004, from 12 Sep 2007)
14 Sep 2007 -  8 May 2008  Viktor Alekseyevich Zubkov         (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (acting from 7 May 2008)
 8 May 2008 -  7 May 2012  Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin       (s.a.)               YR
                             (2nd time)
 8 May 2012 -              Dmitriy Anatolyevich Medvedev      (s.a.)               YR

Territorial Disputes: Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in Jun 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Ukraine, U.S. and most other nations do not recognize Russia's 21 Mar 2014 annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their re-designation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol.

Party abbreviations: YR = Yedinaya Rossiya (United Russia, Russian nationalist, conservative, V. Putin personalist, government party, est.1 Dec 2001);
- Former parties: NDR = Vserossiyskoye Obshchestvenno-Politicheskoye Dvizheniye "Nash Dom - Rossiya" (All-Russian Political Movement "Our Home - Russia", centrist, government party, 12 May 1995-12 May 2006)


German Occupation in the Soviet Union

[German (Third) Reich War
                    flag used in occupied Russia 1941-1944]

22 Jun 1941                German invasion of the Soviet Union begins, by Army Group North,
                             Army Group Centre and Army Group South (on 5 Jul 1941, the rear
                             area commanders assume "political and administrative" authority
                             in the rear of army groups).
25 Jul 1941                Militarily administered area ("Operation Area East") begins to
                             diminish as civil administrators (Reichskommissare) of Ostland
                             (see under
Latvia) and (from 1 Sep 1941) of Ukraine (see under
                             Ukraine) assume authority in parts of the former military area.
Nov 1942                   Maximum extent of German advance (Novgorod, Demyansk,
Rzhev,
                            
Smolensk,
Orel, Voronezh, Stalingrad, Novorossik, Maikop,
                             Elista, and Nal'chik are all occupied and with Leningrad under
                             siege).
Oct 1943/Mar 1944          Rear areas of the army groups cease to exist in course of the
                             Soviet counter attack.
Jan/Jul 1944               Germans lose last military administered areas (Army Group South:
                             Kirovograd
8 Jan 1944; Army Group A [31 Mar 1944 renamed South
                             Ukraine]: Sevastopol' 9 May 1944; Army Group Middle: Mogilev

                             28 Jun 1944
; Army Group North: Pskov
23 Jul 1944).
14 Nov 1944 – 12 May 1945  Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia founded in
                             Prague by Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov (b. 1901 - d. 1946) commander
                             of the anti-Communist Russian Liberation Army. Its first seat
                             is in Berlin, later in Karlsbad (Karlovy Vary).


Commanders-in-chief of Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord)
(first in the Baltic States, then in north-eastern part of Russian S.F.S.R.)
22 Jun 1941 – 16 Jan 1942  Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb            (b. 1876 - d. 1956)
17 Jan 1942 – 29 Jan 1944  Georg von Küchler                  (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
31 Jan 1944 – 30 Mar 1944  Walter Model                       (b. 1891 - d. 1945)
31 Mar 1944 –  3 Jul 1944  Georg Lindemann                    (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
 4 Jul 1944 – 23 Jul 1944  Johannes Friessner                 (b. 1892 - d. 1971)
Commanders of (to 15 Mar 1942, Rear) Army Area North
 5 Jul 1941 – 31 Mar 1943  Franz von Roques                   (b. 1877 - d. 1967)
 1 Apr 1943 – 26 Mar 1944  Kuno-Hans von Both                 (b. 1884 - d. 1955)
26 Mar 1944                Post abolished


Commanders-in-chief of Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte)
(first in Belarus, then in western part of Russian S.F.S.R. and eastern part of Belarus)
22 Jun 1941 – 18 Dec 1941  Fedor von Bock                     (b. 1880 - d. 1945)
19 Dec 1941 – 12 Oct 1943  Günther von Kluge                  (b. 1882 - d. 1944)
12 Oct 1943 – 27 Jun 1944  Ernst Busch                        (b. 1885 - d. 1945) 
Commanders of (to 15 Mar 1942, Rear) Army Area Centre
 5 Jul 1941 –  6 Jul 1943  Max von Schenckendorff             (b. 1875 - d. 1943)
22 Jul 1943 – 30 Sep 1943  Ludwig Kübler                      (b. 1889 - d. 1947)
 1 Oct 1943 – 21 Oct 1943  Edwin Graf von Rothkirch und Trach (b. 1888 – d. 1980)
21 Oct 1943                Post abolished


Commanders-in-chief of Army Group South
(Heeresgruppe Sud)
(
9 Jul 1942 - 12 Feb 1943, renamed Army Group B [Heeresgruppe B])
(first in Ukraine, then in north-eastern part of Ukraine and Upper Don River area
of Russian S.F.S.R., finally in northern part of Ukraine)
22 Jun 1941 –  1 Dec 1941  Gerd von Rundstedt                 (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
 1 Dec 1941 – 15 Jan 1942  Walter von Reichenau               (b. 1884 - d. 1942)
18 Jan 1942 – 15 Jul 1942  Fedor von Bock                     (s.a.)
15 Jul 1942 –  9 Feb 1943  Maximilian Freiherr von Weichs     (b. 1881 - d. 1954)
12 Feb 1943 – 31 Mar 1944  Erich von Manstein                 (b. 1887 - d. 1973)
Commanders of (to 15 Mar 1942, Rear) Army Area South (9 Jul 1942 – 14 Feb 1943, renamed B)
 5 Jul 1941 – 27 Oct 1941  Karl von Roques (1st time)         (b. 1880 - d. 1949)
27 Oct 1941 – 10 Jan 1942  Erich Friderici (1st time)         (b. 1885 - d. 1964)
10 Jan 1942 –  9 Jul 1942  Karl von Roques (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1942 – 14 Feb 1943  Erich Friderici (2nd time)         (s.a.)
14 Feb 1943 –  1 Oct 1943  Joachim Witthöft                   (b. 1887 - d. 1966)
 1 Oct 1943                Post abolished

