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Spain
 
[Kingdom of Castile and Leon,
                                1230-1516 (Spain)]
Castile and León 1230 - 1516
[Burgundy Cross
                                Flag, Banner of Spain, 1506-1785
                                (Spain)]
Banner of Spain 1506 - 1665,
Civil Ensign 1665 - 28 May 1785
[Spain State
                                flag 1580-1700]
1580 - 24 Nov 1700
[Spain State
                                flag 1700-1785]
24 Nov 1700 - 28 May 1785
[Spain State
                                flag Felipe V variant 1701-1746]
1701 - 1746 Variant
[Spain State flag
                                Carlos III Variant 1761-1785]
1761 - 28 May 1785 Variant
[Spanish State and War flag
                                  1785-1873, 1874-1931]
28 May 1785 - 11 Feb 1873,
29 Dec 1874 - 27 Apr 1931

[Spanish
                                  Merchant Ensign 1785-1927]
1785 - 31 Dec 1927 Merchant Ensign
[Spanish
                                  Republic State flag 1873-1874]
11 Feb 1873 - 29 Dec 1874
[Spanish
                                  Republic 1931-1939 state and war flag
                                  (Spain)]
27 Apr 1931 - 31 Mar 1939 (Republic)
[Spanish State
                                1936-1938 (Nationalist)]
29 Aug 1936 - 2 Feb 1938 (Nationalist)
[Spanish State,
                                State and War Flag 1938-1945 (Spain)]
2 Feb 1938 - 11 Oct 1945 (Nationalist)
[State and War
                                Flag and War Ensign 1945-1977 (Spain)]
11 Oct 1945 - 21 Jan 1977
[Spain flag
                                1977-1981]
21 Jan 1977 - 28 Oct 1981
[Spain]
Adopted 28 Oct 1981
Map of Spain
Hear National Anthem
"Himno Nacional Español"
(or "Marcha Real"

[Royal March])
Text of National Anthem
3 Sep 1770-1822, 1823-9 Dec 1931,
Re-adopted Jul 1942
Constitution
 (29 Dec 1978)
Spanish Civil
War Map
Former National Anthem
"Himno de Riego"
(Riego's Anthem)
(7 Apr 1822-28 Jan 1823,
9 Dec 1931-1 Apr 1939)

Republic Constitution
(1931-1939; in Spanish)
Former Constitutions
(1808, 1812, 1837, 1845,
1869, 1876, 1938)
Capital: Madrid
(Burgos 1073-1492;
Valladolid 1492-1561,1601-1604;
Republic: Valencia
Nov 1936-Oct 1937;
Barcelona Oct 1937-1939;
Nationalists: Burgos
Jul 1936- Oct 1939)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1868-1 Jan 2002: Spanish
 
Peseta (ESP); 1936-1939
 Spanish Nationalist Peseta
(ESPN);
1595-1868 Spanish
Escudo (ESE)

National Holiday: 12 Oct (1492)
Fiesta Nacional de España
(National Day)
(1958-87 Día de la Hispanidad)

Population: 50,015,792 (2019)
GDP: $1.78 trillion (2017)
Exports: $313.7 billion (2017)
Imports: $338.6 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Spanish 86.4%, Moroccan 1.8%,
Romanian 1.3%, other 10.5% (2018)

Total Active Armed Forces: 121,200 (2018)
U.S. Military Forces: 3,607 (2018)
Merchant marine
: 119 ships (2019)
Religions: Roman Catholic 68.9%, atheist 11.3%, agnostic 7.6%,
other 2.8%, non-believer 8.2%, unspecified 1.1% (2019)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, AIIB (nonregional), ANT (consultative), APM, BCIE (nonregional), BIS, BTWC, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CCM, CD, CE, CERN, CFE, CPLP (associate observer), CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Euratom, Eutelsat, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), LU, MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OS, OSCE, OST, PA (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SEGIB, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Spain Index
Chronology
 
218 BC - 456 AD            Part of Roman Empire as Provincia Hispania (in 197
                             BC divided into Hispania Citerior and Hispania
                             Ulterior. From 27 BC, Hispania Ulterior Baetica,
                             Hispania Ulterior Lusitania and Hispania Citerior
                             [or Tarraconensis]; from 314, Dioecesis Hispania).
456 - 711                  Part of Visigothic Kingdom (Regnum Visigothorum).
552 - 624                  Andalusia (Provincia Spaniae) part of the Eastern
                             Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
19 Jul 711                 Muslim conquest of the Iberian peninsula begun
                            (Toledo and Córdoba fall in 711, Seville in 712,
                             Jaén in 713, Pamplona in 714 (to 755), Zaragoza
                             in 714, and Barcelona in 719); named al-Andalus.
718                        Kingdom founded at Galicia/Asturias (see León).
756 - 929                  Emirate of Córdoba (Imarat Qurtubah), within the
                             Umayyad Caliphate,
rules most of Iberia.
c.790 - 817                Hispanic Marches (Marca Hispanica) part of the
                             Frankish kingdom.   
c.850                      County of Castile, within Galicia/Asturias.

10 Dec 910                 Kingdom of León (Regnum Legionense/Reino de León).
929 - 1031                 Caliphate of Córdoba in most of Iberia.
13 May 1029 - 18 Oct 1035  Castile part of Kingdom of Pamplona (Navarra).
18 Oct 1035                Counties of Castile and Aragón become independent
                             kingdoms; Kingdom of Castile (Regnum Castellae/
                             Reino de Castilla).
 4 Sep 1037 - 27 Dec 1065  Castile annexes León.
1040 - Apr 1147            Almoravid Caliphate rules southern Iberia.
12 Jan 1072 - 21 Aug 1157  Castile in personal union with León.
25 May 1085                Toledo annexed by Castile.
1147 - 1248                Almohad Caliphate rules southern Iberia.
24 Sep 1230                León inherited by Castile, both are reunited.
 7 Feb 1236                Córdoba annexed by Castile. 
28 Feb 1246                Jaén annexed by Castile.
23 Nov 1248                Sevilla annexed by Castile.
 2 Feb 1266                Murcia annexed by Castile (vassal from 1243; in
                             rebellion 1264-1266; under Aragón 1296-1304).
26 Mar 1344                Algeciras annexed by Castile.
23 Mar 1369 - 23 Jan 1516  Castile under the Trastámara dynasty.
19 Jan 1479                Accession of Fernando II of Aragón, who is also                              married to Ysabel I, Queen of Castile.

 2 Jan 1492                Annexation of Granada, end of the Reconquista
                             (reconquest of Iberia).
Dec 1499 - Apr 1501        First Alpujarras "Morisco" revolt.
25 Jul 1512                Navarra annexed by Castile and Aragon.
23 Jan 1516 -  1 Nov 1700  Under the Habsburg (Habsburgo) dynasty.
16 Jan 1556                Spanish Monarchy¹ ([Monarquía Española] dated
                             conventionally to the accession of Felipe II; the
                             term España and Las Españas acquire Constitutional
                             standing only in 1808), consisting of the crown
                             of Castile, the crown of Aragon and the Kingdom
                             of Navarra.
24 Dec 1568 - Mar 1571     Second Alpujarras "Morisco" revolt.
27 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Portugal in personal union with Spain.
16 Nov 1700 -  6 May 1808  Under the Borbón (Capet) dynasty.
 9 Jun 1715                Constitutional abolition of the crown of Castile
                             (the separate crown of Aragón already abolished
                             on 15 Jul 1707).
24 Mar 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  French occupation.
 6 May 1808                The kings of the Borbón dynasty abdicate in favor
                             of Napoléon I, emperor of the French and king 
                             of Italy.
 6 Jun 1808                Napoléon I proclaims his brother Joseph Napoléon,
                             king of the Two Sicilies, as king of Spain
                             (the kingdom is referred to as Las Españas in
                             the Napoleonic constitution of 6 Jul 1808).
 2 Feb 1812 -  1 Dec 1813  Catalonia annexed to France.
19 Mar 1812                Spanish Monarchy (Monarquía Española), the first
                             effective constitution of Spain, adopted by the
                             "Resistance" (see below).
11 Dec 1813                Borbón (Capet) dynasty restored.
 7 Apr 1823 -  1 Oct 1823  French intervention against the Constitutionalists
                             on behalf of Fernando VII (French depart Nov
                             1828).
11 Feb 1873                ("First") Spanish Republic (República Española).
12 Jul 1873 - 12 Jan 1874  The Cantonal revolt in Andalusia, Murcia and
                             Valencia and other parts of Spain.
29 Dec 1874                Spanish Monarchy (Monarquía Española)(restored).
14 Apr 1931 -  1 Apr 1939  ("Second") Spanish Republic (República Española).
17 Jul 1936 -  1 Apr 1939  Civil war (Burgos rallies to Nationalists 18 Jul
                             1936, Bilbao falls 19 Jun 1937, Barcelona on 26
                             Jan 1939, and Madrid on 28 Mar 1939).
24 Jul 1936                Spanish State (Estado Español)(in opposition to
                             1 Apr 1939).
28 Jul 1947                Spain declared to be a kingdom ("El Estado español
                             se constituye en reino").
29 Dec 1978                Spain (España); in frequent unofficial use: Kingdom
                             of Spain [Reino de España]).
 1 Nov 1993                Part of European Union (1986-93 European Community).
Autonomous
Communities
Canary Islands
Aragón
(c.800-1840)
Catalonia
(c.801-1875)
Baleares
(1275-1808)
Valencia
(1094-1808)
León
(718-1808)
Galicia
(910-1479,
1846)
Navarra
(824-1875)
Minorca
(1708-1802)
The "Resistance"
(1808-1814)
Carlist
Governments

(1833-1839,
 1871-1876)
Republic in Exile
(1939-1977)
Canton Revolts
(1873-1874)
Historical Maps
of Spain
 

Note: The dates of the rulers of the intermittent Carlist insurrections correspond to the
actual presence of the rulers or their forces in the territory of the Spanish Monarchy.


Counts in Castile (title comes in Castella)(Spanish names with Latin in parentheses)
c.850 -  4 Oct 873         Rodrigo (Rudericus)                (b. 82. - d. 873)
 4 Oct 873 - 31 Jan 885    Diego Rodríguez (Didacus Rudericis)(b. 84. - d. 885)
31 Jan 885 - c.897         Vacant
c.897 - 910                Muño Muñoz (Munius Muniz)          (b. 86. - d. 91.) 
91. - c.916                Gonzalo Fernández                  (b. 88. - d. 91.)
                            
(Gundisalvus Fredinandis)
c.916 - c.929              Fernando Ansúrez                  
(b. 88. - d. 93.)
                            
(Fredinandus Assuris)
c.920 - c.92.              Nuño Fernández
(Nunnus Fredinandis)(b. 89. - d. af.932)
929 - Jun 970              Fernаndo González "el Buen Conde"  (b. 91. - d. 970)
                             (Fredinandus Gundisalvis)       

Jun 970 - 30 Dec 995       García Fernández "Manos Blancas"   (b. 93. - d. 995)
                             (Garsea Fredinandis)
29 Dec 995 -  5 Feb 101
7   Sancho Garcéz "los Buenos Fueros"  (b. c.965 - d. 1017)
                             (Sancius Garceis)
 5 Feb 1017 - 13 May 1029  García Sánchez "el Infante"        (b. 1009 - d. 102
9)
                             
(Garsea Sanciis)
13 May 1029 - 18 Oct 1035  part of Pamplona (see Navarra)

Kings of Castile²

18 Oct 1035 - 27 Dec 1065  Fernando I "el Magno"              (b. c.1016 - d. 1065)
                            
(Fredenandus I)
27 Dec 1065 -  7 Oct 1072  Sancho II "el Fuerte" (Sancius II) (b. c.1038 - d. 1072)

 7 Oct 1072 - 30 Jun 1109  Alfonso VI "el Bravo"              (b. c.1040 - d. 1109)

                            
(Aldefonsus VI)
                             (from c.1077, also uses style imperator totius Hispaniae)
30 Jun 1109 -  8 Mar 1126  Urraca -
Queen                      (b. 1080 - d. 1126)
 9 Mar 1126 - 21 Aug 1157  Alfonso VII "el Emperador"         (b. 1105 - d. 1157)
                             (Aldefonsus VII)
                             (co-ruler in Galicia
from 17 Sep 1111)
                            
(from 1135, also uses style imperator totius Hispaniae)
21 Aug 1157 - 31 Aug 1158  Sancho III "el Deseado"
           (b. 1134 - d. 1158)
31 Aug 1158 -  5 Oct 1214  Alfonso VIII "el Noble"            (b. 1155 - d. 1214)
31 Aug 1158 - 1159         Gutierre Fernándiz de              (b. 1080 - d. 1165)
                             Castro -Regent     
1159 - 16 Dec 1160         García Garcés de Aza -Regent       (b. 1106 - d. 1160)
16 Dec 1160 -  9 Jul 1164  Manrique Périz, conde de           (b. 1110? - d. 1164)
                             Lara -Regent  
 9 Jul 1164 - 18 Nov 1169  Fernando de León e Galicia -Regent (b. 1137 - d. 1188)
 6 Oct 1214 -  6 Jun 1217  Enrique I                          (b. 1204 - d. 1217)   
 6 Oct 1214 - 25 Oct 1214  Leonor de Plantagenet (f) -Regent  (b. 1162 - d. 1214)
25 Oct 1214 -  6 Jun 1217  Berenguela de Castilla (f) -Regent (b. 1180 - d. 1246)
May 1215 -  6 Jun 1217     Alvaro Nuñez de Lara, conde de     (b. 1147 - d. 1219)
                             Lara -Regent (in rebellion) 
 6 Jun 1217 - 31 Aug 1217  Berenguela "la Gran" -Queen        (s.a.)
31 Aug 1217 - 30 May 1252  Fernando III "el Santo"            (b. 1201 - d. 1252)
30 May 1252 -  4 Apr 1284  Alfonso X "el Sabio"               (b. 1221 - d. 1284)
 4 Apr 1284 - 25 Apr 1295  Sancho IV "el Bravo"               (b. 1258 - d. 1295)
25 Apr 1295 -  7 Sep 1312  Fernando IV "el Emplazado"         (b. 1285 - d. 1312) 
25 Apr 1295 - Feb 1302    
Regents
                           - María de Molina y Mesa (f)       (b. 1264? - d. 1321)
                           - Enrique de Castilla y León,      (b. 1230 - d. 1303)
                              señor de Écija
21 Jan 1296 -  8 Aug 1304  Alfonso de la Cerda                (b. 1270 - d. 1324)
                             (in rebellion [in León])  
1296 - 26 Jun 1300         Juan de Castilla y León, señor     (b. 1260 - d. 1319)
                             de Valencia (in rebellion)      
 7 Sep 1312 - 26 Mar 1350  Alfonso XI "el Justiciero"         (b. 1311 - d. 1350)

                             (also uses style emperador de España)
 7 Sep 1312 - 13 Aug 1325 
Regents
                           - Pedro de Castilla y Molina       (b. 1290 - d. 1319)
                           - Juan de Castilla y León, señor   (s.a.) 
                               de Valencia
                           - María de Molina y Mesa (f)       (s.a.)

