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Ethiopia
 
[Ethiopia merchant flag 1881 -
                                    1897]
1881 - 6 Oct 1897
 
[tricolour flag of Ethiopia
                                    1894-1936]
6 Oct 1897 - 9 May 1936

[Italian East Africa (Africa
                                    Orientale Italiana)(1936-1942)]
9 May 1936 - 5 May 1941 
 
[State Flag of Ethiopia,
                                    1941-1975]
5 May 1941 - 1 Jan 1975
 
[State
                                    Flag of Ethiopia 1975]
1 Jan 1975 - 12 Sep 1975
 
[Flag
                                    of Ethiopia]
Civil Flag from 1 Jan 1975
 
[State
                                    Flag of Ethiopia, 1975-1987]
12 Sep 1975 - 12 Sep 1987
[State
                                    Flag of Ethiopia, 1987-1991]
12 Sep 1987 - 28 May 1991
[Flag of
                                    Ethiopia]
Adopted 6 Feb 1996
Map of Ethiopia
Hear National Anthem
"Whedefit Gesgeshi Woude
Henate Ethiopia"
(March Forward, Dear 
Mother Ethiopia)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1992
Constitution
(22 August 1995)
-------------------------------
Imperial Constitutions
(16 Jul 1931 and 4 Nov 1955)
Map of Ethiopia
1952-1993
Hear Former Anthem
"Ethiopia Hoy"
(Ethiopians, Be Happy)
(2 Nov 1930-21 Mar 1975)
Hear Former Anthem
"Ityopya, Ityopya,
Ityopya, qidä mi"
(Ethiopia, Ethiopia,
Ethiopia be first)
(21 Mar 1975-1992)
Eritrea-Ethiopia
Border Map
Capital: Addis Ababa
(Addis Abeba 1936-1941;
Finfine 1880-1886; Magdella
1855-1868; Mekele 1886-1889;
Gondar 1636-1855;
Danqaz
 1604-34; Teguelat 1268-c.1412;

Lasta-Lalibela [Roha] 11.. - 1268;
Axum [Aksum] .. BC-11..AD)
Currency: Birr (ETB);
1945-1976 Ethiopian Dollar
(ETD);
1941-45 East Africa
Shilling (XEAS);
1936-1941
Italian East Africa
Lira
(AOIL);
1893-1936
 Ethiopian Talari (ETT)
National Holiday: 28 May(1991)
Derigi Yewedek’ebeti K’eni
(Derg Downfall Day)
Population: 105,350,020 (2017)
GDP: $195.8 billion (2017)
Exports: $3.07 billion (2017)
Imports: $16.7 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Oromo 34.5%, Amhara (Amara) 26.9%,
Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrigna) 6.1%, Sidama 4%,
Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%,
 Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%,
other 8.8% (2007)
Total Active Armed Forces: 138,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 11 ships (2017)
Religions: Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%,
Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Roman Catholic 0.7%,
 other 0.7% (2007)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, AIIB, APM, AU, BTWC, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT (signatory), OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Ethiopia Index
Chronology
 
c.100 - c.940              Kingdom (Empire) of Axum (Aksum)
1117                       Ethiopian Kingdom
1270                       Empire of Ethiopia
1528 - 1541                Much of Ethiopia occupied by the Muslim Sultan 
                             of Harar, Ahmad bin Ibrahim "Gragn", allied
                             with the Ottoman Empire.
1541 - 1543                Portuguese crusade in Ethiopia led by Cristóvão da
                             Gama (b. c.1516 – d. 1542)(to 29 August 1542).
11 Feb 1626 - 14 Jun 1632  Emperor Susenyos I makes Roman Catholicism the
                             state religion.
Dec 1867 – May 1868        British Expedition to Abyssinia.
11 Oct 1875 - 1884         Harar occupied by Egypt.
1889                       Definitive incorporation of the Kingdom 
                             of Shewa (Shoa) into Ethiopia.
 2 May 1889 -  1 Mar 1896  By the Treaty of Uccialle (Wuchale) declared a
                             protectorate by Italy (Abyssinian Protectorate);
                             repudiated by Ethiopia in 1893.
  1 Mar 1896                Battle of Adwa, Ethiopia defeats an Italian invasion.
28 Oct 1902 - 1956         British leased concession at Gambella.
 3 Oct 1935                Italian invasion.
 9 May 1936                Annexed by Italy.
 1 Jun 1936                Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Italian Somalia are united 
                             into Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale
                             Italiana) and reorganized as a federation of
                             six provinces: Eritrea (formed by the merger
                             of the former colony of Eritrea and the Ethiopian
                             region of Tigre), Somalia (formed by the merger
                             of the former colony of Somalia and the 
                             Ethiopian region of Ogaden), Addis Abeba
                             (capital region of Ethiopia), Amhara, Harar, and
                             Galla-Sidama (parts of Ethiopia).
 1 Jan 1939                Addis Ababa and parts of the provinces of Amhara
                             and Galla-Sidama are united into the new
                             province of Showa.
Mar 1941 - 23 Sep 1948     British military administration of the Ogaden.
 5 May 1941                Addis Ababa liberated by Allies.
27 Nov 1941                Last Italian administrators surrender.
31 Jan 1942 - 19 Dec 1944  Under British Military Administration of Occupied
                             Territories in Africa.
15 Sep 1952 - 24 May 1993  Eritrea part of Ethiopia.
28 Feb 1955                Haud and Reserved Areas transferred from British
                             Somaliland to Ethiopia by U.K.
12 Sep 1974                Ethiopia
20 Dec 1974                Socialist Ethiopia
21 Mar 1975                Monarchy abolished.
13 Jul 1977 - 15 Mar 1978  Somalia occupies Ethiopia's Ogaden region.
10 Sep 1987                People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
27 May 1991                Ethiopia
21 Aug 1995                Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Administrative Divisions
(from 1995)