Commanders-in-chief of Army Group A (Heeresgruppe A)(split from Army Group South)
(first in south-eastern part of Ukraine and Crimea, then in North Caucasus
area of Russian S.F.S.R. and Crimea, finally in southern part of Ukraine and Crimea)
10 Jul 1942 – 10 Sep 1942  Wilhelm List                       (b. 1880 - d. 1971)
10 Sep 1942 – 22 Nov 1942  Adolf Hitler (nominally)           (b. 1889 - d. 1945)
10 Sep 1942 – 22 Nov 1942  Hans von Greiffenberg              (b. 1893 - d. 1951)
                            (chief of general staff of the army group)
                            (de facto acting for Hitler) 
22 Nov 1942 – 30 Mar 1944  Ewald von Kleist                   (b. 1881 - d. 1954)
Commanders of Army Area A
13 Jul 1942 – 20 Jul 1942  Friedrich-Wilhelm von Rothkirch    (b. 1884 - d. 1953)
                             und Panthen                    
20 Jul 1942 – 31 Dec 1942  Karl von Roques                    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1943 – 17 Sep 1943  Otto Hartmann                      (b. 1884 - d. 1952)
17 Sep 1943 –  8 Dec 1943  Helge Auleb                        (b. 1887 - d. 1964)
 8 Dec 1943                Post abolished


Commander-in-chief of Army Group Don
(Heeresgruppe Don)(split from Army Group A)
(in Lower Don River area of Russian S.F.S.R. and south-eastern part of Ukraine)
21 Nov 1942 – 12 Feb 1943  Erich von Manstein                 (s.a.)
Commanders of Army Area Don
21 Nov 1942 – 31 Dec 1942  Friedrich Mieth (1st time)         (b. 1888 - d. 1944)
31 Dec 1942 – 12 Jan 1943  Karl Spang                         (b. 1886 - d. 1979)
13 Jan 1943 – 12 Feb 1943  Friedrich Mieth (2nd time)         (s.a.)



Far Eastern Republic
[Far Eastern Repulic
                  1920-1922]
           12 Nov 1920 - 15 Nov 1922
Map of Far Eastern Republic
Hear National Anthem
 "Internatsional"
(The Internationale)
Text of National Anthem
(1920-1922) (de facto)
Basic Law (Constitution)
(17 Apr 1921-15 Nov 1922)
Capital: Chita
(Verkhneudinsk [Ulan-Ude]
7 Mar - 22 Oct 1920)
Currency: 1920-1922
Far Eastern
Republic Ruble
(Rubl') (DBRR)

National Holiday:
12 Feb (1921)

Convocation of the
Constituent Assembly

Population: 1,853,000
(1920 est.)
GDP: N/A
Exports: N/A
Imports: N/A
Ethnic groups: Russian 65%, Ukrainian 19%, Buryat 6%,
Korean 4%, Chinese 3%, other 3% (1920 est.) 

Total Armed Forces: 40,800 (Nov 1920)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Russian Orthodox,  Buddhist, Orthodox
Old Believers, traditional beliefs (Shamanist)
International Organizations/Treaties: None

 7 Mar 1920                Provisional Local Government of Pribaikal proclaimed at
                             Verkhneudinsk by "Red" partisans in opposition to "White"
                             Transbaikal government (see Russian civil war polities).
 6 Apr 1920                Independence declared (Far Eastern Republic)(claiming Amur,
                             Kamchatka, Primorye [Maritime], Sakhalin and Transbaikal oblasti)
14 May 1920                Recognized by Russian S.F.S.R.
15 Jul 1920                Recognized informally by Japan (also by China Feb 1921).
 5 Aug 1920                Amur oblast joins the Far Eastern Republic.
Nov 1920                   Remainder of the Transbaikal oblast annexed.
12 Dec 1920                Maritime (including Khabarovsk) and Kamchatka (including Chukotka)
                             oblasti join the Far Eastern Republic.
Apr 1921                   Kamchatka (including Chukotka) ceded back to Russian S.F.S.R.
                             (as agreed on 15 Dec 1920).
26 May 1921 - 25 Oct 1922  Maritime (Primorye) oblast in de facto secession
                             (see Russian civil war polities).
15 Nov 1922                Incorporated into the Russian S.F.S.R. (see Russian SFSR admin.)

Chairmen of the (Provisional to 30 Oct 1920) Government (Heads of State)
 7 Mar 1920 - 15 Sep 1921  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Krasnoshchekov (b. 1880 - d. 1937)  RKP
15 Sep 1921 - 15 Nov 1922  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Matveyev         (b. 1877 - d. 1951)  RKP

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
Jul 1920 – 30 Oct 1920     Boris Zakharovich Shumyatskiy         (b. 1886 - d. 1938)  RKP
30 Oct 1920 – 13 Feb 1921  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Krasnoshchekov (s.a.)               RKP
14 Feb 1921 –  8 Oct 1922  Pyotr Mikhaylovich Nikiforov          (b. 1882 - d. 1974)  RKP
 8 Oct 1922 - 15 Nov 1922  Pyotr Alekseyevich Kobozev            (b. 1878 - d. 1941)  RKP

Party abbreviation: RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Russian Marxist communist, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])



Ingria (Ingermanland)
 
[Flag of Sweden]
          1583 - 1595, 1611 - 1703
[Ingrian flag]
     Jan - Dec 1920 North Ingermanland

1069                       Part of Novgorod.
1478                       Part of Russia.
Aug 1583 - 28 May 1595     Provisionally ceded to Sweden.
1611                       Occupied by Sweden.
 9 Mar 1617                Ceded by Russia to Sweden in Treaty of Stolbovo; includes the
                             provinces of Ingria and Karelia (Kexholm). The kings of
                             Sweden styled "Dukes of Karelians and Lords over Ingria."
12 May 1703                Occupied by Russia; city of St. Petersburg founded on 27 May.
10 Sep 1721                Formally ceded to Russia by Sweden in Treaty of Nystad.
23 Jan 1920                North Ingermanland declares independence (Republic of Northern
                             Ingria).

