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The Philippines
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                   to 13 Aug 1898 
 
[[Flag of Philippines in
                                    rebellion 1897]
               23 Mar 1897 - 16 Dec 1897
                    Republic in rebellion
[US 48
                                    star flag 1912]
                13 Aug 1898 -  3 Jan 1942;
                 17 Aug 1945 - 4 Jul 1946
 
[Flag
                                    of Philippines]
             War Flag: 12 Jun 1898 - 16 Apr 1902;
        Commonwealth: 8 Dec 1941 - 17 Aug 1945;
             Republic: 26 Sep 1944 - 17 Aug 1945
 
[US 48 star
                                    flag 1912]
    26 Mar 1920 - 25 Mar 1936 Unofficial Local Flag;
                Officially Adopted 25 Mar 1936
               (banned 3 Jan 1942 - 14 Oct 1943)
 
[Japan]
              3 Jan 1942 - 14 Oct 1943
 

Map of the Philippines
Hear National Anthem
"Lupang Hinirang"
 (Chosen Land)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 12 Jun 1898
(banned 3 Jan 1942-14 Oct 1943)
Constitutions
(1899, 1935, 1973,
1973, 1986, 11 Feb 1987)
Capital: Manila
(Quezon City 1948-1976;
Villa del Santissimo
Nombre de Jesús
[Cebu City] 1565-1595;
Bacolor 1762-1764)
Currency: Philippine Peso
(PHP); 1942-1945 Philippines
 Gumpyo Peso (PHJ); 1772-1859
Spanish Escudo (XESE)
National Holiday: 12 June (1898)
Independence Day
Population: 105,720,644 (2013)
GDP: $454.3 billion (2013) 
Exports: $47.5 billion (2013)
Imports: $63.9 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%,
Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%,
Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 120,000 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 1,408 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 446 ships (2012)
Religions: Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%,
Aglipayan 2%), Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%,
Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%,
 unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, BTWC, CCM (signatory), CICA (observer), CP, CTBT, CWC, EAS, ESCR, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SEGIB (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Philippines
Index
Chronology

17 Mar 1521                Discovered and claimed for Spain by Ferdinand
                             Magellan, named Archipelago de San Lazaro.
 1 Nov 1542                Reclaimed for Spain, named Islas Filipinas, 
                             by Capt. Rui López de Villalobos. 
27 Apr 1565                Spanish colony (Islas Filipinas); subordinated
                             to New Spain (see Mexico) to 1821.
 6 Oct 1762 - 10 Feb 1763  Occupied by Britain.
Dec 1896                   Real de Kakarong de Sili Republic (insurrection
                             against Spain) at Pandi, Bulacan.
23 Mar 1897 - 16 Dec 1897  Philippine Republic (insurrection against Spain);
                             capital at Biak-na-Bato, Bulacan.
12 Jun 1898 - 16 Apr 1902  Philippine Republic (insurrection against Spain
                             and then U.S.); capital at Malolos, Bulacan.
13 Aug 1898                U.S territory (Philippine Islands).
15 Nov 1935                Commonwealth of the Philippines
 3 Jan 1942 - 17 Aug 1945  Japanese military occupation (Corregidor surrenders
                             6 May 1942).
14 Oct 1943 - 17 Aug 1945  Nominal independence (Republic of the 
                             Philippines).
 4 Jul 1946                Independence (Republic of the Philippines; from
                             17 Jan 1973 Republika ng Pilipinas).

Negros
(1898-1901)
Zamboanga
(1899)
Katagalugan
(1902-1906)
Autonomous
Muslim Mindanao
Cordillera
Administrative
Region
Maguindanao
(from c.1515)
Buayan
(to 1901)
Sulu
(1457-1940)
Philippine
Independent
Church

 