Traditional
Border States

 Imperial Govt.
in Exile
 Shewa
(1682-1889)
 Italian East Africa
(1935-1942)

Ethiopian provinces

  • Addis Abeba
  • Amhara
  • Galla-Sidama
  • Harar
  • Showa
  •  British Occupied
    Ogaden

    (1941-1948)
    Gambela
    Enclave

    (1902-1955)
    Ethiopian Orthodox
    Church
    Historical Maps
    of Ethiopia
    Map of Ethiopia
    1952-1993
     

    Chairman of the Central Committee of the Commission to Organize the
    the Worker's Party of Ethiopia (COPWE)
    Dec 1979 - 12 Sep 1984     Mengistu Haile Mariam              (b. 1937)
    General Secretary of the Worker's Party of Ethiopia (EWP)
    12 Sep 1984 - 21 May 1991  Mengistu Haile Mariam              (s.a.)
                              (party renounces Marxist-Leninism 10 Mar 1990)

    Emperors¹
    10 Aug 1270 - 19 Jun 1285  Yekuno Amlak Tasfa Iyasus          (d. 1285)
                                 (= Tasfa Iyasus)  
    19 Jun 1285 - 1294         Yagbe'u Seyon
    Yekuno Amlak         (d. 1294)
                                 (= Salomon I
    )  
    1294 - 1295                Senfa Ared IV Yagbe'u Seyon
    1295 - 1296                Hezba Asgad 
    Yagbe'u Seyon
    1296 - 1297                Qedma Asgad Yagbe'u Seyon
    1297 - 1298                Zin Asgad Yagbe'u Seyon (Jin Asgad)
    1298 - 1299                Saba Asgad
    Yagbe'u Seyon
    1299 - 1314                Wedem Arad
     Yekuno Amlak            (d. 1314)
    1314 - 1344                Amda Seyon
    Wedem Arad            (d. 1344)
                                 (= Gabra Masqal I)

    1344 - 1372                Newaya Krestos
    Amda Seyon          (d. 1372)
                                 (= Sayfa Ar`ed)
    1372 - 1382                Newaya Maryam 
    Newaya Krestos       (d. 1382)
                                 (= Wedem Asfare or Gemma Asfare)

    1382 -  6 Oct 1413        
    Be'ede Maryam Newaya Krestos       (d. 1413)
                                 (= Dawit I)
    1413 - 23 Jun 1414         Tewodros I
    Be'ede Maryam           (d. 1414)
                                 (= Walda Ambasa)

    Sep 1414 - Aug 1429        Yeshaq I
    Be'ede Maryam             (d. 1429)
                                 (= Gabra Masqal II)

    Aug 1429 - Mar 1430        Andreyas
    Yeshaq (= Eskender)       (d. 1430)
    1430 - Jun 1433            Takla Maryam
     Be'ede Maryam         (d. 1433)
                                 (= Hezba Nan)

    Jun 1433 - Nov 1433        Sarwe Iyasus
     Takla Maryam          (d. 1433)
                                 (= Mehreka Nan)

    Nov 1433 - Jun 1434        Amda Iyasus
     Takla Maryam           (d. 1434)
                                 (= Badel Nan)

    19/20 Jun 1434-26 Aug 1468 Zar'a Ya`qob
     Be'ede Maryam         (b. 1399 - d. 1468)
                                 
    (= Amda Seyon Kwestantinos I)
    26 Aug 1468 -  8 Nov 1478  
    Be'ede Maryam Zar'a Ya`qob         (b. 1448 - d. 1478)
                                 (= Admas Seggad)(=
    Dawit III)
    1478 -  7 May 1494         Eskender Be'ede Maryam
                 (b. 1471 - d. 1494)
                                 (= Kwestantinos II)