 5 Dec 1920                Government collapses, incorporated into Russian S.F.S.R.

Governors of Ingermanland
1581 - 1582                Carl Henriksson Horn af Kanckas       (b. 1550 - d. 1601)
                             (1st time)
1582 - 1583                Hermann Pederson Fleming zu           (b. c.1520 - d. 1583)
                             Lechtis
1583 - 1484                Carl Henriksson Horn af Kanckas       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1584 - 1585                Krister Gabrielsson Oxenstierna       (b. 1542 - d. 1591)
1588 - 1590                Carl Henriksson Horn af Kanckas       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1590 - 1592                Claes Hermansson Fleming              (b. c.1550 - d. 1616)
1593                       Arvid Eriksson Stålarm Lindöst ja     (b. c.1549 - d. 1620)
                             Grabbackast
1593 - 1596                Axel Jönsson Kurck                    (b. 1555 - d. 1630)
1597 - 1600                Otto von Uexküll                      (b. 15.. - d. 1601)
1601 - 1607                Samuel Nilsson till Hässle            (b. 15.. - d. 1607) 
1607 - 1613                Philip von Scheiding                  (b. 1578 - d. 1646) 
1613 - 1615                Evert Karlsson Horn af Kanckas        (b. 1585 - d. 1615) 
1615 - 1617                Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud (1st time)(b. 1577 - d. 1657) 
1617 - 1620                Carl Carlsson friherre Gyllenhielm    (b. 1574 - d. 1650) 
1620 - 1622                Henrik Klasson Fleming                (b. 1584 - d. 1650) 
1622 - 1626                Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud (2nd time)(s.a.)
1626 - 1629                Nils Assersson Mannersköld            (b. 1586 - d. 1655)
1629                       Henrik Mattias greve von Thurn        (b. 1580 - d. 1640)
Governors-general of Ingermanland and Livland
29 Nov 1629 - 1634         Johann Bengtson Schroderus friherre   (b. 1577 - d. 1645)
                             Skytte af Duderhof 
16 Oct 1634 - 1642         Bengt Bengtsson friherre              (b. 1591 - d. 1643)
                             Oxenstierna af Eka och Lindö
Governors-general of Ingermanland and County of Kexholm
1642 - 1645                Erik Carlsson friherre                (b. 1602 - d. 1657)
                             Gyllenstierna af Lundholm
1645 - 1651                Carl friherre Mörner                  (b. 1605 - d. 1665)
1651 - 1654                Erik Gustavsson, greve Stenbock       (b. 1612 - d. 1659)
                            
till Bogesund
1654 - 1657                Gustaf Evertsson friherre Horn        (b. 1614 - d. 1666)

                             af Marienborg
1657 - 1659                Christer Claesson friherre Horn       (b. 1622 - d. 1692)
                             af Amyne
1659 - 1664                Simon Grundel-Helmfelt (1st time)     (b. 1617 - d. 1677)
1664 - 1668                Jacob Johan Justusson friherre        (b. 1624 - d. 1695)
                             Taube af Kudding (1st time)
1668 - 1673                Simon Grundel-Helmfelt (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1673 - 1678                Jacob Johan Justusson friherre        (s.a.)
                             Taube af Kudding (2nd time)
1678                       Gustaf Adam greve Banér               (b. 1624 - d. 1681)
1678 - 1681                Jacob Johan Justusson friherre        (s.a.)
                             Taube af Kudding (3rd time)
Governors
1681 - 1682                Martin Schultz von Ascheraden         (b. 1660 - d. 1730)
1682 - 1683                Hans friherre von Fersen              (b. 1625 - d. 1684)
1683 - 1687                Göran greve von Sperling              (b. 1630 - d. 1691)
Governors-general
1687 - 1691                Göran greve von Sperling              (s.a.)
1691 - 1698                Otto Wilhelm friherre von Fersen      (b. 1623 - d. 1703)
 4 Jul 1698 - 1703         Otto greve Wellingk                   (b. 1649 - d. 1708)
Chairmen of the Governing Council of the Republic of Northern Ingria (in Kirjasalo)
 9 Jul 1919 - Sep 1919     Santeri Termonen
14 Sep 1919 - Nov 1919     Juho Pekka Kokko                      (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
16 Nov 1919 - May 1920     Georg (Yrjö) Elfvengren               (b. 1889 - d. 1927)
Jun 1920 -  5 Dec 1920     Jukka Tirranen

Swedish Noble titles: greve = count; friherre = baron.

Kalmyk Khanate

[Kalmyk khanate flag to
                  1803]

c.1632                     The Torghut branch (called by others as the Kalmyks) of the
                             Mongolian Oirats settle along the lower Volga River (in modern
                             Russia and Kazakhstan), calling themselves the Oirat Horde.
16 Feb 1655                Russian suzerainty recognized, allowed to roam the east bank of
                             Volga up to Samara and west bank up to Tsaritsyn (modern
                             Volgograd).
1690                       Becomes a khanate (title not recognized by Russia until 1697).
1715                       Russian resident placed at the Kalmyk court (from 4 Dec 1717,
                             Kalmyk areas included in the Astrakhan governorate of Russia).
16 Jan 1771                Ubashi and a majority (3/4) of the Kalmyks begun return to 
                             Dzungaria.
31 Oct 1771                Khanate abolished (announced 18 Dec 1771), direct rule by the
                             governor of Astrakhan (the Kalmyk affairs remain subject to
                             the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to 23 Mar 1825). 
27 Oct 1800 –  8 Nov 1803  Khanate briefly restored (approximately in boundaries of the
                             modern Kalmyk Republic).

Khans
1672 –  1 Mar 1724         Ayushi (Ayuka)(1st time)           (b. c.1642 - d. 1724)
                             (principal ruler to 1690)
1714 –  2 Mar 1722         Chakdor Jab -Co-ruler              (d. 1722)
1724                       Zargo (8-member council)
                             (acting)
 2 Oct 1724 – 26 Nov 1735  Tseren Dondog (Donduk)             (d. 1737)
                             (regent to 1 Mar 1731)
26 Nov 1735 –  2 Apr 1741  Dondog Ombo (Donduk Ombu)          (d. 1741)
                             (regent to 15 Mar 1737)
1741                       Zargo (8-member council)
                             (acting)
16 Sep 1741 –  2 Feb 1761  Dondog (Donduk) Dashi              (b. c.1690 - d. 1761)
                             (regent to 2 Apr 1757)
 2 Feb 1761 - 16 Jan 1771  Ubashi -Regent                     (b. 1744 – d. 1774)
25 May 1771 – 31 Oct 1771  Knyaz Aleksey Fyodorovich          (b. 1734 – d. 1781)
                             Dondukov (Kalmyk: Dodbi) -Head
                             (interim)

31 Oct 1771 – 26 Oct 1800  Khanate abolished
27 Oct 1800 –  5 Jun 1803  Chuchey (Chugey) Tundutov -Regent  (b. 17.. - d. 1803)
Chief Bailiff
 5 Jun 1803 –  8 Nov 1803  Nikolay Ivanovich Strakhov         (b. 1768 – d. 1811?)