Governors-general
27 Apr 1565 - 20 Aug 1572  Miguel López de Legazpi y          (b. 1503? - d. 1572)
                             Gurruchategui 
20 Aug 1572 - 25 Aug 1575  Guido de Lavezaris                 (b. c.1499 - d. 1581?)
25 Aug 1575 - Apr 1580     Francisco de Sande Picón           (b. c.1540 - d. 1602)
Apr 1580 - 10 Mar 1583     Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa      (d. 1583)
10 Mar 1583 - 16 May 1584  Diego Ronquillo (acting)
16 May 1584 - May 1590     Santiago de Vera 
 1 Jun 1590 - 25 Oct 1593  Gómez Pérez das Mariñas y          (b. 1539 - d. 1593) 
                             Ribadeneira          
Oct 1593 -  3 Dec 1593     Pedro de Rojas (acting)
 3 Dec 1593 - 14 Jul 1596  Luis Pérez das Mariñas 
14 Jul 1596 - May 1602     Francisco de Tello de Guzmán       (b. 15.. - d. 1603) 
May 1602 - 24 Jun 1606     Pedro Bravo de Acuña               (b. 15.. - d. 1606) 
24 Jun 1606 - 15 Jun 1608  Cristóbal Téllez de Almazán
                             (president of the Audiencia
15 Jun 1608 - Apr 1609     Rodrigo de Vivero y Aberrucia      (b. 1564 - d. 1636)
                             (acting)
Apr 1609 - 19 Apr 1616     Juan de Silva                      (b. 1550 - d. 1616) 
19 Apr 1616 -  3 Jul 1618  Andres Alcaraz
                             (president of the Audiencia
 3 Jul 1618 - Jul 1624     Alonso Fajardo de Entenza y        (d. 1624)
                             de Guevara, Córdoba y Velasco 
Jul 1624 - Jun 1625        Jerónimo de Silva  
                             (president of the Audiencia
Jun 1625 - 29 Jun 1626     Fernándo de Silva (acting)
29 Jun 1626 - 22 Jul 1632  Juan Niño de Tavora                (d. 1632) 
22 Jul 1632 - 1633         Lorenzo de Olaso
                             (president of the Audiencia
29 Aug 1633 - 25 Jun 1635  Juan Cerezo de Salamanca 
25 Jun 1635 - 11 Aug 1644  Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera      (d. 1660)
                             y Gaviría
11 Aug 1644 - 25 Jul 1653  Diego Fajardo Chacón 
25 Jul 1653 -  8 Sep 1663  Sabiniano Manrique de Lara          
 8 Sep 1663 - 28 Sep 1668  Diego de Salcedo 
28 Sep 1668 - 24 Sep 1669  Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz     (d. 1669) 
24 Sep 1669 - 21 Sep 1677  Manuel de León y Saravia           (d. 1677) 
21 Sep 1677 - 28 Sep 1678  Francisco Sotomayor y Mansilla
                             (president of the Audiencia
28 Sep 1678 - 24 Aug 1684  Juan de Vargas Hurtado             (d. 1690) 
24 Au 1684 - Apr 1689      Gabriel de Curuzealegui y Arriola 
Apr 1689 - 25 Jul 1690     Alfonso Fuertes Abella
                             (president of the Audiencia
25 Jul 1690 -  8 Dec 1701  Fausto Cruzat y Góngora            (b. 1651? - d. 1702)
 8 Dec 1701 - 25 Aug 1709  Domingo de Zabalburu Echeverri     (b. 16.. - d. 1709)
25 Aug 1709 -  4 Feb 1715  Martín de Ursúa y Arizmendi,
                             conde de Lizárraga               (b. 1653 - d. 1715)
 4 Feb 1715 -  9 Aug 1717  José de Torralba                   (b. 16.. - d. 1726)
                             (president of the Audiencia
 9 Aug 1717 - 11 Oct 1719  Fernando Manuel de Bustamante y
                             Bustillo Rueda                   (b. 16.. - d. 1719)
11 Oct 1719 -  6 Aug 1721  Fray Francisco de la Cuesta,       (b. 1658 - d. 1724)
                             arzobispo de Manila (acting)
 6 Aug 1721 - 14 Aug 1729  Toribio José de Cosio y Campo,
                             marqués de Torre Campo
14 Aug 1729 - Jul 1739     Fernando de Valdés y Tamón
Jul 1739 - 21 Sep 1745     Gaspar de la Torre Ayala           (d. 1745)
21 Sep 1745 - 20 Jul 1750  Fray Juan de Arechederra,          (b. c.1686 - d. 1751)
                             arzobispo de Manila (acting)
20 Jul 1750 - 26 Jul 1754  Francisco José de Obando y Solís,  (b. 1698 - d. 1755)
                             marqués de Obando             
26 Jul 1754 - 31 May 1759  Pedro Manuel de Arandía            (b. 1699 - d. 1759)
                             Santisteban          
Jun 1759 - Jul 1761        Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta,           (b. 1701 - d. 1771)
                             bispo de Zebu (acting)
Jul 1761 -  6 Oct 1762     Manuel Antonio Rojo del Río y      (b. 1708 - d. 1764)
                             Viera, arzobispo de Manila
                             (acting)
 6 Oct 1762 - 17 Mar 1764  Simón de Anda y Salazar (1st time) (b. 1710 - d. 1776)
                             (in Bacolor, in opposition to
                             British until 10 Feb 1763)
 2 Nov 1762 - 10 Feb 1763  Dawsonne Drake (British governor)  (b. 1724 - d. 1784)
17 Mar 1764 -  6 Jul 1765  Francisco Javier de la Torre
                             (acting)
 6 Jul 1765 - Jul 1770     José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez
Jul 1770 - 30 Oct 1776     Simón de Anda y Salazar (2nd time) (s.a.)
30 Oct 1776 - Jul 1778     Pedro de Sarrio (1st time) (acting)
Jul 1778 - 22 Sep 1787     José Basco y Vargas                (b. 1735 - d. 1805)
22 Sep 1787 -  1 Jul 1788  Pedro de Sarrio (2nd time) (acting)
 1 Jul 1788 -  1 Sep 1793  Félix Berenguer de Marquina        (b. 1738 - d. 1826)
 1 Sep 1793 -  7 Aug 1806  Rafael María de Aguilar y
                             Ponce de León                    (b. 17.. - d. 1806)
 7 Aug 1806 -  4 Mar 1810  Mariano Fernández de Folgueras     (b. 1766 - d. 1823)
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 4 Mar 1810 -  4 Sep 1813  Manuel González Aguilar
 4 Sep 1813 - 10 Dec 1816  José de Gardoqui Jaraveita
10 Dec 1816 - 30 Oct 1822  Mariano Fernández de Folgueras     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
30 Oct 1822 - 14 Oct 1825  Juan Antonio Martínez
14 Oct 1825 - 23 Dec 1830  Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca  (b. 1776 - d. 1846)
23 Dec 1830 -  1 Mar 1835  Pascual Enrile y Alcedo            (b. 1772 - d. 1836)
 1 Mar 1835 - 23 Apr 1835  Gabriel de Torres y Velasco        (d. 1835)
23 Apr 1835 -  9 Sep 1835  Joaquín de Crámer (acting)
 9 Sep 1835 - 27 Aug 1837  Pedro Antonio de Salazar Castillo
                             y Varona (acting)
27 Aug 1837 - 29 Dec 1838  Andrés García Camba (acting)       (b. 1793 - d. 1861)
29 Dec 1838 - 14 Feb 1841  Luis Lardizábal y Montojo
14 Feb 1841 - 17 Jun 1843  Marcelino de Oraá y Lecumberri     (b. 1788 - d. 1851)
17 Jun 1843 - 16 Jul 1844  Francisco de Paula Alcalá de 
                             la Torre
16 Jul 1844 - 26 Dec 1849  Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa          (b. 1795 - d. 1851)
26 Dec 1849 - 29 Jul 1850  Antonio María Blanco (acting)
29 Jul 1850 - 20 Dec 1853  Antonio de Urbiztondo y Eguía      (b. 1803 - d. 1857)
20 Dec 1853 -  2 Feb 1854  Ramón Montero y Blandino
                             (1st time) (acting)
 2 Feb 1854 - 28 Oct 1854  Manuel Pavía y Lacy, 
                             marqués de Novaliches            (b. 1814 - d. 1896)
28 Oct 1854 - 20 Nov 1854  Ramón Montero y Blandino
                             (2nd time) (acting)
20 Nov 1854 -  5 Dec 1856  Manuel Crespo y Cebrián
 5 Dec 1856 -  9 Mar 1857  Ramón Montero y Blandino
                             (3rd time) (acting)
 9 Mar 1857 - 12 Jan 1860  Fernando de Norzagaray y Escudero  (b. 1808 - d. 1860)
12 Jan 1860 - 29 Aug 1860  Ramón María Solano y Llanderal     (d. 1860)
                             (acting)