    May 1494 - 26 Oct 1494     Amda Seyon II
    Eskender (= Andreyas)(b. c.1487 - d. 1494)
    1494 - 31 Jul 1508
            Na'od I Baeda Maryam               (d. 1508)
                                 (= 'Anbasa Bazar)  
    22 Aug 1508 -  2 Sep 1540  Lebna Dengel
    Naod                  (b. c.1496 - d. 1540)
                                 (= Dawit II Anbasa Seggad)
     3 Sep 1540 - 23 Mar 1559  Gelawdewos
     Lebna Dengel            (b. 1521/22 - d. 1559)
                                 (= Asnaf Sagad I)
    1559 -  1 Feb 1563         Menas Lebna Dengel                 (d. 1563)
                                 (= Admas Sagad I or Wanag Sagad)
    1561 - Jul 1561            Tazkaro Qal Yaqob (in opposition)
    1563 -  3 Apr 1597         Sarsa Dengel Menas                 (b. 1550 - d. 1597)
                                 (= Malak Sagad I)
    1563 - 1564                Tekle Maryam (in opposition)
    156. - 156.                Marqos (in opposition)
    1597 - Aug/Sep 1603        Yaqob Sarsa Dengel (1st time)      (d. 1606)
                                 (= Malak Sagad II)
    Sep 1603 - 24 Oct 1604     Za Dengel Sarsa Denge              (d. 1604)
                                 (= Asnaf Sagad II)
    Nov 1604 - 10 Mar 1606     Yaqob Sarsa Dengel (2nd time)      (s.a.)
    1607                       Yaqob Sarsa Dengel (1st time)
                                 (an impostor, in opposition)
    10 Mar 1606 - 17 Sep 1632  SusenyosFasilides               (b. 1572 - d. 1632)
                                 (= Malak Sagad III)
                                 (in opposition from 14 Dec 1604)
    1607                       'Arzo Hawaryat (in opposition)
    1608 - 16..                Yaqob Sarsa Dengel (2nd time)
                                 (an impostor, in opposition)
    1626 - 16..                Yaqob Sarsa Dengel
                                 (another impostor, in opposition)
    1632 - 18 Oct 1667         Fasilides Susenyos                 (b. 1603 - d. 1667)
                                 (= `Alam Sagad or Adyam Sagad I)
    1635 - 1636                Melke
    Krestos Fasilides
                                 (in opposition)
    1636 - 1640                La'eke Maryam Melke Krestos
                                 (
    in opposition)
    18 Oct 1667 - 19 Jul 1682  Yohannes I Fasilides               (b. c.1640 - d. 1682)
                                 (= 
    `Alam Sagad)
    19 Jul 1682 - 13 Oct 1706  Iyasu I Yohannes                   (b. 1654 - d. 1706)
                                 (= Adyam Sagad II)
    1685                       Yeshaq Iyasu (in opposition)
    13 Oct 1706 - 30 Jun 1708  Tekle Haymanot I Iyasu             (b. 16.. - d. 1708)
                                 (= Le`al Sagad)
                                 (in opposition from 27 Mar 1706)
    30 Jun 1708 -  1 Jul 1708  Na'od II Tekle Haymanot            (b. 1704 - d. 1722)
     1 Jul 1708 - 14 Oct 1711  Tewoflos Yohannes (= Walda Ambasa) (b. 16.. - d. 1711)
    Sep 1709                   Amda Seyon (in opposition)
    1709 - Jul 1710            Nebahne Yohannes (in opposition)
    14 Oct 1711 - 19 Feb 1716  Yostos Delba Iyasus                (b. 16.. - d. 1716)
                                 (= Sahay Sagad)
    19 Feb 1716 - 18 May 1721  Dawit III Iyasu (= Adabar Sagad
    I) (b. 1695 - d. 1721) 
                                 (in opposition from 8 Feb 1716)
    18 May 1721 - 21 May 1721  Walda Giyorgis Iyasu
    21 May 1721 - 19 Sep 1730  Asma Giyorgis Iyasu                (b. 1694 - d. 1730)
                                 (= Adbar Sagad II or Masih Sagadr or Bakaffa)
    19 Sep 1730 - 26 Jun 1755  Iyasu II Asma Giyorgis             (b. 1723 - d. 1755)
                                 (= `Alem Sagad)
    19 Sep 1730 - 26 Jun 1755  Mantuab Walatta Giyorgis (f)       (b. c.1710 - d. 1773)
                                 (1st time) -Dowager Empress-Regent
    1736 - 1737                Hezqeyas (in opposition)
    26 Jun 1755 -  7 May 1769  Iyoas I Iyasu  (= Adyam Sagad)     (b. 174. - d. 1769)
    26 Jun 1755 -  7 May 1769  Mantuab Walatta Giyorgis (f)       (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time) -Dowager Empress-Regent
     7 May 1769 - 18 Oct 1769  Yohannes II Iyasu                  (b. 1699 - d. 1769)
    18 Oct 1769 - Jun 1770     Tekle Haymanot II Yohannes         (b. 1754 - d. 1777)
                                 (1st time)(= Admas Sagad III)
    Jun 1770 - Dec 1770        Susenyos II Iyasu?                 (d. c.1771)
    Dec 1770 - 13 Apr 1777     Tekle Haymanot II Yohannes         (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    13 Apr 1777 - 20 Jul 1779  Salomon II Adigo                   (d. 18..)
    20 Jul 1779 -  8 Feb 1784  Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                                 (= Feqr Sagad)(1st time)         (b. c.1751 - d. 1817)
    16 Feb 1784 - 24 Apr 1788  Iyasu III Azequ                    (d. 1788)
    1787 - 1788                Iyasu (in opposition)              (d. 1813)
    1787 - 1788                Be'ede Mariam (in opposition)
    Feb 1788 - 1789            Tekle Haymanot (in opposition)     (d. bf.1810)
    24 Apr 1788 - 26 Jul 1789  Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                                 (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
    26 Jul 1789 - Jan 1794     Hezqeyas Iyasu                     (b. 17.. - d. 1813)