                               (to 1 Jul 1321)
                           - Constanza de Portugal y          (b. 1290 - d. 1313)
                               Aragón (f) (to 18 Nov 1313)
                           - Juan de Castilla y León          (s.a.)
                               (to 25 Jun 1319)
                           - Pedro de Castilla y León, señor  (b. 1290 - d. 1319)
                               de los Cameros (to 25 Jun 1319)
                           - Juan de Castilla, señor de       (b. 129. - d. 1326)
                               Vizcaya
                              (25 Jun 1319 - 13 Aug 1325 [in León])

                           - Felipe, señor de Cabrera y Ribera(b. 1292 - d. 1327)
                              (25 Jun 1319 - 13 Aug 1325 [in Andaluçia])
                           - Juan Manuel, señor de Peñafiel   (b. 1282 - d. 1348)
                              (1 Jul 1321 - 13 Aug 1325 [in Castile])
26 Mar 1350 - 23 Mar 1369  Pedro "el Cruel"                   (b. 1334 - d. 1369)
 
5 Apr 1366 - 23 Mar 1369  Enrique, conde de Trastámara       (b. 1334 - d. 1379)
                             (in rebellion)
23 Mar 1369 - 29 May 1379  Enrique II "el Bastardo"           (s.a.)

                             (= conde de Trastámara)
29 May 1379 -  9 Oct 1390  Juan I                             (b. 1358 - d. 1390)
Dec 1383 - Sep 1384        Regents
                           - Alfonso de Aragón y Foix,        (b. 1332 - d. 1412)
                               marqués de Villena       
                           - Pedro Tenorio, arzobispo de      (b. c.1328 - d. 1399)
                               de Toledo               
                           - Pedro González de Mendoza        (b. c.1340 - d. 1385)
 9 Oct 1390 - 25 Dec 1406  Enrique III "el Infirme"           (b. 1376 - d. 1406)
 9 Oct 1390 -  2 Aug 1393  Johan García Manrrique,
arzobispo  (b. 133. - d. 1416)
                             de Santiago -Regent
25 Dec 1406 - 21 Jul 1454  Juan II                            (b. 1405 - d. 1454)
25 Dec 1406 - 29 Nov 1420  Regents
                           - Fernando de Castilla y León,     (b. 1380 - d. 1416)
                               duque de Peñafiel (to 2 Apr 1416)
                           - Catalina de Lancáster (f)        (b. 1372 - d. 1418)
                               (to 2 Jun 1418)
                           - Sancho de Rojas, arzobispo de    (b. 1372 - d. 1422)
                               Toledo (2 Jun 1418 - 7 Mar 1419)
                           - Enrique de Castilla y León,      (b. 1400 - d. 1445)
                               duque Villena
                              (14 Jul 1420 - 29 Nov 1420)

21 Jul 1454 - 11 Dec 1474  Enrique IV "el Impotente"          (b. 1425 - d. 1474)
 5 Jun 1465 -  5 Jul 1468 
Alfonso da Castilla "el Inocente"  (b. 1453 - d. 1468)
                             (in rebellion)
11 Dec 1474 - 26 Nov 1504  Ysabel I "la Católica" -Queen      (b. 1451 - d. 1504)
                           - jointly with -
11 Dec 1474 - 26 Nov 1504  Fernando V da Aragón "el Católico" (b. 1452 - d. 1516)
                             (Fernando II, king of Aragón 20 Jan 1479 - 23 Jan 1516)
12 Dec 1474 -  4 Sep 1479  Juana de Castilla, princessa       (b. 1462 - d. 1530)
                             de Asturias (f) (in rebellion in
                             Toro; from 1476 in Portugal exile)

26 Nov 1504 - 12 Apr 1555  Juana "la Loca" -Queen             (b. 1479 - d. 1555)
                             (queen of Aragon 23 Jan 1516 - 12 Apr 1555)
                          
- jointly with the following -
26 Nov 1504 - 12 Jul 1506  Fernando V de Aragón -Regent       (s.a.)
                             (1st time)(administrator and governor)
12 Jul 1506 - 25 Sep 1506  Felipe I "el Hermoso"              (b. 1478 - d. 1506)
                             (Philipp IV von Habsburg)
25 Sep 1506 - 21 Aug 1507  Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros,     (b. 1436 - d. 1517)
                             arzobispo de Toledo -Regent
                             (1st time)(governor)
21 Aug 1507 - 23 Jan 1516  Fernando V de Aragón -Regent       (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)(governor)
23 Jan 1516 -  8 Nov 1517  Francisco Jiménez de
Cisneros,     (s.a.)
                             arzobispo de Toledo -Regent
                             (2nd time)(governor)
23 Jan 1516 - 16 Jan 1556  Carlos I "el Emperador"            (b. 1500 - d. 1558)
                             (= Holy Roman Emperor Karl V 1519-1556)
Kings of the Spanish Monarchy²
16 Jan 1556 - 13 Sep 1598  Felipe II                          (b. 1527 - d. 1598)
13 Sep 1598 - 31 Mar 1621  Felipe III                         (b. 1578 - d. 1621)
31 Mar 1621 - 17 Sep 1665  Felipe IV                          (b. 1605 - d. 1665)
17 Sep 1665 -  1 Nov 1700  Carlos II "el Hechizado"           (b. 1661 - d. 1700)
17 Sep 1665 -  6 Nov 1675  Mariana de Austria (f) -Regent     (b. 1635 - d. 1696)
 1 Nov 1700 - 18 Feb 1701  Governing Board³
18 Feb 1701 - 15 Jan 1724  Felipe V (1st time)                (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
                            (proclaimed 16 Nov 1700, entered Spain 22 Jan 1701)
12 Sep 1703 - 25 Sep 1714  Carlos (III) (in rebellion)        (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                            (Holy Roman Emperor Karl VI 1711-1740)
                            (recognized at times in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia and
                             Balearic Is., present in Barcelona Oct 1705 - Sep 1711,
                             briefly entered Madrid Jun 1706 - Oct 1706 & Aug 1710 - Nov 1710)
27 Sep 1711 - Mar 1713     Regency (for Carlos in rebellion, in Barcelona)
                           - Elisabeth Christine von          (b. 1691 - d. 1750)
                              Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (f)
                           - Guido Wald Rüdiger, Graf von     (b. 1657 - d. 1737)
                              Starhemberg
15 Jan 1724 - 31 Aug 1724  Luis I                             (b. 1707 - d. 1724)
31 Aug 1724 -  6 Sep 1724  Juan Bautista de Orendain y        (b. 1683 - d. 1734)
                             Azpilgüeta (acting)
 6 Sep 1724 -  9 Jul 1746  Felipe V (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1746 - 10 Aug 1759  Fernando VI                        (b. 1713 - d. 1759)
10 Aug 1759 - 17 Oct 1759  Ricardo Wall y Devreux (acting)    (b. 1694 - d. 1777)
17 Oct 1759 - 14 Dec 1788  Carlos III                         (b. 1716 - d. 1788) 
                             (succeeded 18 Aug 1759; entered Spain 17 Oct 1759,
                             in Madrid from 9 Dec 1759)
14 Dec 1788 - 19 Mar 1808  Carlos IV                          (b. 1748 - d. 1819)
                             (continues in dissidence 21 Mar 1808 - 5 May 1808)
19 Mar 1808 -  6 May 1808  Fernando VII (1st time)            (b. 1784 - d. 1833)
 8 Apr 1808 -  7 May 1808  Antonio Pascual de Borbón          (b. 1755 - d. 1817)
                             (president of government junta)
 7 May 1808 - 20 Jul 1808  Joaquín Murat, gran duque de Berg  (b. 1767 - d. 1815)
                             y de Cleves 
                            (= Joachim Murat, grand-duc de Berg et de Clèves)
                            (lieutenant-general and governor of the realm)
 7 Jul 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  José I Napoleón                    (b. 1768 - d. 1844)
                            (appointed decree of Napoléon I on 6 Jun 1808,
                             arrived in Madrid 20 Jul 1808; in flight
                             in Spain [in Vitoria] 1 Aug 1808 - 22 Dec 1808 and
                             [in Valencia] 16 Aug 1812 - 2 Nov 1812; left Spain 28 Jun 1813)
29 Jul 1808 - 22 Jan 1809  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (b. 1768 - d. 1817)
22 Jun 1809 - 15 Aug 1809  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
18 Nov 1809 - 14 May 1810  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
23 Apr 1811 - 15 Jul 1811  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
20 Jul 1812 -  2 Dec 1812  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
17 Mar 1813 - 11 Dec 1813  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga -Regent  (s.a.)
12 Jul 1813 - 11 Dec 1813  Nicolás Juan de Dios Soult,        (b. 1769 - d. 1851)
                             duque de Dalmacia -Regent
                            (= Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie)
                            (lieutenant-general)
25 Sep 1808 - 10 May 1814  the Supreme Governing Junta
                           (in opposition to José I Napoleón)
11 Dec 1813 - 29 Sep 1833  Fernando VII (2nd time)            (s.a.) 
                            (prisoner in Valençay, France 18 May 1808 - 11 Dec 1813;
                             returns 22 Mar 1814, regency dissolved 10 May 1814;
                        captive of revolutionaries 11 Jun 1823 - 1 Oct 1823)
                           Set up by the Cortes:
11 Jun 1823 - 15 Jun 1823  Provisional Regency
                           (for "morally incapacitated" Fernando VII)
                           - Cayetano Valdés y Flores Bazán   (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
                               (president)
                           - Gabriel de Císcar y Císcar       (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
                           - Gaspar de Vigodet                (b. 1747 - d. 1834)
                           Set up by the invading Powers:
 9 Apr 1823 - 26 May 1823  Francisco Ramón de Eguía Letona    (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
                            (President of the Provisional Government Junta)
26 May 1823 -  1 Oct 1823  Pedro de Alcántara de Toledo y     (b. 1768 - d. 1841)
                             Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado
                            (President of the Regency)
Queen² 
29 Sep 1833 - 30 Sep 1868  Isabel II                          (b. 1830 - d. 1904)
29 Sep 1833 - 12 Oct 1840  Queen María Cristina -Regent       (b. 1806 - d. 1878)
 1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839  Carlos V -King                     (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
                            (Carlist insurrection)
12 Oct 1840 - 23 Jul 1843  Joaquín Baldomero Fernández        (b. 1792 - d. 1879)  Mil
                             Espartero, conde de Luchana
                             (president of the Provisional Regency 
                             to 10 May 1841; from 10 May 1841, regent;
                             continuing in dissidence to 30 Jul 1843)
30 Jul 1843 - 10 Nov 1843  Joaquín María de la Asunción López (b. 1798 - d. 1855)  PM
                             y López (president of the [Provisional]
                             Government acting as regent)
 2 Apr 1860 - 1860         Carlos VI -King                    (b. 1818 - d. 1861)
                            (Carlist insurrection)
Presidents of the Provisional Revolutionary Junta
(from 5 Oct 1868, Revolutionary Superior Junta) of Madrid
30 Sep 1868 -  3 Oct 1868  Pascual Madoz e Ibáñez             (b. 1806 - d. 1870)
 3 Oct 1868 -  8 Oct 1868  Joaquín Aguirre de la Peña         (b. 1807 - d. 1869)
President of the Provisional Government
 8 Oct 1868 - 18 Jun 1869  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (b. 1810 - d. 1885)  PL 
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio 
                            (from 25 Feb 1869, President of the Executive Power)
Kings²
18 Jun 1869 -  2 Jan 1871  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               PL
                             duque de la Torre, conde de
                              San Antonio -Regent 
  2 Jan 1870 - 11 Feb 1873  Amadeo I                           (b. 1845 - d. 1890)
 2 May 1872 - 28 Feb 1876  Carlos VII                         (b. 1848 - d. 1909) 
                            (Carlist insurrection)
Presidents of the Executive Power
11 Feb 1873 - 12 Feb 1873  Blas Nicolás María Rivero          (b. 1813/14-d. 1878)
                             (president of the National Assembly)
12 Feb 1873 - 24 Feb 1873  Estanislao Figueras y Moragas      (b. 1819 - d. 1882)  PD
                             (1st time) 
24 Feb 1873                Cristino Martos Balbi              (b. 1830 - d. 1893)
                             (president of the National Assembly)
24 Feb 1873 - 11 Jun 1873  Estanislao Figueras y Moragas      (s.a.)               PD
                             (2nd time) 
11 Jun 1873 - 18 Jul 1873  Francisco Pi y Margall             (b. 1824 - d. 1901)  PRF 
18 Jul 1873 -  7 Sep 1873  Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso          (b. 1838 - d. 1908)  PRF
 7 Sep 1873 -  3 Jan 1874  Emilio Manuel Castelar Ripoll      (b. 1832 - d. 1899)  PR
 3 Jan 1874 - 30 Dec 1874  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               PLC
                             duque de la Torre, conde de
                             San Antonio 
30 Dec 1874 - 31 Dec 1874  Fernando Primo de Rivera y         (b. 1831 - d. 1921)  Mil
                             Sobremonte (acting)
Kings²
31 Dec 1874 - 25 Nov 1885  Alfonso XII "el Pacificador"       (b. 1857 - d. 1885)
                             (in exile to 9 Jan 1875)
31 Dec 1874 - 14 Jan 1875  Antonio Cánovas del                (b. 1828 - d. 1897)  PLC
                             Castillo -Regent
25 Nov 1885 - 17 May 1886  Queen María Cristina -Regent       (b. 1858 - d. 1929)
17 May 1886 - 14 Apr 1931  Alfonso XIII                       (b. 1886 - d. 1941)
17 May 1886 - 16 May 1902  Queen María Cristina -Regent       (s.a.)
Presidents of the (until 30 Jul 1931, Provisional) Government of the Republic
14 Apr 1931 - 14 Oct 1931  Niceto Alcalá-Zamora Torres        (b. 1877 - d. 1949)  PL
14 Oct 1931 - 11 Dec 1931  Manuel Azaña y Díaz                (b. 1880 - d. 1940)  AR
Presidents (from 24 Jul 1936, only in Republican zone)
11 Dec 1931 -  7 Apr 1936  Niceto Alcalá-Zamora Torres        (s.a.)               DLR
 8 Apr 1936 - 11 May 1936  Diego Martínez Barrio (interim)    (b. 1883 - d. 1962)  UR
11 May 1936 -  3 Mar 1939  Manuel Azaña y Díaz                (s.a.)               IR
                             (from 5 Feb 1939, in France exile)
 5 Feb 1939 -  4 Mar 1939  Juan Negrín López                  (b. 1892 - d. 1936)  PSOE
                             (acting for Azaña)
President of the National Defense Council (in Republican zone)
 5 Mar 1939 - 31 Mar 1939  José Miaja Menant                  (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  Mil
                             (from 26 Mar 1939, in France exile)
26 Mar 1939 - 31 Mar 1939  Segismundo Casado López            (b. 1893 - d. 1968)  Mil
                             (acting for Menant)
President of the National Defense Junta of Spain (in Nationalist zone)
24 Jul 1936 -  1 Oct 1936  Miguel Cabanellas Ferrer           (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Mil
Head of state (to 27 Mar 1939, only in Nationalist zone)
 1 Oct 1936 - 20 Nov 1975  Francisco Franco Bahamonde         (b. 1892 - d. 1975)  Mil+FET
                             (personal style Caudillo de España [Leader of Spain])
19 Jul 1974 -  2 Sep 1974  Prince Juan Carlos de Borbón       (b. 1938)            Non-party
                             (1st time)(acting for Franco)
30 Oct 1975 - 20 Nov 1975  Prince Juan Carlos de Borbón       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)(acting for Franco)
President of the Regency Council
20 Nov 1975 - 22 Nov 1975  Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel   (b. 1917 - d. 1976)  FET
                             y Nebreda
Kings²
22 Nov 1975 - 19 Jun 2014  Juan Carlos I                      (s.a.)
19 Jun 2014 -              Felipe VI                          (b. 1968)


