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Somalia

[Somalia
                      flag]                  Adopted 1 Jul 1960 [Somalia flag variant
                      from 2012]             Variant from 1 Aug 2012
 
Map of Somalia Hear National Anthem
"Qolobaa Calankeed"
(Every Nation has its Own Flag)
Adopted 1 Aug 2012
Hear Former Anthem
"Somalia Hanolato"
 (Long Live Somalia)

(1 Jul 1960 - 2000)
-----------------------------------
Hear Former Anthem
"Soomaaliyeey Toosoo"
(Somalia Wake Up)
(2000 - 1 Aug 2012)
Constitution
(1 Aug 2012; provisional)
--------------------------------
Transitional Federal Charter

(Feb 2004 - 1 Aug 2012)
-----------------------------------

Former Constitution

(23 Sep 1979 - 1 Jan 1991)
Capital: Mogadishu
(Mogadiscio 1889-1960)
Currency: Somali Shilling (SOS);
 1950-1960 Somali Somalo
 (SOIS);
1941-1950 East Africa
Shilling (XEAS);
1936-41 Italian
 East Africa Lira (AOLI);
1925-36
 Italian Lira (XITL);
1920-1925
Italian Somaliland Rupiah (SOIR)

National Holiday: 1 Jul (1960)
Foundation of the Somali Republic
Population: 10,251,568 (2013)
note: current estimate derived
from official 1975 census 
GDP: $5.89 billion (2010)
Exports: $515.8 million (2012)
Imports: $1.26 billion (2010)
Ethnic groups: Somali 92.4%, Arab 2.2%, Afar 1.3%,
other 4.1% (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 62,000 (2011)
(factions and clans maintain independent militias)
African Union AMISOM Force: 3,000 (2008)

Merchant marine: 1 ship (2010)

Religions: Muslim (nearly all Sunni)(official) 99%, other 1% (2005)

International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, APM, Arabsat, AU, BTWC (signatory), CAEU (candidate), CCM (signatory), CEN-SAD, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ITSO, ITU, KP, NAM, NTBT (signatory), OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Somalia Index
Chronology

1548                       Zelia part of Ottoman Empire.
1875 - 1876                Kismayu occupied by Egypt.
 7 Sep 1877                Zeila annexed by Egypt (Egyptian Somaliland),
                             both under nominal Ottoman suzerainty.
Feb 1884                   British take over former Egyptian Somaliland.
20 Jul 1887                British Somaliland protectorate (in the north) 
                             subordinated to Aden to 1905.
 3 Aug 1889                Benadir Coast Italian Protectorate (in the north
                             east)(unoccupied until May 1893).
16 Mar 1905                Italian Somalia (Italian Somaliland) colony (in 
                             the northeast and in the south).
Jul 1910                   Italian Somaliland a crown colony.
15 Jan 1935                Italian Somalia part of Italian East Africa with 
                             It. Eritrea (and from 1936 Ethiopia)
                             (see under Ethiopia).
 1 Jun 1936                Part of Italian East Africa (province of 
                             Somalia, formed by the merger of the colony
                             and the Ethiopian region of Ogaden; 
                             see Ethiopia).
19 Aug 1940 - 16 Mar 1941  Italian occupation of British Somaliland.
Feb 1941                   British administration of Italian Somalia.
 1 Apr 1950                Italian Somalia becomes United Nations trust
                             territory under Italian administration
                             (Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian
                             administration).
26 Jun 1960                Independence of British Somaliland as the
                             State of Somaliland.
 1 Jul 1960                Unification of Somaliland with Italian Somalia 
                             to form the Somali Republic.
31 Jan 1961                Act of Union of Somaliland and Somalia is passed
                             and signed into law (retroactive to 1 Jul 1960).
21 Oct 1969                Somali Democratic Republic
 1 Jan 1991                Somalia collapses, no single functioning
                             government.
18 May 1991                Secession of former British Somaliland;
                             as Republic of Somaliland which is
                             proclaimed 24 May 1991 (not internationally
                             recognized).
21 Jul 1991                Somali Republic
27 Jul 1992 - 27 Aug 2000  United Nations declares Somalia to be a country 
                             "without a government."
 1 Aug 2012                Federal Republic of Somalia

Somalia
(from 1960)
Traditional
States
Italian Somalia
(1889-1960)
Somaliland
(1548-1960,
from 1991)
Jubaland
(1924-1926,
 1998-2001)

Puntland
(1998-)
Southwestern
(2002-2005,
from 2014)
Galmudug
Himan & Heeb
Maakhir
(2007-2009)
Historical Maps
of Somalia
 

Italian Somaliland
 
[Kingdom of
                            Italy flag]
         3 Aug 1889 - 26 Feb 1941
[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
        26 Feb 1941 - 1 Apr 1950 
[Flag of Italy]
         1 Apr 1950 - 12 Oct 1954
[Somalia]
         12 Oct 1954 - 30 Jun 1960