    Jan 1794 - 15 Apr 1795     Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                                 (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
    15 Apr 1795 - Dec 1795     Be'ede Mariam III Salomon          (b. 1749 - d. 1833)
    Dec 1795 - 20 May 1796     Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                                 (4th time)                       (s.a.)
    20 May 1796 - 15 Jul 1797  Salomon III Tekle Haymanot         (d. 18..)
                                 (1st time)
    18 Aug 1797 -  4 Jan 1798  Yonas Letezum                      (d. 1813)
     4 Jan 1798 - 20 May 1799  Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                                 (5th time)                       (s.a.)
    20 May 1799 - 25 Jul 1799  Salomon III Tekle Haymanot         (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    25 Jul 1799 - 24 Mar 1800  Demetros Arqedewos (1st time)      (b. 17.. - d. 1802)
    24 Mar 1800 - Jun 1800     Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                                 (6th time)                       (s.a.)
    Jun 1800 - Jun 1801        Demetros Arqedewos (2nd time)      (s.a.)
    Jun 1801 - 12 Jun 1818     Egwale Seyon Hezqeyas              (d. 1818)
                                 (= Newaya Sagad)
    19 Jun 1818 -  3 Jun 1821  Iyoas II Hezqeyas                  (d. 1821)
     3 Jun 1821 - Apr 1826     Gigar Iyasu (1st time)             (b. c.1745 - d. 1832)
    Apr 1826                   Be'eda Mariam IV
    Apr 1826 - 18 Jun 1830     Gigar Iyasu (2nd time)             (s.a.)
    18 Jun 1830 - 18 Mar 1832  Iyasu IV Salomon
    18 Mar 1832 - 1832         Gebre Krestos Gebre Mesay
                                 (1st time)                       (d. 1832)
    1832                       Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                                 (1st time)                       (b. c.1778 - d. 1855)
    1832 -  8 Jun 1832         Gebre Krestos Gebre Mesay
                                 (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
    Oct 1832 - 29 Aug 1840     Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                                 (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
    1832                       Egwala Anbasa (in rebellion)
    30 Aug 1840 - Oct 1841     Yohannes III Tekle Giyorgis
                                 (1st time)                       (b. c.1797 - d. c.1873)
    Oct 1841 - 1845            Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                                 (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
    1845                       Yohannes III Tekle Giyorgis
                                 (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
    1845 - 1850                Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                                 (4th time)                       (s.a.)
    1850 - 1851                Yohannes III Tekle Giyorgis
                                 (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
    1851 - 11 Feb 1855         Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                                 (5th time)                       (s.a.)
    1851 - 29 Jun 1853         Ali Alula (usurper)                (b. c.1819 - d. 1853)
    Jul 1853 -  9 Feb 1855     Webe Haile Mariam (usurper)        (b. 1799 - d. 1867)
     9 Feb 1855 - 13 Apr 1868  Tewodros II                        (b. c.1818 - d. 1868)
    11 Jun 1868 - 11 Jul 1871  Tekle Giyorgis II                  (b. c.1836 - d. 1872)
    1868 - 15 Nov 1868         Menelik II (in rebellion)          (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
    Sep 1871 - 10 Mar 1889     Yohannes IV                        (b. 1837 - d. 1889)
    Mar 1889 - 12 Dec 1913     Menelik II                         (s.a.)
    1910                       Etege T'aytu Bet'ul (f) -Regent    (b. 1853 - d. 1918)
    1910 - 1911                Ras Tesemma -Regent                (b. 18.. - d. 1911)
    1912 - 1913                Lij Iyasu -Regent                  (b. 1898 - d. 1935)
    12 Dec 1913 - 27 Sep 1916  Iyasu V                            (s.a.)
    27 Sep 1916 -  2 Apr 1930  Zauditu -Empress                   (b. 1876 - d. 1930)
    27 Sep 1916 -  2 Apr 1930  Ras Tafari Makonnen -Regent        (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
                                (from 7 Sep 1928, Negus Tafari Makonnen)
     2 Apr 1930 -  9 May 1936  Haile Selassie I (1st time)        (s.a.)
                                (= Ras Tafari)(in exile 2 May 1936 - 18 Jan 1941  
                                 in Jersusalem, then Bath, U.K and
                                 later in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
     2 May 1936 - 19 Dec 1936  Ras Imru -Regent                   (b. 1892 - d. 1980)
     9 May 1936 -  5 May 1941  Vittorio Emanuele III              (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
                                (in name only to 8 Sep 1943; also King of Italy)
    18 Jan 1941 - 12 Sep 1974  Haile Selassie I (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                                (
    enters Addis Ababa 5 May 1941)
    13 Dec 1960 - 15 Dec 1960  Mengistu Neway                     (b. 1919 - d. 1961)  Mil