29 Aug 1860 -  2 Feb 1861  Juan Herrera Dávila (acting)
 2 Feb 1861 -  7 Jul 1862  José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y       (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
                             Gonzáles
 7 Jul 1862 -  9 Jul 1862  Salvador Valdés (acting)
 9 Jul 1862 - 24 Mar 1865  Rafael Echagüe y Bermingham        (b. 1815 - d. 1887)
24 Mar 1865 - 25 Apr 1865  Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez
                             (1st time) (acting)
25 Apr 1865 - 13 Jul 1866  Juan de Lara e Irigoyen            (b. 1808 - d. 1869)
13 Jul 1866 - 21 Sep 1866  José Laureano Sanz y Posse         (b. 1822 - d. 1898)
                             (acting)
21 Sep 1866 - 27 Sep 1866  Juan Antonio Osorio (acting)
27 Sep 1866 - 26 Oct 1866  Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez
                             (2nd time) (acting)
26 Oct 1866 -  7 Jun 1869  José de la Gándara y Navarro       (b. 1820 - d. 1885)
 7 Jun 1869 - 23 Jun 1869  Manuel Maldonado (acting)
23 Jun 1869 -  4 Apr 1871  Carlos María de la Torre y Nava    (b. 1809 - d. 1879)
                             Cerrada
 4 Apr 1871 -  8 Jan 1873  Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutiérrez    (b. 1820 - d. 1882)
 8 Jan 1873 - 24 Jan 1873  Manuel MacCrohon (acting)
24 Jan 1873 - 17 Mar 1874  Juan Alaminos y de Vivar           (b. 1813 - d. 1899)
17 Mar 1874 - 18 Jun 1874  Manuel Blanco Valdemarra (acting)
18 Jun 1874 - 28 Feb 1877  José Malcampo y Monje,             (b. 1828 - d. 1880)
                             marqués de San Rafael,
                             conde de Jolo, vizconde 
                             de Mindanao
28 Feb 1877 - 20 Mar 1880  Domingo Moriones y Murillo         (b. 1823 - d. 1881) 
                             Zabaleta y Sanz, marqués de
                             Oroquieta
20 Mar 1880 - 15 Apr 1880  Rafael Rodríguez Arias (acting)    (b. 1820 - d. 1892)
15 Apr 1880 - 10 Mar 1883  Fernando Primo de Rivera y
                             Sobremonte (1st time)            (b. 1831 - d. 1921)
10 Mar 1883 -  7 Apr 1883  Emilio Molins (1st time) (acting)
 7 Apr 1883 -  1 Apr 1885  Joaquín Jovellar y Soler           (b. 1819 - d. 1892)
 1 Apr 1885 -  4 Apr 1885  Emilio Molins (2nd time) (acting)
 4 Apr 1885 - 25 Apr 1888  Emilio Terrero y Perinat           (b. 1827 - d. 1892)
25 Apr 1888 -  4 Jun 1888  Antonio Moltó (acting)
 4 Jun 1888 -  5 Jun 1888  Federico Lobatón (acting)
 5 Jun 1888 - 17 Nov 1891  Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau,        (b. 1838 - d. 1930)
                             marqués de Tenerife
17 Nov 1891 -  1 Mar 1893  Eulogio Despujol y Dusay,          (b. 1834 - d. 1907)
                             conde de Caspe
 1 Mar 1893 -  4 May 1893  Federico Ochando (acting)
 4 May 1893 - 13 Dec 1896  Ramón Blanco y Erenas,             (b. 1831 - d. 1906)
                             marqués de Peña Plata
Dec 1896                   Canuto Villanueva -Supremo         (d. 1897)
                             (at Pandi, Bulacan in rebllion)
13 Dec 1896 - 15 Apr 1897  Camilo García de Polavieja y del   (b. 1838 - d. 1914)
                             Castillo                      
15 Apr 1897 - 23 Apr 1897  José de Lachambre y Domínguez      (b. 1846 - d. 1903)
                             (acting)
23 Apr 1897 - 11 Apr 1898  Fernando Primo de Rivera y         (s.a.)
                             Sobremonte (2nd time)  
11 Apr 1898 - 24 Jul 1898  Basilio Agustín y Dávila           (b. 1840 - d. 1910)
24 Jul 1898 - 13 Aug 1898  Fermín Jáudenes y Álvarez (acting)
13 Aug 1898 - Sep 1898     Francisco Rizzo (acting)
                            (at Malolos, in opposition to U.S.)
Sep 1898 -  3 Jun 1899     Diego de los Ríos (acting)         (b. 1850 - d. 1911)
                            (at Iloilo, in opposition to U.S.)
 3 Jun 1899 - 10 Dec 1899  Nicolás Jaramillo (acting)
President of the Supreme Government Council
23 Mar 1897 - 16 Dec 1897  Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy            (b. 1869 - d. 1964)
                            (chairman Revolutionary Government to 1 Nov 1897)
Dictator
12 Jun 1898 - 23 Jan 1899  Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy            (s.a.)
                            (chairman Revolutionary Government from 23 Jun 1898)
Presidents
23 Jan 1899 -  1 Apr 1901  Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy            (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1901 - 16 Apr 1902  Miguel Malvar                      (b. 1865 - d. 1911)
Military Governors
13 Aug 1898 - 29 Aug 1898  Wesley Merritt                     (b. 1834 - d. 1910)
29 Aug 1898 -  5 May 1900  Elwell Stephen Otis                (b. 1838 - d. 1909)
 5 May 1900 -  4 Jul 1901  Arthur MacArthur                   (b. 1845 - d. 1912)
Governors
 4 Jul 1901 -  1 Feb 1904  William Howard Taft                (b. 1857 - d. 1930)
 1 Feb 1904 -  3 Nov 1905  Luke E. Wright                     (b. 1846 - d. 1922)
Governors-general
 3 Nov 1905 - 30 Mar 1906  Luke E. Wright                     (s.a.)
30 Mar 1906 - 19 Sep 1906  Henry Clay Ide                     (b. 1844 - d. 1921)
                             (acting to 2 Apr 1906)
20 Sep 1906 - 11 Nov 1909  James Francis Smith                (b. 1859 - d. 1928)
11 Nov 1909 -  1 Sep 1913  William Cameron Forbes             (b. 1870 - d. 1959)
 1 Sep 1913 -  6 Oct 1913  Newton W. Gilbert (acting)         (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
 6 Oct 1913 -  5 Mar 1921  Francis Burton Harrison            (b. 1873 - d. 1957)
 5 Mar 1921 - 14 Oct 1921  Charles E. Yeater (acting)         (b. 1861 - d. 1943)
14 Oct 1921 -  7 Aug 1927  Leonard Wood                       (b. 1860 - d. 1927)
 7 Aug 1927 - 27 Dec 1927  Eugene Allen Gilmore (1st time)    (b. 1871 - d. 1953) 
                             (acting)
27 Dec 1927 - 23 Feb 1929  Henry Lewis Stimson                (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
23 Feb 1929 -  8 Jul 1929  Eugene Allen Gilmore (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 8 Jul 1929 -  9 Jan 1932  Dwight Finley Davis                (b. 1879 - d. 1945)
 9 Jan 1932 - 29 Feb 1932  George C. Butte (acting)           (b. 1877 - d. 1940)
29 Feb 1932 - 15 Jul 1933  Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.            (b. 1887 - d. 1949)
15 Jul 1933 - 14 Nov 1935  William Francis "Frank" Murphy     (b. 1890 - d. 1949)
U.S. High Commissioners
15 Nov 1935 - 31 Dec 1936  William Francis "Frank" Murphy     (s.a.)
13 May 1936 - 26 Apr 1937  J. Weldon Jones (1st time)         (b. 1896 - d. 1982)
                             (acting [for Murphy to 1 Jan 1937])  
26 Apr 1937 - 12 Jul 1939  Paul Vories McNutt (1st time)      (b. 1891 - d. 1955)
May 1939 - 21 Oct 1939     J. Weldon Jones (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (acting [for McNutt to 12 Jul 1939])
21 Oct 1939 - 12 Oct 1942  Francis Bowes Sayre                (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
                             (from Mar 1942 in Washington, D.C.)
13 Oct 1942 - 14 Sep 1945  Harold L. Ickes                    (b. 1874 - d. 1952)
                             (U.S. Interior Secretary, in charge
                             of high commissioner's functions, in D.C.)
14 Sep 1945 -  4 Jul 1946  Paul Vories McNutt (2nd time)      (s.a.)
President