Governor
 3 Aug 1889 - 15 May 1893  Vincenzo Filonardi                 (b. 1853 - d. 1916)
Commissioners
15 May 1893 - Sep 1896     Vincenzo Filonardi                 (s.a.)
1896 - 26 Nov 1896         Antonio Cecchi                     (b. 1849 - d. 1896)
1896 - Jan 1897            Emilio Dulio                       (d. 19..)
26 Jan 1897 - Nov 1897     Giorgio Sorrentino
Governors
Nov 1897 -  5 Oct 1903     Emilio Dulio                       (s.a.)
Oct 1903 - Nov 1903        E. Cappello
Nov 1903 - Dec 1903        Ugo Ferrandi                       (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
10 Dec 1903 - 30 Apr 1905  Alessandro
Sapelli (1st time)
Commissioners-general

May 1905 - Jan 1906        Luigi Mercatelli                   (b. 1853 - d. 1922)
Jan 1906 - Feb 1906        Alessandro Sapelli (2nd time) 
Feb 1906 - May 1907
       Giovanni Cerrina Feroni            (b. 1866 - d. 1952)    
May 1907 - Apr 1908        Tommaso Carletti                   (b. 1860 - d. 1919)
Governors
Apr 1908 - Dec 1908        Tommaso Carletti                   (s.a.)
Dec 1908 - Jul 1910        Gino Macchioro Vivalba             (b. 1874 - d. 19..)
Jul 1910 - Sep 1916        Giacomo De Martino                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
Sep 1916 - Jun 1920        Giovanni Cerrina Feroni            (s.a.)
21 Jun 1920 -  8 Dec 1923  Carlo Riveri
 8 Dec 1923 -  1 Jun 1928  Cesare Maria De Vecchi,            (b. 1884 - d. 1959)
                             (from 3 Aug 1925) conte di Val Cismon 
 1 Jun 1928 -  1 Jul 1931  Guido Corni                        (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
 1 Jul 1931 -  6 Mar 1935  Maurizio Rava                      (b. 1878 - d. 1935)
 6 Mar 1935 - 22 May 1936  Rodolfo Graziani                   (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
22 May 1936 - 24 May 1936  Angelo De Ruben 
                             (de facto governor since Jan 1936)
24 May 1936 - 15 Dec 1937  Ruggiero Santini                   (b. 1870 - d. 1958)
15 Dec 1937 - 11 Jun 1940  Francesco Saverio Caroselli        (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
11 Jun 1940 - 31 Dec 1940  Gustavo Pesenti (acting)           (b. 1878 - d. 1960)
31 Dec 1940 -  9 Mar 1941  Carlo De Simone (acting)           (b. 1885 - d. 1951)
Administrators
26 Feb 1941 - 1941         Sir Reginald Hugh Dorman-Smith     (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
1941 - 1943                William Eric Halstead Scupham      (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
Mar 1943 - 1948            Denis Henry Wickham                (b. 1895? - d. 1950)
1948                       Eric Armar Vully de Candole        (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
1948 - 21 Nov 1949         Geoffrey Massey Gamble             (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
21 Nov 1949 - 1953         Giovanni Fornari                   (b. 1903 - d. ....)
1954 - 1957                Enrico Martino                     (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
1957 - 24 Jul 1958         Enrico Anzilotti                   (b. 1898 - d. 1983)
24 Jul 1958 -  1 Jul 1960  Mario Di Stefano                   (b. 1900? - d. 1963)

Prime minister
29 Feb 1956 -  1 Jul 1960  Abdullahi Issa Mohamud             (b. 1922 - d. 1988)  SYL


Somalia

Secretary-general of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP)
 1 Jul 1976 - 27 Jan 1991  Muhammad Siad Barre                (b. 1919 - d. 1995)