                             (deputy chairman of the Zargo; in office 1802-04)



Karafuto

[Japan]
          8 Jul 1905 - 25 Aug 1945

[Karafuto
                      emblem, 1911-1945]
             Emblem 1911 - 1945

Map of Karafuto
Capital: Toyohara
(Ōtomari 1905-Oct 1908;
Aleksandrovsk
Jul-Nov 1905
)
Currency: Japanese Yen
(JPY) (1905-1945)
Population: 391,825
(1944 est.)
Japanese Armed Forces:
 19,000  (1945 est.)

1264 - c.1368              Vassal of China (under Yuan dynasty), named Kuyi.
1635                       First Japanese expedition to Sakhalin, under Murakami Kamon,
                             subsequently it is described/claimed as part of Matsumae domain
                             (Hokkaidō), from 1815 named Kita Ezo (North Hokkaidō).
1679                       The Matsumae establish a settlement at Ōtomari (Korsakov).
 6 Sep 1689                Treaty of Nerchinsk does not mention Sakhalin, but it does
                             affirm that the Sino-Russian border is the Stanovoy Mountains
                             and that the area south of them (nominally including Sakhalin)
                             is under Chinese sovereignty.
1710                       China (Manchus) sends an expedition to Sahaliyan (Sakhalin). Then
                             c.1750 troops land on Sakhalin (Sahaliyan ula angga hada), the
                             island's population becomes dependent on China (Manchuria).
20 Oct 1806                Lieutenant Nikolay Alexandrovich Khvostov (b. 1776 - d. 1809)
                             claims Sakhalin for Russia.
1845                       Japan proclaims its sovereignty over Sakhalin.
 3 Oct 1853                Sakhalin claimed for Russia by Capt. Gennadiy Ivanovich Nevelskoy
                             (b. 1813 - d. 1876). Post named Muravyevskiy established near
                             the Japanese trading post as military base (under Nikolay
                             Busse), it is withdrawn on 11 Jun 1854 (burned down 3 Jul 1855).
 7 Feb 1855                Treaty of Shimoda signed between Russia and Japan declares that
                             both nationals could inhabit the island, Russians in the North
                             and Japanese in the South (ratified 7 Dec 1856, confirmed on
                             30 Mar 1867 by temporary regulations).
28 Jul 1856                Russian Lieutenant-Commander Nikolay Matveyevich Chikhachev
                            (b. 1830 - d. 1917) founds Due (Duė), the first permanent Russian
                             settlement.
14 Nov 1860                China cedes all the land north of the Amur and east of the Ussuri
                             River (nominally including Sakhalin) to Russia by Convention
                             of Peking (ratified 26 Dec 1860).
20 Sep 1869                Japanese rename Kita Ezo as Karafuto.
 4 Sep 1875                Sakhalin incorporated into Russia, in exchange for Japan obtaining
                             all of the Kuril Islands (on 15 Sep 1875) by Treaty of Saint
                             Petersburg (signed 4 May 1875, ratified 22 Aug 1875).
 7 Jul 1905                Japan invades Sakhalin (Korsakov occupied 8 Jul 1905 and
                             Alexandrovsk on 24 Jul 1905. Russian forces surrender in the
                             South on 16 Jul 1905 and in North on 31 Jul 1905).
 5 Sep 1905                Karafuto (Southern Sakhalin Island) annexed to Japan and
                             Northern Sakhalin is restored to Russia (on 13 Nov 1905) by
                             the Treaty of Portsmouth (ratified 25 Nov 1905).
 1 Apr 1907                Karafuto Agency replaces Karafuto Department of Civil Affairs
                             (by edict dated 14 Mar 1907; under Ministry of Colonial Affairs
                             from 10 Jun 1929). 
22 Apr 1920 - 25 May 1925  Northern Sakhalin occupied by Japan.
 1 Nov 1942                Karafuto Agency is transferred from the Ministry of Colonial
                             Affairs to the Ministry of Home Affairs.
 1 Apr 1943                Karafuto Incorporated into the Japan proper as a prefecture
                            (by imperial edit of 26 Mar 1943).
11 Aug 1945                Soviet invasion of Southern Sakhalin (Esutoru occupied 16 Aug 1945,
                             Maoka 20 Aug 1945, Toyohara and Ōtomari on 25 Aug 1945, with 
                             Japanese resistance ending on 2 Sep 1945).
 2 Jan 1946                Karafuto government abolished (formally by Japan on 1 Jun 1949).
 2 Feb 1946                Incorporation into Soviet Union as Yuzhnyy-Sakhalin (Southern
                             Sahkalin) oblast (see Russian SFSR Admin.).
 8 Sep 1951                Japan formally renounces sovereignty over Southern Sakhalin
                             by the Treaty of San Francisco (ratified 28 Apr 1952).

Japanese Sakhalin Military Commanders (of 13th Army Division)
 7 Jul 1905 -  6 Jul 1906  Kensai Haraguchi                   (b. 1847 - d. 1919)
 6 Jul 1906 - 31 Mar 1907  Seizō Okazaki                      (b. 1851 - d. 1910)
Director of the Department of Civil Affairs