15 Nov 1935 -  1 Aug 1944  Manuel Luis Quezon Antonio y       (b. 1878 - d. 1944)  PN
                             Molina 
                             (in Washington, D.C., exile from 3 Jan 1942)
Japanese Military Commander
 3 Jan 1942 -  8 Jun 1942  Masaharu Homma                     (b. 1887 - d. 1946) 
Military Governors
 8 Jun 1942 - 28 May 1943  Shizuichi Tanaka                   (b. 1887 - d. 1945) 
28 May 1943 - 26 Sep 1944  Shigenori Kuroda                   (b. 1887 - d. 1952) 
26 Sep 1944 - 17 Aug 1945  Tomoyuki Yamashita                 (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
President of the Executive Commission of the Philippine Council of State
23 Jan 1943 - 14 Oct 1943  Jorge Bartolomé Vargas y Celis     (b. 1890 - d. 1980)  KPBP
Presidents
14 Oct 1943 - 17 Aug 1945  José Paciano Laurel y García       (b. 1891 - d. 1959)  KPBP
 1 Aug 1944 - 28 May 1946  Sergio Osmeña y Suico              (b. 1878 - d. 1961)  PN
                             (in Washington, D.C., exile to 20 Oct 1944)
28 May 1946 - 15 Apr 1948  Manuel Roxas y Acuña               (b. 1892 - d. 1948)  PL
16 Apr 1948 - 30 Dec 1953  Elpidio Quirino y Rivera           (b. 1890 - d. 1956)  PL
30 Dec 1953 - 17 Mar 1957  Ramon Magsaysay y del Fierro       (b. 1907 - d. 1957)  PN
17 Mar 1957 - 30 Dec 1961  Carlos Polestico Garcia            (b. 1896 - d. 1971)  PN
30 Dec 1961 - 30 Dec 1965  Diosdado Pangan Macapagal          (b. 1910 - d. 1997)  PL
30 Dec 1965 - 25 Feb 1986  Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos  (b. 1917 - d. 1989)  PN;1978 KBL
25 Feb 1986 - 30 Jun 1992  Maria Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino (f) (b. 1933 - d. 2009) PDP-LP+UNIDO
30 Jun 1992 - 30 Jun 1998  Fidel Valdez Ramos                 (b. 1928)            Lakas-CMD
30 Jun 1998 - 20 Jan 2001  Joseph Marcelo Ejercito Estrada    (b. 1937)            PMP
20 Jan 2001 - 30 Jun 2010  Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (f)        (b. 1947)            KAMPI;2009
                                                                                   Lakas-CMD
30 Jun 2010 -              Benigno Cojuangco Aquino III       (b. 1960)            PL