Presidents
 1 Jul 1960 - 30 Jun 1967  Aden Abdullah Osman Daar           (b. 1908 - d. 2007)  SYL
                             (acting to 6 Jul 1961)
30 Jun 1967 - 15 Oct 1969  Abdirashid Ali Shermarke           (b. 1919 - d. 1969)  SYL
15 Oct 1969 - 21 Oct 1969  Sheikh Moktar Muhammad Husayn      (b. 1912 - d. 2012)  SYL
                             (acting)
21 Oct 1969 - 27 Jan 1991  Muhammad Siad Barre                (s.a.)             Mil;1976 SRSP
                             (president of Supreme Revolutionary Council to 1 Jul 1976)
29 Jan 1991 -  3 Jan 1997¹ Ali Mahdi Muhammad                 (b. c.1939)          USC/SSA
                             (interim to 21 Jul 1991) 
15 Jun 1995 -  1 Aug 1996¹ Muhammad Farah Hassan Aydid        (b. 1936 - d. 1996)  USC/SNA
                             (interim; in rebellion) 
 4 Aug 1996 - 20 Mar 1998¹ Hussein Muhammad Farah Aydid       (b. 1962)            USC/SNA
                             (interim; in rebellion)
 3 Jan 1997 - ....         Co-Chairmen of National Salvation Council
                           Ali Mahdi Muhammad                 (s.a.)               USC/SSA
                           + Osman Hassan Ali "Ato"           (b. 1940)            USC/SNA
                           + Abdulkadir Muhammad Aden "Zopo"  (b. 1919 - d. 2002)  SDM
                           + Abdullahi Yussuf Ahmad           (b. 1934 - d. 2012)  SSDF
                           + Aden Abdullahi Nur "Gabyow"      (b. 19.. - d. 2002)  SPM
13 Aug 2000 - 22 Aug 2000  Mohamed Abshir Muse (acting)       (b. 1926?)           Non-patty
                             (in Djibouti exile)
22 Aug 2000 - 27 Aug 2000  Abdallah Derow Isaq (acting)       (b. 1950 - d. 2006)  Non-party
                             (speaker of the interim National 
                             Assembley)(in Dijibouti exile)
27 Aug 2000 - 14 Oct 2004  Abdiqasim Salad Hassan             (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (in Arta, Djibouti exile to 13 Oct 2000; 
                             then largely confined to the Mogadishu area)
 5 Jun 2003 -  5 Jun 2006  Abdinur Ahmed Darman               (b. 1952)            USRP
                             (controls parts of Mogadishu and southern Somalia)
14 Oct 2004 - 29 Dec 2008  Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed              (s.a.)               SSDF
                             (in Nairobi exile to 13 Jun 2005, from 26 Jul 2005 in 
                             Jowhar, from 26 Feb 2006 in Baidoa, from 8 Jan 2007
                             in Mogadishu

 5 Jun 2006 - 29 Jun 2006  Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed         (b. 1964)            ICU
                             (chairman Islamic Courts Union, controlling 
                             Mogadishu and parts of southern Somalia)
29 Jun 2006 - 28 Dec 2006  Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys          (b. 1935)            SSIC
                             (president of Supreme Islamic Council of Somalia,
                             controlling Mogadishu [to 27 Dec 2006] and parts of
                             southern Somalia)
29 Dec 2008 - 31 Jan 2009  Sheikh Adan Mohamed Nuur "Madobe"  
(b. 1955?)           Non-party
                             (acting)(
in Baidoa, from Jan 2009 in Djibouti exile)
31 Jan 2009 - 20 Aug 2012  Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed         (s.a.)               ARS
20 Aug 2012 - 28 Aug 2012  Muse Hassan Sheikh Sayid Abdulle
   (b. 1940?)           Non-party  
                             (acting)
28 Aug 2012 - 
16 Sep 2012  Mohamed Osman Jawari (acting)      (b. 1945)            Non-party
16 Sep 2012 -              Hassan Sheikh Mohamud              (b. 1955)            PDP

Prime ministers
 1 Jul 1960 - 13 Jul 1960  Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal         (b. 1928 - d. 2002)  SNL
                             (1st time) 
13 Jul 1960 - 14 Jun 1964  Abdirashid Ali Shermarke           (s.a.)               SYL
14 Jun 1964 - 15 Jul 1967  Abdirizak Haji Hussein             (b. 1924 - d. 2014)  SYL
                             (acting to 27 Sep 1964)
15 Jul 1967 -  1 Nov 1969  Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal         (s.a.)               SYL
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Nov 1969 -  1 Feb 1987  Post abolished
 1 Feb 1987 -  3 Sep 1990  Muhammad Ali Samatar               (b. 1931)            SRSP 
 3 Sep 1990 - 24 Jan 1991  Muhammad Hawadle Madar                                  SRSP
24 Jan 1991 - May 1993¹    Umar Arteh Ghalib                  (b. 1930)            USC
                             (de facto to 3 Jan 1997) 
May 1993 -  8 Oct 2000     Vacant¹ 
 8 Oct 2000 - 28 Oct 2001  Ali Khalif Galaid                  (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (in Dijibouti exile to 13 Oct 2000) 
28 Oct 2001 - 12 Nov 2001  Osman Jama Ali (acting)            (b. 1941)            Non-party
12 Nov 2001 -  8 Dec 2003  Hassan Abshir Farah                (b. 1945)            Non-party
 8 Dec 2003 -  3 Nov 2004  Muhammad Abdi Yusuf                                     Non-party
 3 Nov 2004 - 29 Oct 2007  Ali Muhammad Ghedi                 (b. 1952)            Non-party
                             (in Nairobi exile to 18 Jun 2005, then in Jowhar,
                             from 26 Feb 2006 in Baidoa, from 29 Dec 2006 in Mogadishu)
29 Jun 2006 - 28 Dec 2006  Sharif Sheikh Ahmed                (s.a.)               SSIC
                             (chairman of executive committee of Supreme
                             Islamic Council of Somalia; controlling
                             Mogadishu [to 27 Dec 2006] and parts of southern Somalia)
29 Oct 2007 - 24 Nov 2007  Salim Aliyow Ibrow (acting)                             Non-party
24 Nov 2007 - 14 Feb 2009  Nur Hassan Hussein                 (b. 1938)
            Non-party
                             (in Mogadishu to Dec 2008, then in Baidoa,
                             from Jan 2009 in
Dijibouti exile)
16 Dec 2008 - 24 Dec 2008  Muhammad Mahmud Guled "Gamadhere"
                      Non-party
                             (in opposition, appointed by President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed)
14 Feb 2009 -
24 Sep 2010  Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke      (b. 1960)            Non-party
24 Sep 2010 -  1 Nov 2010  Abdiwahid Elmi Gonjeh (acting)
                         Non-party
 1 Nov 2010 - 19 Jun 2011  Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed          (b. 1962)            Non-party
                             "Farmajo"
19 Jun 2011 - 17
Oct 2012  Abdiweli Mohamed Ali               (b. 1965)            Non-party
                             (acting to 28 Jun 2011)        
17 Oct 2012 - 21 Dec 2013  Abdi Farah Shirdon                 (b. 1958)            Non-party
21 Dec 2013 -              Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed              (b. 1959)            Non-party