First Secretaries of State (
Primeros Secretarios de Estado)
24 Oct 1529 – 10 May 1547  Francisco de los Cobos y Molina    (b. c.1477 – d. 1547)
10 May 1547 -  6 Feb 1556  Juan Vázquez de Molina             (b. c.1500 – d. 1570)    
 6 Feb 1556 - 26 Apr 1566  Gonzalo Pérez y Hierro             (b. c.1500 – d. 1566)
26 Apr 1566 –  8 Dec 1566  Francisco de Eraso y Hermosa       (b. 1507 – d. 1570)
                             (acting)    
 8 Dec 1566 - 17 Jul 1567  Gabriel de Zayas (1st time)(acting)(b. 1526 - d. 1593)
17 Jul 1567 - 27 Jul 1579  Antonio Pérez y Escobar            (b. 1534 – d. 1611)
27 Jul 1579 - 11 Sep 1579  Gabriel de Zayas (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
11 Sep 1579 - 31 Dec 1586  Juan de Idiáquez y Olazábal        (b. 1540 - d. 1614)
31 Dec 1586 -  5 May 1591  Mateo Vázquez de Leca              (b. 1542 – d. 1591)
 5 May 1591 – 13 Sep 1598  Francisco de Idiáquez              (b. 15.. - d. 1608)    
First Ministers and Favorites (Primeros Ministros y Validos)
13 Sep 1598 -  4 Oct 1618  Francisco Gómez de Sándoval y
                             Borja, duque de Lerma            (b. 1553 – d. 1625)
 4 Oct 1618 - 31 Mar 1621  Cristóbal Gómez de Sándoval y de
                             la Cerda, duque de Uceda         (b. 1577 – d. 1624)
31 Mar 1621 -  7 Oct 1622  Baltasar de Zúñiga y de Velasco    (b. 1561 – d. 1622)
 7 Oct 1622 - 17 Jan 1643  Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, conde
                             y duque de Olivares (from 5 Jan  (b. 1587 – d. 1645)
                             1625) y duque de Sanlúcar
17 Jan 1643 - 17 Nov 1661  Luis Méndez de Haro y Guzmán,      (b. 1598 – d. 1661)
                             (from Oct 1644) duque de Olivares
                             (from 12 Apr 1660, duque de Montoro)
17 Nov 1661 - 17 Sep 1665  First Counselors of the Realm
                           - Ramiro Núñez de Guzmán y Álvarez (b. 159. – d. 1668)
                              de Asturias, duque de Medina
                              de las Torres
                           - Baltasar Cardenal Moscoso y      (b. 1589 - d. 1665)
                              Sandoval, arzobispo de Toledo
                           - García de Avellaneda y Haro,     (b. 1588 - d. 1670)
                              conde de Castrillo
17 Sep 1665 –  6 Nov 1675  Governors of the Realm
                           (Junta for Universal Government of the Monarchy)
                           - García de Avellaneda y Haro,     (s.a.)
                              conde de Castrillo (to 24 Dec 1670)
                           - Christóbal Crespì de Valdaura y  (b. 1599 - d. 1671)
                              Brizuela (to 22 Feb 1671)
                           - Baltasar Cardenal Moscoso y      (s.a.)
                              Sandoval, arzobispo de Toledo
                              (to 17 Sep 1665)
                           - Pascual Cardenal de Aragón,      (b. 1626 - d. 1677)
                              arzobispo de Toledo
                           - Guillén Ramón de Montcada y de   (b. 1618 - d. 1670)
                              Alagón-Espés, marqués de Aytona
                              (to 17 Mar 1670)
                           - Gaspar de Bracamonte y Pacheco,  (b. 1596 - d. 1676)
                              conde de Peñaranda 
 6 Nov 1675 -  7 Nov 1675  Juan José de Austria (1st time)    (b. 1629 - d. 1679)
 7 Nov 1675 - 23 Jan 1677  Vacant                   
23 Jan 1677 - 17 Sep 1679  Juan José de Austria (2nd time)    (s.a.)
17 Sep 1679 - 22 Feb 1680  Vacant
22 Feb 1680 -  2 Jun 1685  Juan Francisco de la Cerda y       (b. 1637 - d. 1691)
                             Portocarrero, duque de Medinaceli              
 2 Jun 1685 - 24 Jun 1691  Manuel Joaquín Álvarez de Toledo   (b. 1642 - d. 1707)
                             y Zúñiga, conde de Oropesa
24 Apr 1691 - Feb 1698     Vacant 
Secretaries of the Universal Office (Secretarios del Despacho Universal)     
Feb 1698 - Feb 1705        Antonio Cristóbal de Ubilla y      (b. 1643 - d. 1726) 
                             y Medina, marqués de Rivas
Feb 1705 - 15 Apr 1714     Pedro Cayetano Fernández del       (b. 1656 - d. 1721)
                             Campo y Angulo, marqués de
                             Mejorada
23 Feb 1707 - 29 Dec 1713  Ramón Frederic de Vilana-Perlas y
                             Camarasa,
marqués de Rialp       (b. 1663 - d. 1741)
                            (for Carlos [III]; in rebellion in
                            
Barcelona, in exile from Mar 1713)
15 Apr 1714 - 30 Nov 1714  Manuel de Vadillo y Velasco        (b. 1659 - d. 1729)  