Prime ministers (of the Revolutionary Government)
21 Jan 1899 -  7 May 1899  Apolinario Mabini                  (b. 1864 - d. 1903)
 7 May 1899 - 13 Nov 1899  Pedro Alejandro Paterno            (b. 1858 - d. 1911)
Prime ministers
12 Jun 1978 -  8 Apr 1981  Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos  (s.a.)               KBL
 8 Apr 1981 - 25 Feb 1986  Cesar Enrique Aguinaldo Virata     (b. 1930)            KBL
25 Feb 1986 - 25 Mar 1986  Salvador Hidalgo Laurel            (b. 1928 - d. 2004)  UNIDO


Japanese Directors-general of the Military Administration

Jun 1942 - 1943            Yoshihide Hayashi                  (b. 1891 - d. 1978) 
1944 - 17 Aug 1945         Takaji Wachi                       (b. 1893 - d. 1970)

Territorial Disputes: Philippines claims sovereignty over Scarborough Reef, known locally as Panatag Shoal (also claimed by China together with Taiwan), and over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; in 2009, Philippine Baselines Law of 2009 classified the Kalayaan Island Group and the Scarborough Shoal as "a regime of islands under the Republic of the Philippines"; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in Mar 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau.

Party abbreviations: Lakas-CMD = Lakas-Demokratikong Kristiyano at Muslim (People's Power - Christian Muslim Democrats, centrist, christian/islamic democracy, 2008-2012 named Lakas-Kampi-CMD, est.1991); LDP = Laban ñg Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Democratic Filipinos, center-right, est.1988); PDP-LP = Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power, centrist, social conservative, est.1982); PMP = Partido ng Masang Pilipino (Party of the Filipino Masses, populist, est.1991); PL = Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas (Liberal Party of the Philippines, centrist, split from PN, est.1946); PN = Partido Nacionalista (Nationalist Party, Filipino nationalist, conservative, est.1907); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: KAMPI = Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino (Partner of the Free Filipino, populist, center-right, 1997-2009, merged into Lakas-CMD); KBL = Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement, Marcos personalist, Filipino nationalist, conservative, est.1978); KPBP = Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas "KALIBAPI" (Association for Service to the New Philippines, nationalist, fascist, only legal party 8 Dec 1942-1945); UNIDO = United Nationalist Democratic Organization (democratic coalition of anti-F. Marcos parties, incl. PN, PL, Muslim Federal Party, Young Philippines Party, etc., 1980-1987)



Republic of Negros

[Flag of Philippines]

 5 Nov 1898                Spanish administration overthrown in Negros Occidental.
24 Nov 1898                Spanish administration overthrown in Negros Oriental.
27 Nov 1898                Cantonal Republic of Negros established.
30 Apr 1899                Under U.S. protection.
22 Jul 1899                Republic of Negros (República de Negros)
30 Apr 1901                Extinguished by U.S.

