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Japan
 

[Japan]
Adopted 3 Oct 1870
(Merchant Flag from 5 Aug 1854)
(use limited 1 Oct 1945 - 1 Jan 1949)
[Japan
                                    Naval and War Ensign 1889-1945, from
                                    1954]
Naval and War Flag
7 Oct 1889 - 2 Sep 1945;
Re-adopted 30 Jun 1954
[Japan Allied Occupation Flag
                                    (E-ensign) 1945-1952]
2 Sep 1945 - 28 Apr 1952
Allied Occupation Ensign
 
 Map of Japan
 Hear National Anthem
"Kimigayo"
(His Majesty’s Reign)
Text of National Anthem
in use from 3 Nov 1880,
adopted 13 Aug 1999
Constitution
 (3 May 1947)
Map of Japanese
Prefectures
Map of the Japanese
Empire in 1939
Charter Oath
(6 Apr 1868)
Meiji Constitution
 (11 Feb 1889 - 3 May 1947)
Capital: Tokyo
(Kyōto 1180- 3 Sep 1868;
Heian-kyō 794-1180;
Heijō-kyō 710-740, 745-784;
Asuka 593-636, 642-645,
655-660, 672-694; Nara 480-539, 572-585, 640-642)
Currency: Yen (JPY);
1945-48 Japanese Allied
Yen (JPA)
National Holiday: 23 Feb (1960)
Tennō Tanjōbi
(Emperor's Birthday)
--------------------------------
1989-2019: 23 Dec (1933)

Birthday of Emperor Akihito
Population: 125,507,472 (2019)
83,458,405 (1925)
GDP: $5.44 trillion (2017)
Exports: $688.9 billion (2017)
Imports: $644.7 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Japanese 98.1%, Chinese 0.5%, Korean 0.4%,
other 1% (includes Filipino, Vietnamese, and Brazilian) (2016)
Total Active Armed Forces: 230,300 (2010)
U.S. Military Forces: 38,818 (2017)

Merchant marine: 5,017 ships (2019)
Religions: Shintoism 70.4%, Buddhism 69.8%,
 Christianity 1.5%, other 6.9% (2015)

note: total adherents exceed 100% because many people
practice both Shintoism and Buddhism. 
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (observer),  ADB, AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT (consultative), APA (observer), APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BTWC, CCM, CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, CPLP (associate observer), CPTPP, CWC, EAS, EBRD, EITI, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IORA (partner), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO (global partner), NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), OST, PA (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), RCEP (signatory), SAARC (observer), SEGIB (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Japan Index
Chronology

11 Feb 660 BC              Legendary foundation of Japan (modern state
                             dates from 645 AD).
645 AD                     Taika reforms bring greater centralization and
                             enhance the power of the imperial court.

c.800 AD                  
Japan (Nippon) (earliest record of the name Nippon
                            
appears in the Chinese "Old Book of Tang" which
                             in the 7th or early 8th cent. The first reference
                             to a land of "rising sun", however, was in a
                             letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official
                             history of the Sui dynasty).
1100 - 1189                Northern Fujiwara polity (Ōshū) independent, based
                            
at Hiraizumi in the Tōhoku region.
21 Aug 1192                Shogunate
(military) government established
                             (suppressed 5 Jul 1333 - 2 Oct 1338).
11 Oct 1331 - 19 Nov 1392  Two rival imperial courts, one in Kyoto in the
                             North and at Yoshino, later Osaka, in the South.
bf.1392                    State of Japan (Nippon Koku)(Nippon Koku is the
                             Sino-Japanese reading [on-yomi]; native Japanese
                             reading [kun-yomi] of the same kanji is understood
                             to be Yamato-no-kuni).
24 Mar 1603                Tokugawa begin the last period of the Shogunate
.
 
3 Jan 1868                Shogunate is abolished by the Meji Emperor.
 7 May 1875 - 25 Aug 1945  Southern Kuril Islands annexed.
17 Oct 1876                Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands annexed.
27 Mar 1879                Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa) annexed.
29 Nov 1890                Effective date of the Meiji Constitution promulgated
                             on 11 Feb 1889.
29 Nov 1890                Great Japanese Empire (Dai Nihon Teikoku).
 2 Jun 1895 - 25 Oct 1945  Formosa (
Taiwan) annexed.
 5 Sep 1905 - 25 Aug 1945  Karafuto (Southern Sakhalin) and the northern
                             Kuril Islands annexed.
29 Aug 1910 - 12 Sep 1945  Korea annexed.
 2 Sep 1945 - 28 Apr 1952  Allied occupation of Japan.
 
3 May 1947                Effective date of the amendments to the Constitution
                             promulgated 3 Nov 1946.
 3 May 1947                State of Japan (Nihon Koku).

Prefectures
(from 1947)

Domains
(to 1869)

Republic of Ezo
(1869)
Okinawa and
Ryukyu Islands
(1669-1879,
from 1945)

Bonin and
Volcano Islands

(1830-1880,
1945-1968)

Allied
Occupation

(1945-1952)
Dutch Deshima
(1609-1860)
English Hirado
(1613-1623)
Portuguese Nagasaki
(1580-1639)
 

Shoguns (sei-i taishōgun
16 Mar 1568 - 18 Oct 1568  Ashikaga Yoshihide                 (b. 1538 - d. 1568)
18 Oct 1568 - 27 Aug 1573  Ashikaga Yoshiaki                  (b. 1537 - d. 1597)
27 Aug 1573 - 24 Mar 1603  post in abeyance
24 Mar 1603 - 16 Apr 1605  Tokugawa Ieyasu (Tōshō-daigongen)  (b. 1542 - d. 1616)
16 Apr 1605 - 27 Jul 1623  Tokugawa Hidetada (Daitoku-in)     (b. 1579 - d. 1632)
27 Jul 1623 -  8 Jun 1651  Tokugawa Iemitsu (Taiyū-in)        (b. 1604 - d. 1651)
 2 Oct 1651 -  4 Jun 1680  Tokugawa Ietsuna (Genyū-in)        (b. 1641 - d. 1680)
1651 - 1663                Regency
                           - Sakai Tadakatsu (to 1656)        (b. 1587 - d. 1662)
                           - Sakai Tadakiyo                   (b. 1624 - d. 1681)
                           - Inaba Masanori                   (b. 1623 - d. 1696)
                           - Matsudaira Nobutsuna             (b. 1593 - d. 1662)
                              (to 4 May 1662)
15 Sep 1680 - 19 Feb 1709  Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (J
ōken-in)     (b. 1646 - d. 1709)
 8 Jun 1709 - 12 Nov 1712  Tokugawa Ienobu (Bunshō-in)        (b. 1709 - d. 1716)
26 Apr 1713 - 19 Jun 1716  Tokugawa Ietsugu (Yūshō-in)        (b. 1709 - d. 1716)
28 Sep 1716 - 20 Oct 1745  Tokugawa Yoshimune (Yūtoku-in)     (b. 1677 - d. 1751)
24 Nov 1745 - 25 Jun 1760  Tokugawa Ieshige (Junshin-in)      (b. 1712 - d. 1761)
10 Oct 1760 - 29 Sep 1786  Tokugawa Ieharu (Shimmei-in)       (b. 1737 - d. 1786)
15 Apr 1787 -  6 May 1837  Tokugawa Ienari (Bunkyō-in)        (b. 1773 - d. 1841)
 1 Oct 1837 - 26 Aug 1853  Tokugawa Ieyoshi (Shintoku-in)     (b. 1792 - d. 1853)
23 Nov 1853 - 14 Sep 1858  Tokugawa Iesada (Onkyō-in)         (b. 1824 - d. 1858)
 4 Jan 1859 - 29 Aug 1866  Tokugawa Iemochi (Shōtoko-in)      (b. 1846 - d. 1866)
10 Jan 1867 -  3 Jan 1868  Tokugawa Yoshinobu (Hitotu-in)     (b. 1837 - d. 1913)
                             (resigned on 19 Nov 1867)

Emperors (Tennō
17 Nov 1557 - 17 Dec 1586  Michihito (Ōgimachi-tennō)         (b. 1517 - d. 1593)
17 Dec 1586 -  9 May 1611  Katahito (Go-Yōzei-tennō)          (b. 1571 - d. 1617)
 9 May 1611 - 22 Dec 1629  Kotohito (Go-Mizuno-o-tennō)       (b. 1596 - d. 1680)
22 Dec 1629 - 14 Nov 1643  Okiko (Meishō-tennō) -Empress      (b. 1624 - d. 1696)
14 Nov 1643 - 30 Oct 1654  Tsuguhito (Go-Kōmyō-tennō)         (b. 1633 - d. 1654)
 5 Jan 1655 -  5 Mar 1663  Nagahito (Go-Sai-in-tennō)         (b. 1638 - d. 1685)
 5 Mar 1663 -  2 May 1687  Satohito (Reigen-tennō)            (b. 1654 - d. 1732)
 2 May 1687 - 27 Jul 1709  Asahito (Higashiyama-tenn
ō)        (b. 1675 - d. 1710)
27 Jul 1709 - 13 Apr 1735  Yashuhito (Nakamikado-tennō)       (b. 1701 - d. 1737)
13 Apr 1735 -  9 Jun 1747  Teruhito (Sakuramachi-tennō)       (b. 1720 - d. 1750)
 9 Jun 1747 - 31 Aug 1762  Toshito (Momozano-tennō)           (b. 1741 - d. 1762)
15 Sep 1762 -  9 Jan 1771  Toshiko -Empress                   (b. 1740 - d. 1813)
                             (Go-Sakuramachi-tennō)
 9 Jan 1771 - 16 Dec 1779  Hidehito (Go-Momozono-tennō)       (b. 1758 - d. 1779)
 1 Jan 1780 -  7 May 1817  Morohito (Kōkaku-tennō)            (b. 1771 - d. 1840)
 7 May 1817 - 21 Feb 1846  Ayahito (Ninkō-tennō)              (b. 1800 - d. 1846)
10 Mar 1846 - 30 Jan 1867  Osahito (Kōmei-tennō)              (b. 1831 - d. 1867)
13 Feb 1867 - 30 Jul 1912  Mutsuhito (Meiji-tennō)            (b. 1852 - d. 1912)
30 Jul 1912 - 25 Dec 1926  Yoshihito (Taishō-tennō)           (b. 1879 - d. 1926)
25 Nov 1921 - 25 Dec 1926  Prince Hirohito -Regent            (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
25 Dec 1926 -  7 Jan 1989  Hirohito (Shōwa-tennō)             (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1989 - 30 Apr 2019  Akihito (Heisei-tennō)             (b. 1933)
 1 May 2019 -              Naruhito                           (b. 1960)