First Secretaries of State and of the Universal Office
(Primeros Secretarios de Estado y del Despacho Universal)
30 Nov 1714 - 14 Jan 1724  José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de    (b. 1660 - d. 1733)
                             Solórzano, marqués de Grimaldo
                             (1st time)
14 Jan 1724 -  4 Sep 1724  Juan Bautista de Orendain y        (b. 1683 - d. 1734)
                             Azpilgüeta (1st time)
 4 Sep 1724 - 12 Dec 1725  José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de    (s.a.)
                             Solórzano, marqués de Grimaldo
                             (2nd time)
12 Dec 1725 - 14 May 1726  Juan Guillermo de Ripperdá,        (b. 1680 - d. 1737)
                             duque de Ripperdá
14 May 1726 -  1 Oct 1726  José de Grimadlo y Gutiérez de     (s.a.)
                             Solórzano, marqués de Grimaldo 
                             (3rd time)
 1 Oct 1726 -  3 Nov 1734  Juan Bautista de Orendain y        (s.a.)     
                             Azpilgüeta, marqués de la Paz 
                             (2nd time)
 3 Nov 1734 -  3 Nov 1736  José de Patiño y Rosales           (b. 1666 - d. 1736)
 3 Nov 1736 -  4 Dec 1746  Sebastián de la Cuadra y de        (b. 1687 - d. 1766)
                             Llerena, marqués de Villarías
                             (acting to 6 Nov 1736)
 4 Dec 1746 -  8 Apr 1754  José de Carvajal y Lancaster       (b. 1698 - d. 1754)
 8 Apr 1754 - 17 May 1754  Fernando de Silva y Álvarez de     (b. 1714 - d. 1776)  Mil 
                             Toledo, duque de Huéscar (acting)
17 May 1754 -  9 Oct 1763  Ricardo Wall y Devreux             (b. 1694 - d. 1778)  Mil
 9 Oct 1763 - 25 Feb 1777  Pablo Jerónimo de Grimaldi y       (b. 1706 - d. 1789)
                             Pallavicini
25 Feb 1777 - 28 Feb 1792  José Moñino y Redondo, conde       (b. 1728 - d. 1808)
                             de Floridablanca
28 Feb 1792 - 15 Nov 1792  Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y      (b. 1719 - d. 1798)
                             Ximénez de Urrea, conde de
                             Aranda (acting)
15 Nov 1792 - 28 Mar 1798  Manuel de Godoy y Álvarez de       (b. 1767 - d. 1851)  Mil
                             Faría, duque de Alcudia, (from
                             27 Sep 1795) príncipe de la Paz
28 Mar 1798 - 13 Aug 1798  Francisco Saavedra y Sangronis     (b. 1746 - d. 1819)
                             (1st time) (acting)
13 Aug 1798 - 22 Oct 1798  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga          (s.a.)
                             (1st time) (acting)
22 Oct 1798 - 21 Feb 1799  Francisco Saavedra y Sangronis     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
21 Feb 1799 - 13 Dec 1800  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
13 Dec 1800 -  7 Jul 1808  Pedro Félix Cevallos y Guerra de   (b. 1759 - d. 1839)
                             la Vega (1st time)
 9 Apr 1808 -  2 Jun 1808  Francisco Gil y Lemus              (b. 1733 - d. 1810)  Mil
                             (acting for Cevallos)
 2 Jun 1808 -  7 Jul 1808  Eusebio Bardají y Azara            (b. 1776 - d. 1742)
                             (acting for Cevallos)
Minister Secretary of State (Ministro Secretariao de Estado)
 7 Jul 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  Mariano de Urquijo y Muga          (s.a.)
First Secretaries of State (Primeros Secretarios de Estado)
 6 Dec 1813 - 10 May 1814  José de Luyando y Diez Pueyo       (b. 1773 - d. 1835)  Mil
                             (1st time) (acting)
10 May 1814 - 15 Nov 1814  José Miguel de Carvajal y Manrique,(b. 1771 - d. 1828)  Abs
                             duque de San Carlos 
15 Nov 1814 - 30 Oct 1816  Pedro Felix Cevallos y Guerra de   (s.a.)
                             la Vega (2nd time)
30 Oct 1816 - 14 Sep 1818  José García de León y Pizarro      (b. 1770 - d. 1835)  Abs
                             Ximenez de Frías
14 Sep 1818 - 12 Jun 1819  Carlos Martínez de Irujo Tacón,    (b. 1763 - d. 1824)  Abs
                             marqués de Casa-Irujo (1st time)
                             (acting)
12 Jun 1819 - 12 Sep 1819  Manuel González Salmón y Gómez     (b. 1778 - d. 1832)  Abs
                             de Torres (1st time) (acting)
12 Sep 1819 - 18 Mar 1820  Joaquín José Melgarejo Saurín,     (b. 1780 - d. 1835)  Abs
                             duque de San Fernando de Quiroga
18 Mar 1820                Juan Gabriel de Jabat y Aztal      (b. 1762 - d. 1825)  Lib
                             (acting)
18 Mar 1820 -  2 Mar 1821  Evaristo Pérez de Castro y Brito   (b. 1778 - d. 1848)  Lib
 2 Mar 1821 - 23 Apr 1821  Joaquín de Anduaga y Siles Cuenca  (b. 1783 - d. 1840)  Lib
                             (acting)
23 Apr 1821                Francisco Escudero y Ramíerz de    (b. 1764 - d. 1831)  Lib
                             Arellano (acting)
23 Apr 1821 -  8 Jan 1822  Eusebio Bardají y Azara (2nd time) (s.a.)               Lib
 8 Jan 1822 - 28 Feb 1822  Ramón López Pelegrín (acting)      (b. 1767 - d. 1841)  Lib
28 Feb 1822 -  5 Aug 1822  Francisco Martínez de la Rosa      (b. 1787 - d. 1862)  Mod
10 Jul 1822 - 11 Jul 1822  Santiago Usoz y Mozy (Moxí)        (b. 1781 - d. 1858)  Lib
                             (acting for de la Rosa)
11 Jul 1822 - 23 Jul 1822  Nicolás María Garelly y Battifora  (b. 1777 - d. 1850)  Lib
                             (acting for de la Rosa)
23 Jul 1822 -  5 Aug 1822  Santiago Usoz y Mozy (Moxí)        (s.a.)               Lib
                             (acting for de la Rosa)
 5 Aug 1822 - 25 Apr 1823  Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y    (b. 1785 - d. 1862)  Lib
                             Valledor
25 Apr 1823 -  7 May 1823  José Manuel de Vadillo y Hernández (b. 1777 - d. 1858)  Lib
                             (acting)
 7 May 1823 - 13 May 1823  Santiago Usoz y Mozy (Moxí)(acting)(s.a.)               Lib
13 May 1823 - 27 May 1823  José María Pando y Remírez de      (b. 1787 - d. 1840)  Lib
                             Laredo
27 May 1823 -  7 Aug 1823  Antonio de Vargas y Laguna         (b. 1763 - d. 1824)  Abs
27 May 1823 -  2 Dec 1823  Víctor Damían Sáez y Sánchez Mayor (b. 1776 - d. 1839)  Abs
                             (acting [for Vargas] to 7 Aug 1823)
                             (counter-government to 1 Oct 1823)
19 Aug 1823 -  1 Oct 1823  Luis María de Salazar y Salazar    (b. 1758 - d. 1838)
                             (acting for Damían Sáez)
                             (counter-government)
29 Aug 1823 -  4 Sep 1823  Juan Antonio Yandiola Garay        (b. 1786 - d. 1830)  Lib
                             (acting)
 4 Sep 1823 - 30 Sep 1823  José de Luyando y Diez Pueyo       (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)
 2 Dec 1823 - 17 Jan 1824  Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón,  (s.a.)              
                             marqués de Casa-Irujo (2nd time)
25 Dec 1823 - 11 Jul 1824  Narciso de Heredia y Begines de    (b. 1775 - d. 1847)  Mod
                             los Ríos, conde de Ofalia
                             (acting [for duque de Sotomayor] to 17 Jan 1824)
11 Jul 1824                Luis María de Salazar y Salazar    (s.a.)
                             (acting) 
11 Jul 1824 - 24 Oct 1825  Francisco de Cea Bermúdez y Buzo   (b. 1779 - d. 1850)  Mod
                             (1st time) 
24 Oct 1825 - 19 Aug 1826  Pedro de Alcántara de Toledo y     (s.a.)               Mil
                             Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado
19 Aug 1826 - 20 Jan 1832  Manuel González Salmón y Gómez     (s.a.)               Abs
                             de Torres (2nd time)
                             (acting to 15 Oct 1830)
 8 Jan 1832 - 22 Feb 1832  Francisco Tadeo Calomarde y Arría  (b. 1773 - d. 1842)
                             (acting [for Salmón y Gómez to 20 Jan 1832])
22 Feb 1832 -  1 Oct 1832  Antonio de Saavedra y Jofré,       (b. 1765 - d. 1842)
                             conde de Alcudia (acting)
 1 Oct 1832 - 29 Nov 1832  José Cafranga y Costilla (acting)  (b. 1783 - d. 1854)
29 Nov 1832 - 15 Jan 1834  Francisco de Cea Bermúdez y Buzo   (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time)
15 Jan 1834 -  7 Jun 1835  Francisco Martínez de la Rosa      (b. 1787 - d. 1862)  PM
Prime ministers (presidents of the council of ministers)
 7 Jun 1835 - 14 Sep 1835  José María Queipo de Llano y Ruiz  (b. 1786 - d. 1843)  PM
                             de Saravia, conde de Toreno 
14 Sep 1835 - 25 Sep 1835  Miguel Ricardo de Álava y Esquivel (b. 1772 - d. 1843)  PPg
                             (refused to take office)
25 Sep 1835 - 15 May 1836  Juan Álvarez y Mendizábal (acting) (b. 1790 - d. 1853)  PPg
15 May 1836 - 14 Aug 1836  Francisco Javier de Istúriz y      (b. 1790 - d. 1871)  PM
                             Montero (1st time) (acting)
14 Aug 1836 - 18 Aug 1837  José María Calatrava y García      (b. 1781 - d. 1846)  PPg
                             Peinado             
18 Aug 1837 - 18 Oct 1837  Joaquín Baldomero Fernández        (s.a.)               PPg
                             Espartero, conde de Luchana
                             (1st time)
18 Oct 1837 - 16 Dec 1837  Eusebio Bardají y Azara            (s.a.)               PM
16 Dec 1837 -  6 Sep 1838  Narciso de Heredia y Begines       (s.a.)               PM
                             de los Ríos, conde de Ofalia 
 6 Sep 1838 -  9 Dec 1838  Bernardino Fernández de Velasco y  (b. 1783 - d. 1851)  PM
                             Benavídez, duque de Frías 
 9 Dec 1838 -  3 Feb 1839  Isidro Alaix Fábregas (acting)     (b. 1790 - d. 1853)  PM
 3 Feb 1839 - 20 Jul 1840  Evaristo Pérez de Castro y Brito   (b. 1778 - d. 1848)  PM
20 Jul 1840 - 12 Aug 1840  Antonio Bonifacio González Olañeta (b. 1792 - d. 1876)  PPg
                             y González de Ocampo (1st time) 
12 Aug 1840 - 29 Aug 1840  Valentín Ferráz y Barrau           (b. 1794 - d. 1866)  PPg
29 Aug 1840 - 11 Sep 1840  Modesto Cortázar y Leal de Ibarra  (b. 1783 - d. 1862)  PPg
                             (acting)         
11 Sep 1840 - 16 Sep 1840  Vicente Sancho y Cubertures        (b. 1784 - d. 1860)  PPg
16 Sep 1840 - 10 May 1841  Joaquín Baldomero Fernández
                             Espartero, duque de la Victoria  (s.a.)               PPg
                             (2nd time)
 5 Oct 1840 - 20 May 1841  Joaquín María de Ferrer y Cafranga (b. 1777 - d. 1861)  PPg 
                             (acting for Espartero to 10 May 1841)
20 May 1841 - 17 Jun 1842  Antonio Bonifacio González Olañeta (s.a.)               PPg
                             y González de Ocampo (2nd time) 
17 Jun 1842 -  9 May 1843  José Ramón Méndez Rodil Gayoso,    (b. 1789 - d. 1853)  PPg
                             marqués de Rodil 
 9 May 1843 - 19 May 1843  Joaquín María López y López        (s.a.)               PPg
                             (1st time) 
19 May 1843 - 23 Jul 1843  Álvaro Gómez Becerra               (b. 1771 - d. 1855)  PPg 
                             (continues in dissidence to 30 Jul 1843)
23 Jul 1843 - 20 Nov 1843  Joaquín María López y López        (s.a.)               PPg
                             (2nd time) 
20 Nov 1843 - 29 Nov 1843  Salustiano de Olózaga y Almandoz   (b. 1805 - d. 1873)  PPg
29 Nov 1843 -  5 Dec 1843  Vacant
 5 Dec 1843 -  3 May 1844  Luis González Bravo y López de     (b. 1811 - d. 1871)  PM
                             Arjona (1st time)  
 3 May 1844 - 11 Feb 1846  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (b. 1800 - d. 1868)  PM
                             duque de Valencia (1st time)
12 Feb 1846 - 16 Mar 1846  Manuel de Pando Fernández de       (b. 1792 - d. 1872)  PM
                             Pinedo, marqués de Miraflores
                             (1st time)
16 Mar 1846 -  5 Apr 1846  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (2nd time) 
 5 Apr 1846 - 28 Jan 1847  Francisco Javier de Istúriz y      (s.a.)               PM
                             Montero (2nd time) 
28 Jan 1847 - 28 Mar 1847  Carlos Fernando Martínez de Irujo  (b. 1804 - d. 1889)  PM
                             y McKean, marqués de Casa-Irujo,
                             duque de Sotomayor
28 Mar 1847 - 31 Aug 1847  Joaquín Francisco Pacheco y        (b. 1808 - d. 1865)  PM
                             Gutiérrez Calderón 
31 Aug 1847 - 12 Sep 1847  Vacant
12 Sep 1847 -  4 Oct 1847  Florencio Francisco García Goyena  (b. 1783 - d. 1855)  PM
                        y Orobia
 4 Oct 1847 - 19 Oct 1849  Ramón María Narváez y Campos
                             duque de Valencia (3rd time)     (s.a.)               PM
19 Oct 1849 - 20 Oct 1849  Serafín María de Soto y Abacu,
                             conde de Clonard                 (b. 1793 - d. 1862)  PM
20 Oct 1849 - 10 Jan 1851  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (4th time)
10 Jan 1851 - 14 Jan 1851  Vacant
14 Jan 1851 - 14 Dec 1852  Juan Manuel José Primo Méndez-     (b. 1803 - d. 1873)  PM
                             Bravo Murillo
14 Dec 1852 - 14 Apr 1853  Federico de Roncali y Ceruti,      (b. 1806 - d. 1859)  PM
                             conde de Alcoy
14 Apr 1853 - 19 Sep 1853  Francisco de Lersundi y Ormaechea  (b. 1817 - d. 1874)  PM
19 Sep 1853 - 17 Jul 1854  Luis José Sartorius y Tapia,       (b. 1820 - d. 1871)  PM
                             conde de San Luis
17 Jul 1854 - 18 Jul 1854  Fernando Fernández de Córdova y    (b. 1809 - d. 1883)  PM
                             Valcárcel (1st time)
18 Jul 1854 - 20 Jul 1854  Ángel Pérez de Saavedra y Ramírez  (b. 1791 - d. 1865)  PM
                             de Baquedano, duque de Rivas
21 Jul 1854 - 29 Jul 1854  Evaristo Fernández de San Miguel   (b. 1785 - d. 1862)  Mil
                             y Valledor (president of Junta of
                             Salvation and Defense of the town
                             of Madrid [from 23 Jul 1854 president
                             of Superior Junta of Salvation,
                             Armament and Defense of Madrid])
                             (acting)
29 Jul 1854 - 14 Jul 1856  Joaquín Baldomero Fernández        (s.a.)               PPg
                             Espartero, duque de la Victoria
                             (3rd time)
14 Jul 1856 - 12 Oct 1856  Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris,       (b. 1809 - d. 1867)  UL
                             conde de Lucena (1st time)
12 Oct 1856 - 15 Oct 1857  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (5th time)
15 Oct 1857 - 14 Jan 1858  Francisco Armero y Fernández de    (b. 1804 - d. 1867)  PM
                             Peñaranda
14 Jan 1858 - 30 Jun 1858  Francisco Javier de Istúriz        (s.a.)               PM
                             Montero (3rd time) 
30 Jun 1858 -  2 Mar 1863  Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris,       (s.a.)               UL
                             (from 7 Feb 1860) duque de Tetuán 
                             (2nd time)
 2 Mar 1863 - 17 Jan 1864  Manuel de Pando Fernández de       (s.a.)               PM
                             Pinedo, marqués de Miraflores
                             (2nd time) 
17 Jan 1864 -  1 Mar 1864  Lorenzo Arrazola y García          (b. 1797 - d. 1873)  PM