Presidents
 5 Nov 1898 - 22 Jul 1899  Aniceto Lacson                     (b. 1858 - d. 1931)
                             (to 27 Nov 1898 in Negros Occidental only)
24 Nov 1898 - 27 Nov 1898  Demetrio Larena
                             (in Negros Oriental)
President of the Constituent Assembly
22 Jul 1899 -  6 Nov 1899  José Luzuriaga                     (b. 1843 - d. 1921)
Civil Governor
 6 Nov 1899 - 30 Apr 1901  Melecio Severino                   (b. 18.. - d. 1915)



Republic of Zamboanga

[Possible Republic of
                  Zamboanga flag, 1899 (Philippines)]
 18 May 1899 - 16 Nov 1899 (de facto)
18 May 1899                Fort Pilar, in Southern Philippines, surrendered to the 
                             Revolutionary Government of Zamboanga.
16 Nov 1899                U.S. occupation.
Mar 1903                   Extinguished by U.S.

Presidents
18 May 1899 - 16 Nov 1899  Vicente Solis Alvarez              (b. 1862 - d. 1942)
17 Nov 1899 - Mar 1901     Isidoro Midel                      (b. 1869 - d. 19..)
Mar 1901 - Mar 1903        Mariano Arquiza



Katagalugan Republic

[Katagalugan Republic flag]

1902                       Katagalugan Republic (Republika ng Katagalugan) or 
                             Tagalog Republic proclaimed in southern Luzon the areas 
                             of Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, and Tayabas.
 4 Jul 1906                Extinguished by U.S.

President
1902 - 4 Jul 1906          Macario Sakay                     (b. 1870 - d. 1907) 



Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
 
[Flag of Federal
                          Republic of Mindanao, in alliance with the
                          Mindanao Independence Movement, 4-6 Oct 1990
                          (Philippines)]
    4 Oct 1990 - 6 Oct 1990 (in rebellion)
 
[Autonomous
                          Region in Muslim Mindanao flag (Philippines)]
            Muslim Mindanao Region flag
                  Adopted 16 Jul 1992
Map of Muslim Mindanao
 Autonomous Region
CapitalCotabato City  Regional Holiday:
6 Nov (1990)
Foundation Day

Population: 3,786,520
 (2013)

1899                       U.S. administration begins.
15 Jul 1903                Moro Province created as a first step towards direct rule.
20 Dec 1913                Moro provinces abolished and replaced by the provinces of
                             Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Jolo, Surigao and 
                             Zamboanga forming the Department of Mindanao and Sulu. 
 5 Feb 1920                Department of Mindanao and Sulu abolished responsibility
                             for the Moro lands was transferred to the Philippine 
                             Department of the Interior. 
Feb 1935                   Moro lands part of Commonwealth of the Philippines,
1950                       Termination of separate administration.
 1 Aug 1989                Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao established by 
                             Republic Act #6734.
 4 Oct 1990 -  6 Oct 1990  Federal Republic of Mindanao (in rebellion).
 6 Nov 1990                Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) inaugurated,
                             covering Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi
                             provinces.
19 Sep 2001                Basilan province and Marawi city added to ARMM.
16 Aug 2013 - 28 Sep 2013  MNLF led my Nur Misuari declares independence of Bangsamoro
                             Republic in rebellion in Zamboanga.

Commanders of the Military District of Mindanao, Jolo and Palawan
(subordinated to the commanders of the Philippines)
1899 - 20 Mar 1900         John Coalter Bates                 (b. 1842 - d. 1919) 
20 Mar 1900 - 1900         William August Kobbe               (b. 1841 - d. 1932)
Commanders of the Military Department of Mindanao and Jolo
(subordinated to the commanders of the Philippines)
1900 - 1902                William August Kobbe               (s.a.)
1902                       George W. Davis                    (b. 1839 - d. 1918)
Commanders of the Military Department of Mindanao
(subordinated to the commanders of the Philippines)
1902 - 1903                Samuel S. Sumner                   (b. 1842 - d. 1937)
1903                       Leonard Wood                       (b. 1860 - d. 1927)
Governors of the Moro Province
(subordinated to the governors/governors-general of the Philippines)
25 Apr 1903 - 16 Apr 1906  Leonard Wood                       (s.a.)
16 Apr 1906 -  3 Feb 1909  Tasker Howard Bliss                (b. 1853 - d. 1930)
30 Jun 1909 -  6 Sep 1909  Ralph W. Hoyt (acting) 
 6 Sep 1909 -  9 Nov 1909  Charles Hagedon (acting) 
 9 Nov 1909 - 15 Dec 1913  John Joseph Pershing               (b. 1860 - d. 1948)
15 Dec 1913 - 23 Jul 1914  Frank Watson Carpenter             (b. 1870 - d. 1938)
Governor of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu
(subordinated to the governors-general of the Philippines)
23 Jul 1914 -  5 Feb 1920  Frank Watson Carpenter             (s.a.) 
Director of the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes
(subordinated to the Philippines Department of the Interior)
1920 - 1936                Teofisto Guingona, Sr.             (b. 1883 - d. 1963)
Commissioners for Mindanao and Sulu
1936 - Apr 1939            Marcial Kasilag 
Apr 1939 - 1944            Teofisto Guingona, Sr.             (s.a.)
 4 Feb 1944 - 1944         Paulino T. Santos                  (b. 1890 - d. 1945) 
1944 - 1950                ....
President of Federal Republic of Mindanao