 
Tairō (Chief advisers of the Shōgun)
30 Jul 1697 - 20 Apr 1700  Naokane Ii                         (b. 1656 - d. 1717)
23 Feb 1706 -  9 Jul 1709  Yoshiyasu Yanagisawa               (b. 1658 - d. 1714)
31 Mar 1711 - 28 Mar 1714  Naokane Ii                         (b. 1656 - d. 1717)
 8 Jan 1785 - 21 Oct 1787  Naoyuki Ii                         (b. 1729 - d. 1789)
 9 Feb 1836 -  1 Jul 1841  Naoaki Ii                          (b. 1794 - d. 1850)
 4 Jun 1858 - 24 Mar 1860  Naosuke Ii                         (b. 1815 - d. 1860)
26 Feb 1865 - 29 Dec 1865  Tadashige Sakai                    (b. 1827 - d. 1895)
Rōjū (Senior Shogunal councilors [chairmanship rotated monthly])
13 May 1681 - 15 Oct 1704  Masatake Abe                       (b. 1649 - d. 1704)
24 Dec 1681 -  2 Oct 1699  Tadamasa Toda                      (b. 1632 - d. 1699)
11 Jul 1685 -  9 Sep 1686  Nobuyuki Matsudaira                (b. 1631 - d. 1686)
17 Nov 1687 -  3 Apr 1718  Masanao Tsuchiya                   (b. 1641 - d. 1722)
 7 Jun 1697 - 14 Oct 1705  Nagashige Ogasawara (1st time)     (b. 1650 - d. 1727)
26 Nov 1699 - 22 Sep 1714  Takatomo Akimoto                   (b. 1649 - d. 1714)
18 Feb 1701 - 28 Aug 1707  Masamichi Inaba                    (b. 1640 - d. 1716)
25 Oct 1704 - 31 Dec 1704  Masanaga Honda (1st time)          (b. 1645 - d. 1711)
 7 Nov 1705 - 14 Sep 1713  Tadamasu Ōkubo                     (b. 1656 - d. 1713)
 7 Nov 1705 - 30 Jun 1722  Masamine Inoue                     (b. 1653 - d. 1722)
19 Feb 1709 - 18 May 1711  Masanaga Honda (2nd time)          (s.a.)
19 Feb 1709 - 14 Jun 1710  Nagashige Ogasawara (2nd time)     (s.a.)
27 May 1711 - 23 Oct 1717  Masataka Abe                       (b. 1672 - d. 1750)
22 Sep 1713 - 31 Jun 1720  Shigeyuki Kuze                     (b. 1660 - d. 1720)
10 Oct 1714 - 19 Dec 1729  Tadazane Toda                      (b. 1651 - d. 1729)
13 Oct 1714 - 26 Apr 1716  Nobutsune Matsudaira               (b. 1666 - d. 1717)
31 Oct 1717 - 26 Jun 1730  Tadayuki Mizuno                    (b. 1669 - d. 1731)
 4 Jul 1722 - 13 Sep 1732  Nobutomo Andō                      (b. 1671 - d. 1732) 
25 May 1723 -  2 Nov 1745  Norimura Matsudaira                (b. 1686 - d. 1746)
28 Jan 1725 -  8 Jun 1728  Tadachika Matsudaira               (b. 1661 - d. 1728)
22 Jun 1728 - 12 Oct 1728  Tsuneharu Okubo                    (b. 1675 - d. 1728)
 8 Nov 1728 -  8 Jul 1735  Tadashige Sakai                    (b. 1690 - d. 1735)
24 Aug 1730 - 29 May 1744  Nobutoki Matsudaira                (b. 1683 - d. 1744)
24 Aug 1730 -  2 Jan 1746  Terusada Matsudaira (acting)       (b. 1665 - d. 1747)
 6 Jul 1734 - 23 Apr 1735  Tadayoshi Honda (1st time)         (b. 1690 - d. 1751)
13 Jul 1735 - 18 Jul 1746  Tadayoshi Honda (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 2 Jul 1742 - 17 Oct 1744  Yoritoshi Toki                     (b. 1695 - d. 1744)
23 Oct 1744 -  3 Mar 1749  Tadazumi Sakai                     (b. 1710 - d. 1772)
26 Sep 1745 - 26 Jun 1746  Norikata Matsudaira                (b. 1693 - d. 1746)
 5 Dec 1745 - 14 Mar 1761  Masasuke Hotta                     (b. 1712 - d. 1761)
 3 Jul 1746 - 10 Apr 1747  Tadanao Nishio                     (b. 1689 - d. 1760)
 7 Dec 1746 -  3 Oct 1758  Masayoshi Honda                    (b. 1710 - d. 1786)
 6 Oct 1747 -  5 Sep 1779  Takechika Matsudaira               (b. 1713 - d. 1779)
 7 Nov 1749 - 15 Jun 1764  Tadayori Sakai                     (b. 1704 - d. 1766)
18 May 1751 - 25 Apr 1760  Tadanao Nishio                     (b. 1689 - d. 1760)
18 Nov 1758 - 18 Jun 1760  Terutaka Matsudaira (1st time)     (b. 1725 - d. 1781)
15 May 1760 - 24 Apr 1764  Suketomo Akimoto                   (b. 1717 - d. 1775)
 8 Jan 1761 - 25 Apr 1763  Masatsune Inoue                    (b. 1725 - d. 1766) 
31 Aug 1761 - 11 Nov 1781  Terutaka Matsudaira (2nd time)     (s.a.)
13 Jan 1764 -  8 May 1788  Yasuyoshi Matsudaira               (b. 1719 - d. 1789)
 1 Feb 1766 - 13 Aug 1769  Masasuke Abe                       (b. 1724 - d. 1769)
14 Sep 1769 - 18 Feb 1772  Okitsugu Tanuma (acting)(1st time) (b. 1719 - d. 1788)
17 Sep 1769 - 29 Jul 1780  Katsukiyo Itakura                  (b. 1706 - d. 1780)
18 Feb 1772 - 19 Sep 1786  Okitsugu Tanuma (2nd time)         (s.a.)
31 May 1779 - 19 Nov 1780  Masachika Abe                      (b. 1716 - d. 1780)
 3 Nov 1781 -  4 Mar 1785  Hiroakira Kuze                     (b. 1731 - d. 1785)
 3 Nov 1781 -  9 Mar 1785  Tadatomo Mizuno (acting)(1st time) (b. 1731 - d. 1801)
 2 Jul 1784 - 17 Mar 1790  Sadanaga Makino                    (b. 1733 - d. 1796) 
 9 Mar 1785 -  3 May 1788  Tadatomo Mizuno (2nd time)         (s.a.)
21 Nov 1786 -  9 Apr 1793  Tadaoki Torii                      (b. 1717 - d. 1794) 
24 Apr 1787 -  4 Apr 1788  Masatomo Abe                       (b. 1746 - d. 1805)
 2 Aug 1787 - 29 Aug 1793  Sadanobu Matsudaira                (b. 1758 - d. 1829)
 9 May 1788 -  3 Feb 1804  Nobuakira Matsudaira               (b. 1763 - d. 1817)
 5 May 1789 - 23 Sep 1793  Norisada Matsudaira                (b. 1752 - d. 1793)
29 May 1790 -  3 Dec 1798  Tadakazu Honda (acting)            (b. 1737 - d. 1812)
21 Dec 1790 - 12 Jun 1806  Ujinori Toda                       (b. 1756 - d. 1806)
11 Apr 1793 - 17 Jul 1801  Ōta Sukeyoshi                      (b. 1739 - d. 1805)
28 Sep 1793 - 24 Oct 1802  Nobunari Andō                      (b. 1743 - d. 1810) 
19 Aug 1801 -  1 Dec 1816  Tadakiyo Makino                    (b. 1760 - d. 1828)
14 Nov 1802 - 24 Aug 1822  Toshikazu Doi                      (b. 1759 - d. 1822)
 4 Mar 1804 - 30 Jun 1835  Tadayasu Aoyama                    (b. 1758 - d. 1835)
14 Jul 1806 -  9 Oct 1817  Nobuakira Matsudaira               (b. 1763 - d. 1817)
23 May 1815 - 24 Aug 1818  Tadayuki Sakai                     (b. 1770 - d. 1828)
13 Sep 1817 -  2 Sep 1818  Tadaakira Mizuno (acting)(1st time)(b. 1762 - d. 1834)
 5 Oct 1817 - 13 Nov 1823  Masakiyo Abe                       (b. 1774 - d. 1826)
 2 Sep 1818 - 23 Apr 1837  Tadazane Ōkubo                     (b. 1781 - d. 1837)
 2 Sep 1818 -  6 Apr 1834  Tadaakira Mizuno (2nd time)        (s.a.)
17 Oct 1822 -  6 Jan 1840  Norihiro Matsudaira                (b. 1777 - d. 1840)
14 Dec 1823 -  5 Apr 1825  Terunobu Matsudaira                (b. 1776 - d. 1825) 
 4 Jun 1825 - 21 Dec 1826  Iemasa Uemura (acting)             (b. 1785 - d. 1826)
21 Dec 1826 - 19 Nov 1835  Yasutō Matsudaira                  (b. 1779 - d. 1841)
 9 Apr 1834 -  4 Nov 1843  Tadakuni Mizuno                    (b. 1794 - d. 1851)
 1 Jul 1835 - 13 Oct 1836  Munetaka Honjo? 
 6 May 1837 - 20 Jul 1841  Suketomo Ōta (1st time)            (b. 1799 - d. 1867)
18 Jun 1837 -  8 Sep 1837  Nobuyori Matsudaira                (b. 1793 - d. 1844)
 9 Aug 1837 -  5 Apr 1841  Yasatada Wakisaka                  (b. 1781 - d. 1841)
10 Jan 1840 - 21 Nov 1844  Toshitsura Doi                     (b. 1789 - d. 1848)
14 Apr 1841 - 30 Oct 1843  Masahiro Hotta                     (b. 1810 - d. 1864)
30 Jul 1841 - 28 Jun 1844  Yukitsura Sanada                   (b. 1791 - d. 1852)
13 Jan 1840 - 12 Nov 1843  Akikatsu Manabe                    (b. 1802 - d. 1884)
 2 Nov 1843 -  6 Aug 1857  Masahiro Abe                       (b. 1819 - d. 1857)
23 Dec 1843 - 27 Oct 1857  Tadamasa Makino                    (b. 1799 - d. 1858)
14 Feb 1844 -  3 Jun 1845  Yamato (acting)
 4 Aug 1844 - 29 Mar 1845  Tadakuni Mizuno                    (b. 1794 - d. 1851)
 4 Feb 1845 -  3 Jun 1848  Tadanaga Aoyama                    (b. 1807 - d. 1864)
24 Apr 1845 - 22 Aug 1851  Tadaharu Toda                      (b. 1804 - d. 1851) 
13 Nov 1848 - 14 Sep 1855  Noriyasu Matsudaira (1st time)     (b. 1794 - d. 1870)
13 Nov 1848 - 14 Sep 1855  Tadamasu Matsudaira                (b. 1812 - d. 1859)
10 Feb 1852 -  2 Dec 1858  Hirochika Kuze                     (b. 1819 - d. 1864)
17 Oct 1853 - 22 Jun 1862  Nobuchika Naitō                    (b. 1813 - d. 1874) 
18 Sep 1855 -  2 Aug 1858  Mosayoshi Hotta                    (b. 1810 - d. 1864)
 2 Aug 1858 - 21 Aug 1859  Suketomo Ōta (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1858 - 16 Jan 1860  Akikatsu Manabe                    (b. 1802 - d. 1884)
 2 Aug 1858 - 17 Jun 1860  Noriyasu Matsudaira (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 6 Feb 1860 -  9 May 1862  Nobumasa Andō                      (b. 1819 - d. 1871)
21 Apr 1860 - 28 Jun 1862  Hirochika Kuze                     (b. 1819 - d. 1864)
11 Aug 1860 - 13 Apr 1862  Tadamoto Honda                     (b. 1817 - d. 1883)
 7 Feb 1861 - 17 Oct 1863  Nobuyoshi Matsudaira               (b. 1824 - d. 1866) 
13 Apr 1862 - 30 Jul 1866  Tadakiyo Mizuno                    (b. 1832 - d. 1884)
13 Apr 1862 - 21 Jul 1864  Katsukiyo Itakura                  (b. 1823 - d. 1889)
19 Jun 1862 - 28 Oct 1862  Yasuyori Wakisaka                  (b. 1809 - d. 1874)
 2 Nov 1862 - 24 Jul 1863  Nagamichi Ogasawara                (b. 1822 - d. 1891)
30 Nov 1862 - 13 Aug 1864  Masanao Inoue                      (b. 1837 - d. 1904)
13 Jun 1863 - 29 Jun 1863  Suketomo Ōta (3rd time)            (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1863 - 21 Jul 1864  Tadatsugu Sakai                    (b. 1827 - d. 1895)
18 Aug 1863 - 17 May 1864  Michizumi Arima                    (b. 1837 - d. 1903)
25 Oct 1863 - 13 May 1865  Tadayasu Makino                    (b. 1824 - d. 1878)
16 May 1864 -  5 May 1865  Masakuni Inaba                     (b. 1834 - d. 1898)
27 Jul 1864 - 18 Nov 1865  Masatō Abe                         (b. 1828 - d. 1887)
 1 Aug 1864 - 13 May 1865  Tadamasa Suwa (acting)             (b. 1821 - d. 1898)
                             (acting to 24 Aug 1864)
18 Sep 1864 -  3 Sep 1866  Munehide Matsudaira                (b. 1809 - d. 1873)
11 Nov 1864 -  4 Feb 1866  Tadamoto Honda                     (b. 1830 - d. 1883)
 8 Aug 1864 - 18 Nov 1865  Takahiro Matsumae (acting)         (b. 1829 - d. 1866)
                             (acting to 8 Dec 1864)
 6 May 1865 -  3 Dec 1865  Yasunao Matsudaira (1st time)      (b. 1830 - d. 1904)
23 Oct 1865 - 12 Nov 1866  Nagamichi Ogasawara (acting)       (b. 1822 - d. 1891)
                             (acting to 26 Nov 1865)
 9 Dec 1865 - 22 Feb 1868  Katsukiyo Itakura                  (b. 1823 - d. 1889)
27 Dec 1865 - 27 Feb 1868  Yasunao Matsudaira (2nd time)      (s.a.)
12 Jan 1866 - 18 Jul 1867  Masanao Inoue                      (b. 1837 - d. 1904)
26 May 1866 - 14 Mar 1868  Masakuni Inaba                     (b. 1834 - d. 1898)
30 Jul 1866 - 27 Feb 1868  Norikata Matsudaira (acting)       (b. 1839 - d. 1910)
22 Aug 1866 -  4 Dec 1866  Tadanobu Mizuno                    (b. 1834 - d. 1866) 
15 Dec 1866 -  2 Mar 1868  Nagamichi Ogasawara                (b. 1822 - d. 1891)
21 Jan 1867 - 25 Feb 1868  Masami Inaba (acting)              (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
20 Oct 1867 - 14 Nov 1867  Sadaaki Matsudaira                 (b. 1847 - d. 1908)
 9 Jan 1868 -  2 Mar 1868  Masatada Ōkōuchi                   (b. 1844 - d. 1901)
24 Jan 1868 - 27 Feb 1868  Tadatoshi Sakai                    (b. 1839 - d. 1907)
 3 Feb 1868 - 27 Feb 1868  Taneyuki Tachibana (acting)        (b. 1836 - d. 1905)
Kampaku (Imperial Chief advisers)
16 May 1689 - 21 Feb 1690  Kaneteru Ichijō                    (b. 1652 - d. 1705)
21 Feb 1690 -  1 Mar 1703  Motohiro Konoe                     (b. 1648 - d. 1722)
 1 Mar 1703 - 20 Dec 1707  Kanehiro Takatsukasa               (b. 1660 - d. 1725)
20 Dec 1707 - 28 Sep 1712  Iehiro Konoe                       (b. 1667 - d. 1736)
28 Sep 1712 - 28 Feb 1722  Sukezane Kujō                      (b. 1669 - d. 1730)
28 Feb 1722 - 30 Jun 1726  Tsunahira Nijō                     (b. 1672 - d. 1732)
30 Jun 1726 -  1 Oct 1736  Iehisa Konoe                       (b. 1687 - d. 1737)
 1 Oct 1736 - 28 Aug 1737  Yoshitada Nijō                     (b. 1689 - d. 1737)
23 Sep 1737 - 25 Jan 1747  Kaneyoshi Ichijō                   (b. 1693 - d. 1751)
25 Jan 1747 -  3 May 1757  Michiyoshi Ichijō                  (b. 1722 - d. 1769)
 3 May 1757 -  6 Mar 1778  Uchisaki Konoe                     (b. 1728 - d. 1785)
 6 Mar 1778 - 18 Apr 1787  Naozane Kujō                       (b. 1717 - d. 1787)
18 Apr 1787 - 17 Sep 1791  Sukehira Takatsukasa               (b. 1739 - d. 1813)
17 Sep 1791 - 25 Nov 1795  Teruyoshi Ichijō                   (b. 1756 - d. 1795)
26 Dec 1795 - 28 Oct 1814  Masahiro Takatsukasa               (b. 1761 - d. 1840)
28 Oct 1814 - 29 Apr 1823  Tadayoshi Ichijō                   (b. 1774 - d. 1832)
29 Apr 1823 –  6 Sep 1856  Masamichi Takatsukasa              (b. 1789 – d. 1868)
 6 Sep 1856 – 19 Jul 1862  Hisatada Kujō                      (b. 1798 – d. 1871)
19 Jul 1862 – 12 Mar 1863  Tadahiro Konoe                     (b. 1808 – d. 1898)
12 Mar 1863 – 31 Jan 1864  Sukehiro Takatsukasa               (b. 1807 – d. 1878)
31 Jan 1864 –  3 Jan 1868  Nariyuki Nijō                      (b. 1816 – d. 1878)
President of the Government (Sōsai)
 3 Jan 1868 - 11 Jun 1868  Prince Taruhito                    (b. 1835 - d. 1895)
Ministers of the Right (Udaijin)(acting chief ministers)
11 Jun 1868 - 15 Aug 1871  Sanetomi Sanjō                     (b. 1837 - d. 1891)
11 Jun 1868 - 13 Jun 1868  Tomomi Iwakura (1st time)          (b. 1825 - d. 1883)
15 Jun 1868 - 27 Feb 1868  Tomomi Iwakura (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Chancellor of the Realm (Dajō-daijin)
15 Aug 1871 - 22 Dec 1885  Sanetomi Sanjō                     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (from 7 Jul 1884, Prince Sanetomi Sanjō)
Prime ministers²
22 Dec 1885 - 30 Apr 1888  Count Hirobumi Itō (1st time)      (b. 1841 - d. 1909)  Non-party
30 Apr 1888 - 25 Oct 1889  Count Kiyotaka Kuroda              (b. 1840 - d. 1900)  Non-party
25 Oct 1889 - 24 Dec 1889  Prince Sanetomi Sanjō (interim)    (s.a.)               Non-party
24 Dec 1889 -  6 May 1891  Count Aritomo Yamagata (1st time)  (b. 1838 - d. 1922)  Non-party
 6 May 1891 -  8 Aug 1892  Count Masayoshi Matsukata          (b. 1835 - d. 1924)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
 8 Aug 1892 - 18 Sep 1896  Count Hirobumi Itō (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (from 5 Aug 1895, Marquess Hirobumi Itō)
18 Sep 1896 - 12 Jan 1898  Count Masayoshi Matsukata          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
12 Jan 1898 - 30 Jun 1898  Marquess Hirobumi Itō (3rd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
30 Jun 1898 -  8 Nov 1898  Marquess Shigenobu Ōkuma (1st time)(b. 1838 - d. 1922)  Non-party 
 8 Nov 1898 - 10 Oct 1900  Marguess Aritomo Yamagata          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
10 Oct 1900 -  2 Jun 1901  Marquess Hirobumi Itō (4th time)   (s.a.)               FC
 2 Jun 1901 -  7 Jan 1906  Viscount Tarō Katsura (1st time)   (b. 1848 - d. 1913)  Non-party
                             (from 27 Feb 1902, Count Tarō Katsura)
 7 Jan 1906 - 14 Jul 1908  Marquess Kimmochi Saionji          (b. 1849 - d. 1940)  FC
                             (1st time)
14 Jul 1908 - 30 Aug 1911  Marquess Tarō Katsura (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
30 Aug 1911 - 19 Dec 1912  Marquess Kimmochi Saionji          (s.a.)               FC
                             (2nd time)
19 Dec 1912 - 12 Feb 1913  Duke Tarō Katsura (3rd time)       (s.a.)               CA
12 Feb 1913 - 15 Apr 1914  Count Gonnohyōe Yamamoto (1st time)(b. 1852 - d. 1933)  Mil
15 Apr 1914 -  9 Oct 1916  Count Shigenobu Ōkuma (2nd time)   (s.a.)               CN
                             (from 14 Jul 1906, Marquess Shigenobu Ōkuma)
 9 Oct 1916 - 29 Sep 1918  Count Masatake Terauchi            (b. 1852 - d. 1919)  Mil
29 Sep 1918 -  4 Nov 1921  Takashi Hara                       (b. 1856 - d. 1921)  FC
 4 Nov 1921 - 13 Nov 1921  Count Yasuya Uchida (1st time)     (b. 1865 - d. 1936)  Non-party
                             (acting)
13 Nov 1921 - 12 Jun 1922  Viscount Korekiyo Takahashi        (b. 1854 - d. 1936)  FC
                             (1st time)
12 Jun 1922 - 24 Aug 1923  Baron Tomosaburō Katō              (b. 1859 - d. 1923)  Mil
26 Aug 1923 - 12 Sep 1923  Count Yasuya Uchida (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting)
12 Sep 1923 -  5 Jan 1924  Count Gonnohyōe Yamamoto (2nd time)(s.a.)               Mil
 5 Jan 1924 - 11 Jun 1924  Viscount Keigo Kiyoura             (b. 1850 - d. 1942)  Non-party
11 Jun 1924 - 28 Jan 1926  Baron Takaaki Katō                 (b. 1860 - d. 1926)  CP
28 Jan 1926 - 19 Apr 1927  Reijirō Wakatsuki (1st time)       (b. 1866 - d. 1949)  CP
                             (acting 30 Jan 1926)
19 Apr 1927 -  2 Jul 1929  Baron Giichi Tanaka                (b. 1863 - d. 1929)  FC
 2 Jul 1929 - 14 Apr 1931  Osachi Hamaguchi                   (b. 1870 - d. 1931)  CD
14 Apr 1931 - 13 Dec 1931  Reijirō Wakatsuki (2nd time)       (s.a.)               CD
13 Dec 1931 - 16 May 1932  Tsuyoshi Inukai                    (b. 1855 - d. 1932)  FC
16 May 1932 - 26 May 1932  Viscount Korekiyo Takahashi        (s.a.)               FC
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
26 May 1932 -  8 Jul 1934  Viscount Makoto Saitō              (b. 1858 - d. 1936)  Mil
 8 Jul 1934 -  9 Mar 1936  Keisuke Okada                      (b. 1862 - d. 1952)  Mil
 9 Mar 1936 -  2 Feb 1937  Kōki Hirota                        (b. 1878 - d. 1948)  Non-party
 2 Feb 1937 -  2 Jun 1937  Senjūrō Hayashi                    (b. 1876 - d. 1943)  Mil
 2 Jun 1937 -  4 Jan 1939  Duke Fumimaro Konoe (1st time)     (b. 1891 - d. 1945)  Non-party
 4 Jan 1939 - 29 Aug 1939  Baron Kiichirō Hiranuma            (b. 1867 - d. 1952)  Non-party
29 Aug 1939 - 15 Jan 1940  Nobuyuki Abe                       (b. 1875 - d. 1953)  Mil
15 Jan 1940 - 21 Jul 1940  Mitsumasa Yonai                    (b. 1880 - d. 1948)  Mil
21 Jul 1940 - 18 Oct 1941  Duke Fumimaro Konoe (2nd time)     (s.a.)               IRAA
18 Oct 1941 - 22 Jul 1944  Hideki Tojo                        (b. 1884 - d. 1948)  Mil/IRAA 
22 Jul 1944 -  7 Apr 1945  Kuniaki Koiso                      (b. 1880 - d. 1950)  Mil 
 7 Apr 1945 - 16 Aug 1945  Baron Kantarō Suzuki               (b. 1867 - d. 1948)  Mil/IRAA 
16 Aug 1945 -  8 Oct 1945  Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni        (b. 1887 - d. 1990)  Mil 
 8 Oct 1945 - 20 May 1946  Baron Kijūrō Shidehara             (b. 1872 - d. 1951)  Non-party
20 May 1946 - 21 May 1947  Shigeru Yoshida (1st time)         (b. 1878 - d. 1967)  Lib
21 May 1947 - 23 Feb 1948  Tetsu Katayama                     (b. 1887 - d. 1978)  DSP
23 Feb 1948 - 15 Oct 1948  Hitoshi Ashida                     (b. 1887 - d. 1959)  Dem
15 Oct 1948 - 10 Dec 1954  Shigeru Yoshida (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Lib
10 Dec 1954 - 23 Dec 1956  Ichirō Hatoyama                    (b. 1883 - d. 1959)  JD;1955 LDP
23 Dec 1956 - 24 Feb 1957  Tanzan Ishibashi                   (b. 1884 - d. 1973)  LDP
24 Feb 1957 - 18 Jul 1960  Nobusuke Kishi                     (b. 1896 - d. 1987)  LDP
18 Jul 1960 -  9 Nov 1964  Hayato Ikeda                       (b. 1899 - d. 1965)  LDP
 9 Nov 1964 -  6 Jul 1972  Eisaku Satō                        (b. 1901 - d. 1975)  LDP
 6 Jul 1972 -  9 Dec 1974  Kakuei Tanaka                      (b. 1918 - d. 1993)  LDP
 9 Dec 1974 - 24 Dec 1976  Takeo Miki                         (b. 1907 - d. 1988)  LDP
24 Dec 1976 -  7 Dec 1978  Takeo Fukuda                       (b. 1905 - d. 1995)  LDP
 7 Dec 1978 - 12 Jun 1980  Masayoshi Ōhira                    (b. 1910 - d. 1980)  LDP
12 Jun 1980 - 17 Jul 1980  Masayoshi Ito (acting)             (b. 1913 - d. 1994)  LDP
17 Jul 1980 - 26 Nov 1982  Zenkō Suzuki                       (b. 1911 - d. 2004)  LDP
26 Nov 1982 -  6 Nov 1987  Yasuhiro Nakasone                  (b. 1918 - d. 2019)  LDP
 6 Nov 1987 -  2 Jun 1989  Noboru Takeshita                   (b. 1924 - d. 2000)  LDP
 2 Jun 1989 -  9 Aug 1989  Sōsuke Uno                         (b. 1922 - d. 1998)  LDP
 9 Aug 1989 -  6 Nov 1991  Toshiki Kaifu                      (b. 1931)            LDP
 6 Nov 1991 -  9 Aug 1993  Kiichi Miyazawa                    (b. 1919 - d. 2007)  LDP
 9 Aug 1993 - 25 Apr 1994  Morihiro Hosokawa                  (b. 1938)            JNP
25 Apr 1994 - 29 Jun 1994  Tsutomu Hata                       (b. 1935 - d. 2017)  JRP
29 Jun 1994 - 11 Jan 1996  Tomiichi Murayama                  (b. 1924)            JSP
11 Jan 1996 - 30 Jul 1998  Ryūtarō Hashimoto                  (b. 1937 - d. 2006)  LDP
30 Jul 1998 -  5 Apr 2000  Keizō Obuchi                       (b. 1937 - d. 2000)  LDP
 3 Apr 2000 -  5 Apr 2000  Mikio Aoki                         (b. 1934)            LDP
                             (acting for incapacitated Obuchi)
 5 Apr 2000 - 26 Apr 2001  Yoshirō Mori                       (b. 1937)            LDP
26 Apr 2001 - 26 Sep 2006  Junichirō Koizumi                  (b. 1942)            LDP
26 Sep 2006 - 26 Sep 2007  Shinzō Abe (1st time)              (b. 1954)            LDP
26 Sep 2007 - 24 Sep 2008  Yasuo Fukuda                       (b. 1936)            LDP
24 Sep 2008 - 16 Sep 2009  Tarō Asō                           (b. 1940)            LDP
16 Sep 2009 -  8 Jun 2010  Yukio Hatoyama                     (b. 1947)            DPJ
 8 Jun 2010 -  2 Sep 2011  Naoto Kan                          (b. 1946)            DPJ
 2 Sep 2011 - 26 Dec 2012  Yoshihiko Noda                     (b. 1957)            DPJ
26 Dec 2012 - 16 Sep 2020  Shinzō Abe (2nd time)              (s.a.)               LDP
16 Sep 2020 -  4 Oct 2021  Yoshihide Suga                     (b. 1948)            LDP
 4 Oct 2021 -              Fumio Kishida                      (b. 1957)            LDP

