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Gibraltar
   
[British Union flag of 1606]
4 Aug 1704 - 1 Jan 1801
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
1 Jan 1801  - 1875
 
[Gibraltar colonial flag
                                    1875-1921]
1875 - 7 Jul 1921
 
[Gibraltar government ensign,
                                    1921-c.1939]
7 Jul 1921 - c.1939
 
[Gibraltar government ensign
                                    c.1939-1999]
c.1939 - 25 Jan 1999  Government Ensign

[Gibraltar government ensign
                                    (U.K.)]
Adopted 25 Jan 1999  Government Ensign

[Gibraltar Civil Ensign
                                    (U.K.)]
Adopted 19 Mar 1996 Civil Ensign

[Gibraltar
                                    Civil and State Flag (U.K.)]
Adopted 8 Nov 1982 Civil and State Flag;
1966 - 8 Nov 1982 Unofficial City Flag

Map of Gibraltar
Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen" 
Hear Local Anthem
"Gibraltar, the Rock on
Which I Stand"
Adopted 10 Oct 1994
Constitution Order
(2 Jan 2007)
---------------------------------
1969 Constitution Order
(30 May 1969 - 2 Jan 2007)
Capital: Gibraltar
Currencies: Gibraltar Pound (GIP); British Pound (GBP)
National Holiday: 10 Sep (1967)
Gibraltar National Day
Population: 29,581 (2019)
GDP: $2.99 billion (2018)
Exports: $323 million (2017)
Imports: $8.37 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Gibraltarian (mixed Italian, Maltese, Portuguese
 and Andalusian descent) 79%, other British 13.2%, Spanish 2.1%,
Moroccan 1.6%, other EU 2.4%, other 1.6% (2012)
Total Active Armed Forces: 160 (2015) with 227 Police (2010)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.K.
Merchant marine: 232 ships (2019)
Religions: Roman Catholic 72.1%, Church of England 7.7%, other
Christian 3.8%, Muslim 3.6%, Jewish 2.4%, Hindu 2%, other
1.1%, none 7.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2012) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ICC, Interpol (subbureau), Schengen Convention, UPU, WMO
Gibraltar
Chronology

206 BC                     Part of the Roman Empire.
409 AD                     Part of the Vandal kingdom.
428                        Part of the Suebi (Suevi) kingdom.
552                        Part of Eastern Roman ("Byzantine") Empire.
624 - 711                  Part of Kingdom of the Visigoths.
29 Apr 711                 Muslim rule, later known as the Jabal Tariq
                             ("Mountain of Tariq"), after Umayyad general
                             Tariq ibn Ziyad.
29 Apr 711 - Jan 929       Part of the Umayyad Caliphate (from 756, Emirate
                             of Córdoba withing the Caliphate).              
Jan 929                    Part of the Caliphate of Córdoba.
1031                       Part of Taifa of Algeciras.

1056                       Part of Taifa of Seville.
1063                       Part of the Almoravid Sultanate.
1147                       Part of the Almohad Caliphate.
1237                       Part of Emirate of Granada.
1274                       Part of Marinid Morocco.
12 Sep 1309 - 17 Jun 1333  Occupied by Castile.

Jun 1333 - 1374            Restored to Marinid Morocco.
1374                       Part of Emirate of Granada.
1410 - 1411                Briefly re-occupied by Marinid Morocco.
20 Aug 1462                Conquered by
Castile; comarca de Campo Llano de
                             Gibraltar established, it is part of
the estates
                             of the duke of Medina Sidonia 1467-2 Jan 1502  
                             (Gibraltar).
 
2 Jan 1502                Becomes a Castile (from 16 Jan 1556, Spanish
                             Monarchy) crown possession.

 1 Aug 1704                British and Allied forces land (Old Style date
                             21 Jul 1704).
 4 Aug 1704                British occupy Gibraltar (Town and Garrison of
                             Gibraltar) (
O.S. date 24 Jul 1704).
 
3 Sep 1704 - 31 Mar 1705  Under siege by Spain.
19 Feb 1706                Gibraltar declared a free port by Queen Anne.
13 Jul 1713                Spain cedes Gibraltar to U.K. in perpetuity by

                             the Treaty of Utrecht (ratified by U.K on 31 Jul
                             1713 and Spain on 4 Aug 1713).

22 Feb 1727 - 23 Jun 1727  Under siege by Spain.
 9 Nov 1729                Cession re-confirmed by Treaty of Seville.
16 Mar 1731                Cession confirmed by Treaty of Vienna.
18 Oct 1748                Cession confirmed by Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
10 Feb 1763                Cession confirmed by Treaty of Paris.
24 Jun 1779 -  7 Feb 1783  Final "great siege" by Spain. 
 3 Sep 1783                Cession confirmed by Treaty of Versailles.
21 Jun 1830                British crown colony.
28 Feb 1950                City and Garrison of Gibraltar (Gibraltar
                             Constitution Order 1950).
 