 4 Oct 1990 -  6 Oct 1990  Alexander Noble (in rebellion)                          Mil
Governors of Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
 6 Nov 1990 - Apr 1993     Zacaria A. Candao                  (b. 1952?)           Lakas-CMD
Apr 1993 - 30 Sep 1996     Lininding P. Pangandaman           (b. 1933? - d. 2013) Lakas-CMD
30 Sep 1996 - 27 Dec 2001  Nur Misuari                        (b. 1940)         MNLF+Lakas-CMD
                             (suspended from 22 Nov 2001)
22 Nov 2001 - 27 Dec 2001  Alvarez S. Isnaji                  (b. 1946)         MNLF+Lakas-CMD
                             (acting for suspended Misuari) 
27 Dec 2001 - 30 Sep 2005  Parouk Hussin                      (b. 1944)         MNLF+Lakas-CMD
30 Sep 2005 - 10 Dec 2009  Zaldy U. Ampatuan                  (b. 1967)            Lakas-CMD
                             (arrested 5 Dec 2009)
10 Dec 2009 - 22 Dec 2011  Ansaruddin M. Alonto Adiong                             Lakas-CMD
                             (acting [for Ampatuan to 10 Dec 2009])
22 Dec 2011 -              Mujiv S. Hataman                   (b. 1972)            PL+AMIN
                             (officer in charge to 1 Jul 2013)

[Flag of Moro National
                  Liberation Front (MNLF)]
             Flag of the MNLF

Party abbreviations: AMIN = Anak Mindanao (Mindanao based party-list); Lakas-CMD = Lakas-Demokratikong Kristiyano at Muslim (People's Power - Christian Muslim Democrats, centrist, christian/islamic democracy, 2008-2012 named Lakas-Kampi-CMD, est.1991); MNLF = Moro National Liberation Front (Moro regionalist, Muslim separatist, est.1969); PL = Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas (Liberal Party of the Philippines, centrist, split from PN, est.1946)



Cordillera Administrative Region

[Cordillera
                  Administrative Region flag (Philippines)]
           Flag of Cordillera Administrative Region

Map of Cordillera
Administrative Region
Capital: Baguio City  Regional Holiday:
24 Apr (1985)
Cordillera Day

Population: 1,616,867 (2010)

 9 Jun 1987                Interim Cordillera Regional Administration (ICRA).
15 Jul 1987                Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) created (comprising
                              provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain
                              Province, and Baguio city).
30 Jan 1990                Referendum rejects creation of an autonomous region.
 7 Mar 1998                Referendum votes against autonomy statute.

Chairman of Interim Cordillera Regional Administration
 9 Jun 1987 -  9 Apr 1988  ....
Chairmen of Cordillera Executive Board
 9 Apr 1988 - 20 Aug 1991  ....
Chairmen of Regional Development Council 
20 Aug 1991 - 1992         Andres R. Bugnosen
1992 - 2002                ....
Jan 2002 - Oct 2004        Raul M. Molintas
Oct 2004 - 2007            Maximo B. Dalog
2007 - 30 Jun 2007         Rosette Y. Lerias (f)
 1 Jul 2007 -  2 Dec 2010  Juan B. Ngalob (acting)
 2 Dec 2010 -              Jocel C. Baac                                 PL

Party abbreviation: PL = Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas (Liberal Party of the Philippines, center-left, est.1945)



Maguindanao

[Maguindanao Sultanate]
 
Capital: Cotabato
Population: N/A

c.1515                     Sultanate of Maguindanao 
15 May 1845 - 1898         Under Spanish suzerainty.
30 Oct 1899                Under U.S. suzerainty, part of Philippines.
 4 Jul 1946                Part of independent Philippines.

Sultans
1699 - 10 Aug 1702         Maulana Kaharuddin Kudai            (d. 1702)
1702 - 1736                Bayan ul Anwar                      (d. 1745)
1711 - Mar 1733            Jaafar Sadiq Manamir                (d. 1733)
                             (pretender)
1733 - 1736                Tahiruddin Malinug
1736 - 1775                Pakir Maulana Khairuddin Hamza
1775 - 1780                Muhammad Paharuddin
1780 - 1805                Muhammad Amirul Omra Azimuddin
                             Sikandar Sul Karnain ibn Pakir
                             Maulana
1805 - 1830                Kawasa Anwaruddin bin Muhammad
                             Amirul Omra
1830 - 1854                Sikandar Kudratullah Muhammad       (d. 1854)
                             Jamalul Azam bin Raja Tiwa
1854 - 1857                Datu Amirul Intirinu Musa -Regent
1857 - 1883                Muhammad Makakwa bin Datu Intirinu  (d. 1883)
1883 - 1888                Muhammad Jalaluddin Pablu bin       (d. 1888)
                             Muhammad Makakwa 
1888 - 1906                Rajah Putri (f) -Regent
1906 - 1926                Muhammad Mangigin bin Datu
1926 - 1938                Iskandar Hijaban Mastura
1938 - 1991                Tato Ismael bin Kalug
1991 - May 2000            Muhammad Gutierez bin Baraguir      (b. 19.. - d. 2000)
 8 Jun 2000 - 11 Jan 2006  Datu Amir bin Muhammad Baraguir     (b. 1960 - d. 2006)



Buayan

af.1668                    Sultanate of Buayan Darussalam 
22 Oct 1905                State ceases to exist.
26 Jan 2005                Recognized by the Philippines

Sultans
1865 - 1899                Anwaruddin Uto                      (b. 18.. - d. 1902)
1899 - 22 Oct 1905         Dato Ali                            (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
1940 -  4 Jan 1986         Dato Kudanding Camsa                (b. 1890 - d. 1986)
 1 Oct 1990 - 30 Aug 2007  Akmad Utto Camsa                    (b. 1945 - d. 2007)
28 Jun 2008 -              Muhammad Amil Kusain Utto Camsa     (b. 1955)