 

Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council (SSRC) (counter-government, at Baidoa)

[Somalia]

Chairmen (rotating monthly)
26 Mar 2001 - ....²        Hussein Muhammad Farah Aydid       (s.a.)               USC/SNA
                           + Hilowle Iman Umar                                     USC
                           + Aden Abdullahi Nur "Gabyow"      (s.a.)               SPM/SSA
                           + Hassan Muhammad Nur "Shatigadud"                      RRA
                           + Abdullahi Sheikh Ismail                               SSNM

Secretaries-general
26 Mar 2001 - Dec 2001?    Mowlid Ma'ane Mohamoud             (b. 19.. - d. 2012)  SAMO
Aug? 2002 - 2...           Muhammad Umar Dalha



Commanders of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)
14 Feb 2007 -  3 Mar 2008  Levi Karuhanga (Uganda)            (b. 1956)
 3 Mar 2008 -  7 Jul 2009  Francis Okello (Uganda) 
 7 Jul 2009 - 15 Jun 2011  Nathan Mugisha (Uganda) 
15 Jun 2011 -  2 Mar 2012  Fredrick Mugisha (Uganda)          (b. 1963) 
 2 May 2012 - 16 Dec 2013  Andrew Gutti (Uganda) 
16 Dec 2013 -              Silas Ntigurirwa (Burundi)         (b. 1968)

  ¹From Nov 1991 there was no effective and/or recognized national government; parts of the country were controlled by different warlords, significant among them Muhammad Farah Aydid (s.a.), who claimed to be president from 15 Jun 1995 to his death 1 Aug 1996, followed by his son Hussein Aydid (s.a.) 4 Aug 1996 - 20 Mar 1998. De facto the state was in anarchy without any governmental structures. 

 ²As of Nov 2004, Aydid, Shatigadud, and Ismail were members of Prime Minister Ali Muhammad Ghedi's government. 

Territorial Disputes: Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in Jan 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; "Puntland" and "Somaliland" "governments" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists.