28 Jul 1905 - 31 Mar 1907  Kiichirō Kumagai                   (b. 1866 - d. 1949)
Directors
of the Karafuto Agency (governors)
 1 Apr 1907 - 24 Apr 1908  Sachihiko Kusunose ‎                 (b. 1858 - d. 1927) 
24 Apr 1908 - 12 Jun 1908  Takejirō Tokonami                  (b. 1867 - d. 1935)
12 Jun 1908 -  5 Jun 1914  Sadatarō Hiraoka                   (b. 1863 - d. 1942)
 5 Jun 1914 -  9 Oct 1916  Bunji Okada                        (b. 1874 - d. 1943)
13 Oct 1916 - 17 Apr 1919  Akira Sakaya (1st time)            (b. 1870 - d. 1946)
17 Apr 1919 - 11 Jun 1924  Kinjirō Nagai                      (b. 1874 - d. 1927)
11 Jun 1924 -  5 Aug 1926  Akira Sakaya (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 5 Aug 1926 - 27 Jul 1927  Katsuzō Toyoda                     (b. 1882 - d. 1939)
27 Jul 1927 -  9 Jul 1929  Kōji Kita                          (b. 1878 - d. 1934)
 9 Jul 1929 - 17 Dec 1931  Shinobu Agata                      (b. 1881 - d. 1942)
17 Dec 1931 -  5 Jul 1932  Masao Kishimoto                    (b. 1881 - d. 1963)
 5 Jul 1932 -  7 May 1938  Takeshi Imamura                    (b. 1880 - d. 1960)
 7 May 1938 -  9 Apr 1940  Shun'ichi Munesue                  (b. 1893 - d. 19..)
 9 Apr 1940 -  1 Jul 1943  Masanori Ogawa                     (b. 1894 - d. 1977)
 1 Jul 1943 - 30 Dec 1945  Toshio Ōtsu                        (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
Soviet
Military Commander (of 16th Army)
11 Aug 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Leontiy Georgiyevich Cheremisov    (b. 1893 - d. 1967)  Mil
Heads of the Soviet Military Administration of Karafuto
27 Aug 1945 - 30 Sep 1945  Mikhail Vasilyevich Alimov         (b. 1899 - d. 1978)  Mil
                             (deputy commander of 56th Rifle Corps)
 1 Oct 1945 -  2 Feb 1946  Maksim Alekseyevich Purkayev       (b. 1894 - d. 1953)  Mil
                             (commander of Far Eastern Military District)

Chief of the Civil Administration of Southern Sakhalin (from 2 Feb 1946,
Chief of the Southern Sakhalin Oblast Administration for Civil Affairs)
23 Sep 1945 -  1 Apr 1947  Dmitriy Nikolayevich Kryukov       (b. 1899 - d. 1985)  Mil



Tannu Tuva
 
[Flag of Tannu
                          Tuva , 1922-1925]
                         1922 - 1925
[Flag of
                          Tuvinan People's Republic, 1925-1930]
                      1925 - 28 Jun 1930
[Flag of
                          Tuvinan People's Republic, 1930-1935]
                28 Jun 1930 - 2 Jul 1935
[Flag of
                          Tuvinan People's Republic, 1935-1941]
                 2 Jul 1935 - 25 Jun 1941
[Flag of
                          Tuvinan People's Republic, 1941-1943]
                 25 Jun 1941 - 8 Sep 1943
[Flag of Tuvinan People's
                          Republic, 1943-1944]
                  8 Sep 1943 - 11 Oct 1944
Map of Tannu Tuva
Hear National Anthem
"Tyva Internatsional"
(
Tuvan Internationale)
Text of National Anthem
(1926?- 1944)
Constitutions
(23 Sep 1921, 1924, 1926,
25 Jun 1941)
Capital: Kyzyl
(Khem-Beldyr 1918-1926,

Belotsarsk 1914-1918)
Currency: 1935-1944 Aksha
(TVAA); Russian/Soviet
Ruble (RUFS) 1921-1935
(1 Aksha = 1.31 Soviet
 Rubles [1944])

National Holiday:
 14 Aug (1921)

Independence Day
Population: 95,400 (1944)
60,000 (1918)
GNP: 25.8 million TVAA (1943)
Exports: N/A
Imports: 810,000 TVAA (1941)
Ethnic groups: Tuvan 85%, Russian 14.4%,
other 0.6%% (1944)
Total Armed Forces: 1,500 (1932)
Merchant marine: None
Religions: Tibetan Buddhist, Tengrist (Shamanist),
 Russian Orthodox Christian, Orthodox Old Believers 
International Organizations/Treaties 1921-1944: None

Note: Names in are given using modern (post-1945) Tuvan and (from 1921) with Russian in parentheses using the BGN/PCGN romanization system.

1207                       Mongol rule.
end 16th-early 17th cent.  Most of the Tuvinian tribes under the dominion of Sholoy
                             Ubashi the first Altyn-Khan ("Golden Khan").
1616                       Nomadic Tuvans in the Khemchik valley (western Tuva) swear an
                             oath of allegiance to Russia before Vasiliy of Tyumen envoy of
                             the Czar.
1688 - 1756                Under the
Dörben Oyirad (Dzungaria)(see under China).
21 Oct
1727                Chinese sovereignty recognized by Russia under Treaty of Kyakhta
                             which established the northern border of Mongolia (then
                             including Tuva)(ratified 28 Jun 1728).

Mar 1756                   Formally annexed to China (as Tangnu Wulianghai).
1759                       Tangnu Wulianghai (Mongolian: Tangnuu Uriyangkhay) organized into
                             an administrative system similar to Mongolia with four,
later
                             five,
Banners (
khoshuns)(Oyun, Tannu, Kemchik, Salchak, and
                             later
Tozhu). Each Banner was governed by a chief. In 1762 a
                             paramount chief (Bügüde-darga [Amban Noyan]) is appointed to
                             administer the area. From 1786, the chiefs of the Oyun Banner
                             are made the paramount chiefs.
1839/56                    Russian settlement of the region begins.
 7 Oct 1864                Treaty of Tarbagatai (Tacheng) border protocol between China
                             and Russia that defines most of the western extent of their
                             border in central Asia, between Outer Mongolia and Kokand.
16/29 Dec 1911            
Mongolia declares independence from China, nominally including
                            
Tagna Uriankhay (Tuva)(Russia supported Outer Mongolian autonomy,
                             but rejects its claim on
Tuva).
Jan 1912                   A meeting of Tuvan banner chiefs declares the territory of several

                             banners "independent" and "under Russian protectorate", but
                             this does not lead to the emergence of a polity or a Tuvan
                             central authority.
15 Feb 1912                Ak-Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy requests Russian protection for his
                            
banner, which is never given an official reply, however Russian
                            
troops are sent in to protect the Russian settlers.
30 Jul 1914                Russian protectorate declared over the area of modern Tuva
                             as the
Uryankhay Territory (Uryankhayskiy kray)(Old Style date
                             17 Jul 1914)(by proclamation of 17 Apr [O.S.
4 Apr] 1914).
1916                       Buyan Badarkhüü, chief of the Khemchik banner (the largest in
                             Tuva) calls on China to accept the submission of his Banner.
13 Jun 1917                Congress of Russian colonists requests annexation by Russia.
Aug 1917                   Russian Provisional Government confirms Russian protectorate.
18 Jun 1918                A joint Congress of the Russian and Tuvan populations adopts an
                             agreement on the self-determination of Tuva which includes an
                             article about the rights of Russian citizens.
 7 Jul 1918 - 18 Jul 1919  Occupation of Central and Northern
Tuva by "White" Russian
                             military forces under
Kolchak
Jan 1919 - Mar 1921        Chinese troops occupy Southwestern Tuva (declaring Tuva [along
                             with Mongolia] to be re-incorporated into China on 19 Feb 1920).
Mar 1919 - Jul 1920        Mongolian troops occupy Southern Tuva.
 