Era names (nengō)
23 Oct 1688 - 16 Apr 1704  Genroku
16 Apr 1704 - 11 Jun 1711  Hōei
11 Jun 1711 -  9 Aug 1716  Shōtoku
 9 Aug 1716 -  7 Jun 1736  Kyōhō
 7 Jun 1736 - 12 Apr 1741  Genbun
12 Apr 1741 -  3 Apr 1744  Kanpō (or Kanhō)
 3 Apr 1744 -  5 Aug 1748  Enkyō
 5 Aug 1748 - 14 Dec 1751  Kan-en
14 Dec 1751 - 30 Jun 1764  Hōreki (or Hōryaku)
30 Jun 1764 - 10 Dec 1772  Meiwa
10 Dec 1772 - 25 Apr 1781  An-ei
25 Apr 1781 - 19 Feb 1789  Tenmei
10 Feb 1789 - 19 Mar 1801  Kansei
19 Mar 1801 - 22 Mar 1804  Kyōwa
22 Mar 1804 - 26 May 1818  Bunka
26 May 1818 - 23 Jan 1831  Bunsei
23 Jan 1831 -  9 Jan 1845  Tenpō (or Tenhō)
 9 Jan 1845 -  1 Apr 1848  Kōka
 1 Apr 1848 - 15 Jan 1855  Kaei
15 Jan 1855 -  8 Apr 1860  Ansei
 8 Apr 1860 - 29 Mar 1861  Man-en
29 Mar 1861 - 27 Mar 1864  Bunkyu
27 Mar 1864 -  1 May 1865  Genji (or Ganji)
 1 May 1865 - 23 Oct 1868  Keiō
23 Oct 1868 - 30 Jul 1912  Meiji
30 Jul 1912 - 25 Dec 1926  Taishō
25 Dec 1926 -  8 Jan 1989  Shōwa
 8 Jan 1989 - 30 Apr 2019  Heisei
 1 May 2019 -              Reiwa