Party abbreviations: ARS = Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (islamist, est.2007); PDP = Xisbiga Nabadda Iyo Horumarka (Peace and Development Party, social democratic, est.2011); RRA = Rahawayn Resistance Army (Rahawayn clan based, allied with the SDM, fights Aideed controlled militia in the Bakool/Bay regions, est.1995); SAMO = Somali African Muki Organization (represents Bantu minority in the lower Juba Valley, est.1984); SDM = Somali Democratic Movement (Digil/Rahanweyn clan, split 1992 into 2 factions: pro-Ali Mahdi/SSA faction led by bdulkadir Muhammad Aden, and pro-Aydid/SNA faction led by Adam Uthman Abdi and Yasin Ma'alim Abdullahi); SNA = Somali National Alliance (coalition created by M. Aydid from his faction of USC, an SDM faction, Omar Jess' SPM faction and SSNM [withdrew 1993], there is a Gedo based faction led by Col. Isak Bihi, est.1992); SNF = Somali National Front (Siyad Barre personalist, seeks restoration of SRSP government, est.1991); SSA = Somali Salvation Alliance (grouping of 12 anti-Aydid factions, led by Ali Mahdi: USC/SSA, SAMO, SNU, USF, SDA, SDM, SPM, SSDF, SNDU, SNF, SSNM and the Ali Ato faction of the USC/SNA, est.1992); SSIC = Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga (Somali Supreme Islamic Courts Council, Islamist, to 24 Jun 2006 ICU); SPM = Somali Patriotic Movement (founded by Omar Jess; Ogaden clan based, divided into 2 factions, one led by Aden Abdullahi Nur "Gabiyo" and allied with Morgan, and member of SSA; the other led by Gedi Ugas Madhar allied with USC in SNA, est.1989); SSDF = Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed (Somali Salvation Democratic Front, founded as Democratic Front for Salvation of Somalia, est.1978); SSNM = Somali Salvation National Movement (southern coast based, mainly Bimal/Dir clan, set up under Aydid sponsorship to support Omar Jess' SPM against SNF, part of SNA 1992-93, allied with Ali Mahdi from 1993, member of SSA); USC-SNA = United Somali Congress-Somali National Alliance (est.1995); USC/SNA-d = United Somali Congress/Somali National Alliance-dissidents; USC/SSA = United Somali Congress-Somali Salvation Alliance; USRP = Unity for the Somali Republic Party (est.1999); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: ICU = Islamic Courts Union (Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga, Islamist, 24 Jun 2006 renamed SSIC); SNL = Somali National League (Isaaq clan dissidents, pro-British Somaliland independence, pan-Somalism, 1951-1962); SRSP = Xisbiga Hantiwadaagga Kacaanka Soomaaliyeed (Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, combined socialism and Islamic tenets with marxism, Jul 1976-91 only legal party, 1976-1991); SYL = Ururka Dhalinyarada Soomaaliyeed (Somali Youth League, pro-independence, Somalia nationalist, 1943-1969); USC = United Somali Congress (anti-Siad Barre, Hawiye clan based, subsequently divided into factions, 1987-1992)



British Somaliland and Somaliland
 
[Flag of the
                                  United Kingdom]
                           1884 - 2 Dec 1904
 
[British Somaliland colonial flag
                                  1904-1950]
                    2 Dec 1904 - 18 Dec 1950
 
[British Somaliland colonial flag
                                  1950-1960]
                  18 Dec 1950 - 25 Jun 1960
 
[Somalia]
            26 Jun 1960 - 1 Jul 1960
 
[Somaliland flag, 1991-1996]
                   18 May 1991 - 14 Oct 1996
 
[Somaliland flag]
                   Adopted 14 Oct 1996
 
Map of Somaliland
Hear National Anthem
"Samo ku Waar"
(Long Life with Peace)
Adopted 1997
Former National Anthem
"Kaana Siib Kanna Saar"
(The Somaliland Flag)
(26 Jun 1960 - 1 Jul 1960)
Constitution
(31 May 2001)
Capital: Hargeysa
(Berbera 1870-1941)
Currency: Somaliland Shilling
 (SQS); 1991-94
Somali Shilling
(SOS); 1941-60 East African
 Shilling (XEAS); 1884-1940
 Indian Rupee (INR)
National Holiday: 26 Jun (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 3,500,000 (2008)
153,018 (1905)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $176.6 million (1998)
Imports: $200 million (1998)
Ethnic groups: Somali (mainly Issaq clan, but also
Gadabuursi, Ciise, Dhulbahante, and Warsanglei) (1996)
Total Armed Forces: 15,350 (2010)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Muslim (Sunni) 99.63%, Christian 0.24%,
Hindu 0.08% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: None (1960);  from 1991: UNPO

1546                       Ottoman occupation.
1546 - 1548                Rule of the Adal Imams. 
1548                       Zeila part of Ottoman Empire.
1630 - 1830                Under the Grand Sharifs of Mecca.
1830 -  7 Sep 1874         Ottoman rule, under de facto hereditary governors.
 7 Sep 1874                Annexed by Egypt (Egyptian Somaliland)
                             (both under Ottoman suzerainty).
Feb 1884                   British take over former Egyptian Somaliland (British Somaliland).
20 Jul 1887                British Somaliland Protectorate subordinated to Aden until 1905.
19 Aug 1940 - 16 Mar 1941  Occupied by Italy.
26 Jun 1960                Independence of British Somaliland as State of Somaliland.
 1 Jul 1960                Unification with Italian Somalia to form Somali Republic.
31 Jan 1961                Act of Union of Somaliland and Somalia is passed
                             and signed into law (retroactive to 1 Jul 1960).
18 May 1991                Secession of former British Somaliland (regions of Awdal, 
                             Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag and Sool) from Somalia
                             (not internationally recognized).
24 May 1991                Republic of Somaliland proclaimed (not internationally 
                             recognized).

Governors
1630 - 1830                the Grand Sharifs of Mecca (see Saudi Arabia)
1830 - 1841                Sayyid Muhammad al-Barr
1841 - 1855                `Ali Haji Sirmaki ibn Salih        (d. 1861)
                             (1st time)    

1855 - 1857                Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad (1st time)
1857 - 1861                `Ali Haji Sirmaki ibn Salih        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (s.a.)