 1 Mar 1864 - 16 Sep 1864  Alejandro Món y Menéndez           (b. 1801 - d. 1882)  PM
16 Sep 1864 - 21 Jun 1865  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (6th time) 
21 Jun 1865 - 10 Jul 1866  Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris,       (s.a.)               UL
                             duque de Tetuán (3rd time)
10 Jul 1866 - 23 Apr 1868  Ramón María Narváez y Campos,      (s.a.)               PM
                             duque de Valencia (7th time)
23 Apr 1868 - 19 Sep 1868  Luis González Bravo y López de     (s.a.)               PM
                             Arjona (2nd time)   
19 Sep 1868 -  8 Oct 1868  José Gutiérrez de la Concha e      (b. 1809 - d. 1895)  PM
                             Irigoyen de la Quintana,
                             marqués de la Habana
 8 Oct 1868 - 18 Jun 1869  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               UL
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio (1st time)
18 Jun 1869 - 27 Dec 1870  Juan Prim y Prats, marqués de      (b. 1814 - d. 1870)  PPg
                             Castillejos, conde de Reus,
                             vizconde del Bruch
26 Aug 1869 - 21 Sep 1869  Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo    (b. 1821 - d. 1885)  UL
                             (acting for Prim y Prats)
27 Dec 1870 -  4 Jan 1871  Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo    (s.a.)               UL
                             (1st time) (acting) 
29 Dec 1870 -  2 Jan 1871  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (b. 1825 - d. 1903)  PC
                             Escolar (acting for Topete y Carballo)
 4 Jan 1871 - 24 Jul 1871  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               UL 
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio (2nd time) 
24 Jul 1871 -  5 Oct 1871  Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla y Ruiz        (b. 1833 - d. 1895)  PDR
                             Zorrilla (1st time)
 5 Oct 1871 - 21 Dec 1871  José Malcampo y Monge, marqués     (b. 1828 - d. 1880)  PC
                             de San Rafael
21 Dec 1871 - 26 May 1872  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PC
                             Escolar (1st time)
26 May 1872 -  4 Jun 1872  Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo    (s.a.)               UL
                             (2nd time)(acting) 
 4 Jun 1872 - 13 Jun 1872  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               UL
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio (3rd time)
13 Jun 1872 - 16 Jun 1872  Fernando Fernández de Córdova y    (s.a.)               PM
                             Valcárcel, marqués de Mendigorría
                             (2nd time)(acting) 
16 Jun 1872 - 11 Feb 1873  Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla y Ruiz        (s.a.)               PDR
                             Zorrilla (2nd time)
12 Feb 1873 -  4 Jan 1874  Vacant
 4 Jan 1874 - 26 Feb 1874  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (s.a.)               UL
                             duque de la Torre, conde
                             de San Antonio (4th time)
26 Feb 1874 -  3 Sep 1874  Juan de Zavala y de la Puente,     (b. 1804 - d. 1879)  Mil
                             marqués de Sierra Bullones 
29 Jun 1874 - 31 Dec 1874  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PC
                             Escolar (2nd time)
                             (acting for Zavala to 3 Sep 1874)
31 Dec 1874 -  9 Jan 1875  Vacant
 9 Jan 1875 - 12 Sep 1875  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (1st time) 
12 Sep 1875 -  2 Dec 1875  Joaquín José Ramon Jovellar y      (b. 1819 - d. 1892)  PLC
                             Soler
 2 Dec 1875 -  7 Mar 1879  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (2nd time) 
 8 Aug 1877 -  6 Sep 1877  Manuel de Orovio y Echagüe,        (b. 1817 - d. 1883)  PLC   
                             marques de Orovio
                             (acting for Cánovas del Castillo)   
 7 Mar 1879 -  9 Dec 1879  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Antón (b. 1831 - d. 1900)  PLC
 9 Dec 1879 -  8 Feb 1881  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (3rd time) 
 8 Feb 1881 - 13 Oct 1883  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             Escolar (3rd time)
10 Jul 1881 -  2 Aug 1881  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Antón (s.a.)               PLC   
                             (acting for Mateo-Sagasta)
 9 Jan 1882 - 19 Jan 1882  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Antón (s.a.)               PLC
                             (acting for Mateo-Sagasta)
25 Jul 1882 - 25 Aug 1882  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Antón (s.a.)               PLC
                             (acting for Mateo-Sagasta)
13 Oct 1883 - 18 Jan 1884  José de Posada Herrera             (b. 1815 - d. 1885)  ID
18 Jan 1884 - 27 Nov 1885  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (4th time) 
27 Nov 1885 -  5 Jul 1890  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             Escolar (4th time)
 5 Jul 1890 - 11 Dec 1892  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             (5th time) 
11 Dec 1892 - 23 Mar 1895  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             (5th time)
23 Mar 1895 -  8 Aug 1897  Antonio Cánovas del Castillo       (s.a.)               PLC
                             Escolar (6th time) 
 8 Aug 1897 -  4 Oct 1897  Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero     (b. 1832 - d. 1915)  PLC
                             (1st time)(acting to 21 Aug 1897)
 4 Oct 1897 -  4 Mar 1899  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             Escolar (6th time)
 4 Mar 1899 - 23 Oct 1900  Francisco Silvela y Le-Vielleuze   (b. 1843 - d. 1905)  PLC
                             (1st time)
23 Oct 1900 -  6 Mar 1901  Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero     (s.a.)               PLC
                             (2nd time)
 6 Mar 1901 -  6 Dec 1902  Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y   (s.a.)               PL
                             Escolar (7th time)
 6 Dec 1902 - 20 Jul 1903  Francisco Silvela y Le-Vielleuze   (s.a.)               PLC
                             (2nd time)
20 Jul 1903 -  5 Dec 1903  Raimundo Fernández Villaverde y    (b. 1848 - d. 1905)  PLC
                             García del Rivero, marqués
                             de Pozo Rubio (1st time)
 5 Dec 1903 - 16 Dec 1904  Antonio Maura y Montaner (1st time)(b. 1853 - d. 1925)  PLC
16 Dec 1904 - 27 Jan 1905  Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero     (s.a.)               PLC
                             (3rd time)
27 Jan 1905 - 23 Jun 1905  Raimundo Fernández Villaverde y    (s.a.)               PLC
                             García del Rivero, marqués
                             de Pozo Rubio (2nd time)
23 Jun 1905 -  1 Dec 1905  Eugenio Montero Ríos               (b. 1832 - d. 1914)  PL
 1 Dec 1905 -  6 Jul 1906  Segismundo Moret y Prendergast     (b. 1838 - d. 1913)  PL
                             (1st time)
 6 Jul 1906 - 30 Nov 1906  José López Domínguez               (b. 1829 - d. 1911)  PL
30 Nov 1906 -  4 Dec 1906  Segismundo Moret y Prendergast     (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
 4 Dec 1906 - 25 Jan 1907  Antonio González de Aguilar y      (b. 1824 - d. 1908)  PL
                             Correa, marqués de la Vega de
                             Armijo
25 Jan 1907 - 21 Oct 1909  Antonio Maura y Montaner (2nd time)(s.a.)               PLC
21 Oct 1909 -  9 Feb 1910  Segismundo Moret y Prendergast     (s.a.)               PL
                             (3rd time)
 9 Feb 1910 - 12 Nov 1912  José María Eduardo Ignacio         (b. 1854 - d. 1912)  PL
                             Canalejas y Méndez
12 Nov 1912 - 14 Nov 1912  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (b. 1859 - d. 1938)  PL
                             de Alhucemas (1st time) (acting)
14 Nov 1912 - 27 Oct 1913  Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres        (b. 1863 - d. 1950)  PL
                             Mendieta, conde de Romanones
                             (1st time) 
 5 May 1913 - 12 May 1913  Juan Navarro Reverter y Gomis      (b. 1844 - d. 1924)  PL
                             (acting for conde de Romanones)
27 Oct 1913 -  9 Dec 1915  Eduardo Dato e Iradier (1st time)  (b. 1856 - d. 1921)  PLC
 9 Dec 1915 - 19 Apr 1917  Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres        (s.a.)               PL
                             Mendieta, conde de Romanones
                             (2nd time)
19 Apr 1917 - 11 Jun 1917  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (s.a.)               PLD
                             de Alhucemas (2nd time)
11 Jun 1917 -  3 Nov 1917  Eduardo Dato e Iradier (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PLC
 3 Nov 1917 - 22 Mar 1918  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (s.a.)               PLD
                             de Alhucemas (3rd time)
22 Mar 1918 -  9 Nov 1918  Antonio Maura y Montaner (3rd time)(s.a.)               PLC
 9 Nov 1918 -  5 Dec 1918  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (s.a.)               PLD
                             de Alhucemas (4th time)
 5 Dec 1918 - 15 Apr 1919  Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres        (s.a.)               PL
                             Mendieta, conde de Romanones
                             (3rd time)
18 Dec 1918 - 24 Dec 1918  Amalio Gimeno y Cabañas            (b. 1852 - d. 1936)  PL   
                             (acting for conde de Romanones)
15 Apr 1919 - 20 Jul 1919  Antonio Maura y Montaner (4th time)(s.a.)               PLC
20 Jul 1919 - 12 Dec 1919  Joaquín Sánchez de Toca y Calvo    (b. 1852 - d. 1942)  PLC
12 Dec 1919 -  5 May 1920  Manuel Allendesalazar y Muñoz      (b. 1856 - d. 1923)  PLC
                             de Salazar (1st time)
 5 May 1920 -  8 Mar 1921  Eduardo Dato e Iradier (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PLC
 8 Mar 1921 - 13 Mar 1921  Gabino Bugallal Araujo,            (b. 1861 - d. 1932)  PLC
                             conde de Bugallal (acting)
13 Mar 1921 - 14 Aug 1921  Manuel Allendesalazar y Muñoz      (s.a.)               PLC
                             de Salazar (2nd time)
14 Aug 1921 -  8 Mar 1922  Antonio Maura y Montaner (4th time)(s.a.)               PLC
 8 Mar 1922 -  7 Dec 1922  José Sánchez-Guerra y Martínez     (b. 1859 - d. 1935)  PLC
 7 Dec 1922 - 15 Sep 1923  Manuel García Prieto, marqués      (s.a.)               PLD
                             de Alhucemas (5th time)
15 Sep 1923 - 30 Jan 1930  Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, (b. 1870 - d. 1930)  Mil;1924 UP
                             marqués de Estella
                            (president of the Military Directory to 3 Dec 1925)
14 Nov 1923 -  4 Dec 1923  Antonio Magaz y Pers, marqués      (b. 1864 - d. 1953)  Mil    
                             de Magaz (acting for Primo de Rivera)
 5 Sep 1924 - 31 Oct 1925  Antonio Magaz y Pers, marqués      (s.a.)               Mil 
                             de Magaz (acting for Primo de Rivera)
30 Jan 1930 - 18 Feb 1931  Dámaso Berenguer Fusté, conde      (b. 1873 - d. 1953)  Mil
                             de Xauen
18 Feb 1931 - 14 Apr 1931  Juan Bautista Aznar y Cabañas      (b. 1860 - d. 1933)  Mil
14 Apr 1931 - 14 Oct 1931  Niceto Alcalá-Zamora Torres        (s.a.)               PL
14 Oct 1931 - 12 Sep 1933  Manuel Azaña y Díaz (1st time)     (s.a.)               AR
12 Sep 1933 -  8 Oct 1933  Alejandro Lerroux García           (b. 1864 - d. 1949)  PRR
                             (1st time)
 8 Oct 1933 - 16 Dec 1933  Diego Martínez Barrio (1st time)   (s.a.)               PRR
16 Dec 1933 - 28 Apr 1934  Alejandro Lerroux García           (s.a.)               PRR
                             (2nd time)
28 Apr 1934 -  4 Oct 1934  Ricardo Samper Ibáñez              (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  PRR
 4 Oct 1934 - 25 Sep 1935  Alejandro Lerroux García (3rd time)(s.a.)               PRR
25 Sep 1935 - 14 Dec 1935  Joaquín Chapaprieta y Torregrosa   (b. 1871 - d. 1951)  Non-party
14 Dec 1935 - 19 Feb 1936  Manuel Portela Valladares Dios y   (b. 1867 - d. 1952)  PRR
                             Rial
19 Feb 1935 - 10 May 1936  Manuel Azaña y Díaz (2nd time)     (s.a.)               IR
10 May 1936 - 13 May 1936  Augusto Barcia Trelles (interim)   (b. 1881 - d. 1961)  IR
13 May 1936 - 19 Jul 1936  Santiago Casares Quiroga de la     (b. 1884 - d. 1950)  IR
                             Paz y Moredo           
19 Jul 1936                Diego Martínez Barrio (2nd time)   (s.a.)               UR
19 Jul 1936 -  4 Sep 1936  José Giral Pereira                 (b. 1879 - d. 1962)  IR
 4 Sep 1936 - 17 May 1937  Francisco Largo Caballero          (b. 1869 - d. 1946)  PSOE
17 May 1937 -  4 Mar 1939  Juan Negrín López                  (b. 1892 - d. 1956)  PSOE
 6 Sep 1937 - 27 Sep 1937  Indalecio Prieto Tuero             (b. 1883 - d. 1962)  PSOE
                             (acting for Negrín López)
17 Aug 1938 - 24 Aug 1938  Julio Álvarez del Vayo             (b. 1891 - d. 1975)  PSOE
                             (acting for Negrín López)
14 Sep 1938 - 27 Sep 1938  José Giral Pereira                 (s.a.)               IR
                             (acting for Negrín López)
Presidents of the Technical Junta of the State (in Nationalist zone)
 3 Oct 1936 -  3 Jun 1937  Fidel Dávila Arrondo               (b. 1878 - d. 1962)  Mil
 3 Jun 1937 - 31 Jan 1938  Francisco Gómez-Jordana Souza,     (b. 1876 - d. 1944)  Mil
                             conde de Jordana
Governors general of the State (in Nationalist zone)
 4 Oct 1936 -  4 Nov 1936  Francisco Fermoso Blanco           (b. 1870 - d. 1955)  Mil
 4 Nov 1936 - 31 Jan 1938  Luis Valdés Cavanilles             (b. 1874 - d. 1950)  Mil
Prime ministers (presidents of the Government)(to 27 Mar 1939 only in Nationalist zone)
31 Jan 1938 -  8 Jun 1973  Francisco Franco Bahamonde         (s.a.)               Mil/FET
 8 Jun 1973 - 20 Dec 1973  Luis Carrero Blanco                (b. 1903 - d. 1973)  Mil/FET
20 Dec 1973 - 29 Dec 1973  Torcuato Fernández-Miranda y Hevia (b. 1915 - d. 1980)  FET
                             (acting)
29 Dec 1973 -  1 Jul 1976  Carlos Arias Navarro               (b. 1908 - d. 1989)  FET
 1 Jul 1976 -  3 Jul 1976  Fernando de Santiago y Díaz de     (b. 1910 - d. 1994)  Mil
                             Mendivil (acting)
 3 Jul 1976 - 25 Feb 1981  Adolfo Suárez González             (b. 1932 - d. 2014)  UCD
25 Feb 1981 -  1 Dec 1982  Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo y Bustelo    (b. 1926 - d. 2008)  UCD
 1 Dec 1982 -  4 May 1996  Felipe González Márquez            (b. 1942)            PSOE
 4 May 1996 - 16 Apr 2004  José María Aznar López             (b. 1953)            PP
16 Apr 2004 - 20 Dec 2011  José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero       (b. 1960)            PSOE
20 Dec 2011 -  2 Jun 2018  Mariano Rajoy Brey                 (b. 1955)            PP 
 2 Jun 2018 -              Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón       (b. 1972)            PSOE