 ¹Personal name followed by posthumous style (okurina) in parentheses;
Full style of the Emperors: 
(a) c.672 - 29 Nov 1890: Tennō ("Heavenly Sovereign");
(b) 29 Nov 1890 - 3 May 1947: Dai Nippon Teikoku Tennō ("Sovereign of the Great Japan Empire");
(c) from 3 May 1947: Nihon Koku Tennō ("Sovereign of State of Japan");
Full style of the Shoguns:
(d) the full title of the Shōgun was: Sei-i Taishōgun ("Great General of the Army Against

the Barbarians"). 

 ²The Japanese titles of nobility are sometimes translated differently. Translations used here are "prince" for shinnō, "duke" for kōshaku, "marquess" for kōshaku (written with a different character), "count" for hakushaku, "viscount" for shishaku, "baron" for danshaku.

Territorial Disputes: The sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kuril Islands," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Japan and South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Takeshima/Dokdo) occupied by South Korea since 1954; China and Taiwan dispute both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shotō (Diaoyu Tai); Japan and other countries dispute 23 Nov 2013 China's declaration of an "air defense identification zone" in an area that includes islands and Japan's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting. 

Party abbreviations: DPP = Kokumin minshutō (Democratic Party for the People, center, former DPJ, est.2 May 2018); LDP = Jiyū Minshutō (Liberal Democratic Party, conservative, nationalist, center-right, est.15 Nov 1955); SDP = Shakai Minshu tō (Social Democratic Party, social-democratic, est.Jan 1996, former JSP); Mil = Military;
- Former parties - (from May 1932-Aug 1945 the military suspended party government):
CA = Rikken-Dōshikai (Association of Allies of the Constitution, FC opposition, 23 Oct 1913-10 Oct 1916, merged into CP); CP = Kenseikai (Constitutional Association, FC opposition, 10 Oct 1916-27 Jun 1927, merged into CD); CD = Rikken Minseitō (Constitutional Democratic Party, liberal, formerly CP, 1 Jun 1927-15 Aug 1940, merged into IRAA); CN = Rikken Kokumintō (Constitutional Nationalist Party, liberal, FC opposition, 14 Mar 1910-1 Sep 1922); Dem = Minshutō (Democratic Party, right-wing, 1947-28 Apr 1950, merged into People's Democratic Party [Kokumin Minshutō]); DPJ = Minshutō (Democratic Party of Japan, center-left, 27 Apr 1998 - 7 May 2018, merged into DPP); DSP = Minshu Shakai tō (Democratic Socialist Party, social democratic, center-left, split from JSP, 1960-10 Dec 1994, merged into Shinshintō [New Frontier Party]); FC = Rikken Seiyukai (Friends of Constitutional Government, pro-government alliance of bureaucrats and former members of Kenseito, 15 Sep 1900-30 Jun 1940); IRAA = Taisei Yokusankai (Imperial Rule Assistance Association, far right, Japanese imperialist, nationalist, anti-communist, Shintaisei ["New Order"], state party 1942-1945, 12 Oct 1940-13 Jun 1945); JD = Nihon Minshutō (Japan Democratic Party, conservative, agrarian, anti-communist, 24 Nov 1954-15 Nov 1955, merged into LDP); JNP = Nihon Shintō (Japan New Party, neoliberal, center-right, split from LDP, 22 May 1992-9 Dec 1994, merged into Shinshintō [New Frontier Party]); Lib = Jiyūtō (Liberal Party, conservative, 18 Oct 1881-29 Oct 1884, 25 Aug  1890-20 Jun 1898 liberal, merged into FC; re-est.1945-1955, right-wing; 9 Nov 1945-Mar 1948 as Japan Liberal Party [Nihon Jiyūtō] conservative; Mar 1948-Mar 1950 as Democratic Liberal Party [Minshujiyutō Minjutō] right-wing, merged into LDP); JRP = Shinseitō (Japanese Renewal Party, social liberal, center-right, split from LDP, 23 Jun 1993-10 Dec 1994, merged into Shinshintō [New Frontier Party]); JSP = Nihon Shakaitō (Japan Socialist Party, social democratic, center-left, pacifist, official English name Social Democratic Party of Japan; 1945-Jan 1996, renamed SDP)


Allied Occupation

[Japan Allied
                          Occupation Flag (E-ensign) 1945-1952]
2 Sep 1945 - 28 Apr 1952

Supreme Commanders for the Allied Powers (SCAP) and (from 1 Jan 1947)
Commanders-in-chief, Far East Command

 2 Sep 1945 - 11 Apr 1951  Douglas MacArthur (U.S.)           (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
11 Apr 1951 - 28 Apr 1952  Matthew Bunker Ridgway (U.S.)      (b. 1895 - d. 1993)

Commanders-in-chief of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF)
(subordinated to the Supreme Commanders for the Allied Powers)
26 Feb 1946 - 24 Jun 1946  John Northcott (Australia)         (b. 1890 - d. 1966)
24 Jun 1946 - Nov 1951     Horace Clement Hugh Robertson      (b. 1894 - d. 1960)
                             (Australia)
Nov 1951 - 28 Apr 1952     William Bridgeford (Australia)     (b. 1894 - d. 1971)



Republic of Ezo

[Republic of Ezo 1869 (Japan)]

27 Jan 1869 - 27 Jun 1869  Independent Republic of Ezo in ambiguous secession
                             during the war of restoration.
20 Sep 1869                Ezo renamed Hokkaidō.

President (sosai)
27 Jan 1869 - 27 Jun 1869  Takeaki Enomoto                    (b. 1836 - d. 1908)  Mil



Okinawa and Ryukyu Islands 
 
[Ryukyu kingdom
                          flag c.1854-1875 (Japan)]
c.1854 - 1875
 
[Ryukyu kingdom
                          1875-1879 (Japan)]
1875 - 11 Mar 1879
 
[U.S. flag]
3 Apr 1945 - 15 May 1972
 

[Okinawa Allied
                          Occupation Civil Ensign (D-ensign) 1950-1967]
Jun 1950 - 1 Jul 1967
Allied Occupation Civil Ensign
[Okinawa
                          Merchant flag 1967-1972]
1 Jul 1967 - 22 May 1972
Okinawa Merchant Flag
[Okinawa
                          Prefecture (Japan)]
Adopted 13 Oct 1973
Okinawa Prefecture Flag

Map of Okinawa
Capital: Naha
(Shuri 1429-1879;
Urashii/Urasoe
12th cent. - 1406/29)
Hear Local Anthem
Currency: Yen (JPY)
(B-Yen 1948-1958;
and U.S. Dollar [USD] 
1958-1972)
Population:
1,451,965 (2019)
934176 (1965)

Note: Since the Kingdom was in ambiguous relations with China and also with Japan, the names are given in their Japanese and their Chinese forms.

....                       Legendary establishment of Kingdom under Tenson/Tiansun dynasty.
605 AD                     Under nominal suzerainty of China, formally from 1372.
1186                       Tenson/Tiansun dynasty deposed, the Shunten dynasty begins 1187.
1296                       Mongol invasion repulsed.
1322 - 1429                Chuzan divided into three kingdoms by secession (Nanzan [1337-
                             1429], Hokuzan [1322?-1416], and Chuzan).
1416                       Hokuzan annexed by Chuzan.
1429                       Kingdom of Chuzan/Zhongshan (Ryukyu/Liuqiu Islands) under Sho
                             dynasty, unified by annexation of Nanzan.
1470                       Second Sho dynasty established by Kanemaru (Sho En).
 5 Apr 1609                Ryukyu islands conquered by Shimazu dynasty daimyō (lord) of
                             Satsuma, Japan; made a vassal of Satsuma (Japan).
1611                       Satsuma annexes the Amami Islands.
14 Oct 1872                Ryūkyū‎ han, an autonomous polity associated with Japan.
11 Mar 1879                Annexed by Japan (Okinawa ken [prefecture]).
 1 Apr 1945                U.S. forces invade Okinawa.
22 Jun 1945                Japanese forces surrender (formal surrender 7 Sep 1945).
 1 Jul 1946                Four units (Okinawa-gun, Amami-gun, Miyako-gun, Yaeyama-gun),
                             under U.S. administration (United States Military Government of
                             the Ryukyu Islands).
15 Dec 1950                Ryukyu under U.S. civil administration (United States Civil
                             Administration of the Ryukyu Islands)(USCAR).
 1 Apr 1951                Ryukyu, nominally part of Japan, under U.S. administration.
25 Dec 1953                Amami Oshima island group restored to Japan.
21 Nov 1967                Ryukyu Islands (except Okinawa) restored to Japan.
26 Jun 1968                Bonin Islands resotred to Japan.
15 May 1972                Okinawa reverts to Japanese sovereignty as a prefecture.