2 Aug 1919 -  4 Sep 1919 
Soviet Partisans occupy parts of Central and Northern Tuva.
Dec 1920                   Soviet Red Army re-takes Belotsarsk and by Mar 1921 all of Tuva.
Apr 1921 - May 1921        "White" Russian invasion from Mongolia led by
Ilya Grigoryevich
                             Kazantsev
(d. 1921), who considered himself the
Ataman of the
                             the Uryanhay Yenisey [Enisey]) Cossack force, subordinated
                             to Baron Ungern-Sternberg (see Mongolia).
14 Aug 1921                Independence declared (People's Republic of Tannu Tuva [Respublika
                             Tannu Tuva Ulus])
(under Soviet Union protectorate). 
16 Aug 1926                Independence recognized by Mongolia in the Mongolia-Tuva Treaty of
                             Friendship and Mutual Recognition.

24 Nov 1926                Renamed Tuvinian People's Republic (Respublika Tuva Arad Ulus).
1929                       Darxad (Darkhad) region ceded to Mongolia.
28 Jun 1930                By decree a Latin script orthography using the Uniform Turkic
                             alphabet was introduced, and Tuvan (Tyv) became an official
                             language (prior the language was not written and the Classic
                             Mongolian script and language was used for official purposes).
 8 Sep 1943                By decision Tuvan orthography switched to (Russian) Cyrillic
.
17 Aug 1944                Tuva declared part of the Soviet Union.
11 Oct 1944                Annexed to the Soviet Union (effective 1 Nov 1944) as part
                            
of the Russian S.F.S.R.

Chairman of the Organizing Bureau of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party 
29 Oct 1921 - Mar 1922     Monggush Ayyzhy oglu Nimachap      (b. 1879 - d. 1932)
                            
(Mongush Nimachap [Nimazhap])
Chairmen
of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party 
Mar 1922 -  9 Jul 1923    
Maady Dalay oglu Lopsang-Osur      (b. 1876 - d. 1934?)
                            
(Maady Dalaydovich Lopsan-Osur)
 9 Jul 1923 - 15 Mar 1924  Oyun Kenden oglu Kürsedi           (b. 1884 - d. 1924)
                             (Oyun
Kenden oglu Kyursedi [Kursedi])
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party 
Apr 1924 - Jan 1926        Shalyk? Shagdyr
                            
(Shalyk? Shagdyr)
First Secretaries
of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party 
Jan 1926 - Feb 1927        Ak-Monggush Khaydyp oglu           (b. 1892 - d. 1932) 
                            
Buyan-Badyrgy
                            
(Ak-Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy
)
Feb 1927 - Jan 1929        Oorzhak Donggak? oglu Sodunam      (b. 1901 - d. ....)
  
                            
(Sodunam Oorzhak Dongak [Donchaa] oglu)
Jan 1929 - Mar 1932       
Irgit Chapsyn oglu Shagdyrzhap     (b. 1899 - d. 1959)
                            
(Irgit Chapsynovich Shagdyrzhap)
General Secretary
of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party

 6 Mar 1932 -  1 Nov 1944  Maady (from 1933, Salchak)         (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
                             Surasovich Toka  
                            (from 1944, Toka Kalbak-Khörek oglu Salchak)
                            (= Salchak Kalbakhorekovich Toka,
                             1940-1942 Tozhu Surasovich Toka)

Paramount Chiefs (title Bügüde-darga [Amban Noyan])
1762 - 1769                Manadzhab
1769 - 1780                Humudzhap
1780 - 1786                Deleg-Dashi

1786 - 1792                Oyun Dazhy
1792 - 1795                Oyun
Dazhy oglu Danzyn
1795 - 1817               
Oyun Danzyn oglu Sedenbal
1817 - 1827                Oyun S
edenbal oglu Badyzhap
1827 - 1865               
Oyun Sedenbal oglu Lamazhap
1865 - 1867                Oyun
Sedenbal oglu Shyndazyn
1867 - 1899               
Oyun Shyndazyn oglu Ölzey-Ochur
1899 - 1915               
Oyun Ölzey-Ochur oglu Kombu-Dorzhu
1915 - 1916               
Irgit Agbaan-Demchi (usurper)
1916 - 1921               
Oyun Kombu-Dorzhu oglu Sodunam-    (b. 1897 - d. 1924)
                             Balchyr

Russian Civil Commissioners for the Affairs of Uryankhay
1914 - 1915                Andrey Petrovich Tsererin          (b. 188. - d. 19..)  Non-party
1915 - 24 Mar 1917         Viktor Yuventinovich Grigoryev     (b. 1862 - d. 1918)  Non-party
Chairman of the Soviet
24 Mar 1917 - Nov 1917     Aleksandr Petrovich Yermolayev     (b. 1886 - d. 1919)  PSR
                             (
Ermolayev)
Commissar of the Provisional Government 

Nov 1917 - 25 Mar 1918     Aleksey Aleksandrovich Turchaninov (b. 1876 - d. 1919)
                             (1st time)

Chairmen of the Executive of
Committee of the Soviet of Workers' and Peasants' Deputies 
25 Mar 1918 -  2 May 1918  Stepan Konstantinovich Bespalov    (b. 1895 - d. 1918)  RSDRP-B
 7 May 1918 -  7 Jul 1918  Mikhail Minayevich Terentyev       (b. 1882 - d. 1952)  RSDRP-B
Commissar of the ("White") Provisional Government
 7 Jul 1918
-  2 Aug 1919  Aleksey Aleksandrovich Turchaninov (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