The "Resistance" 1808-1814

[Spanish
                    State and War flag 1785-1873, 1874-1931]

May 1808                   The abdication of Fernando VII (s.a.) on 6 May 1808 is not
                             recognized by the "Resistance"; Supreme Governing Juntas
                             are established in the provinces (ultimately numbering 18),
                             as well as in the Indies, ruling in the name of Fernando VII.
25 Sep 1808                The Supreme Central Governing Junta is established (in Nov 1808
                             moved from Madrid to Sevilla), ruling in the name of Fernando
                             VII, and gradually superseding the previously established Juntas
                            (on 1 Jan 1809 the Supreme Central Junta downgraded provincial
                             Supreme Governing Juntas to agencies of the Supreme Central
                             Junta under new names of Superior Provincial Juntas).

31 Jan 1810                A Supreme Council of Regency is established in Cadiz (from May
                             1813 in Madrid), governing in the name of Fernando VII
.
10 May 1814                Upon the return of Fernando VII the Regency dissolved by force.

Presidents of the Supreme Central Governing Junta
25 Sep 1808 - 30 Dec 1808  José Moñino y Redondo, conde de    (s.a.)
                             Floridablanca 
                             (interim to 1 Oct 1808)
30 Dec 1808 -  1 Nov 1809  Vicente Isabel Osorio de Moscoso   (b. 1777 - d. 1837)
                             y Álvarez de Toledo, marqués de
                             Astorga (interim to 1 May 1809)
 1 Nov 1809 - 31 Jan 1810  Juan Acisclo de Vera y Delgado,    (b. 1761 - d. 1818)
                             arzobispo de Laodicea 
Presidents of the Supreme Council of Regency
 1 Feb 1810 - 29 May 1810  Francisco Javier Castaños y        (b. 1758 - d. 1852)
                             Aragorri                
29 May 1810 - 26 Sep 1810  Pedro de Quevedo y Quintano,       (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
                             obispo de Orense         
27? Sep 1810 - 28 Oct 1810 Francisco Saavedra y Sangronis     (s.a.)
Presidents of the Council of Regency
28 Oct 1810 -  8 Dec 1810  Pedro Agar y Bustillo (1st time)   (b. 1760 - d. 1822)
 8 Dec 1810 -  8 Apr 1811  Joaquín Blake y Joyes              (b. 1739 - d. 1827)
 8 Apr 1811 -  8 Aug 1811  Pedro Agar y Bustillo (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1811 -  8 Dec 1811  Gabriel de Císcar y Císcar         (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
 8 Dec 1811 - 22 Jan 1812  Pedro Agar y Bustillo (3rd time)   (s.a.)
Presidents of the Regency
22 Jan 1812 - 15 Jun 1812  Joaquín de Mosquera y Figueroa     (b. 1748 - d. 1830)
15 Jun 1812 - 15 Dec 1812? Pedro de Alcántara de Toledo y     (s.a.)
                             Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado 
15 Dec 1812? - 8 Mar 1813  Juan María de Villavicencio        (b. 1755 - d. 1830)
President of the (to 22 Mar 1813, Provisional) Regency
 8 Mar 1813 - 10 May 1814  Cardenal Luis María de Borbón y    (b. 1777 - d. 1823)
                             Vallabriga, arzobispo de Toledo,
                             primado de las Españas 
       

First Secretaries of State
15 Oct 1808 -  5 Jan 1809  Pedro Felix Cevallos y Guerra de   (s.a.)
                             la Vega
 5 Jan 1809 - 13 Oct 1809  Martín de Garay y Perales (acting) (b. 1760 - d. 1823)
13 Oct 1809 - 30 Oct 1809  Pedro Inguanzo y Rivero (acting)   (b. 1764 - d. 1836)
30 Oct 1809 - 31 Jan 1810  Francisco Saavedra y Sangronis     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
31 Jan 1810 - 20 Mar 1810  Nicolás Ambrosio de Garro y        (b. 1747 - d. 1825)
                             Arizcun, marqués de las Hormazas
                             (acting)
20 Mar 1810 -  6 Feb 1812  Eusebio Bardají y Azara            (s.a.)
                             (acting to 27 May 1810)
 6 Feb 1812 - 12 May 1812  José García de León Pizarro y      (s.a.)
                             Ximenez Frías (acting)
12 May 1812 - 23 Jun 1812  Ignacio de la Pezuela y Sánchez    (b. 1764 - d. 1850)
                             (acting)
23 Jun 1812 - 27 Sep 1812  Carlos Martínez de Irujo Tacón,    (s.a.)
                             marqués de Casa-Irujo (1st time)
23 Jun 1812 - 27 Sep 1812  Ignacio de la Pezuela y Sánchez    (s.a.)
                             (acting for
marqués de Casa-Irujo)
27 Sep 1812 - 11 Jul 1813  Pedro Gómez
Labrador y Havelo      (b. 1764 - d. 1852)
11 Jul 1813 - 10 Oct 1813  Antonio Cano Manuel y Ramírez de   (b. 1768 - d. 1836)
                             Arellano (acting)
10 Oct 1813 -  6 Dec 1813  Juan O'Donoju y O'Ryan (acting)    (b. 1762 - d. 1821)  Mil
 6 Dec 1813 - 10 May 1814  José de Luyando y Diez Pueyo       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (1st time) (acting)

"Carlist" Insurrectionary Governments

[Spain State flag
                      1700-1785 (used by Carlists 1833-1840)]
In use 1833 - 1840
[Carlist banner c.1837 one of many
                          (Spain)]
Banner used c.1837
(one of many)

[Burgundy Cross Flag 1516-1785
                          (Spain), Carlist flag 1860-1876]
c.1860 - 1876
29 Sep 1833                King Fernando VII dies, Queen María Cristina becomes regent on
                             behalf of their infant daughter Isabel II. This splits the
                             country into two factions, known as the "Cristinos" (or
                             "Isabelinos") and the "Carlists", who were the supporters of 
                             Don Carlos, conde de Molina as Carlos V, who was the brother 
                             of Fernando VII.
 9 Dec 1833                Carlos V appoints a government under Joaquín Abarca y Banqué.
22 Apr 1834                Quadruple Alliance of Portugal, Spain, England and France agree
                             to banish Don Carlos from Spain and Dom Miguel from Portugal.
31 Aug 1839                Carlos V leaves Spain for France. For almost a year some of his 
                             commanders continued to fight on his behalf especially in
                             Catalonia. By 6 Jul 1840 almost all resistance concludes.
25 Sep 1839                Guevara, the last "Carlist" stronghold in the north, submits.
18 May 1845                Carlos V renounces his claims in favor of his son Carlos Luis,
                             conde de Montemolín, who becomes "Carlist" claimant as Carlos VI.
 2 Apr 1860                Carlos VI lands at San Carlos de la Ràpita in the southernmost
                             part of Catalonia. 
21 Apr 1860                Carlos VI is captured by the troops of Isabel II and forced to
                             renounce his claims to the Spanish throne. On 2 Jun 1860 his
                             brother Juan Carlos, conde de Montizón (b. 1822 - d. 1887),
                             publishes a declaration affirming his accession as Juan III,
                             however on 15 Jun 1860 Carlos VI declares his renouncement was
                             invalid as he been forced to sign against his will.
13 Jan 1861                Carlos VI dies and Juan III becomes sole "Carlist" claimant,
                             although he takes no active part in the "Carlist" cause.
30 Sep 1868                Queen Isabel II is deposed by a military coup.
 3 Oct 1868                Juan III abdicates his rights to the Spanish throne in favor
                             of his son Carlos María, duque de Madrid who becomes Carlos VII.
 2 May 1872                Carlos VII crosses into Spain on foot, and subsequently joins 
                             the volunteers at Oroquieta in Navarre.
Aug 1873                   "Carlist" forces capture Estella in Navarre.
Oct 1874 - 19 Nov 1875     Carlos VII restores the Generalitat in Catalonia.
19 Feb 1876                Spanish government forces retake Estella.
28 Feb 1876                Carlos VII leaves Spain ending the "Carlist" insurrection.
 
Kings² (dates correspond to presence on Spanish territory)
 1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839  Carlos V                           (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1860 - 1860         Carlos VI                          (s.a.)
 2 May 1872 - 28 Feb 1876  Carlos VII                         (s.a.) 

First Secretaries of State 
 9 Dec 1833 - 1836         Joaquín Abarca y Blanqué,          (b. 1778 - d. 1844)
                             obispo de Leó
20 Apr 1836 - 10 Jan 1837  Juan Bautista Erro Azpiroz y       (b. 1773 - d. 1854)
                             Beloqui
10 Jan 1837 - 24 Feb 1839  Joaquín Abarca y Blanqué,          (s.a.)
                             obispo de Leó
24 Feb 1839 - 14 Sep 1839  Paulino Ramírez de la Piscina      (b. 1799 - d. 1852)
 6 May 1871 - 17 Apr 1874  Joaquín Elío y Ezpeleta, duque     (b. 1806 - d. 1876) 
                             de Elío, marqués de la Lealtad
17 Apr 1874 -  3 May 1875  Romualdo Martínez de Viñalet       (b. 1814 - d. 1882)
 3 May 1875 - 28 Feb 1876  Luís Mon y Velasco, conde del      (b. 1825 - d. 1878)
                             Pinar (acting) 

Spanish Republic in Exile

[Spanish Republic 1931-1939
                state and war flag (Spain)]

Presidents
 5 Feb 1939 - 27 Feb 1939  Manuel Azaña y Díaz                (s.a.)               IR
27 Feb 1939 -  1 Jan 1962  Diego Martínez Barrio              (s.a.)               UR
                             ([nominally] acting to 17 Aug 1945, then interim;
                             in France [Mexico 1940-1946] exile)
 1 Jan 1962 - 16 Nov 1970  Luis Jiménez de Asúa               (b. 1889 - d. 1970)  PSOE
                             (acting to Feb 1962; in Buenos Aires, Argentina exile)
16 Nov 1970 - 21 Jun 1977  José Maldonado González            (b. 1900 - d. 1985)  ARDE
                             (acting to Nov 1970; in Paris, France exile)
 
Prime ministers (in Paris, France [1940-Feb 1946 Mexico] exile)
 6 Mar 1939 - 17 Aug 1945  Juan Negrín López                  (s.a.)               PSOE
17 Aug 1945 -  9 Feb 1947  José Giral Pereira                 (s.a.)               IR
 9 Feb 1947 -  8 Aug 1947  Rodolfo Llopis Ferrándiz           (b. 1895 - d. 1983)  PSOE
 8 Aug 1947 - 30 Nov 1950  Álvaro de Albornoz y Liminiana     (b. 1879 - d. 1959)  IR
30 Nov 1950 -  9 May 1960  Félix Gordón Ordás                 (b. 1885 - d. 1973)  UR
 9 May 1960 - 28 Feb 1962  Emilio Herrera Linares             (b. 1879 - d. 1967)  Non-party
28 Feb 1962 - 28 Feb 1971  Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz y         (b. 1893 - d. 1984)  Non-party
                             Menduiña
28 Feb 1971 - 21 Jun 1977  Fernando Valera Aparicio           (b. 1899 - d. 1981)  ARDE 

 ¹What we typically think of as España (Spain) had no constitutionally sanctioned identity until 1808. The style Monarquía Española (Spanish Monarchy) gradually came into use for the whole complex, while several of the component units maintained (in some cases fanatically) their political identity, with their own Cortes, their own charters of rights (fueros), etc. Españas (or Españas e Indias) more closely reflects usage before 1808 than España.

 ²The style of the ruler:
(a) 18 Oct 1035 - 21 Aug 1157 (in Latin): 
Rex/Regina Castellae; (in Castilian): Rey/Reina de Castiella ("King of Castile");
(b) 21 Aug 1157 - 24 Sep 1230 (in Latin): Rex/Regina Castellae et Toleti
; (in Castilian): Rey/Reina de Castiella e Toledo ("King/Queen of Castile and Toledo");
(c) 24 Sep 1230 - 1516: 
Rey/Reina de Castiella, de Toledo, León e de Gallizia ("King/Queen of Castile, of Toledo, León and of Galicia");
(d) after 1516: In official documents the ruler used a full style that included effective and titular non-Hispanic titles (e.g., Archduke of Austria) the following is a typical form, while variants are not uncommon: Por la gracia de Dios, Rey/Reina de Castilla, de León, de Aragón, de las dos Sicilias, de Jerusalén, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Mallorca, de Menorca, de Sevilla, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba, de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaén, del Algarve, de Algeciras, de Gibraltar, de las Islas Canarias, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, de las Islas y Tierrafirme del Continente Oceánico, Archiduque/Archiduquesa de Austria, Duque/Duquesa de Borgoña, de Brabante y de Milán, Conde/Condesa de Abspurg, de Flandes, del Tirol y de Barcelona, Señor/Señora de Vizcaya y de Molina, etc ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of Castille, of Leon, of Aragon, of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, of Navarre, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Mallorca, of Minorca, of Seville, of Sardinia, of Cordoba of Corsica, of Murcia, of Jaen, of the Algarve, of Algeciras, of Gibraltar, of the Canary Islands, of the East and West Indies, of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Continent, Archduke/Archduchess of Austria, Duke/Duchess of Burgundy, of Barabant and Milan, Count/Countess of Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, and of Barcelona, Lord/Lady of Vizcaya and of Molina, etc."). The following short style gradually comes into official use before 1808: Por la gracia de Dios Rey/Reina de las Españas y de las Indias ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of the Spanish and of the Indies");
(e) Carlists 1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839, 2 Apr 1860 - 1860, 2 May 1872 - 28 Feb 1876: Por la gracia de Dios, Rey de las Españas y de las Indias ("by the grace of God, King of the Spanish and of the Indies");
(f) from 1978:
Rey Constitucional de España, Rey de Castilla, de León, de Aragón, de las Dos Sicilias, de Jerusalén, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba, de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaén, de los Algarves, de Algerciras, de Gibraltar, de las Islas Canarias, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, de las Islas y Tierra Firme del Mar Océano; Archiduque de Austria; Duque de Borgoña, de Brabante, de Milán, de Atenas y Neopatria; Conde de Habsburgo, de Flandes, del Tirol, del Rosellón, y de Barcelona; Señor de Vizcaya y de Molina; Capitán General de las Reales Fuerzas Armadas y su Comandante Supremo; Soberano Gran maestre de la Insigne Orden del Toisón de Oro, y de cuantas Ordenes discierne el Estado Español ("Constitutional king of Spain, king of Castile, king of Leon, king of Aragon, king of the Two Sicilies, king of Jerusalem, king of Navarra, king of Granada, king of Toledo, king of Valencia, king of Galicia, king of Sardinia, king of Cordoba, king of Corsica, king of Murcia, king of Jaén, king of the Algarves, king of Algeciras, king of Gibraltar, king of the Canaries Islands, king of the West and East Indies, king of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea [the Americas]; Archduke of Austria; duke of Burgundy, duke of Brabant, duke of Milan, duke of Athens and duke of Neo-Patras, count of Habsburg, count of Flanders, count of Roussillon, count of Barcelona; lord of Viscaya, lord of Molina; Captain-General and Supreme Head of the Royal Armed Forces, Sovereign Grand-Master of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Grand-Master of the orders awarded by the Spanish State").

 ³The Governing Board (Junta de Gobierno) had no formal chairman, but only one of its members was con voto de calidad, i.e., with "preferred vote," namely the widow of Carlos II: María Ana de Baviera-Neoburgo y Hesse-Darmstadt, Reina de las Españas y de las Indias (b. 1667 - d. 1740). 