1861 - 1874                Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad (2nd time)
Egyptian governors
1870/74 - 1878             Rauf Pasha
1878 - 1880                ....
Jan 1880 - Dec 1883        Muhammad Nadi Pasha                
British Political Agent
1884 - 20 Jul 1887         Frederick Mercer Hunter            (b. 1844 - d. 1898)
Residents
20 Jul 1887 - 1888         Frederick Mercer Hunter            (s.a.) 
1888 - 1893                Edward Vincent Stace               (b. 18.. - d. 1903)
1893 - 1896                Charles William Henry Sealy        (b. 1849 - d. ....)
Mar 1896 - 1897            William Butler Ferris
Jan 1897 - 1898            James Hayes Sadler                 (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
Consuls-general
1898 - 1901                James Hayes Sadler                 (s.a.)
1901 - 1902                Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux      (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
                             (acting)
1902 - 1905                Eric John Eagles Swayne            (b. 1863 - d. 1929)
Commissioners
 8 May 1906 - 1909         Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux      (s.a.)
Jan 1910 - 1911            Sir William Henry Manning          (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
Jul 1911 - 1914            Horace Archer Byatt                (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
May 1914 - Oct 1919        Geoffrey Francis Archer            (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
Governors
Oct 1919 - 17 Aug 1922     Geoffrey Francis Archer            (s.a.) 
                             (from 5 Jun 1920, Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer)
17 Aug 1922 - 29 Nov 1925  Gerald Henry Summers               (b. 1885 - d. 1925)
26 Jan 1926 - 18 Jun 1932  Harold Baxter Kittermaster         (b. 1879 - d. 1939)
                             (from 4 Jun 1928, Sir Harold Baxter Kittermaster)
18 Jun 1932 -  2 Mar 1939  Sir Arthur Salisbury Lawrance      (b. 1880 - d. 1965)
 2 Mar 1939 - 18 Aug 1940  Vincent Goncalves Glenday          (b. 1891 - d. 1970)
Italian military governors
19 Aug 1940 - Oct 1940     Guglielmo Nasi                     (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
Oct 1940 - 16 Mar 1941     Carlo De Simone                    (b. 1885 - d. 1951)
Military governors
29 Mar 1941 -  3 Mar 1943  Arthur Reginald Chater             (b. 1896 - d. 1979)
 3 Mar 1943 -  3 Mar 1948  Gerald Thomas Fisher               (b. 1887 - d. 1965)
Governors
 3 Mar 1948 - 15 Nov 1948  Gerald Thomas Fisher               (s.a.)
1948 - Feb 1954            Gerald Reece                       (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
                             (from 1950, Sir Gerald Reece) 
Feb 1954 - 1959            Theodore Ouseley Pike              (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
                             (from 2 Jan 1956, Sir Theodore Ouseley Pike) 
11 Jul 1959 - 26 Jun 1960  Sir Douglas Hall                   (b. 1909 - d. 2004)
Prime minister (de facto head of state)
26 Jun 1960 -  1 Jul 1960  Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal         (b. 1928 - d. 2002)  SNL
Presidents
28 May 1991 - 16 May 1993  Abdurahman Ahmad Ali "Tuur"        (b. 1931 - d. 2003)  SNM
16 May 1993 -  3 May 2002  Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal         (s.a.)             SNM;2001 UDUB
 3 May 2002 - 27 Jul 2010  Dahir Riyale Kahin                 (b. 1952)            UDUB
27 Jul 2010 -              Ahmed Mahamoud "Silanyo"           (b. 1936)            KNM

Territorial Disputes: Internationally recognized as part of Somalia; territorial dispute with Puntland over eastern Sanaag and Sool provinces; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities to land-locked Ethiopia and establish commercial ties with regional states; "Puntland" secessionists clash with "Somaliland" secessionists to establish territorial limits and clan loyalties, each seeking support from neighboring states.

Party abbreviations: KNM = Kulmiye Nabad, Midnimo iyo horumar iyo (Peace, Unity and Development Party, social democratic, left-wing); UDUB = Ururka Dimuqraadiga Ummadda Bahawday (United People's Democratic Party, est.2001);
- Former parties:
SNM = Somali National Movement (Isaaq clan-family, Somaliland separatist to 1994, anti-Siad Barre, est.1981); SNL = Somali National League (Isaaq clan dissidents, pro-British Somaliland independence, pan-Somalism, 1951-1962)



Jubaland  (Oltro Giuba)

[Kingdom of Italy Flag]               15 Jul 1924 - 1 Jul 1926 [Jubaland flag 1998-1999
                      (Somalia)]                   1998 - 11 Jun 1999
[Jubaland flag 1999-2001
                      (Somalia)]                  1999 - 18 Jun 2001 [Jubaland state flag 2013
                      (Somalia)]                  Adopted 15 May 2013

Map of Jubaland
Capital: Kismayo
(Bu'ale from May 2013)