Commander of the (Soviet) Siberian Partisans (at Khem-Beldyr)
 
2 Aug 1919 -  4 Sep 1919  Aleksandr Diomidovich Kravchenko   (b. 1880 - d. 1923)  RKP/Mil
Chinese Commissioner for Tangnu Wulianghai (at Chandan)
Jan 1919 - Mar 1921        Yan Shichao (Yen Shih-ch'ao)       (b. 1881? - d. 19..) Mil
Mongolian Ministers at Tagna Uriankhay (at Khem-Beldyr)
Mar 1919 - Nov 1919        Khatanbaatar Sandagdorjiin         (b. 1878 - d. 1927)  Mil
                            
Magsarjav 
Nov 1919 - Jul 1920        Dilov Khutagt Baashluu Ovogtoy     (b. 1883 - d. 1965)  Non-party
                            
Zhamsranzhav (Jamsranjav)
Russian Soviet Representative
(at Khem-Beldyr)
Aug 1920 - 13 Aug 1921     Innokentiy Georgiyevich Safyanov   (b. 1873 - d. 1953)  RKP
Chairman of the All-Tuvan Constituent Khural

14 Aug 1921 - 15 Aug 1921  Ak-Monggush Khaydyp oglu           (s.a.)               Non-party
                            
Buyan-Badyrgy
                             (Ak-Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy) 
Chairmen of the General Central Council
15 Aug 1921 - 28 Feb 1922 
Ak-Monggush Khaydyp oglu           (s.a.)            Oct 1921:TNRP
                            
Buyan-Badyrgy             
 1 Mar 1922 - 15 Aug 1922  Maady Dalay oglu Lopsang-Osur      (s.a.)               TNRP
                             (Maady Dalaydovich Lopsan-Osur)
15 Aug 1922 -  1 Oct 1923  Salchak Idam-Sürün                                      TNRP
                             (Salchak Idam-Syuryun)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Little Khural

 
1 Oct 1923 -  4 Feb 1929  Monggush Ayyzhy oglu Nimachap      (s.a.)               TNRP
                             (Mongush Nimachap [Nimazhap])

 5 Feb 1929 -  5 Oct 1933  Adyg-Tülüsh Lopsang oglu Chüldüm   (b. 1900 - d. 1933)  TNRP
                             (Adyg Tyulyush
Lopsonovich Chulydum)
1933 - Feb 1938           
Adyg-Tülüsh Oolchukkay oglu        (b. 1893 - d. 1938)  TNRP
                            
Khemchik-ool
                             (Adyg-Tyulyush [Tulush] Oolchukay oglu Khemchik-ool)
 2 Mar 1938 -  4 Apr 1940 
Oyun Oyun oglu Polat               (b. 1906 - d. 1992)  TNRP 
                            
(Oyun Oyunovich Polat)
 6 Apr 1940 -  1 Nov 1944  Khertek Amyrbit kyzy Anchymaa (f)  (b. 1912 - d. 2008)  TNRP
                             (Khertek Amyrbitovna Anchymaa-Toka) 


Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
(prime ministers)
 1 Oct 1923 - 18 Sep 1924  Ak-Monggush Khaydyp oglu
          (s.a.)               TNRP
                            
Buyan-Badyrgy
18 Sep 1924 - 1925         Soyan Oruygu
                      (b. 1876 - d. 19..)  TNRP
                            
(Soyan Oruygu)
1925 - Jan 1929            Kuular Dazhy oglu Donduk           (b. 1888 - d. 1932)  TNRP

                            
(Kuular Dazhyevich Donduk)
Jan 1929 - 1929           
Adyg-Tyulyush Khemchik-ool         (s.a.)               TNRP
1929 - Feb 1938            Sat Sany-Shiri oglu Chürmit-Dazhy  (b. 1894 - d. 1938)  TNRP
                            
(Sat Sany-Shiri oglu Churmet-Dazhi)
Oct 1938 - May 1940        Ondar Khüreng-ool oglu Bayyr  
    (b. 1904 - d. 1986)  TNRP
                            
(Aleksey Shirinmeyevich Bair)
22 Jun 1941 -  1 Nov 1944 
Saryg-Donggak Manygy oglu Chymba   (b. 1906 - d. 1985)  TNRP 
                             (Aleksandr Manygeyevich Chimba

Party abbreviations: TNRP = Tuvinskaya Narodno-Revolyutsionnaya Partiya (Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party, socialist, reorganized Jul 1923, from Apr 1941 Marxist-Leninist, state party, 29 Oct 1921-11 Oct 1944, merged into Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)]); Mil = Military;
- Former parties:
RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Russian Marxist communist, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks]); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, Marxist communist, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); PSR = Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Socialists - Revolutionaries, "SRs", democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, split Aug 1917 into Left and Right wings, Jan 1902-1921)



Chechnya (pre-1920)  

[Caucasian
                          Imamate flag 1829-1859]
                            1829 - 1859
[ North Caucasian
                        Emirate flag 1919-1920]
                                1919 - 1920

c.1640                     Turlo house begins rule, based in village of Chechen (Chechen-Aul)
                             (by the early
18th century their authority extended to much of
                             lowland Nokhch
people who began to be referred by others as
                             the "Chechen").

1733                       Turlo declare loyalty to Russia (again 1747 and 1781), other
                             lowland princely rulers (Bragun, Germenchuk) do the same (five
                             highland Chechen confederacies remain unaffiliated with Russia).
1784                       Anti-Russian movement, led by Sheikh Mansur (b. 1760 – d. 1794)
                             1785-1791, eliminates princely rule (at the end of
the 18th
                             century there are a total of eight or nine Chechen confederacies)
12 Oct 1813                Persia cedes its (nominal) sovereignty over Northeast Caucasus
                             to Russia by the Treaty of Gulistan.
1819                       Groznaya (from Dec 1869 renamed Grozny) established by Russia.
1825                       People's Assembly (Mekhk Kkhetasho), in existence for centuries,
                             attempts to create a single political and military authority,
                             based at Shali (from 1830 subjected to the Imamate).
18296 Sep 1859         Caucasian Imamate established (in Dagestan and Chechnya).
 6 Sep 1859                Chechnya fully incorporated into Russia (Vedeno occupied Apr 1859).
1877 -  9 Mar 1878         Rebellions under Aldanov and as-Suguri.
 2 Dec 1917                Independence declared (Emirate of Chechnya).
11 May 1918 - May 1919     Part of the North Caucasian Mountain Republic.
 4 Feb 1919 -  7 Mar 1920  Grozny occupied by "White" Russian forces.
19 Sep 1919 - 1921         Emirate of the North Caucasus proclaimed at Vedeno.
20 Jan 1921                Part of Russian S.F.S.R. (see under Russian S.F.S.R. admin.).