7 Aug 1964                Responsible government granted (by Gibraltar
                             Constitution Order 1964).
10 Sep 1967                Referendum endorses British sovereignty
(by 99.6%).
Jul 1968 - Sep 1968        Border crossing closed by Spain.
18 Dec 1968                United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2429
                             (XXIII) calls for
"decolonization" of Gibraltar.
30 May 1969                Autonomy increased
(City of Gibraltar)(Gibraltar
                             Constitution Order 1969).
 
6 Jun 1969 - 15 Dec 1982  Border crossing and other links closed by Spain
                             (fully
re-opened 5 Feb 1985).
 1 Nov 1993 - 31 Jan 2020  Along with the United Kingdom, part of
European
                             Union (
European Community
1973-93).
 7 Nov 2002                Referendum rejects (by 98.9%) the idea of joint 

                             Anglo-Spanish sovereignty.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors
 4 Aug 1704 -  5 Aug 1705  Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt   (b. 1669 - d. 1705)
                             (Georg
Prinz von Hessen-Darmstadt)

 5 Aug 1705 - 24 Dec 1707  John Shrimpton                     (b. 16.. - d. 1707)

Apr 1706 - 24 Jan 1711     Roger Elliott                      (b. 1665 - d. 1714)

                             (acting for Shrimpton to 24 Dec 1707)
24 Jan 1711 -  7 Aug 1713  Thomas Stanwix                     (b. 1670 - d. 1725)

 
7 Aug 1713 -  2 Jan 1730  David Colyear, Earl of Portmore    (b. 1657 - d. 1730)
Jan 1714 -  7 Oct 1716     Ralph Congreve                     (b. 1671? - d. 1725)
                            
(acting for Earl Portmore)
 7 Oct 1716 - 19 Oct 1720  Stanhope Cotton                    (b. 16.. - d. 1725)
                             (acting for Earl Portmore)
19 Oct 1720 -  2 Feb 1727  Richard Kane                       (b. 1666 - d. 1736)

                             (acting for Earl Portmore)
 2 Feb 1727 - 13 May 1730  Jasper Clayton                     (b. 1675 - d. 1743)

                             (acting [for Earl Portmore to 2 Jan 1730])
15 May 1730 - 24 Oct 1739  Joseph Sabine                      (b. 1661 - d. 1739)

24 Oct 1739 - 22 Apr 1740  Francis Columbine                  (b. 1680 - d. 1746)
22 Apr 1740 - 14 Mar 1749  William Hargrave                   (b. c.1672 - d. 1751)
14 Mar 1749 - 31 May 1754  Sir Humphrey Bland                 (b. 1686 - d. 1763)
31 May 1754 - 12 Jul 1756  Thomas Fowke                       (b. c.1690 - d. 1765)
12 Jul 1756 - 16 Apr 1757  James O'Hara, Earl of Tyrawley     (b. 1682 - d. 1773)
16 Apr 1757 - 28 Apr 1761  William Home, Earl of Home         (b. 1681 - d. 1761)
28 Apr 1761 - 13 Jun 1761  John Toovey (acting)               (b. 17.. - d. 1770)
13 Jun 1761 - 14 Jun 1762  John Parslow (acting)              (d. 1786)
14 Jun 1762 - 14 Jan 1776  Edward Cornwallis                  (b. 1713 - d. 1776)
 
2 Aug 1765 - Nov 1767     John Irwin (acting for Cornwallis) (b. 1728? - d. 1788)
16 Jan 1776 - 25 May 1777  Robert Boyd (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1710 - d. 1794)
25 May 1777 -  6 Jul 1790  George Augustus Eliott,            (b. 1717 - d. 1790)
                             (from 14 Jun 1787) Baron 
                             Heathfield of Gibraltar 
28 May 1787 - 10 Jan 1791  Charles O'Hara                     (b. 1740 - d. 1802)
                             (acting for Baron Heathfield)
13 Oct 1790 - 13 May 1794  Sir Robert Boyd (2nd time)         (s.a.)
13 May 1794 - 28 Nov 1795  Charles Rainsford                  (b. 1728 - d. 1809)

28 Nov 1795 - 25 Feb 1802  Charles O'Hara                     (s.a.)
25 Feb 1802 - 10 Mar 1802  Charles Barnett                    (b. 1758 - d. 1804)
24 Mar 1802 - 23 Jan 1820  Prince Edward, Duke of Kent        (b. 1767 - d. 1820)
 
1 May 1803 - 17 Dec 1804  Sir Thomas Trigge                  (b. 1742? - d. 1814)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
18 Dec 1804 - 28 Jun 1806  Henry Edward Fox                   (b. 1755 - d. 1811)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
28 Jun 1806 -  2 Nov 1806  James Drummond (1st time)          (b. c.1758 - d. 1831)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
 