                               + Germame Neway                    (b. 1924 - d. 1960)  Non-party
                               (in rebellion)
    12 Sep 1974 - 21 Mar 1975  Asfa Wossen                        (b. 1914 - d. 1997)
                                (13-15 Dec 1960 designated head of state
                                 by rebel leaders; 21 Sep 1974 designated 
                                 king, does not take offices)
    Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council2
    12 Sep 1974 - 17 Nov 1974  Aman Mikael Andom                  (b. 1924 - d. 1974)  Mil

    Head of the Executive Committee of the Provisional Military Administration Council
    2
    17 Nov 1974 - 28 Nov 1974  Mengistu Haile Mariam              (s.a.)               Mil

    Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council2
    28 Nov 1974 -  3 Feb 1977  Tafari Benti                       (b. 1921 - d. 1977)  Mil

    First Deputy Chairman of the Provisional Military Administration Committee
     3 Feb 1977 - 11 Feb 1977  Mengistu Haile Mariam (acting)     (s.a.)               Mil/EWP

    Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council

    11 Feb 1977 - 10 Sep 1987  Mengistu Haile Mariam              (s.a.)               Mil/EWP
    Presidents

    10 Sep 1987 - 21 May 1991  Mengistu Haile Mariam              (s.a.)               EWP
    21 May 1991 - 27 May 1991  Tesfaye Gebre Kidan (acting)       (b. 1935 - d. 2004)  EWP
    Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic
    Front,
    exercising State Authority
    27 May 1991 - 23 Jul 1991
      Meles Zenawi                       (b. 1955 - d. 2012)  TPLF+EPRDF
    President of the Transitional Government
    23 Jul 1991 - 21 Aug 1995  Meles Zenawi                       (s.a.)               TPLF+EPRDF

    Presidents
    21 Aug 1995 -  8 Oct 2001  Negasso Gidada Solon               (b. 1943)            ODPO+
    EPRDF
     8 Oct 2001 -  7 Oct 2013  Girma Wolde-Giorgis Lucha          (b. 1924)            Ind+EPRDF
     7 Oct 2013 -
    25 Oct 2018  Mulatu Teshome Wirtu               (b. 1955)            OPDO+EPRDF
    25 Oct 2018 -              Sahle-Work Zewde (f)               (b. 1950)            Non-party

    Chief ministers
    1909 - 12 Dec 1926         Habte Giyorgis Dinagde             (b. 1851 - d. 1926)  Non-party
    1926 -  1 May 1936         Ras Tafari Makonnen                (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (from 3 Apr 1930, Haile Selassie I)
     1 May 1936 - 1936         Betwoded Wolde Tzaddick                                 Non-party
    Prime ministers
    29 Jan 1943 -  1 Nov 1957  Makonnen Endelkachew               (b. 1890 - d. 1963)  Non-party
    27 Nov 1957 - 15 Dec 1960  Abebe Aragai                       (b. 1903 - d. 1960)  Non-party
    12 Dec 1960 - 15 Dec 1960  Ras Imru (in rebellion)            (s.a.)
    15 Dec 1960 - 17 Apr 1961  Vacant
    17 Apr 1961 -  1 Mar 1974  Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold   (b. 1912 - d. 1974)  Non-party
     1 Mar 1974 - 22 Jul 1974  Endelkacaw Makonnen                (b. 1927 - d. 1974)  Non-party
     3 Aug 1974 - 12 Sep 1974  Lij Mikael Imru                    (b. 1929 - d. 2008)  Non-party
    12 Sep 1974 - 10 Sep 1987  Post Abolished
    10 Sep 1987 -  8 Nov 1989  Fikre Selassie Wogderess           (b. c.1945)          EWP
     8 Nov 1989 - 26 Apr 1991  Hailu Yimenu (acting)              (b. 19.. - d. 1991)  EWP
    26 Apr 1991 -  6 Jun 1991  Tesfaye Dinka (acting)             (b. 1939 - d. 2016)  EWP
     6 Jun 1991 - 22 Aug 1995  Tamirat Layne                      (b. 1955)            EPDM
                                 (acting to 29 Jul 1991)
    23 Aug 1995 - 20 Aug 2012  Meles Zenawi                       (s.a.)               TPLF+EPRDF
    20 Aug 2012 -  2 Apr 2018  Hailemariam Desalegn               (b. 1965)
                SEPDM+EPRDF
                                 (acting to 21 Sep 2012)
     2 Apr 2018 -              Abiy Ahmed Ali                     (b. 1976)            OPDO+EPRDF