Turlo Rulers (from 1746, Senior Rulers) of Chechen
(title: Eli, Turkic title: Bek)
1695 – 1708                Muhammad (Bammat)                  (d. 1708)
1708 – 1728                Amir Hamza                         (d. 1728)
1728 – 1732                Hasbolat                           (d. 1732)
1732 – 1746                Aidemir                            (d. 1746)
1746 – 1757                Ali Bek                            (d. 1759)
1757 – 1770                Arslan Bek (1st time)              (d. 1784)
1770 – 1771                Ahmad Khan                         (d. 1771)
1771 – 1775                Ali Sultan                         (d. 1775)
1775 – 1784                Arslan Bek (2nd time)              (s.a.)
Chief of the People (title: Mekhk Da [referred by Russians to as Ataman])
1825 – 1830                Bibolat Taimi                      (b. 1779 – d. 1832)
                             (from c.1807 supreme commander, title: Bachcha)
Imams of Dagestan and Chechnya

1829 - 29 Oct 1832         Ghazi Muhammad ibn Ismail          (b. c.1795 - d. 1832)
                             (Gazi Mukhammad Gimrinskiy)
1832 - Sep 1834            Hamza Bek ibn Ali Iskandar Bek     (b. 1789 - d. 1834)
                             al-Hutsali ("Khamzat-bek")       
                             (Gamzat-bek Gotsatlinskiy)                       
Sep 1834 -  6 Sep 1859     Shamil (Shamil' Gimrinskiy)        (b. c.1797 - d. 1871)
1877 - 29 Dec 1877         Muhammad Haji as-Suguri            (b. 1839 - d. 1877)
                             (Mukhammad Khadzhi Sogratlinskiy)
                             (in Dagestan)
Apr 1877 -  9 Mar 1878     Ali-Bek Haji Aldanov               (b. 1850 - d. 1878)
                             (Alibek Khadzhi Zandakskiy)
                             (in Chechnya)
10 Aug 1917 - 1918         Najmuddin Hotso (Najm al-Din)      (b. 1859 - d. 1925)
                            
(Nazhmudin Gotsinskiy) 
May 1918 - Sep 1918        Khayir al-Salti ("Uzun Haji")      (b. 1848 - d. 1920)
                             (Khayir "Uzun" Khadzhi Saltinskiy)
Imams and Emirs

19 Sep 1919 - May 1920     Khayir al-Salti ("Uzun Haji")      (s.a.)
Aug 1920 - 1921            Said Bek



Circassia

[Flag of Circassia 1830 – 1864]
           Flag of Circassia 1830 - 1864

1475                       Ottomans rule in Anapa (part of Genoese Gazaria since 1300),
                             which from 1568 is part of Kefe Elayet (from 1774, Trebizon
                             Elayet), and claim Circassia.
18 Sep 1739                Russia drops claims (originating in the 16th century) to Circassia
                             in the Treaty of Belgrade (ratified 5 Nov 1739).
1791                       Anapa briefly occupied by Russia (again 1807, 1809-1812, 1828-1829)
14 Sep 1829                Ottomans cede Anapa, and nominal sovereignty over Circassia, to
                             Russia in the Treaty of Adrianople (ratified 20 Sep 1829). The
                             Great Assembly (Khase Shkho), representing 12 or 14 tribes of
                             Circassians (Adyge), begins to meet regularly and proclaims an
                             independent tribal confederacy (confirmed 1834, 1841, 1848,
                             and 1856).
1838                       Russian rule over the Circassian coastline (Novorossiysk, Tuapse,
                             Sochi [
already in Gelendzik from 1831 and Adler from 1837]).
1842 – 1859                Caucasus Imamate governors (naibs), largely independent, rule
                             varying parts of Circassia and eliminates princely rule.
1855                       Russians abandon the
Circassian coastline (except Novorossiysk),
                             but soon begins re-occupation (Anapa in 1856, Tuapse in 1859,
                             Sochi in 1864).
1857                       Russians found Maykop (Maikop).
1859 – 1864                Circassian tribes surrender to Russia (Temirgoy, Natukhai, and
                             Besleney in 1860;
Abadzekh in 1863; Shapsug and Ubykh in 1864).
13 Jun 1861                A unified
Circassian republic proclaimed.
18 Mar 1864                Circassians suffer final defeat, the Russian army enters the
                             Ubykh country.
1864                       Russia forces a majority of the Circassians to emigrate to the
                             the Ottoman Empire.

Senior Rulers of Temirgoy (title: Pshi Thamate; in north-east Circassia)
(claimed precedence among Circassians as 'Rulers of all Rulers' with title: Pshi Pshiguashe)
17.. – 1808                Bezruk Bolotoko                    (d. 1808)
                             (Bolotoko family has alternate name Aiteko)
1808 – 1827                Misost Bolotoko                    (d. 1827)
1827 – 1837                Jambolat Bolotoko                  (d. 1837)
                           (last significant Temirgoy ruler, 1830 declares loyalty to Russia)
Wali of Circassia (a senior ruler of Besleney; in south-east Circassia)
1841 – c.1842              Kazbek Kanoko
Naibs of Caucasus Imamate for Circassia (based at Abadzekh country, in central Circassia)
May 1842 – 1844            Haji Muhammad                      (d. 1844)
1845 – 1846                Suleiman Efendi
1848 – 20 Nov 1859         Muhammad Amin                      (b. 1818 – d. 1899)
Wali of Circassia (in or near Anapa, of Natukhai tribe; mostly in opposition to Imamate)
1855 – 1857                Sefer Bey Zanoko                   (b. 1789 – d. 1859)
Head of Supreme Council (Majilis)(in or near Sochi, of Ubykh tribe)
1861 – 1864                Haji Kerenduk Dogomuko Berzek      (b. 1804 – d. 1881)




 © Ben Cahoon