1836                       Ruled by Zanzibar.
 1 Jul 1895                British rule, part of Kenya colony.
15 Jul 1924                Jubaland (or Trans-Juba) ceded by Britain to Italy;
                             separate administration (Oltro Giuba) set up.
 1 Jul 1926                Annexed to Italian Somalia.
 3 Sep 1998                State of Jubaland set up by the Somali Patriotic Movement
                             and the elders of the Digil and Rahanwein clans.
11 Jun 1999                Leader ousted from regional capital Kismayo by the Allied
                             Somali Forces (ASM)(later called Juba Valley Alliance).
18 Jun 2001                Juba Valley Alliance installs a new administration
                             supporting the Mogadishu government.
24 Sep 2006                Kismayo taken by troops of the Supreme Islamic Council of
                             Somalia.
 1 Jan 2007                Kismayo taken by forces of the central government.
 3 Apr 2011                Azania Region is proclaimed with Mohamed Abdi Mohamed "Gandhi" as 
                             president, however it remains largely based in Kenya.
15 May 2013                Jubland State of Somalia established at Bu'ale.
28 Aug 2013                Jubaland administration recognized by Somali federal government,
                             it becomes the Jubba Interim Administration.

Governor

16 Jul 1924 - 31 Dec 1926  Corrado Zoli                       (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
Leaders
 3 Sep 1998 - 11 Jun 1999  Muhammad Siyad Hersi "Morgan"                            Mil/SPM
                             (briefly recaptures Kismayo 6-7 Aug 2001) 
11 Jun 1999 - 18 Jun 2001  Ahmed Warsame                                            ASM/JVA
President

15 May 2013 - 28 Aug 2013  Ahmed Mohamed Islam "Madobe"       (b. 1961)             RM
Chairman of the Executive Council of Jubba Interim Administration
28 Aug 2013 -              Ahmed Mohamed Islam "Madobe"       (s.a.)                RM


Party abbreviations: ASM = Allied Somali Forces (Marehan, Ogadeni, and Habr Geduir factions, and SNF, pro-Somali transitional government, 1999-2001, renamed JVA); JVA = Juba Valley Alliance (pro-Somali transitional government, grouping of Marehan, Ogadeni and Habr Gedir factions, est.2001); RM = Raskamboni Movement (est.2009); SPM = Somali Patriotic Movement (Daarood clan/Ogaden clan based, est.1989); Mil = Military


Puntland

[Somalia
                      flag]              23 Jul 1998 - 22 Dec 2009 [Puntland state flag
                      (Somalia)]                Adopted 22 Dec 2009 

Map of Puntland Hear National Anthem
"Somaliyaay toosoo"
(Somalia Wake Up)
Text of Anthem
Adopted 2000
Constitution
(May 2012)
---------------------------

Transitional Constitution

(1 Jul 2001 - May 2012)
Capital: Garowe
Currency: Somali Shilling (SOS) 
National Holiday: 1 Jul (1960)
Foundation of the Somali Republic
Population: 3,900,000 (2009)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Somali  (mainly Darod clan)
Total Security Forces: 10,000 (2012)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Muslim (nearly all Sunni)
International Organizations/Treaties: None

23 Jul 1998                Part of northeastern Somalia (regions of Bari and Nugaal 
                             [claims Sool and eastern Sanaag]) declared autonomous 
                             as Puntland State of Somalia (not recognized) by Darod clans.
18 Feb 2012                Recognized as an autonomous state within Somalia by Garowe II
                             conference.

Presidents
23 Jul 1998 - 30 Jun 2001  Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (1st time)   (b. 1934 - d. 2012)  SSDF
                             (continues in rebellion)
 1 Jul 2001 - 14 Nov 2001  Yusuf Haji Nur (acting)                                 Non-party
14 Nov 2001 -  8 May 2002  Jama Ali Jama                                           Non-party
                             (continues in rebellion to 17 May 2003)
 8 May 2002 - Oct 2004     Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
Oct 2004 -  8 Jan 2005     Mohamed Abdi Hashi                                      Non-party
 8 Jan 2005 -  8 Jan 2009  Mohamud Muse Hersi "Adde"                               Non-party
 8 Jan 2009 -  8 Jan 2014  Abdirahman Mohamed Farole          (b. 1945)            Non-party
 8 Jan 2014 -              Abdiweli Mohamed Ali               (b. 1965)            Non-party

Territorial Disputes: Internationally recognized as part of Somalia; territorial dispute with Somaliland over eastern Sanaag and Sool provinces; "Puntland" secessionists clash with "Somaliland" secessionists to establish territorial limits and clan loyalties, each seeking support from neighboring states.

Party abbreviations (Political parties are banned in Puntland since Aug 1998): SSDF = Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed (Somali Salvation Democratic Front, founded as Democratic Front for Salvation of Somalia, divided into two factions- Mohamed Abshir Muse and Abdullahi Yussuf Ahmed, est.1978)


Maakhir

[Maakhir state flag 2007-2008 (Somalia)]                 1 Jul 2007 - 2008

[Maakhir state flag
                      2008-2009 (Somalia)]                    2008 - 11 Jan 2009

Map of Maakhir State
Capital: Badhan Population: 700,000 (2006 est.)