Noble titles: archiduque/archiduquesa = archduke/archduchess; barón/baronesa = baron/baroness; conde/condesa = count/countess; duque/duquesa = duke/duchess; marqués = marquis; 
rey/reina = king/queen; señor/señora = lord/lady; vizconde = viscount; príncipe/princesa = prince/princess

Ecclesiastical titles: arzobispo = archbishop; cardenal = cardinal; obispo = bishop

Territorial Disputes: In 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the U.K. and Spain; Spain disapproves of U.K. plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; after voters in the U.K. chose to leave the EU in a Jun 2016 referendum, Spain again proposed shared sovereignty of Gibraltar, U.K. officials rejected Spain's joint sovereignty proposal; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza (Olivença) based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz.

Party abbreviations: PP = Partido Popular (People's Party, center-right, est.1989); PSOE = Partido Socialista Obrero Español (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, social-democratic, est.1879, banned 1939-1977); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Abs = Absolutist (royalist, right-wing reactionary); AR = Acción Republicana (Republican Action, liberal progressive, republican, 1930-1934, then IR); ARDE = Acción Republicana Democrática Española (Spanish Democratic Republican Action, left republican, merger of IR and UR, 1959-85); DLR = Derecha Liberal Republicana (Liberal Republican Right, conservative republican, 1930-1936); FET = Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensivas Nacional Sindicalistas (Spanish Phalange Traditionalists and the Junta of National Syndicalist Offensive, main party of the National Movement, authoritarian, fascist, 1937-1977, only legal party 1939-1975); ID = Izquierda Dinástica (Dynastic Left, liberal, 1881-1884, then part of PL); IR = Izquierda Republicana (Republican Left, reformist republican, anti-clerical, 1934-1959); Lib = Liberal; Mod = Moderato (Moderate, moderate liberal, centralist, monarchist, 1834-1874, then part of PC); PC = Partido Constitucional (Constitutional Party, liberal, constitutionalist, 1871-1880, split from PPg); PD = Partido Democrático (Democratic Party, liberal, progressive, 1849-1869); PDR = Partido Demócrata-Radical (Radical Democratic Party, republican, liberal progressive, split from PPg, 1871-1880); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, liberal, monarchist, 1880-1931); PLC = Partido Liberal-Conservador (Liberal-Conservative Party, liberal-conservative, monarchist, 1874-1931); PLD = Partido Liberal Democrático (Liberal Democratic Party, 1913-1931, split from PL); PM = Partido Moderado (Moderate Party, moderate, 1834-1873, merged into PLC); PPD = Partido Progresista Demócrata (Progressive Democratic Party, liberal, republican, 1849-1873); PPg = Partido Progresista (Progressive Party, liberal, progressive, 1834-1874); PR = Partido Republicano (Republican Party, conservative); PRF = Partido Republicano Democrático Federal (Democratic Federalist Republican Party, republican federalist, 1868-1910); PRR = Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party, radical republican, 1908-1936, split from UR); UCD = Unión Centro Democrático (Union of Democratic Center, centrist, 1977-1983); UL = Unión Liberal (Liberal Union, 1858-1874, merged into PLC); UP = Unión Patriótica (Patriotic Union, nationalist, catholic conservative, Primo de Rivera personalist, 1924-1931); UR = Unión Republicana (Republican Union, republican 1903-1910 and 1934-1958 as centrist republican)



Aragón


[Flag of crown of
                        Aragón and Kingdom of Aragón, adopted before
                        1164 (Spain)]
Crown and Kingdom of Aragón,
from before 1164

c.800 - c.820              County of Aragón part of the Frankish Marca Hispanica (Hispanic
                             [Spanish] March).

809 - c.810                Muslim occupation.
c.820 - 18 Oct 1035        County of Aragón part of Kingdom of Pamplona (see Navarra).
18 Oct 1035                Kingdom of Aragón (separated from Navarra).
1043                       Sobrarbe and Ribagorza incorporated into Aragón.
18 Dec 1118                Zaragoza annexed by Aragón (local rulers ousted 30 May 1110, but
                             continue in Ruida until ousted in 1131; occupied by Castile
                             1137-1138).

18 Jun 1164                Count of Barcelona inherits the Kingdom of Aragón.
31 Dec 1229                Mallorca conquered by Aragón; Menorca from 1232, Ibiza from 1235.

 2 Feb 1231 -  8 May 1234  Personal union with Navarra.
28 Sep 1238                Valencia conquered and made a kingdom within the Crown of Aragón.
11 May 1258                Catalonia recognized as part of Aragón by France in the Treaty
                             of Corbeil (ratified 16 Jul 1258), king of Aragón renounces
                             rights to the County of Provence.
 4 Sep 1282 - 11 Nov 1285  Personal union with Kingdom of "Sicily" (Naples).
12 Jul 1276 - 27 May 1343  Kingdom of Mallorca under a junior branch (see Mallorca).
24 Apr 1326 – 13 Aug 1708  Personal union with Kingdom of Sardinia.
29 Mar 1344                Mallorca merged into Aragón.
25 Jul 1409 – 22 Sep 1713  Personal union with Kingdom of "Sicily" (Naples).
 2 Jul 1442 -  7 Jul 1707  Personal union with Kingdom of "Sicily" (Naples)(except 1458-1501).
27 Jun 1458 - 19 Jan 1479  Personal union with Navarra.
11 Aug 1462                Civil war in Catalonia erupts.
17 Oct 1472                Barcelona subdued.
22 Dec 1472                Civil war in Catalonia terminated (with oath on Usajes, fueros y
                             constituciones de Cataluña).
19 Jan 1479 - 23 Jan 1516
  Dynastic union (by marriage) with Castile.
23 Jan 1516                Union of Crown of Aragón with the Crown of Castile (from 1556, as
                             part of the Spanish Monarchy).

12 Sep 1703 -  7 Sep 1714  Aragón, Catalonia, Valencia and Balearic Islands (Crown of Aragón)
                             at times
recognize Holy Roman Emperor Karl VI of Habsburg as
                             king Carlos (III) during the War
of Spanish succession, in
                             opposition to Felipe V.

29 Jun 1706 - 27 May 1707  Zaragoza controlled by Austrian-British forces loyal to Carlos
                             (III)(and again 21 Aug 1710 - Dec 1710).

15 Jul 1707                Constitutional abolition of the separate Crown of Aragón,
                             including in Aragón, in Catalonia (from 1714), in Mallorca (from
                             1715) and in Valencia, and the institutions of Kingdom of Arag
ón
                             (Cortes del Reino and Diputación del General del Reino, the
                             executive body) and fueros (privileges) abolished, by the Nueva
                            
Planta decree of King Felipe V. The post of viceroy of Arag
ón is
                             replaced by a captain-general of Arag
ón (in 1718 the additional
                             post of intendant created for financial matters).

1709                       Aragonese representatives for the first time joined the (Spanish)
                             General Cortes.
27 May 1808                Supreme Governing Junta established, ruling in the name of the
                             abdicated Fernando VII, in rebellion against the French (on 1 Jan
                             1809 downgraded to an agency of the Supreme Central Governing
                             Junta).
20 Feb 1809 - Jul 1813     Arag
ón under French occupation.
 8 Feb 1810 - Jul 1813     Government of Arag
ón directly subordinated to the French Emperor,
                             but nominally part of the Kingdom of Spain
.
 1 Aug 1837 - Jul 1840     "Carlists" insurrection establishes a Junta at Cantavieja
                             (from 1838, at Morella).


Counts (style Aragonensium comes)(Spanish names with Latin in parentheses)
c.800 - 809                Aureolo (Aureolus)                 (d. 809)
809 - c.810                under Muslim occupation
c.810 - c.820              Aznar Galíndez (Isinar Galindis)   (d. c.838)

c.820 - c.833              García Galíndez "el Malo"          (d. 858)
                             (Garsias Galindis)

c.833 - c.844              Galindo Garcés (Galindus Garceis)  (d. c.844)

c.844 - c.867              Galindo Aznárez (Galindus Isinaris)(d. c.867)
c.867 - 893                Aznar Galíndez (Isinar Galindis)   (d. 893)
893 - c.922                Galindo Aznárez (Galindus Isinaris)(d. c.922)
c.922 - c.943              Andrégoto Galíndez -Countess       (b. c.900 - d. 972)
                            
(Anderegoto Galindis)
c.943 - 18 Oct 1035       
part of Pamplona (see Navarra)
Kings¹ (Catalan names with Latin [to 1137, then Spanish] in parentheses)
18 Oct 1035 -  8 May 1063  Ramir I Sánchez                    (b. c.1008 - d. 1063)
                             (Ranimir I Sanciis)
                           -
jointly with -
18 Oct 1035 - 26 Jun 1045  Gonzalo Sánchez                    (b. 101. - d. 1045)
                            
(Gundisalvus Sanciis)
 8 May 1063 -  4 Jun 1094  Sancho I Ramírez                   (b. c.1043 - d. 1094)

                            
(Sancius Ranimiris)
 4 Jun 1094 - 28 Sep 1104  Pere I Sánchez                     (b. c.1069 - d. 1104)

                            
(Petrus I Sanciis)
28 Sep 1104 -  7 Sep 1134  Alfons I Sánchez
"el Bataller"     (b. c.1083 - d. 1134)
                            
(Adefons I Sanciis)
                             (from 1109 also uses style
imperator)
 
7 Sep 1134 - 13 Nov 1137  Ramir II Sánchez "el Monjo"        (b. 1086 - d. 1157) 

                            
(Ranimir II Sanciis)
13 Sep 1137 - 18 Jun 1164  Peronella (Petronilla) -
Queen      (b. 1136 - d. 1173)
                           - with the following –
13 Nov 1137 –  6 Aug 1162  Ramon Berenguer -Prince            (b. c.1114 – d. 1162)
                             (Raimund Berenguer IV Count of Barcelona)
18 Jun 1164 – 25 Apr 1196  Alfons II "el Cast" (Alfonso II)   (b. 1157 – d. 1196)
18 Jun 1164 - 17 Oct 1173  Peronella (f) -
Regent              (s.a.)
25 Apr 1196 – 12 Sep 1213  Pere II "el Catòlic" (Pedro II)    (b. 1174 - d. 1213)
12 Sep 1213 – 27 Jul 1276  Jaume I "el Conqueridor"          
(b. 1208 – d. 1276)
12 Sep 1213 - Sep 1218     Sanç Raimúndez, comte              (b. c.1161 - d. 1226)
                             de Rosellón -Regent
27 Jul 1276 - 11 Nov 1285  Pere III "el Gran" (Pedro III)     (b. 1239 - d. 1285)
11 Nov 1285 - 17 Jun 1291  Alfons III "el Franc"
(Alfonso III)(b. 1265 – d. 1291)
18 Jun 1291 -  2 Nov 1327  Jaume II "el Just" (the Just)      (b. 1267 - d. 1327)

                            
(also king of Sicily)
 2 Nov 1327 - 24 Jan 1336  Alfons IV "el Benigne" (
Alfonso IV)(b. 1299 - d. 1336)
24 Jan 1336 -  5 Jan 1387  Pere IV "el Cerimoniós"
(Pedro IV) (b. 1319 – d. 1387)
1364 -  5 Jan 1387         Joan, duc de Gerona e conde de     (b. 1350 - d. 1395)
                             Cervaria -Regent
                             (Juan, duque de Gerona y conde de Cervaria)

                             (governor-general of the kingdom)
 5 Jan 1387 - 19 May 1396  Joan I "el Caçador" (Juan I)       (s.a.)
                             (= duc de Gerona)
19 May 1396 - 31 May 1410  Martí I "l'Humà"                   (b. 1356 - d. 1410)
19 May 1396 - 27 May 1397  Maria López de Luna (f) -Regent    (b. 1353 - d. 1406)
31 May 1410 -  5 Aug 1412  interregnum
 5 Aug 1412 -  2 Apr 1416  Ferran I d'Antequera "el Just"     (b. 1380 - d. 1416)
                             (Fernando I)
 2 Apr 1416 - 27 Jun 1458  Alfons V "el Magnànim"             (b. 1396 - d. 1458)

                             (Alfonso V)
27 Jun 1458 - 19 Jan 1479  Joan II "el Sense Fe" (Juan II)    (b. 1398 - d. 1479)
                             (governor-general 1435 - 27 Jun 1458)

19 Jan 1479 - 23 Jan 1516  Ferran II "el Catòlic"             (b. 1452 - d. 1516)
                             (Fernando V "el Católico" as king of Castile 1474-1504)    
23 Jan 1516 - 12 Apr 1555  Jaoana "la Loca" –Queen            (b. 1479 – d. 1555)
                             (Juana "la Loca" as queen of Castile 1504-1555)
                           -
jointly with -
23 Jan 1516 – 16 Jan 1556  Carles I                           (b. 1500 - d. 1558)
                             (= Carlos I as king of Castile 1516-1556) 
 
                            (Holy Roman Emperor Karl V 1519-1556)
23 Jan 1516 - 29 Jul 1518  Regency
                           - Germana de Foix (f)              (b. 1488 - d. 1536)
                              (lieutenant-general) 
                           - Alfons d'Aragó, arquebisbe       (b. 1470 - d. 1520)
                              de Saragossa (guardian)   
16 Jan 1556 - 15 Jun 1707  the Kings of Castile/Spain


Note: After 1556 under the Spanish rulers the crown of Aragón continued to be a kingdom in more than name until 15 Jun 1707. A significant symbol of this fact is that in the crown of Aragón the kings were proclaimed with a different numbering than in the crown of Castile/Spanish Monarchy, as follows:

16 Jan 1556 – 13 Sep 1598  Felip I (= Felip II in Spain)   
13 Sep 1598 – 31 Mar 1621  Felip II (= Felip III in Spain) 
31 Mar 1621 – 17 Sep 1665  Felip III (= Felip IV in Spain)
17 Sep 1665 –  1 Nov 1700  Carles II (= Carlos II in Spain) 
 1 Nov 1700 – 15 Jan 1724  Felip IV (= Felip V in Spain)
12 Sep 1703 -  7 Sep 1714  Carles III (= Carlos III in Spain)
                             (in rebellion)


Presidents of the Royal and Supreme Council of the Crown of Arag
ón (post established 1494)
1689 - 1702                Rodrigo Manuel Manrique de Lara,
   (b. 1638 - d. 1717)
                             conde de Aguilar y Frigiliana          
1702 - 1707                Íñigo de la Cruz Manrique de Lara,
(b. 1673 - d. 1733)
                             conde de
Aguilar y Frigiliana            

Viceroys of the Kingdom of Arag
ón (post established 1485/1517)
1693 - 1702                Baltasar de los Cobos y Luna       (b. c.1651 - d. 1715)
                             Mendoza Zúñiga y Manrique,
                             marqués de Camarasa
1702 - 1707                Antonio Ibáñez de la Riva Herrera,
(b. 1633 - d. 1710)
                             arzobispo de Zaragoza            
- for Carlos (III) in rebellion -
1706 - 1707                Antonio Colón de Portugal y        (b. 1657 - d. 17..)
                            