Kings of Chuzan¹
.... - ....                .... [25 rulers, names unknown]
1186 - 1187                Riyū
1187 - 1237                Shunten (Shunten-Ō)                (b. 1166 - d. 1237)
1238 - 1248                Shunbajunki                        (b. 1185 - d. 1248)
1249 - 1259                Gihon                              (b. c.1204 - d. c.1260)  
1260 - 1299                Eiso (Yingzu) (regent c.1254-1260) (b. 1229 - d. 1299)
1300 - 1309                Taisei                             (b. 1247 - d. 1309)
1309 - 1314                Eiji                               (b. 1268 - d. 1314)
1314 - 1336                Tamagusuku                         (b. c.1296 - d. 1336)
1337 - 1349                Seii                               (b. c.1326 - d. 1349)
1350 - 1395                Satto (Chadu)                      (b. c.1320 - d. 1395)
1396 - 1406                Bunei (Wuning)                     (b. 1356 - d. 1406?)
1406 - 1421                Shō Shishō/Shang Sishao            (b. 1354 - d. 1421)
1422 - 1429                Shō Hashi/Shang Bazhi              (b. 1372 - d. 1439)
Chiefs of Hokuzan
1322? - 1395               Haniji (Haneji)                    (d. 1395?)
1396 - 1400                Min
1401 - 1416                Hananchi                           (d. 1416)
Chiefs of Nanzan
1337 - 1396                Ufusatu (Ofusato)                  (d. 1398?)
1398 - 1402                Oueishi                            (d. 1402?)
1403 - 1413                Ououso                             (d. 1413)
1413 - 1414                Tafuchi
1415 - 1429                Taromai (Tarumii)                  (d. 1429)
Kings of Ryukyu
¹
1429 -  1 Jun 1439         Shō Hashi/Shang Ba Zhi             (s.a.)
1440 - 1444                Shō Chū/Shang Zhong                (b. 1391 - d. 1444)
1445 - 29 Oct 1449         Sho Shitatsu/Shang Si Da           (b. 1408 - d. 1449)
1450 - 1453                Shō Kinpuku/Shang Jin Fu           (b. 1398 - d. 1453)
1454 - 1460                Shō Taikyū/Shang Taijiu            (b. 1415 - d. 1460)
1461 - 1469                Shō Toku/Shang De                  (b. 1441 - d. 1469)
1469 - 1476                Shō En/Shang Yuan                  (b. 1415 - d. 1476)
1477  (6 months)           Shō Sen'i/Shang Xuan Wei           (b. 1430 - d. 1477)
1477 - 1527                Shō Shin/Shang Zhen                (b. 1465 - d. 1527) 
1527 - 1555                Shō Sei/Shang Qing                 (b. 1497 - d. 1555)
1556 -  1 Apr 1572         Shō Gen/Shang Yuan                 (b. 1528 - d. 1572)
1573 - 25 Nov 1588         Shō Ei/Shang Yong                  (b. 1559 - d. 1588)
1589 - 19 Sep 1620         Shō Nei/Shang Ning                 (b. 1564 - d. 1620)
1621 - 22 Jun 1640         Shō/Shang Feng                  (b. 1590 - d. 1640)
1641 - 19 Oct 1647         Shō Ken/Shang Xian                 (b. 1625 - d. 1647)
1648 - 20 Dec 1668         Shō Shitsu/Shang Zhi               (b. 1629 - d. 1668)
1669 - 18 Aug 1709         Shō Tei/Shan Zhen                  (b. 1645 - d. 1709)
1669 - 1673                Shō Shōken -Regent                 (b. 1617 - d. 1675)
1710 - 16 Aug 1712         Shō Eki/Shang Yi                   (b. 1678 - d. 1712)
1713 - 14 Mar 1752         Shō Kei/Shang Jing                 (b. 1700 - d. 1752) 
1751 - 1752                Sai On/Cai Wen -Regent             (b. 1682 - d. 1761)
1752 - 19 Feb 1794         Shō Boku/Shang Mu                  (b. 1739 - d. 1794)
1795 -  8 Aug 1802         Shō On/Shang Wen                   (b. 1784 - d. 1802)
 8 Aug 1802 -  7 Feb 1803  Shō Sei/Shang Cheng                (b. 1800 - d. 1803)
1804 -  5 Jul 1834         Shō Kō/Shang Hao                   (b. 1787 - d. 1834)
1828 - 25 Oct 1847         Shō Iku/Shang Yu                   (b. 1813 - d. 1847)
                             (regent to 5 Jul 1834)
 8 Jun 1848 - 11 Mar 1879  Shō Tai/Shang Tai                  (b. 1843 - d. 1901)
                             (from 14 Oct 1872, "han-chief") 
Magistrates of Okinawa Prefecture
27 Mar 1879 - 19 May 1879  Seiichiro Kinashi (acting)         (b. 1845 - d. 1910)
19 May 1879 - 18 May 1881  Naoyoshi Nabeshima                 (b. 1843 - d. 1915) 
18 May 1881 - 22 Apr 1883  Mochinori Uesugi                   (b. 1844 - d. 1919) 
22 Apr 1883 - 21 Dec 1883  Michitoshi Iwamura                 (b. 1840 - d. 1915) 
21 Dec 1883 - 27 Apr 1886  Sutezō Nishimura                   (b. 1843 - d. 1908) 
Governors of Okinawa Prefecture 
27 Apr 1886 - 14 Apr 1887  Sadakiyo Ōsako                     (b. 1825 - d. 1896) 
14 Apr 1887 - 18 Sep 1888  Minoru Fukuhara                    (b. 1844 - d. 1900) 
18 Sep 1888 - 20 Jul 1892  Kanji Maruoka                      (b. 1836 - d. 1898)
20 Jul 1892 -  6 Apr 1908  Shigeru Narahara                   (b. 1834 - d. 1918)
 6 Apr 1908 -  1 Jun 1913  Shigeaki Hibi                      (b. 1848 - d. 1926) 
 1 Jun 1913 -  9 Jun 1914  Takuya Takahashi                   (b. 1848 - d. 1935)
 9 Jun 1914 - 28 Apr 1916  Ōmi Kyūgorō (Omi Kugoro)           (b. 1874 - d. 19..) 
28 Apr 1916 -  4 May 1916  Iwatarō Otagiri                    (b. 1869 - d. 1945) 
                             (did not take office)
 4 May 1916 - 18 Apr 1919  Kuniyoshi Suzuki                   (b. 1871 - d. 1945) 
18 Apr 1919 - 27 May 1921  Sōsuke Kawagoe                     (b. 1876 - d. 1954) 
27 May 1921 - 25 Oct 1923  Jyun Wada                          (b. 1872 - d. 1947)
25 Oct 1923 - 24 Jun 1924  Ki Iwamoto                         (b. 1879 - d. 1944) 
24 Jun 1924 - 28 Sep 1926  Mitsumasa Kamei                    (b. 1882 - d. 1946)   
28 Sep 1926 -  7 May 1927  Tsuguo Imashuku                    (b. 1884 - d. 1971)
 7 May 1927 - 26 Dec 1928  Tōjirō Iio                         (b. 1875 - d. 1943)
26 Dec 1928 -  5 Jul 1929  Chōhei Hosokawa                    (b. 1884 - d. 1967)
 5 Jul 1929 - 26 Aug 1930  Masao Moriya                       (b. 1889 - d. 19..) 
26 Aug 1930 - 28 Jun 1935  Jirō Ino                           (b. 1877 - d. 1952) 
28 Jun 1935 - 24 Jun 1938  Hisashi Kurashige                  (b. 1890 - d. 1962) 
24 Jun 1938 -  7 Jan 1941  Fusatarō Fuchigami                 (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
 7 Jan 1941 -  1 Jul 1943  Hajime Hayakawa                    (b. 1895 - d. 1970) 
 1 Jul 1943 - 12 Jan 1945  Shuki Izumi                        (b. 1898 - d. 1984)
12 Jan 1945 - 26? Jun 1945 Akira Shimada                      (b. 1901 - d. 1945)
20 Jan 1945 - 12 Jun 1945  Minoru Ōta                         (b. 1891 - d. 1945)
                             (military base commander Okinawa area)
U.S. Military governors

 1 Apr 1945 - 18 Jun 1945  Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.         (b. 1886 - d. 1945)
18 Jun 1945 - 23 Jun 1945  Roy Stanley Geiger (acting)        (b. 1885 - d. 1947) 
23 Jun 1945 - 16 Oct 1945  Joseph Warren Stilwell             (b. 1883 - d. 1946) 
                             (acting to 31 Jul 1945)
Jun 1945 - 23 Apr 1946     Fred Clute Wallace                 (b. 1887 - d. 1959)
                             (commanding general, Island Command Okinawa)
17 Oct 1945 - 29 Dec 1945  Lawrence August Lawson             (b. 1897 - d. 1951)
30 Dec 1945 - 26 Feb 1946  Fremont Byron Hodson               (b. 1894 - d. 1974)
27 Feb 1946 - 21 May 1946  Leo Donovan                        (b. 1895 - d. 1950)
24 May 1946 - 11 May 1948  Frederic Lord Hayden               (b. 1901 - d. 1969) 
12 May 1948 - 30 Sep 1949  William Willis Eagles              (b. 1895 - d. 1988)
 1 Oct 1949 - 21 Jul 1950  Josef Robert Sheetz                (b. 1895 - d. 1992) 
28 Jul 1950 -  6 Dec 1950  Robert Battey McClure              (b. 1896 - d. 1973) 
 6 Dec 1950 -  9 Dec 1950  Harry Benham Sherman (acting)      (b. 1894 - d. 1974)
 9 Dec 1950 - 15 Dec 1950  Robert Sprague Beightler           (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
Governors and Commanders-in-chief, U.S. Forces Far East (in Tokyo)
15 Dec 1950 - 11 Apr 1951  Douglas MacAuthur                  (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
11 Apr 1951 - 12 May 1952  Matthew Bunker Ridgway             (b. 1895 - d. 1993)
12 May 1952 -  7 Oct 1953  Mark Wayne Clark                   (b. 1896 - d. 1984)
 7 Oct 1953 -  1 Apr 1955  John Edwin Hull                    (b. 1895 - d. 1975) 
 1 Apr 1955 -  5 Jun 1955  Maxwell "Max" Davenport Taylor     (b. 1901 - d. 1987)
 5 Jun 1955 - 30 Jun 1957  Lyman Louis Lemnitzer              (b. 1899 - d. 1988) 
Deputy governors and Commanding Generals, Ryukyu Islands Command
15 Dec 1950 - 10 May 1951  Robert Sprague Beightler (1st time)(s.a.)
10 May 1951 -  7 Aug 1951  Harry Benham Sherman (acting)      (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1951 - 16 Dec 1952  Robert Sprague Beightler (2nd time)(s.a.)
18 Dec 1952 -  2 Jan 1953  James Malcolm Lewis                (b. 1898 - d. 1954)
 3 Jan 1953 -  4 Mar 1955  David Ayers Depue Ogden            (b. 1897 - d. 1969)
 5 Mar 1955 -  3 Jul 1957  James Edward Moore                 (b. 1902 - d. 1986)
U.S. High Commissioners, Ryukyu Islands
 4 Jul 1957 - 30 Apr 1958  James Edward Moore                 (s.a.) 
 1 May 1958 - 12 Feb 1961  Donald Prentice Booth              (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
16 Feb 1961 - 31 Jul 1964  Paul Wyatt Caraway                 (b. 1905 - d. 1984)
 1 Aug 1964 - 31 Oct 1966  Albert Watson II                   (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
 2 Nov 1966 - 28 Jan 1968  Ferdinand Thomas Unger             (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
28 Jan 1968 - 14 May 1972  James Benjamin Lampert             (b. 1914 - d. 1978)
U.S. Civil Administrators of the Ryukyu Islands
Jun 1955 - 20 Jun 1959     Vonna Fernleigh Burger             (b. 1902 - d. 1999)
 1 Jun 1959 - May 1962     John George "Duke" Ondrick         (b. 1906 - d. 1974)
18 Jul 1962 -  8 Feb 1964  Shannon Boyd-Bailey McCune         (b. 1913 - d. 1993)
11 Feb 1964 - 10 Jul 1967  Gerald Warner                      (b. 1907 - d. 1989)
15 Jul 1967 - 15 Aug 1969  Stanley Sherman Carpenter          (b. 1917 - d. 1982)
21 Aug 1969 - 12 May 1972  Robert Appleton Fearey             (b. 1918 - d. 2004)
Governors of Okinawa Prefecture 
15 May 1972 - 24 Jun 1976  Chōbyō Yara                        (b. 1902 - d. 1997)  OST
25 Jun 1976 - 23 Nov 1978  Kōichi Taira                       (b. 1909 - d. 1982)  OST
21 Jul 1978 - 13 Dec 1978  Takemori Nojima                    (b. 1923)            OST
                             (acting [for Taira to 23 Nov 1978])
13 Dec 1978 -  9 Dec 1990  Junji Nishime                      (b. 1921 - d. 2001)  LDP
10 Dec 1990 -  9 Dec 1998  Masahide Ōta                       (b. 1925 - d. 2017)  Non-party;
                                                                                   1996 SDP
10 Dec 1998 -  9 Dec 2006  Keiichi Inamine                    (b. 1933)            Non-party
10 Dec 2006 -  9 Dec 2014  Hirokazu Nakaima                   (b. 1939)            Non-party
10 Dec 2014 -  8 Aug 2018  Takeshi Onaga                      (b. 1950 - d. 2018)  Non-party
 8 Aug 2018 -  4 Oct 2018  Kiichiro Jahana                    (b. 1957)            Non-party
                           + Moritake Tomikawa                (b. 1948)            Non-party
                           (acting) 
 4 Oct 2018 -              Deni (Denney) Tamaki               (b. 1959)            Non-party  