 1 Jul 2007                Part of northeastern Somalia (in western Sanaag province
                             between Puntland and Somaliland) declares itself autonomous
                             from Puntland as Maakhir State of Somalia (not recognized by
                             Puntland, Somalia or Somaliland).

25 - 26 Feb 2008           A Somaliland-aligned force laid siege to Hadaftimo and Badhan.
 9 Jul 2008 (hours)        Somaliland occupies the port of Laas Qoray (Las Khorey).
11 Jan 2009                Re-incorporated into Puntland.


President
 1 Jul 2007 - 11 Jan 2009  Jibrell Ali Salad                  (b. 1939)
                             (in exile from 2008?)
Apr 2008 - 11 Jan 2009     Abdullahi Ahmed Jama "Ilkajir"     (b. 1951)           Mil
                             (de facto)



Southwestern Somalia

[Southwest Somalia State flag 2002-2006
                      (Somalia)]                      2002 - c.2006

[Southwestern State flag
                      2014 (Somalia)]                            2014
 
[Southwestern State flag
                      (Somalia)]                      Adopted 2014
Map of Southwestern State
Capital: Baidoa
Population: N/A (2014)

 1 Apr 2002                State of Southwestern Somalia is proclaimed
                             by Rahanwein Resistance Army (not recognized).
10 Feb 2006                Baidoa taken by forces of the central government.
 3 Mar 2014                Southwestern State is reformed
.           

Presidents
 1 Apr 2002 - 200.         Hassan Mohammad Nur "Shatigadud"                       Mil/RRA
                             (loses control of Baidoa 3 Oct 2002¹)
 3 Mar 2014 -  3 Dec 2014  Madobe Nunow Mohamed               (b. 1949?)          Non-party
 3 Dec 2014 -              Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden          (b. 1946?)          Non-party

 ¹From 3 Oct 2002 (except 14-16 Dec 2002) Baidoa was controlled by Sheikh Aden Madobe (b. 1955?)(officially reconciled with Shatigadud since 23 Sep 2003) and Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade (b. 1952). From Mar 2005 Habsade controlled the city after driving off Shatigadud and Madobe (who were both ministers in the central government of Prime Minister Ali Muhammad Ghedi). In Aug 2006 Habsade himself became a minister in Ghedi's government.

Party abbreviations
: RRA = Rahawayn Resistance Army (Rahawayn clan based, allied
with the SDM, fights Aideed controlled militia in the Bakool/Bay regions, est.1995); Mil = Military


Galmudug

[Somalia
                      flag]                14 Aug 2006 - 20..

[Galmudug state flag to
                      2010 (Somalia)]                   20.. - 8 Jul 2010
 
[Galmudug state flag
                      (Somalia)]                  Adopted 8 Jul 2010

Map of Galmudug State
Capital: (South) Galcayo
(Galkaayo)
Population: 1,800,000 (2006 est.) Constitution

14 Aug 2006                Part of north central Somalia (regions of Galgadud and Mudug)
                             declared autonomous as Galmudug State of Somalia.
Nov 2006 - 25 Dec 2006     Partly occupied by troops of Supreme Islamic Council of
                             Somalia.
18 Feb 2012                Proclaimed as an autonomous state within Somalia by Garowe II
                             conference.
30 Jul 2014                Federal Government of Somalia officially endorsed a new Central
                             Regions State, following a signed agreement in Mogadishu between
                             representatives from Galmudug, Himan and Heeb
.


Presidents
14 Aug 2006 - 2009         Mohamed Warsame Ali "Kiimiko"      (b. 1937?)
2009 - 14 Aug 2012         Mohamed Ahmed Alin
                             (in opposition to Aug 2012)
14 Aug 2012 -              Abdi Hasan Awale "Qeybdiid"        (b. 1948)  



Himan and Heeb

[Somalia
                      flag]                     2008 - c.2010

[Himan and Heeb (Ximan and Xeeb) Somalia]                         Adopted c.2010

Map of Himan and Heeb
Capital: Adado

2008                       Himan and Heeb (Ximan and Xeeb) autonomous state declared by
                             Saleban sub-clan of the Haber Gidr Hawiya clan around Adado
                            (not recognized).
30 Jul 2014                Federal Government of Somalia officially endorsed a new Central
                             Regions State, following a signed agreement in Mogadishu between
                             representatives from Galmudug, Himan and Heeb.

Presidents

Jun 2008 - 13 Jun 2013     Mohamed Abdullahi Aden "Tiiceey"
13 Jun 2013 -              Abdullahi Ali Mohamed "Barleh"




© Ben Cahoon