    Heads of the British Military Mission to Ethiopia
    Jun 1941 - 1943            Stephen Seymour Butler             (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
    Apr 1943 - 1949            Algernon Edward Cottam             (b. 1893 - d. 1964)

    Chief Political Officer for the Commander in Chief, East Africa
    Mar 1941 - 31 Jan 1942     Sir Philip Mitchell (in Nairobi)   (b. 1890 - d. 1946)
                                 (for East Africa)
    18 Apr 1941 - 31 Jan 1942  Maurice Stanley Lush               (b. 1896 - d. 1990)
                                 (deputy chief political officer for Ethiopia)
    1942                       Travers Robert Blackley            (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
                                                 (deputy chief political officer for Ethiopia)

    Imperial Government in Exile

    [State Flag of Ethiopia,
                  1941-1974]

    Crown Prince
    27 Aug 1975 -  8 Apr 1989  Asfa Wossen                        (s.a.)
                                
    (in London, U.K. exile)
    Emperor

     
    8 Apr 1989 - 17 Feb 1997  Amha Selassie I (= Asfa Wossen)    (s.a.)
                                 (in London to 23 Oct 1989, then in Washington, DC)

     ¹Official styles
    (a) to 12 Sep 1974:
    Moa Anbesa ze Emnegede Yehuda, N.N., Seyume Egziebher, Neguse/Negeste Negest za Itiyopiya ("Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, N.N., Elect of God, King/Queen of Kings of Ethiopia"); 
    (b) 9 May 1936 - 5 May 1941: King Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy was styled Imperatore d'Etiopia ("Emperor of Ethiopia"), the title was informally discontinued after 23 Sep 1943 and official change of the royal style was sanctioned by the decree of 27 Nov 1943 (period of application retroactive to 8 Sep 1943). 

      2Nominally acting for Crown Prince Asfa Wossen (s.a.), who did not assume this office from his father when he was overthrown, on 12 Sep 1974, until the abolition of the monarchy on 21 Mar 1975.

    Territorial Disputes: Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the Nov 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in Jan 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia.

    Party abbreviations: AAPO = Ye'melawi 'Amara Hizibi Dirijiti (All-Amhara People's Organization); EPRDF = Ye'itiyopiya Hizibochi Abiyotawi Dimokirasiyawi Ginibari (Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, revolutionary democracy, ethnic self-determination, coalition of OPDO, ANDM, SEPDF and TPLF, to 1991 Marxist-Leninist communist, est.May 1988); EPRP = Ye'itiyopiya Hizbawi Abiyotawi Pariti (Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party, non-ethinic federalist, to 1984 Marxist-Leninist communist, est.Apr 1972); Ind = Independent; MEISON = Mela Itiyopiya Soshalisiti Niqinaqe (All-Ethiopia Socialist Movement, Marxist-Leninist communist, est.1968); ODPO = Dhaabbata Demokraatawaa Ummata Oromo/Ye'oromo Hizibochi Demokirasiyawi Dirijiti (Oromo People's Democratic Organization (Omoro regionalist, social-democratic, est.1982); SEPDM = Ye'debubi Itiyopiya Hizbochi Demokrasiyawi Niqinaqe (Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement, est.1992); TPLF = Hizbawi Weyane Harinet Tigray (Popular Revolution for the Freedom of Tigray, Tigre regionalist, democratic socialist, Marxist to 1991, est.18 Feb 1975); Mil = Military;
    - Former parties: EWP = Ye'itiyopiya Sheratenyochi Pariti (Worker's Party of Ethiopia, communist, 1984-1990 only legal party, on 10 Mar 1990 renounces Marxist-Leninism, 12 Sep 1984-21 May 1991)



    Shewa (Shoa)
     
    Capital: Ankober
    (Qundi 1808-1813;
    Doqait 1745-1805)
    Population: N/A

    1839                       Kingdom of Shewa (Shoa)
    1856 - 1859                Annexed by Ethiopia.
    1860 - 1864                Annexed by Ethiopia.
    10 Mar 1889                Incorporated into Ethiopia.