Regents (title Sessei)
c.1406                     Aranpō/Yalanpao
.... - 1411                Tei Fuku/Cheng Fu                  (b. 1330 - d. 14..)
1411 - 14..                Ō Mō/Wang Mao
1428 - ....                Kaiki/Huai Ji                
1589 - 1610                Shō Kō (Gushichan Chōsei)          (b. 1578 - d. 1610)
1611 - 161.                Kikuin Sōi                         (d. 1620)
1617 - 1621                Shō Hō (Sashiki Chōshō)            (s.a.)
                             (from 1621, King Sho Ho/Shang Feng)
1629 - 1654                Shō Sei (Kin hōtei)                (b. 1600 - d. 1683)
1654 - 1666                Shō Kyō (Gushikawa Chōei)          (b. 1610 - d. 16..)
1666 - 1675                Shō Shōken (Haneji Chōshū)         (s.a.)
1676 - 1686                Shō Kōki (Ōzato Chōryō)            (b. 1647 - d. 1687)
1686 - 1688                Shō Ki (Kin Chōkō)
1689 – 1705                Shō Kōsai (Chatan Chōai)           (b. 1650 - d. 1719)
1705 – 1712                Shō Kō (Oroku Chōki)               (b. 1676 - d. 1721)
1712 – 1722                Shō Yū (Tomigusuku Chōkyō)
1722 – 27 Mar 1739         Shō Tetsu (Chatan Chōki)           (b. 1703 - d. 1739)
1739 - 1755                Vacant
1755 – 1770                Shō Seibo (Nakijin Chōgi)          (b. 1702 - d. 1787)
1770 – 1785                Shō Wa (Yuntanza Chōkō)            (b. 1745 - d. 1811)
1794 –  9 Nov 1797         Shō To (Urasoe Chōō)               (b. 1762 - d. 1797)
1798 – 1802                Shō Shū (Yoshimura Chōgi)          (b. 1763 - d. 1821)
1803 – 1816                Shō Tairetsu (Yuntanza Chōei)      (b. 1768 - d. 1817)
 1 Dec 1817 – 1820         Shō Yō (Ginowan Chōshō)            (b. 1765 - d. 1827)
1822 – 1831                Shō Teihan (Haneji Chōmei)
1831 – 23 Sep 1832         Shō Kai (Tomigusuku Chōshun)       (d. 1832)
1835 – 1852                Shō Genro (Urasoe Chōki)           (b. 1805 - d. 1854)
1852 – 1861                Shō Ton (Ōzato Chōkyō)             (b. 1816 - d. ....)
1861 – 1872                Shō Kōkun (Yonagusuku Chōki)
1872 – 1875                Shō Ken (Ie Chōchoku)              (b. 1818 - d. 1896)
Chief ministers
(title Sanshikan)
(three ministers serving jointly)
- first line (Chūkaban) -
1601 - 1605                Ō Kishō (Gusukuma Seikyū)          (b. 1542 - d. 1612)
1606 - 1611                Tei Dō (Jana Rizan)                (b. 1549 - d. 1611)
1611 - 1623                Mō Hōchō (Yuntanza Seishō)         (b. 1556 - d. 1632)
1622 - 1629                Mō Kijin (Nakijin Sōnō)
1629 - 1643                Ba Shōren (Katsuren Ryōkei)
1643 - 1652                Ba Kami (Ōsato Ryōan)
1652 - 1666                Shō Kokuyō (Chatan Chōchō)         (b. 1607 - d. 1667)
1666 - 1675                Mō Kokutō (Gushichan Antō)
1675 - 1683                Shō Mizai (Goeku Chōsei)           (b. 1623 - d. 1695)
1683 - 1696                Ō Jigi (Inamine Seihō)
1696 - 1702                Shō Seishun (Nakada Chōjū)
1702 - 1712                Mō Kiryū (Shikina Seimei)          (b. 1652 - d. 1715)
1712 - 15 Nov 1721         Ō Jidō (Ishadō Seifu)              (b. 1659 - d. 1721)
1722 - 1723                Shō Ryūyoku (Ufugusuku Chōshō)
1723 - 1725                Mō Shōshō (Mabuni Ansei)
1725 - 1735                Mō Heijin (Misato Anman)           (b. 1669 - d. 1744)
1735 - 1745                Shō Joshū (Shikina Chōei)
1745 - 1750                Shō Tokukō (Ginowan Chōga)
1750 - 1752                Mō Kyōken (Zakimi Seishū)          (b. 1699 - d. 1766)
1752 - 17 Oct 1754         Ba Genretsu (Yonabaru Ryōchō)      (b. 1698 - d. 1754)
1755 - 1782                Ba Sentetsu (Miyahira Ryōtei)
1782 - 1801                Shō Tenteki (Ie Chōkei)            (b. 1731 - d. 18..)
1801 - 1805                Shō Bunryū (Kyan Chōchō)
1805 - 1820                Ba Isai (Yonabaru Ryōō)            (b. 1761 - d. 1820)
1821 - 1828                Ō Kōretsu (Ishadō Seigen)          (b. 1776 - d. 1842)
1828 - 1848                Ba Tokubō (Yonabaru Ryōkō)
1848 - 1862                Mō Zōkō (Ikegusuku Anyū)
1862 - 1875                Shō Yūkō (Giwan Chōho)             (b. 1823 - d. 1876)
1875 - 11 Mar 1879         Mō Hōrai (Tomikawa Seikei)         (b. 1832 - d. 1890)
- second line (Shikaban) -
.... - 1611                Shō Ritan (Urasoe Chōshi)          (b. 1558 - d. 1620)
1611 -  1 Feb 1623         Mō Hōgi (Ikegusuku Anrai)          (b. 1558 - d. 1623)
1624 - 1627                Kin Ōshō (Gushichan Anshi)
1627 - 26 Sep 1642         Mō Taiun (Tomigusuku Seiryō)       (b. 1586 - d. 1642)
1643 - 1654                Shō Kokuki (Kunigami Chōki)
1654 - 1665                Ba Hōki (Kanegusuku Ryōsei)
1665 -  2 Aug 1688         Mō Taiei (Inoha Seiki)             (b. 1619 - d. 1688)
1688 - 1693                Mō Kokuzui (Sadoyama Anji)
1693 - 1694                Ba Teishun (Yonabaru Ryōgi)
1694 - 1699                Mō Kokusei (Inoha Seihei)          (b. 1648 - d. 1700)
1700 - 1710                Ba Teiki (Kōchi Ryōshō)
1710 - 1716                Shō Genryō (Tajima Chōyū)          (b. 1655 - d. 1737)
1716 - 17 Jul 1719         Mō Ōhō (Katsuren Seiyū)            (d. 1719)
1720 -  9 Jul 1745         Shō Wasei (Ie Chōjo)               (d. 1745)
1745 - 1755                Shō Kentoku (Fukuyama Chōken)
1755 - 12 Nov 1759         Mō Bunwa (Urasoe Anzō)             (d. 1759)
1760 - 1769                Mō Genyoku (Ikegusuku Anmei)
1769 - 1796                Ba Kokuki (Yonabaru Ryōku)         (b. 1718 - d. 1797)
1796 - 24 Jun 1798         Ba Kokugi (Kōchi Ryōtoku)          (d. 1798)
1798 - 28 Jun 1811         Mō Kokutō (Takehara Anshitsu)      (b. 1756 - d. 1811)
1811 - 25 Feb 1818         Ba Ōshō (Oroku Ryōwa)              (b. 1755 - d. 1818)
1818 - 1823                Ō Teitō (Tamagusuku Seirin)
1823 - 1829                Mō Teijō (Ikegusuku Ankon)         (b. 1768 - d. 18..)
1829 - 1835                Shō Teikai (Ginowan Chōkon)
1836 - 1839                Mō Ishin (Kochinda Ando)           (d. 1839)
1839 - 1847                Ba Inchū (Oroku Ryōkyō)            (b. 1798 - d. 1859)
1847 - 1858                Mō Kōtoku (Zakimi Seifu)           (b. 1801 - d. 1859)
1858 - 1860                Shō Jorei (Fukuyama Chōten)
1869 - 1873                Shō Rinshi (Kawahira Chōhan)
1873 - 1877                Mō Yūhi (Ikegusuku Anki)
1877 - 11 Mar 1879         Ba Kensai (Yonabaru Ryōketsu)      (b. 1836 - d. 1893)
- third line (Yūkaban) -
.... - ....                Mō Ryūgin (Aragusuku Anki)         (d. 1567)
.... - 1566                Ba Ryōsen (Urasoe Ryōken)          (d. 1566)
1566 - 1592                Ba Seiei (Nago Ryōin)
1592 - 1614                Ba Ryōhitsu (Nago Ryōhō)           (b. 1551 - d. 1617)
1614 - 28 May 1622         Mō Keiso (Tomigusuku Seizoku)      (b. 1520 - d. 1622)
1622 - 27 Jul 1635         Shō Kakurei (Kunigami Chōchi)      (d. 1635)
1636 - 1638                Shō Kakusen (Urasoe Chōri)         (d. 1638)
1641 - 1652                Shō Hōgen (Ginowan Seisei)
1654 - 1670                Shō Seibun (Mabuni Chōi)
1670 - 1690                Mō Kokuchin (Ikegusuku Anken)      (b. 1635 - d. 1695)
1690 - 27 Oct 1697         Mō Kenryū (Takehara An'i)          (b. 1651 - d. 1697)
1699 - 12 Aug 1710         Mō Tensō (Ikegusuku An'i)          (b. 1669 - d. 1710)
1710 - 1728                Ba Kenzu (Nago Ryōi)
1728 - 1752                Sai On (Gushichan Bunjaku)         (s.a.)
1752 - 1765                Shō Ketsu (Kochinda Chōei)         (b. 1701 - d. 1766)
1765 - 1778                Shō Hōten (Wakugawa Chōkyō)
1778 - 1798                Shō Kōki (Fukuyama Chōki)
1798 - 20 Nov 1803         Ba Bunzui (Yonabaru Ryōtō)         (b. 1737 - d 1803)
1803 - 1815                Mō Kōkoku (Sadoyama Anshun)
1815 - 1826                Shō Shōkun (Ie Chōan)
1826 - 1836                Mō Shikkō (Zakimi Seichin)         (b. 1787 - d. 1837)
1836 -  4 Dec 1839         Shō Kan (Kanegusuku Chōten)        (d. 1839)
1840 - 1851                Shō Ryōhitsu (Kuniyoshi Chōshō)
1852 - 1854                Shō Kōkun (Sakuma Seimō)
1854 - 1857                Shō Tōseki (Kōchi Chōken)
1857 - 1859                Ba Kokusho (Oroku Ryōchū)          (b. 1819 - d. ....)
1859 - 1871                Ba Chōtō (Yonabaru Ryōkyō)
1871 - 1872                Mō Inryō (Kamegawa Seibu)          (b. 1808 - d. 1880)
1872 - 11 Mar 1879         Shō Kyoken (Urasoe Chōshō)         (b. 1825 - d. 1883)
Chairman of the Okinawa Advisory Council

20 Aug 1945 - 24 Apr 1946  Kōshin Shikiya                     (b. 1884 - d. 1955)  Non-party
Chiefs of the Okinawa Civilian Administration
24 Apr 1946 -  4 Nov 1950  Kōshin Shikiya                     (s.a.)               Non-party
 4 Nov 1950 - 31 Mar 1951  Tatsuo Taira                       (b. 1892 - d. 1969)  OST
Chief Executives of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands
 1 Apr 1951 - 25 Oct 1956  Shūhei Higa                        (b. 1902 - d. 1956)  RDP
                             (provisional to 1 Apr 1952)
25 Oct 1956 - 10 Nov 1959  Jūgō Tōma (acting to 1 Nov 1956)   (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  Non-party
10 Nov 1959 - 31 Oct 1964  Seisaku Ōta                        (b. 1904 - d. 1999)  OLDP
31 Oct 1964 -  1 Dec 1968  Seiho Matsuoka                     (b. 1897 - d. 1989)  OLDP
 1 Dec 1968 - 14 May 1972  Chōbyō Yara                        (s.a.)               OST

 ¹Full style from 1374: Ryūkyū koku Chūzan/Liuqiu guo Zhongshan Wang ("King of Chuzan, Country of Liuqiu [Ryukyu]"). 

Party abbreviations: LDP = Jiyū Minshutō (Liberal Democratic Party, conservative, est.1955); OST = Okinawa Shakai Taishūtō (Okinawa Socialist Masses Party, left-wing, anti-Japan-U.S. security, est.1950); SDP = Shakai Minshutō (Social Democratic Party, social-democratic, est.1996, former JSP);
- Former parties: OLDP = Okinawa Jiyū Minshu Tō (Okinawa Liberal Democratic Party, conservative, Oct 1959-8 Mar 1970, merged into LDP); RDP = Ryūkyū‎ Minshu Tō (Ryukyu Democratic Party, conservative, Aug 1952-Oct 1959, then OLDP)



Bonin and Volcano Islands (Ogasawara and Kazan Islands)

[U.S. flag]
3 Sep 1945 - 25 Jun 1968

Map of Bonin Islands
Capital: Omura
(Port Lloyd 1830-1876)
Population: 203 (1965)
71 (1875)