2 Nov 1806 - 13 Aug 1808  Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple       (b. 1750 - d. 1830)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
13 Aug 1808 -  1 Jun 1809  James Drummond (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
 
1 Jun 1809 - Aug 1809     Sir John Francis Cradock           (b. 1762 - d. 1839)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
Aug 1809 - Oct 1809        John Smith                         (b. 1754 - d. 1837)   
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
Oct 1809 - 16 Aug 1810     Alex McKenzie Fraser               (b. 1756 - d. 1809)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
16 Aug 1810 - 25 Aug 1814  Colin Campbell                     (b. 1754 - d. 1814)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
25 Aug 1814 - 15 Nov 1821  Sir George Don (1st time)          (b. 1754 - d. 1832)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
 
5 Mar 1820 - 24 Sep 1835  John Pitt, Earl of Chatham         (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
 
8 Jun 1825 -  8 Apr 1831  Sir George Don (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Pitt)
 8 Apr
1831 - 28 Feb 1835  Sir William Houstoun               (b. 1766 - d. 1842)
                             (acting for Pitt)
28 Feb 1835 - 31 Oct 1842  Sir Alexander George Woodford      (b. 1782 - d. 1870)
                             (acting [for Pitt to 24 Sep 1835] to 1 Sep 1836)

May 1838 - Jul 1838        Charles Felix Smith                (b. 1786 - d. 1854)
                             (acting for Woodford)
31 Oct 1842 - 21 Nov 1848  Sir Robert Thomas Wilson           (b. 1777 - d. 1849)

21 Nov 1848 - 26 Jul 1855  Sir Robert William Gardiner        (b. 1781 - d. 1864)
26 Jul 1855 -  6 May 1859  Sir James Fergusson                (b. 1787 - d. 1865)
 
6 May 1859 - 20 Sep 1865  Sir William John Codrington        (b. 1804 - d. 1884)
20 Sep 1865 - 12 Sep 1870  Sir Richard Airey                  (b. 1803 - d. 1881)
12 Sep 1870 - 30 Jul 1876  Sir William Fenwick Williams       (b. 1800 - d. 1883)
30 Jul 1876 - 26 Dec 1882  Robert Cornelis Napier,            (b. 1810 - d. 1890)
                             Baron Napier of Magdala
26 Dec 1882 - 26 Oct 1886  Sir John Miller Adye               (b. 1819 - d. 1900)
26 Oct 1886 - 23 Aug 1890  Sir Arthur Edward Hardinge         (b. 1828 - d. 1892)
23 Aug 1890 - 27 Jan 1891  Sir Leicester Curzon Smyth         (b. 1829 - d. 1891)
27 Jan 1891 - 31 Mar 1891  Henry Richard Legge Newdigate      (b. 1828 - d. 1892)
                             (acting)
31 Mar 1891 - 27 Jun 1893  Sir Lothian Nicholson              (b. 1827 - d. 1893)
27 Jun 1893 -  7 Aug 1893  George Joseph Smart (acting)       (b. 1833 - d. 1897)
 7 Aug 1893 - 22 May 1900  Sir Robert Biddulph                (b. 1835 - d. 1918)
22 May 1900 -  1 Aug 1905  Sir George Stuart White            (b. 1835 - d. 1912)
 1 Aug 1905 - 30 Jul 1910  Sir Frederick William Edward       (b. 1844 - d. 1910)
                             Forestier-Walker 
30 Jul 1910 - 11 Jul 1913  Sir Archibald Hunter               (b. 1856 - d. 1936)
11 Jul 1913 -  9 Jul 1918  Sir Herbert Scott Gould Miles      (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
 9 Jul 1918 - 26 May 1923  Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien  (b. 1858 - d. 1930)
26 May 1923 - 13 Aug 1928  Sir Charles Carmichael Monro       (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
13 Aug 1928 - 13 May 1933  Sir Alexander John Godley          (b. 1867 - d. 1957)
13 May 1933 - 12 Aug 1938  Sir Charles Harington Harington    (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
12 Aug 1938 - 11 Jul 1939  Sir William Edmund Ironside        (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
11 Jul 1939 - 14 May 1941  Sir Clive Gerard Liddell           (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
14 May 1941 - 31 May 1942  John Standish Surtees Prendergast  (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
                             Vereker, Viscount Gort 
31 May 1942 - 14 Feb 1944  Frank Noel Mason-MacFarlane        (b. 1889 - d. 1953)
                             (from 6 Aug 1943, Sir Frank Noel Mason-MacFarlane)
14 Feb 1944 -  8 Feb 1947  Sir Thomas Ralph Eastwood          (b. 1890 - d. 1959)
 8 Feb 1947 - 23 Apr 1952  Sir Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson   (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
23 Apr 1952 -  6 May 1955  Sir George Holmes Alexander        (b. 1897 - d. 1986)
                             MacMillan of MacMillan and Knap
 6 May 1955 - 16 Apr 1958  Sir Harold Redman                  (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
16 Apr 1958 -  8 Jun 1962  Sir Charles Frederic Keightley     (b. 1901 - d. 1974)
 8 Jun 1962 -  5 Aug 1965  Sir Alfred Dudley Ward             (b. 1905 - d. 1991)
 5 Aug 1965 - 10 Mar 1969  Sir Gerald William Lathbury        (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
10 Mar 1969 -  3 Oct 1973  Sir Varyl Cargill Begg             (b. 1908 - d. 1995)
 3 Oct 1973 - 30 May 1978  Sir John Grandy                    (b. 1913 - d. 2004)
30 May 1978 - 26 Oct 1982  Sir William Godfrey Fothergill     (b. 1917 - d. 1999)
                            