    Ruling princes
    1682 - 1703                Negasi Krestos Lebsa Qal           (d. 1703)
    1703 -  6 Mar 1719         Sebestyanos Negasi Krestos         (d. 1719)
     6 Mar 1719 - 23 Feb 1744  Qedami Qal Sebestyanos             (d. 1744)
    23 Feb 1744 -  6 Feb 1775  Amha Iyasus Qedami Qal             (d. 1775)
     6 Feb 1775 - 30 Jul 1807  Tewodros Amha Iyasus               (d. 1807)
    Kings (styled Ras to 1839)
    30 Jul 1807 -  7 Jun 1813  Welde Giyorgis Tewodros            (d. 1813)
     7 Jun 1813 - 12 Oct 1847  Sahle Selassie                     (b. c.1795 - d. 1847) 
    12 Oct 1847 -  9 Nov 1855  Haile Melekot                      (b. 1825 - d. 1855)
     9 Nov 1855 - 1856         Sahle Mariam (1st time)            (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
                                (Menelik II of Ethiopia)
    Ruling princes
    1856 - 1859                Haile Mikael Sahle Selassie        (b. 1827 - d. 1884)
    1859                       Bezabeh (1st time)(usurper)
    1859 - 1860                Seyfu Sahle Selassie               (b. 1828 - d. 1860)
    1860 - 1865                Bezabeh (2nd time)(usurper)
    King
    Aug 1865 - 10 Mar 1889     Sahle Mariam (2nd time)            (s.a.)



    Italian East Africa

    [Italian East Africa (Africa
                Orientale Italiana) 1936-1942]

    Map of Italian East Africa Capital: Addis Abeba
    (Mogadishu 1935-1936)
    Currency: 1936-1941
    Lira dell'Africa Orientale
    Italiana
    (AOIL) 
     Population: 12,000,000
    (1939 est.)
     
    15 Jan 1935                Eritrea and Italian Somaliland united as Italian East Africa.
     3 Oct 1935                Italy invades Ethiopia.
     9 May 1936                Annexation of Ethiopia by Italy.
     1 Jun 1936                Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Italian Somalia are united 
                                 into Italian East Africa and reorganized as a federation of 
                                 six provinces: Eritrea (formed by the merger of the former 
                                 colony of Eritrea and the Ethiopian region of Tigre), Somalia 
                                 (formed by the merger of the former colony of Somalia and the 
                                 Ethiopian region of Ogaden), Addis Ababa (capital region of 
                                 Ethiopia), Amhara, Harar, and Galla-Sidama 
                                 (parts of Ethiopia).
     1 Jan 1939                Addis Ababa and parts of the provinces of Amhara and 
                                 Galla-Sidama are united into the new province of Showa.
     5 May 1941                Addis Ababa liberated by Allies.
    27 Nov 1941                Last Italian administrators surrender.
    High Commissioners 
    15 Jan 1935 - 27 Nov 1935  Emilio Giuseppe Gaspar Giovanni    (b. 1866 - d. 1944)
                                 de Bono
    28 Nov 1935 -  9 May 1936  Pietro Badoglio                    (b. 1871 - d. 1956) 
                                (from 1936, duca di Addis Ababa)
    Viceroys and Governors-general (representing Italian King Vittorio Emanuele III
    who holds the title of Emperor of Ethiopia 9 May 1936 - 3 Sep 1943)
     9 May 1936 - 11 Jun 1936  Pietro Badoglio, duca di           (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
                                 Addis Ababa 
    11 Jun 1936 - 21 Dec 1937  Rodolfo Graziani, marchese di      (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
                                 Neghelli 
    21 Dec 1937 - 19 May 1941  Prince Amedeo di Savoia, duca      (b. 1898 - d. 1942)
                                 d'Aosta 
    23 May 1941 -  6 Jul 1941  Pietro Gazzera (acting)            (b. 1879 - d. 1953)
     6 Jul 1941 - 27 Nov 1941  Guglielmo Nasi (acting)            (b. 1879 - d. 1971)

    Addis Abeba

     1 Jan 1939                Part of Showa.

    Governors
     5 May 1936 - 27 May 1936  Giuseppe Bottai                    (b. 1895 - d. 1959)
     1 Jun 1936 - 23 Sep 1938  Alfredo Siniscalchi                (b. 1885 - d. 1964)
    23 Sep 1938 -  1 Jan 1939  Francesco Camero Medici            (b. 1896 - d. 1946)


    Amhara

    Governors
     1 Jun 1936 - 15 Dec 1937  Alessandro Pirzio Biroli           (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
    15 Dec 1937 -  1 Jan 1939  Ottorino Mezzetti                  (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
     1 Jan 1939 - 19 May 1941  Luigi Frusci (acting)              (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
    19 May 1941 - 27 Nov 1941  Guglielmo Nasi (acting)            (s.a.)