Oct 1543                   Spanish Capt. Bernardo de la Torre of the exploring expedition of
                             Ruy López de Villalobos sights some of the Volcano Islands.
21 Jul 1639                Dutch Capt. Abel Tasman sights the Bonin Islands, naming Engel
                             Eylandt (Hahajima) and Graft Eylandt (Chichijima).
13 Feb 1670                Japanese merchant seamen shipwrecked on Hahajima.
1673                       Englishman named Gore sights Iwo Jima, names it Sulphur Island.
29 Apr 1675                Japanese survey under Ichizaemon Shimaya arrives on Bonin Islands,
                             which are named Mujin tō ("Uninhabited Islands").
1727                       According to Sadatou Ogasawara, his fictitious ancestor, Sadayori 
                             Sadayori discovered the Bonin Islands in 1593, which he named
                             the Ogasawara (Sadatou is convicted for this fraud in 1735).
15 Jun 1827                Bonin Islands claimed for U.K. by Frederick William Beechey
                             (b. 1796 - d. 1856), aboard H.M.S. Blossom, which are named the
                             "Archbishop Islands", Chichijima is named "Peel Island."
26 Jun 1830                Nathaniel Savory and 24 others settle (under British auspices).
15 Jul 1836                The American warships U.S.S. Peacock and U.S.S. Enterprise arrive
                             and help the settlers with formulating a written law code.
1842                       British acting consul in Hawaii, Alexander Simpson, recommends
                             Mazarro as the head of Peel Island until a duly appointed
                             British government official was placed over the islands.
14 Jun 1853                Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Port Lloyd, purchases land for
                             coal storage and draft a simple constitution the "Organization of
                             the Settlers of Peel Island" (Colony of Peel Island). Later
                             Capt. John Kelly of U.S.S. Plymouth formally claims the Haha
                             Jima group for the U.S. as the "Coffin Islands."
18 Jan 1862 -  7 Apr 1862  Japanese expedition to Chichijima, which is confirmed as part
                             of Ogasawaratō (Ogasawara Islands).
Aug 1862 - May 1863        Japanese colonists from Hachijōjima are settled on Chichijima.
Mar 1876                   Bonin Islands annexed by Japan (as Ogasawara guntō).
28 Oct 1880                Bonin Islands incorporated into Tokyo prefecture.
 9 Sep 1891                Iwō Jima (Iō tō) and Volcano Islands annexed by Japan (as Kazan-
                             rettō), as part of Tokyo prefecture. 
24 Jul 1898                Japan annexes Marcus Island (Minamitorishima).
 4 Jun 1944                Islanders evacuated to mainland Japan (completed 4 Aug 1944).
 1 Jul 1944                The islands came under Japanese military administration, the
                             commander of the 109th Division becomes the Ogasawara Corps.
19 Feb 1945                Iwo Jima (Iō tō) invasion launched by U.S. (proclaimed occupied 14
                             Mar 1945, resistance continues to 25 Mar 1945).
Mar 1945 - 14 Aug 1946     U.S. Naval Advance Air Base Iwo Jima.
31 Aug 1945                U.S. occupies Marcus Island.
 3 Sep 1945                Bonin Islands surrendered to U.S. (Chichijima from 10 Oct 1945).
13 Dec 1945                Bonin, Volcano, Marcus, Rosario Islands and Parece Vela (nominally
                             part of Japan) under U.S. administration.
Jan 1946 - Mar 1946        Izu Islands (Izushotō) also administratively separated from Japan.
17 Oct 1946                U.S. occupation forces allow islanders of Euro-American descent
                             to return to Chichijima.
 8 Mar 1952 - 25 Jun 1968  U.S. Naval Facility Chichi Jima.
28 Apr 1952                U.S. administration of Bonin, Volcano, Marcus, Rosario Islands and
                             Parece Vela confirmed by the Treaty of San Francisco with Japan
                             (signed 18 Sep 1951).
26 Jun 1968                Ogasawara Islands (Bonin and Volcano Islands) and Minamitorishima
                             (Marcus Island) restored to Japan (as part of Tokyo prefecture).



Chief Islanders
1830 - 1848                Matteo (Matthew) Mazarro           (d. 1848)
1848 - 1862                Nathaniel Savory                   (b. 1794 - d. 1874)
                             (acting to 1853; magistrate 1853-1859)
Governors
18 Jan 1862 -  7 Apr 1862  Mizuno Chikugo no Kami Tadanori    (b. 1810 - d. 1868)
Aug 1862 - May 1863        Sakunosuke (Sakusuke) Obana        (b. 1829 - d. 1901)
Chief Islander
1863 - 10 Apr 1874         Nathaniel Savory (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Chief Commissioner
Dec 1876 - Nov 1880        Sakunosuke (Sakusuke) Obana        (s.a.)
Commanders, Ogasawara Corps
27 May 1944 - 25? Mar 1945 Tadamichi Kuribayashi              (b. 1891 - d. 1945)
25? Mar 1945 - 13 Dec 1945 Yoshio Tachibana                   (b. 1890 - d. 1947)
U.S. Military Governors, Bonin, Volcano and Marcus Islands
(in Tokyo, Japan)
 1 Jan 1947 -  9 Apr 1951  the Commanders-in-chief Far East
U.S. Military Governors, Bonin Islands (in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii)
 9 Apr 1951 - 26 Jul 1968  the Commanders-in-chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet
Deputy Military Governors, Bonin - Volcano Islands (on Saipan, then Guam)
(the Commanders, U.S. Naval Forces, Marianas [to 1956 Commander Marianas Area])
Aug 1945 - 1946            George Dominic Murray              (b. 1889 - d. 1956)
1946 - Aug 1949            Charles Alan Pownall               (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
Aug 1949 - 1950            Edward Coyle Ewen                  (b. 1897 - d. 1959)
1950 - 1951                Osborne Bennett Hardison           (b. 1892 - d. 1959)
Jul 1951 - 1954            Ernest Wheeler Litch, Jr.          (b. 1897 - d. 1967)
Feb 1954 - 27 Oct 1955     Marion Emerson Murphy              (b. 1899 - d. 1980)
13 Feb 1956 - 1957         William Bronley Ammon              (b. 1902 - d. 1959)
1957 - 1960                William Lawrence Erdmann           (b. 1902 - d. 1961)
17 Jan 1960 - 1961         Waldemar Frederick August Wendt    (b. 1912 – d. 1997)
Sep 1961 - Jan 1963        John Starr Coye, Jr.               (b. 1911 - d. 2002)
Jan 1963 - 1964            Thomas Aloysius Christopher        (b. 1911 - d. 1987)
1964 - 1966                Horace Virgil Bird                 (b. 1912 - d. 1984)
1966 - 25 Jun 1968         Carlton Benton Jones               (b. 1909 - d. 2002)
Officers-in-charge, Bonin Islands
 6 Oct 1945 -  8 Oct 1946  Presley Morehead Rixey             (b. 1904 - d. 1989)
                             (commander of Bonin Occupation Force)
 8 Oct 1946 - Jun 1947     Vernon Bertram Hagenbuckle         (b. 1901 - d. 1997)
Jun 1947 - Apr 1951        ....
Military Government Representatives, Bonin - Volcano Islands
(Officers-in-charge, U.S. Naval Facility Chichi Jima, Bonin Islands)
Apr 1951 - Jun 1952        Frederick Alfred Pobst             (b. 1918 - d. 1986)
Jun 1952 - 21 Jul 1953     John Walter Kelsey, Jr.            (b. 1920 - d. 2010)
21 Jul 1953 - Oct 1955     Clayton Ernest "Jack" Frost        (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
Oct 1955 - Mar 1958        Earl Dean Bronson                  (b. 1913 - d. 2002)
May 1958 - Jun 1960        Thomas Gordon Rice                 (b. 1915 - d. 2012)
Jul 1960 - Jun 1963        Vernon Ward Weatherby              (b. 1920 - d. 1964)
Jul 1963 - Jan 1964        John Robert Thorndyke              (b. 1924 - d. 2005)
Feb 1964 - Jul 1964        Ronald Lee Farrar                  (b. 1928 - d. 2002)
Jul 1964 - Dec 1965        James Hamilton Reynolds            (b. 1925 - d. 1999)
Dec 1965 - 25 Jun 1968     Dale Wayne Johnson                 (b. 1960 - d. 1984)



Presidents of the Bonin Island Council
(incomplete)
1946                       Frank Gonzales (Enzo Kishi)        (b. 1882? - d. 19..)
19 Oct 1946 - May 1948     Clark Gonzales
c.1953                     Jerry Savory (Sebori Yoshinao)     (b. 1914 - d. 1993)
                             (1st time)
c.1956                     Richard Washington (Ohira Yoichi)  (b. 1901 - d. 1977)
c.1958                     Jerry Savory (2nd time)            (s.a.)
c.1965                     Richard Savory
c.1968                     Kazuo Komata


Deshima (Decima)
[National flag of the Netherlands]
29 Apr 1600                First Dutch traders arrive in Japan.
20 Sep 1609                Dutch factory (trading post) established at Hirado by
                             the Dutch East India Company (VOC)(subordinated to Java).
24 Jun 1641                Dutch factory is moved to Deshima (Decima) Island in 
                             Nagasaki Bay (subordinated to Java).
31 Dec 1795                End of VOC administration.
18 Sep 1811 - 19 Aug 1816  Subordinated to British occupied Java and dependencies.
28 Feb 1860                Deshima abandoned.