Jackson
26 Oct 1982 - 19 Nov 1985  Sir David Williams                 (b. 1921 - d. 2012)
19 Nov 1985 -  1 Dec 1989  Sir Peter David George Terry       (b. 1926 - d. 2017)
 
1 Dec 1989 - Apr 1993     Sir Derek Roy Reffell              (b. 1928)
Apr 1993 -  5 Dec 1995     Sir John Lyon Chapple              (b. 1931)
 5 Dec 1995 - 19 Feb 1997  Sir Hugo Moresby White             (b. 1939 - d. 2014)
24 Feb 1997 -  5 Apr 2000  Sir Richard Napier Luce            (b. 1936)
 5 Apr 2000 - 16 May 2003  David Robert Campbell Durie        (b. 1944)
                             (from 1 Jan 2003, Sir David Robert Campbell Durie) 
16 May 2003 - 27 May 2003  David Blunt (acting)               (b. 1953)
27 May 2003 - 17 Jul 2006  Sir Francis Neville Richards       (b. 1945)
17 Jul 2006 - 27 Sep 2006  Philip Robert Barton (acting)      (b. 1963)
27 Sep 2006 - 21 Oct 2009  Sir Robert Henry Gervase Fulton    (b. 1948)
21 Oct 2009 - 26 Oct 2009  Lesley Pallett (f)(acting)
26 Oct 2009 - 13 Nov 2013  Sir Adrian James Johns             (b. 1951)
13 Nov 2013 -  6 Dec 2013  Alison Flora MacMillan (f)         (b. 1961?)
                             (1st time)(acting)
 6 Dec 2013 - 28 Sep 2015  Sir James "Jim" Benjamin Dutton    (b. 1954)
28 Sep 2015 - 19 Jan 2016 
Alison Flora MacMillan (f)         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
19 Jan 2016 -
18 Feb 2020  Edward "Ed" Grant Martin Davis     (b. 1963)
18 Feb 2020 -
11 Jun 2020  Nicholas "Nick" John Pyle (acting) (b. 1960)
11 Jun 2020 -              Sir David George Steel             (b. 1961)


Chief ministers

11 Aug 1964 -  6 Aug 1969  Sir Joshua Abraham Hassan          (b. 1915 - d. 1997)  AACR
                             (1st time)
 6 Aug 1969 - 25 Jun 1972  Robert "Bob" John Peliza           (b. 1920 - d. 2011)  IWBP
25 Jun 1972 -  8 Dec 1987  Sir Joshua Abraham Hassan          (s.a.)               GLP-AACR
                             (2nd time)
 8 Dec 1987 - 25 Mar 1988  Adolfo John Canepa                 (b. 1940)            GLP-AACR
25 Mar 1988 - 17 May 1996  Joseph "Joe" John Bossano          (b. 1939)            GSLP
17 May 1996 -  9 Dec 2011  Peter Richard Caruana              (b. 1956)            GSD
 9 Dec 2011 -              Fabian Raymond Picardo             (b. 1972)            GSLP

Territorial Dispute: In 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the U.K. and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproves of U.K. plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; after voters in the U.K. chose to leave the EU in a Jun 2016 referendum, Spain again proposed shared sovereignty of Gibraltar, U.K. officials rejected Spain's joint sovereignty proposal.

Party abbreviations: GSD = Gibraltar Social Democrats (social-democratic, center-right, est.1989); GSLP = Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party (social-democratic, est.1978); 
- Former parties: AACR = Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (center-right, civic nationalist, 1942-1969, from 1969, GLP-AACR); GLP-AACR = Gibraltar Labour Party-Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (center-right, civil nationalist, populist, 1969-1992, AACR merged with Gibraltar Labour Party in 1969); IWBP = Integration with Britain Party (pro-integration with UK, right-wing, workers' rights, 1967-1978)







© Ben Cahoon