    Galla-Sidama

    Governors
     1 Jun 1936 -  9 Jul 1938  Carlo Geloso                       (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
    10 Jul 1938 - 12 Aug 1938  Armando Felsani
    12 Aug 1938 -  6 Jul 1941  Pietro Gazzera                     (s.a.)


    Harar

    Governors
     1 Jun 1936 -  5 May 1939  Guglielmo Nasi (1st time)          (s.a.)
     5 May 1939 - 11 Jun 1940  Enrico Cerulli                     (b. 1898 - d. 1988)
    11 Jun 1940 -  4 Feb 1941  Guglielmo Nasi (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
     4 Feb 1941 -  9 Mar 1941  Mario Pompeo Gorini (acting)
    10 Mar 1941 - 24 Apr 1941  Carlo De Simone (acting)           (b. 1885 - d. 1951)


    Showa (Scioà)

    Governors
     1 Jan 1939 -  5 May 1939  Enrico Cerulli                     (s.a.)
     5 May 1939 -  2 Jun 1940  Guglielmo Nasi                     (s.a.)
     2 Jun 1940 -  3 Apr 1941  Giuseppe Daodice di Daodicca       (b. 1882 - d. 1952)
     3 Apr 1941 -  6 Apr 1941  Agenore Frangipani dei marchesi    (b. 1876 - d. 1941)
                                 di Mileta
    (acting)



    British Occupied Ogaden and Haud

    [Flag of the United Kingdom]

    Mar 1941 - 23 Sep 1948     British military administration of the Ogaden; subordinated
                                 to British occupied Italian Somalia (see under Somalia). 
    17 Mar 1941 - 28 Feb 1955  British military administration of the Haud and Reserved Areas
                                 (subordinated to British Somaliland).

    Senior Civil Affairs Officers, British Military Administration - Ogaden (in Mogadishu)
    194. - May 1943            G.D. Pitcairn  
    May 1943 - 194.            D.K. Daniels                         (b. 1905 - d. ....)
    c.1945/46                  Francis William "Willie" Norton      (b. 1894 - d. 1960)
                                 Collingwood

    Senior Civil Affairs Officers, British Military Administration - Haud
    and Reserved Areas - Ethiopia (in Jigjiga)
    17 Mar 1941 - 28 Feb 1955  ....
    c.1945                     G.H.W. Kitson
    c.1947                     Smith
    c.1952                     J.P. Ingles


    Gambela Anglo-Egyptian Enclave

    [Flag of the United
                Kingdom]

    15 May 1902                Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty demarcates the border between Anglo-Egyptian
                                 Sudan and Ethiopia and leases the British Anglo-Ethiopian Sudan
                                 a concession enclave on the Baro River (river frontage of not more
                                 than 2,000 meters, in area not exceeding 40 hectares) under
                                 Article IV (ratified 28 Oct 1902).
    Jan 1904                   British set up post at Itang on the Baro River.
    Jul 1904                   Itang floods, British move to Gambela.
    Jan 1920                   Gambela jurisdiction transferred from the
    Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
                                 Customs department to the Upper Nile province.
    17 Dec 1936                British arrangement with Italy to allow Gambela enclave to remain.
     6 Jun 1940                British evacuate the post.
     6 Jun 1940 -  3 Feb 1941  Occupied by Italy.
    19 Dec 1944                Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1944 eliminates British privileges
                                 in Ethiopia, but the Gambela enclave remains.
    30 Oct 1954                Ethiopia takes over administration of the enclave.
     
    1 Jan 1956                British lease ends with independence of The Sudan.
    15 Oct 1956               
    The Sudan formally cedes the enclave to Ethiopia.

    British Consuls for Western Ethiopia (at Gore)
    1905 - 19..                Ahmad Effendi Rifat
                                 (customs inspector)
    19.. - 26 Sep 1916         W.D. Dawson                          (b. 1884? - d. 1916)
                                 (superintendent of customs)
     6 Sep 1911 - Aug 1928     Craven Howell Walker              
      (b. 1878 - d. 1939)
    20 Aug 1928 - 28 Sep 1936  Esme Nourse Erskine                  (b. 1884 - d. 1962)
    1941 -  5 Feb 1943         ....
     5 Feb 1943 - Aug 1951     Arthur Hugh Alban Alban              (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
    Aug 1951 - 31 Dec 1955     ....
    British District Commissioners,
    Gambela
    15 Sep 1921 - 1928         John Francis Harrison                (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
                                 Marsh
    1928 - 16 Jun 1940         Jack K. "Mori" Maurice (1st time)    (b. 1883 - d. 1953)
                                
    (assistant district commissioner to 1932)
     6 Jun 1940 -  3 Feb 1941  Italian occupation

     
    3 Feb 1941 - 1949         Jack K. "Mori" Maurice
    (2nd time)    (s.a.)
    1949 - 30 Oct 1954         Harry Ross Dibble




    © Ben Cahoon