Opperhoofden (Chief factors) at Hirado
20 Sep 1609 - 28 Aug 1612  Jacques Specx (1st time)           (b. 1585 - d. 1652)
28 Aug 1612 -  6 Aug 1614  Hendrick Brouwer                   (b. 1581 - d. 1643)
 6 Aug 1614 - 29 Oct 1621  Jacques Specx (2nd time)           (s.a.)
29 Oct 1621 - 21 Nov 1623  Leonard Camps
21 Nov 1623 - 31 Jan 1633  Cornelis van Nijenrode             (d. 1633)
31 Jan 1633 -  6 Sep 1633  Pieter van Santen
 6 Sep 1633 -  3 Feb 1639  Nicolaes Coeckebacker 
 3 Feb 1639 - 13 Feb 1641  François Caron                     (b. 1600 - d. 1673)
14 Feb 1641 - 24 Jun 1641  Maximiliaan le Maire               (b. 1606 - d. 1654?)
Opperhoofden (Chief factors) at Deshima
24 Jun 1641 - 30 Oct 1641  Maximiliaan le Maire               (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1641 - 29 Oct 1642  Jan van Elserack (1st time)
29 Oct 1642 -  1 Aug 1643  Pieter Anthoniszoon Overtwater     (b. c.1610 - d. 1682) 
                             (1st time)
 1 Aug 1643 - 24 Nov 1644  Jan van Elserack (2nd time)
24 Nov 1644 - 30 Nov 1645  Pieter Anthoniszoon Overtwater     (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
30 Nov 1645 - 27 Oct 1646  Reinier van't Zum (Tzum)           (b. c.1600 - d. 1670)
28 Oct 1646 - 10 Oct 1647  Willem Verstegen (Versteijen)      (b. 1612 - d. 1659)
 3 Nov 1647 -  9 Dec 1648  Frederick Coyett (1st time)        (b. 1620 - d. 1689)
 9 Dec 1648 -  5 Nov 1649  Dirck Snouck (Snoecq)
 5 Nov 1649 - 25 Oct 1650  Anthony van Brouckhorst
25 Oct 1650 -  1 Nov 1651  Pieter Sterthemius                 (b. 1618? - d. 1676) 
 1 Nov 1651 -  3 Nov 1652  Adriaen van der Burgh              (d. 1668?)
 4 Nov 1652 -  4 Nov 1653  Frederick Coyett (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1563 - 31 Oct 1654  Gabriel Happart                    (d. 1657) 
31 Oct 1654 - 23 Oct 1655  Leonard Winnincx                   (b. 1616? - d. 1691)
23 Oct 1655 -  1 Nov 1656  Joan Bouchelion (1st time)
 1 Nov 1656 - 27 Oct 1657  Zacharias Wagenaar (1st time)      (b. 1614 - d. 1688)
27 Oct 1657 - 23 Oct 1568  Joan Bouchelion (2nd time)   
22 Oct 1658 -  4 Nov 1659  Zacharias Wagenaar (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1659 - 26 Oct 1660  Joan Bouchelion (3rd time)   
26 Oct 1660 - 11 Nov 1661  Hendrick Indijck (1st time)        (b. 1615? - d 1664)
11 Nov 1661 -  6 Nov 1662  Dirck van Lier 
 6 Nov 1662 - 20 Oct 1663  Hendrick Indijck (2nd time)        (s.a.)
20 Oct 1663 -  7 Nov 1664  Willem Volger (1st time)           (b. 1602 - d. 1679)
 7 Nov 1664 - 27 Oct 1665  Jacob Gruijs
28 Oct 1665 - 18 Oct 1666  Willem Volger (2nd time)           (s.a.)
18 Oct 1666 -  6 Nov 1667  Daniël Six (1st time)              (b. 1620 - d. 1674)
 6 Nov 1667 - 25 Oct 1668  Constantin Ranst de Jonge          (b. 1635 - d. 1714)
25 Oct 1668 - 14 Oct 1669  Daniël Six (2nd time)              (s.a.)
14 Oct 1669 -  2 Nov 1670  François de Haze                   (d. 1676)
 2 Nov 1670 - 12 Nov 1671  Martinus Caesar (1st time)
22 Oct 1671 - 12 Nov 1672  Johannes Camphuys (1st time)       (b. 1634 - d. 1695)
13 Nov 1672 - 29 Oct 1673  Martinus Caesar (2nd time)
29 Oct 1673 - 19 Oct 1674  Johannes Camphuys (2nd time)       (s.a.)
20 Oct 1674 -  7 Nov 1675  Martinus Caesar (3rd time)
 7 Nov 1675 - 27 Oct 1676  Johannes Camphuys (3rd time)       (s.a.)
27 Oct 1676 - 16 Oct 1677  Dirck de Haas (1st time) 
16 Oct 1677 -  4 Nov 1678  Albert Brevinck (1st time)
 4 Nov 1678 - 24 Oct 1679  Dirck de Haas (2nd time)
24 Oct 1679 - 11 Nov 1680  Albert Brevinck (2nd time)
11 Nov 1680 - 31 Oct 1681  Isaac van Schinne                  (b. 1640 - d. 1686)
31 Oct 1681 - 20 Oct 1682  Hendrick Canzius 
20 Oct 1682 -  8 Nov 1683  Andreas Clyer (Cleijer)(1st time)  (b. 1634 - d. 1698)
 8 Nov 1683 - 25 Oct 1684  Constantin Ranst de Jonge          (b. 1635 - d. 1714) 
                             (1st time)
25 Oct 1684 -  7 Oct 1685  Hendrick van Buytenhem (1st time)
17 Oct 1685 -  5 Nov 1686  Andreas Clyer (Cleijer)(2nd time)  (s.a.)
 5 Nov 1686 - 25 Oct 1687  Constantin Ranst de Jonge          (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
25 Oct 1687 - 13 Oct 1688  Hendrick van Buytenhem (2nd time)
13 Oct 1688 -  1 Nov 1689  Cornelis Corneliszoon van Outhoorn (b. 1635 - d. 1708)
                             (1st time)
 1 Nov 1689 - 21 Oct 1690  Balthasar Sweers
21 Oct 1690 -  9 Nov 1691  Hendrick van Buytenhem (3rd time)
 9 Nov 1691 - 29 Oct 1692  Cornelis Corneliszoon van Outhoorn (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
29 Oct 1692 - 19 Oct 1693  Hendrick van Buytenhem (4th time)
19 Oct 1693 -  7 Nov 1694  Gerrit de Heere                    (b. 1657 - d. 1702)
 7 Nov 1694 - 27 Oct 1695  Hendrik Dijkman (1st time)
27 Oct 1695 - 15 Oct 1696  Cornelis Corneliszoon van Outhoorn (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
15 Oct 1696 -  3 Nov 1697  Hendrik Dijkman (3rd time)
 3 Nov 1697 - 23 Oct 1698  Pieter de Vos (1st time)           (d. 1704)
23 Oct 1698 - 12 Oct 1699  Hendrik Dijkman (3rd time)
21 Oct 1699 - 31 Oct 1700  Pieter de Vos (2nd time)           (s.a.)
31 Oct 1700 - 21 Oct 1701  Hendrik Dijkman (4th time)
21 Oct 1701 - 30 Oct 1702  Abraham Douglas
 9 Nov 1702 - 30 Oct 1703  Ferdinand de Groot (1st time)
30 Oct 1703 - 18 Oct 1704  Gideon Tant
18 Oct 1704 -  6 Nov 1705  Ferdinand de Groot (2nd time)
 6 Nov 1705 - 26 Oct 1706  Hermanus Menssingh (1st time)
26 Oct 1706 - 15 Oct 1707  Ferdinand de Groot (3rd time)
15 Oct 1702 -  2 Nov 1708  Hermanus Menssingh (2nd time)
 2 Nov 1708 - 22 Oct 1709  Jasper van Mansdale
22 Oct 1709 - 10 Nov 1710  Hermanus Menssingh (3rd time)
10 Nov 1710 - 31 Oct 1711  Nicolaas Joan van Hoorn (1st time)
31 Oct 1711 - 20 Oct 1712  Cornelis Lardijn (1st time)
20 Oct 1712 -  7 Nov 1713  Nicolaas Joan van Hoorn (2nd time)
 7 Nov 1713 - 27 Oct 1714  Cornelis Lardijn (2nd time)
27 Oct 1714 - 19 Oct 1715  Nicolaas Joan van Hoorn (3rd time)
19 Oct 1715 -  3 Nov 1716  Gideon Boudaen Courten             (b. 1686 - d. 1744)
 3 Nov 1716 - 24 Oct 1717  Joan Aouwer (1st time)
24 Oct 1717 - 13 Oct 1718  Christiaen van Vrijbergen
13 Oct 1718 - 21 Oct 1720  Joan Aouwer (2nd time)
21 Oct 1720 -  9 Nov 1721  Roeloff Diodati                    (b. 1658 - d. 1723)
 9 Nov 1721 - 18 Oct 1723  Hendrik Durven
18 Oct 1723 - 25 Oct 1725  Johannes Thedens                   (b. 1680 - d. 1748)
25 Oct 1725 - 15 Oct 1726  Joan de Hartogh
15 Oct 1726 -  3 Nov 1727  Pieter Boeckestijn (1st time)
 3 Nov 1727 - 20 Oct 1728  Abraham Minnedonk (1st time)
22 Oct 1728 - 12 Oct 1729  Pieter Boockestijn (2nd time)
12 Oct 1729 - 31 Oct 1730  Abraham Minnedonk (2nd time)
31 Oct 1730 -  7 Nov 1732  Pieter Boeckestijn (2nd time)
 7 Nov 1732 - 27 Oct 1733  Hendrik van de Bel
27 Oct 1733 - 16 Oct 1734  Rogier de Laver                    (b. 1701 - d. 1755)
16 Oct 1734 -  4 Nov 1735  David Drinckman
 4 Nov 1735 - 24 Oct 1736  Bernardus Coop à Groen
24 Oct 1736 - 13 Oct 1737  Jan van der Cruijsse
13 Oct 1737 - 21 Oct 1739  Gerardus Bernardus Visscher        (b. 1701 - d. 1772)
22 Oct 1739 -  8 Nov 1740  Thomas van Rhee (1st time)
 9 Nov 1740 - 28 Oct 1741  Jacob van der Waeijen (1st time)
29 Oct 1741 - 17 Oct 1742  Thomas van Rhee (2nd time)
17 Oct 1742 -  5 Nov 1743  Jacob van der Waeijen (2nd time)
 5 Nov 1743 -  1 Nov 1744  David Brouwer
 2 Nov 1744 - 28 Dec 1745  Jacob van der Waeijen (3rd time)
30 Dec 1745 -  2 Nov 1746  Jan Louis de Win (1st time)
 3 Nov 1746 - 25 Oct 1747  Jacob Balde (1st time)
28 Oct 1747 - 11 Nov 1748  Jan Louis de Win (2nd time)
12 Nov 1748 -  8 Dec 1749  Jacob Balde (2nd time)
 8 Dec 1749 - 24 Dec 1750  Hendrik van Homoet (1st time)      (b. 1712 - d. 1767)
25 Dec 1750 - 18 Nov 1751  Abraham van Suchtelen              (b. 1710 - d. 1760) 
19 Nov 1751 -  5 Dec 1752  Hendrik van Homoet (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 6 Dec 1752 - 15 Oct 1753  David Boelen (1st time)            (b. 1720 - d. 1775)
16 Oct 1753 -  3 Nov 1754  Hendrik van Homoet (3rd time)      (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1754 - 25 Oct 1755  David Boelen (2nd time)            (s.a.)
25 Oct 1755 - 12 Oct 1756  Herbert Vermeulen (1st time)       (b. 1738 - d. 1783)
13 Oct 1756 - 31 Oct 1757  David Boelen (3rd time)            (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1757 - 11 Nov 1758  Herbert Vermeulen (2nd time)       (s.a.)
12 Nov 1758 - 11 Nov 1760  Johannes Reijnouts (1st time)      (d. 1790)
12 Nov 1760 - 30 Oct 1761  Marten Huijshoorn
31 Oct 1761 -  2 Dec 1762  Johannes Reijnouts (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 2 Dec 1762 -  6 Nov 1763  Fredrik Willem Wineke (1st time)
 7 Nov 1763 - 24 Oct 1764  Jan Crans (1st time)
25 Oct 1764 -  7 Nov 1765  Fredrik Willem Wineke (2nd time)
 8 Nov 1765 - 31 Oct 1766  Jan Crans (2nd time)
 1 Nov 1766 - 20 Oct 1767  Herman Christiaan Kastens
21 Oct 1767 -  8 Nov 1769  Jan Crans (3rd time)
 9 Nov 1769 - 16 Nov 1770  Olphert Elias                      (b. 1733 - d. 1770)
17 Nov 1770 -  9 Nov 1771  Daniel Armenault (1st time)
10 Nov 1771 -  3 Nov 1772  Arend Willem Feith (1st time)      (b. 1745 - d. 1782)
 4 Nov 1772 - 22 Nov 1773  Daniel Armenault (2nd time)
23 Nov 1773 - 10 Nov 1774  Arend Willem Feith (2nd time)      (s.a.)
11 Nov 1774 - 28 Oct 1775  Daniel Armenault (3rd time)
28 Oct 1775 - 22 Nov 1776  Arend Willem Feith (3rd time)      (s.a.)
23 Nov 1776 - 11 Nov 1777  Hendrik Godfried Duurkoop          (b. 1736 - d. 1778)
12 Nov 1777 - 28 Nov 1779  Arend Willem Feith (4th time)      (s.a.)
29 Nov 1779 -  5 Nov 1780  Isaac Titsingh (1st time)          (b. 1745 - d. 1812)
 6 Nov 1780 - 23 Nov 1781  Arend Willem Feith (5th time)      (s.a.)
24 Nov 1781 - 26 Oct 1783  Isaac Titsingh (2nd time)          (s.a.)
27 Oct 1783 - Aug 1784     Hendrik Caspar Romberg (1st time)  (b. 1744 - d. 1793)
Aug 1784 - 30 Nov 1784     Isaac Titsingh (3rd time)          (s.a.)
30 Nov 1784 - 22 Nov 1785  Hendrik Caspar Romberg (2nd time)  (s.a.)
22 Nov 1785 - 20 Nov 1786  Johan Frederik, baron van Rheede   (b. 1757 - d. 1802) 
                             tot de Parkelaar (1st time)
21 Nov 1786 - 30 Nov 1787  Hendrik Caspar Romberg (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1787 -  1 Aug 1789  Johan Frederik, baron van Rheede   (s.a.) 
                             tot de Parkelaar (2nd time)
 1 Aug 1789 - 13 Nov 1790  Hendrik Caspar Romberg (4th time)  (s.a.)
13 Nov 1790 - 13 Nov 1792  Petrus Theodorus Chasszoon
13 Nov 1792 -  8 Jul 1798  Gijsbert Hemmy                     (b. 1746 - d. 1798)
 8 Jul 1798 - 16 Jul 1800  Leopold Willem Ras (acting)        (b. 1766 - d. 1823)
16 Jul 1800 - 14 Nov 1803  Willem Wardenaar                   (b. 1764 - d. 1818)
14 Nov 1803 -  6 Dec 1817  Hendrik Doeff                      (b. 1764 - d. 1837)
 6 Dec 1817 - 20 Nov 1823  Jan Cock Blomhoff                  (b. 1779 - d. 1853)
20 Nov 1823 -  4 Aug 1826  Johan Willem de Sturler            (b. 1777 - d. 1855)
 4 Aug 1826 -  1 Nov 1830  Germain Felix Meijlan              (b. 1785 - d. 1831)
 1 Nov 1830 - 30 Nov 1834  Jan Willem Frederik van Citters    (b. 1785 - d. 1836)
 1 Dec 1834 - 17 Nov 1838  Johannes Erdewin Niemann           (b. 1796 - d. 1850)
18 Nov 1838 - Nov 1842     Edouard Grandisson
Nov 1842 - 31 Oct 1845     Pieter Albert Bik                  (b. 1798 - d. 1855)
 1 Nov 1845 - 31 Oct 1850  Joseph Henri Levyssohn             (b. 1800 - d. 1883)
 1 Nov 1850 - 31 Oct 1852  Frederik Cornelis Rose             (b. 1808 - d. 1880)
 2 Nov 1852 - 28 Feb 1860  Jan Hendrik Donker Curtius         (b. 1813 - d. 1879)
                             (from 1858, government commissioner)


English Hirado Post

[English East India
                  Company flag c.1600-c.1707]

1550 - 1561                Portuguese trading post (Firado).
1600                       William Adams becomes the first Englishman to set foot in Japan.
Jun 1613 - Dec 1623        English East India Company trading post at Hirado. 

Chief Factor
Jun 1613 - Dec 1623        Richard Cocks                      (b. 1566 - d. 1624)


Portuguese Nagasaki Post

[Portugal 1578-1640 flag]

23 Sep? 1543               A group of Portuguese sailors accidentally land on Tanegashima
                             Island in a Chinese boat, marking the first time that
                             Europeans set foot in Japan.
1571                       Portuguese trading post at Nagasaki.
 9 Jun 1580 - 24 Jul 1587  Nagasaki ceded to the Portuguese Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
                             by local daimyo Omura Sumitada (b. 1533 - d. 1587).
1636                       Portuguese post moved to Deshima (Dejima).
1639                       Shogun exiles the Portuguese from Japan.

Jesuit Vice-Provincials of Nagasaki
 9 Jun 1580 - 1581         Francisco Cabral                   (b. 1529 - d. 1609)
1581 - 24 Jul 1587         Gaspar Coelho                      (b. c.1529 - d. 1590)
Captains-major
(captains of the annual Macau to Japan voyages)
1571 - 1624                the captains-major of Macau
1624 - 1625                Agostinho Lobo
1626                       Luís Paes Pacheco
1627                       no voyage
1628                       António Monteiro
1629                       António de Oliveira Aranha
1630                       no voyage
1631                       Lourenço de Lis Velho
1632 - 1634                Lopo Sarmento de Carvalho          (d. 1645)
1635                       no voyage
1636                       Gonçalo da Silveira
1637                       Francisco de Castelo Branco
1638                       João Pereira
1639                       Vasco Palha de Almeida







© Ben Cahoon