Sulu

Flag of
                      Sulu sultanate                            19th cent Flag
Former
                      flag of Sulu sultanate to 1919                              to 1919/40

Capital: Jolo
Population: N/A

1457                       Sultanate of Sulu (Basilan, Palawan and Tawi-Tawi 
                             islands and part of Sabah [North Borneo]) founded.
21 Feb 1876                Spanish occupy Jolo.
22 Jul 1878                Under Spanish suzerainty.
30 Oct 1899                Under U.S. suzerainty.
22 Mar 1915                Part of Philippines (except regarding suzerainty over 
                             Sabah: see Malaysian states).
Apr 1940                   U.S. government abolishes the sultanate.
 4 Jul 1946                Part of independent Philippines.

Sultans
c.1685 - 1710              Sahabuddin
c.1710 - 1718              Mustafa Sharafuddin 
1718? - 1734               Badaruddin I                          (d. 1740)
1734 - 1735                Muhammad Nassaruddin III              (d. 1753) 
1735 - 1748                Muhammad Alimuddin I (1st time)
1748 - 1763                Muhammad Muizuddin                    (d. 1763) 
1763 - 1773                Muhammad Alimuddin I (2nd time)
1773 - 1778                Muhammad Israil                       (d. 1778)
1778 - 1789                Muhammad Azimuddin II
1789 - 1805                Muhammad Sharafuddin ibni Sultan      (d. 1805)
                             Muhammad Azimuddin
1805                       Muhammad Azimuddin III ibni Sultan    (d. 1805) 
                             Muhammad Sharafuddin
1805 - 1808                Aliyuddin I ibni Sultan Muhammad 
                             Sharafuddin
1808 - 1823                Shakirullah ibni Sultan Muhammad      (d. 1823)
                             Sharafuddin
1823 - 1842                Jamalul Kiram I ibni Sultan Muhammad  (d. 1842)
                             Azimuddin
1842 - 24 Sep 1862         Muhammad Fazlul Kahir ibni Sultan     (d. 1862)
                             Jamalul Kiram
24 Sep 1862 - 7/8 Apr 1881 Muhammad Jamalul Azam ibni Sultan     (d. 1881)
                             Muhammad Fazlul Kahir
 8 Apr 1881 - 22 Feb 1884  Muhammad Badaruddin II ibni Sultan    (d. 1884)
                             Muhammad Jamalul Azam
1884 - 1886                Muhammad Amirul Kiram ibni Sultan     (b. 1863/70 - d. 1936)
                             Muhammad Jamalul Azam
11 Mar 1884 - 1887         Aliyuddin II ibni Datu Israil         (d. 1891)
                             (rival sultan)
24 Sep 1886 - 1894         Muhammad Harunur Rashid ibni Datu     (d. 1899)
                             Dakula 
                            (at Palawan as "Sultan Jubilado of Palawan" to 1899)
1894 -  7 Jun 1936         Muhammad Jamalul Kiram II ibni        (b. 18.. - d. 1936)
                             Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Azam 
                             (rival sultan from 1886)
 7 Jun 1936 - 20 Nov 1936  Muwallil Wasit II ibni Sultan         (d. 1936)
                             Muhammad Jamalul Azam
29 Jan 1937 - 1950         Zainal Abidin ibni Datu Uyung         (b. c.1880 - d. 1950)
                             (rival with following)
29 Jan 1937 - 1950         Amirul Omra II (rival with preceding) (d. 1967)
1950 - 1974                Muhammad Ismael Kiram I               (d. 1974)
1974 - 1986                Muhammad Mahakuttah Kiram
                             (rival with following)
1980 - 1983                Muhammad Punjungan Kiram
                             (rival with preceding)
1983                       Abirin (Aguimuddin)
1984 - 12 Mar 2001         Jamalul Dalus Strattan Kiram III      (b. 1938 - d. 2013)
                             (1st time)
12 Mar 2001 -              Ismael Kiram II (co-ruler 2012-2013)  (b. 1940)
Nov 2012 - 20 Oct 2013     Jamalul Dalus Strattan Kiram III      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Spanish Governors of Sulu
Mar 1876 -  1 Oct 1876     Pascual Cervera y Topete              (b. 1839 - d. 1909) 
 1 Oct 1876 - 31 Dec 1876  Eduardo Fernández Bremon (1st time)
                             (acting)   
31 Dec 1876 - 28 Sep 1877  José Paulín (1st time) 
28 Sep 1877 -  3 Feb 1880  Carlos Martínez y Romero 
 3 Feb 1880 - 15 Nov 1881  Rafael González de Rivera 
15 Nov 1881 - 29 Apr 1882  Isidro Gutierrez Soto 
29 Apr 1882 -  2 Jun 1882  José Paulín (2nd time) 
 2 Jun 1882 -  1 Oct 1882  Eduardo Fernández Bremon (2nd time) 
 1 Oct 1882 - 23 Jul 1885  Julian González Parrado               (b. 1841 - d. 1916) 
23 Jul 1885 - Jan 1886     Francisco Castilla 
Jan 1886 - 1893            Juan Arolas
1893                       Cesar Mattos 
1893 - 1896                Venancio Hernández 
1896 - May 1899            Luís Huerta






© Ben Cahoon