Cabrera, conde de la Puebla de
                             Portugal -Commandant-general
1710                       Fernando de Pignatelli y Brancia,
                             principe de Montecorvino         (b. 1654 - d. 1729)
French Military governor of Aragon
Feb 1810 - Jul 1813        Louis-Gabriel Suchet,              (b. 1770 - d. 1826)

                             (from 24 Jan 1812) duc d'Albuféra
                             da Valencia

President of the Supreme Governing Junta of Arag
ón and part of Castile (in dissidence)
27 May 1808 - Dec 1808     José Rebolledo de Palafox y Melzi  (b. 1775 - d. 1847)
President of the Royal Superior Governing Junta (from 7 Oct 1839,
Royal Junta of
Administration and Government
) of Arag
ón, Valencia and Murcia ("Carlist", in dissidence)
 1 Aug 1837 - Jul 1840     Ramón Cabrera Griñó, conde de
      (b. 1806 - d. 1877)
                             Morella                       

 ¹The style of the ruler:     
(a) before 1076 - 7 Sep 1134 (in Latin): Aragonensium et/vel Pampilonensium Rex ("Aragonese and/or Pamplonese King");
(b) 7 Sep 1134 - 18 Jun 1164 (in Latin): Aragonensium Rex/Regina ("Aragonese King/Queen");
(c) 18 Jun 1164 - 28 Sep 1238 (in Latin): Rex Aragonum (from 31 Dec 1229) et regni Majoricarum
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó (from 31 Dec 1229) e de Mallorques ("King of Aragón [from 31 Dec 1229] and of Majorca");
(d) 28 Sep 1238 - 21 Jul 1276 (in Latin): Rex Aragonum, Majoricarum et Valenciae
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó, de Mallorques e Valencia ("King of Aragón, Mallorca and Valencia");
(e) 21 Jul 1276 - 4 Sep 1282 (in Latin): Rex Aragonum
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó ("King of Aragón");
(f) 4 Sep 1282 - 11 Nov 1285 (in Latin): Rex Aragonum et Siciliae
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó è Sicilia ("King of Aragón and Sicily");
(g) 11 Nov 1285 - 20 Jun 1295 (in Latin): Rex Aragonum, (from 17 Jun 1291) Siciliae, Majoricarum et Valenciae ("King of Arag
ón, [from 17 Jun 1291] Sicily, Majorca and Valencia");
(h) from 20 Jun 1295 (in Latin): Rex Aragonum, Valenciae (from 19 May 1296) et Murciae
; (in Catalan): Rei d'Aragó, de Valencia (from 19 May 1296) et Murcia ("King of Aragón, Valencia [from 19 May 1296] and Murcia").


Baleares

[Balearic
                          Islands, King Sancho's banner reconstruction
                          1312-1344 (Spain)]
1312 - 29 Mar 1344 Mallorca Kingdom
31 Dec 1229                Mallorca and Balearic Islands conquered by Kingdom of Aragón
                             (Menorca from 1232, Ibiza from 1235).
27 Jul 1276                Mallorca and Montpellier separated from Aragón; Kingdom of
                             Mallorca independent.
1286                       Mallorca acquired by Aragón by force.
20 Jun 1295                Kingdom of Mallorca (restored), effective by treaty in 1298.
27 May 1343                Occupied by Aragón.
29 Mar 1344                Merged with the Crown of Aragón.
1349                       Montpellier is sold to the King of France by Jaume III.
23 Mar 1642                County of Roussillon is annexed by France.
28 Sep 1706 - 13 Jun 1715  Mallorca controlled by forces (to Jul 1713 mostly Austrian-British)
                             loyal to Carlos (III) during the war of Spanish succession in
                             opposition to Felipe V (Carlos withdrew his claims 25 Sep 1714).
15 Jul 1707                Constitutional abolition of the separate Crown of Aragón,
                             including on 28 Nov 1715 the Kingdom of Mallorca and its
                             institutions (Gran i General Consell and Consell Secret, the
                             executive body) and fueros (privileges) abolished, by the Nueva
                            
Planta decree by King Felipe V, the post of viceroy of Mallorca
                             replaced by captain-general of Mallorca (in 1718 additional post
                             of intendant created for financial matters).
24 Sep 1708 5 Feb 1782  British (again 1798-1802) and French (1756-1763) occupation
                             of Menorca.
1724                       Mallorcan representatives for the first time joined the (Spanish)
                             General Cortes.
 6 May 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  Remains loyal to deposed Bourbón King Fernando VII (on 30 May 1808
                             Supreme Governing Junta established, on 1 Jan 1809 downgraded
                             to an agency of the Supreme Central Governing Junta).

Kings of Mallorca (style Rex Majoricarum/Rei de Mallorques)   
27 Jul 1276 - 1286         Jaume II "el Justo" (the Just)     (b. 1243 - d. 1311)
                             (1st time)
1286 - 1298                part of Aragón                
1298 - 29 May 1311         Jaume II "el Justo" (2nd time)     (s.a.)
29 May 1311 -  4 Sep 1324  Sanç I "el Pacífico"               (b. 1277 - d. 1324)
                             (the Peaceful)
 4 Sep 1324 - 27 May 1343  Jaume III "el Temerario"           (b. 1315 - d. 1349)
                             (the Reckless)
27 May 1343 - 29 Mar 1344  Pere IV d'Aragó "el Cerimoniós"    (b. 1319 - d. 1387)
                            
(the Ceremonious)
29 Mar 1344 - 28 Nov 1715  the kings of Arag
ón
27 May 1343 - 25 Oct 1349  Jaume III "el Temerario"           (s.a.)

                             (in rebellion)  
25 Oct 1349 – 20 Jan 1375  Jaume IV (pretender)               (b. c.1336 – d. 1375)
20 Jan 1375 – 1406         Isabella -Queen (pretender)        (b. 1337 – d. 1406)
Viceroys of the Kingdom of Mallorca
(post established 1343/1520)
1698 - 1701                José Galcerán de Cartellá,         (b. 1651 - d. 1725)
                             marqués de Rafal
1701 - 1704                Francisco Miguel de Pueyo Herrera  (b. 1634 - d. 1719)
1704 - 1706                Baltasar Cristóbal de Híjar,       (b. 1673 - d. 1738)
                             conde de la Alcudia
- for Carlos [III] in rebellion -
1706 - 1709                Joan Antoni de Boixadors Pacs i    (b. 1672 - d. 1745) 

                             de Pinós, conde de Savallà
1709 - 1713                Jaime Rosell de Rocamora y Ruíz,   (b. 16.. - d. 1727)
                             marqués de Rafal y Benejúzar
1713 - 1715                Josep Antoni de Rubí i de          (b. 1669 - d. 1740)
                             Boixadors, marquès de Rubí

President of Supreme Governing Junta of Kingdom of Mallorca
30 May 1808 - Dec 1808     Juan Miguel de Vives y Feliu       (b. 1745 - d. 1809)
                             (= Joan Miquel Vives i Feliu)



Catalonia

[Flag of crown of
                          Aragón and Kingdom of Aragón, adopted before
                          1164 (Spain)]
from before 1164

[Flag Principality
                        of Catalonia c.1714, flag of Sant Jordi]
Principality of Catalonia c.1714


15 BC                      Barcelona a Roman settlement named Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia
                             Paterna Barcino.
415 AD                     Barcelona part of the Visigothic kingdom.
719 - 801                  Muslim rule
named Barjelunah. From 756 part of Emirate of Córdoba.
801                        County of Barcelona founded as part of the Frankish Marcae
                             Hispaniae
(Spanish March)(independent from 987).
18 Jun 1164                Count of Barcelona inherits the Kingdom of Aragón (see Aragón).
11 May 1258                Catalonia recognized as part of Aragón by France in Treaty
                             of Corbeil (ratified 16 Jul 1258).
1283                       Cort General de Catalunya (General Court of Catalonia), the local
                             parliament, established.
1359                       Diputació del General del Principado de Cataluña, the local
                             executive body, later known as the Generalitat, established.
1362                       First explicit reference to the "Principality of Catalonia", style
                             Principatus Cathalonie comes into formal, but non-statutory use,
                             as designation of the possessions of the count of Barcelona.
1367 - 1375                Diputació del General (Deputation of the General) suspended by the
                             Corts of Vilafranca.
11 Aug 1462                Civil war erupts in Catalonia.
17 Oct 1472                Barcelona subdued.
22 Dec 1472                Civil war in Catalonia terminated (with oath on Usajes, fueros y
                             constituciones de Cataluña).
23 Jan 1516                Crowns of Castille and Aragón united (from 1556, as the Spanish
                             Monarchy).
 7 Sep 1640 - 13 Oct 1652  República Catalana Lliure (Free Catalan Republic) declared by the
                             Generalitat under the protection of King Louis XIII of France (b.
                             1601 - d. 1643), who on 23 Jan 1641 is proclaimed as Count of
                             Barcelona (comte de Barcelona/comte de Barcelone) an who is
                             succeeded on 14 May 1643 by Louis XIV (b. 1638 - d. 1715).
 7 Nov 1659                France formally recognizes Spanish rule of Catalonia by Treaty 
                             of the Pyrenees, but France retains the comarques (counties) of
                             Roussillon, Conflent, Vallespir and part of la Cerdanya.
20 Jun 1705 - 11 Sep 1714  Carlos (III) of Austria (b. 1685 – d. 1740) is recognized 
                             as king by the Generalitat in opposition to Felipe V.
 9 Oct 1705 - 11 Sep 1714  Barcelona controlled by forces (to Jul 1713 mostly Austrian-British)
                             loyal to Carlos (III).
15 Jul 1707                Constitutional abolition of the separate Crown of Aragón and
                             including in Catalonia from 16 Sep 1714 and its institutions
                            (Cort General and Generalitat) by the Nueva Planta decree of King
                             Felipe V, the post of viceroy of Catalonia replaced by captain-
                             general of Catalonia (in 1718 additional post of intendant
                             created for financial matters).
16 Jan 1716                Nueva Planta decree applied the legal and administrative
                             organization of the Crown of Castile to Principality of Catalonia,
                             fueros (privileges) abolished.
1724                       Catalonian representatives for the first time joined the (Spanish)
                             General Cortes.
28 Feb 1808 -  1 Dec 1813  Occupied by France (Girona falls 12 Dec 1809)(Catalogne).
18 Jun 1808                Supreme Governing Junta established in Lérida, ruling in the name
                             of abdicated Fernando VII, in rebellion against the French (on
                             1 Jan 1809 downgraded to an agency of the Supreme Central
                             Governing Junta).
 8 Feb 1810                Napoléon confiscates Spain north of the Ebro River from his brother
                             Joseph (king José I Napoleón) and puts the provinces of Catalonia
                             under direct rule of their French military commanders.
26 Jan 1812                Division into départements of Bouches-de-l'Èbre, Montserrat,
                             Sègre, and Ter (effective 2 Feb 1812). The Catalan Val d'Aran
                             is attached to the département of Haute-Garonne.  
 2 Feb 1812                Catalonia is de facto annexed to France by decree that established
                             the French court system, removing it from military rule and
                             separating it from the rest of Spain.
 7 Mar 1813                Bouches-de-l'Èbre and Montserrat merged into Bouches-de-l'Èbre
                             -Montserrat; Sègre and Ter merged into Sègre-Ter.
 1 Dec 1813                Catalonia returned to Spain (Gerona retaken 10 Mar 1814; French
                             in Barcelona to 28 May 1814). The Val d'Aran is returned to
                             Spain by France in Mar 1815.
15 Jun 1822 - Oct 1822     Anti-constitutionalist insurrection establishes a Junta at Seo
                             de Urgel.
17 Jan 1837 - Jul 1840     "Carlists" insurrection establishes the Real Junta Superior
                             Gubernativa de Cataluña at Borreda (from 1837 at Berga).
 1 Nov 1874 - 19 Nov 1875  "Carlist" insurrection leader Carlos (VII) restores the Catalan
                             fueros and appoints a Diputación de Cataluña (Deputation of
                             Catalonia).

Counts of Barcelona (style comes Barchilonensis/conde de Barcelona)
c.801 – c.820              Berà (Berus)                       (d. 844)
c.820 – c.825              Rampón (Rampo)                     (d. c.825)
Feb 826 – 831              Bernat de Septimania (1st time)    (b. 795 – d. 844)
                             (Bernardus de Septimanie)
831 – c.835                Berenguer de Tolosa (Berengarius)
c.835 – 844                Bernat de Septimania (2nd time)    (s.a.)
844 – 848                  Sunifredo I (Sunicfredus I)        (d. 848)
848 – 850                  Guillem de Septimania (usurper)    (b. 826 – d. 850)
                             (Guilhelmus)
850 – 852                  Alerán (Aledramnus)                (d. 852)  
850 – 852                  Isembart –Co-ruler
852 – 858                  Odalric (Odalricus)                (d. 858)  
858 – 864                  Humfrid (Unifredus)                (d. af.876)
865 – 878                  Bernat II de Gothia                (d. c.879)
                             (Bernardus)
879 – 11 Aug 898           Guifré I (Wifredo) "el Pilós"      (d. 898)
                             (the Hairy)(Guiffredus I)
898 – 911                  Guifré II (or Borrell I)           (b. c.874 - d. 911)
                             (Guiffredus II [or Borellus II])
911 – 947                  Sunyer I (Suniarius)               (b. c.870 – d. 950)
947 – 992                  Borrell II (Borellus II)           (b. c.927 - d. 993)
947 – 966                  Miró (Miro) -co-ruler              (b. c.926 - d. 966)
30 Sep 992 - 25 Feb 1017   Ramón Borrell                      (b. 972 – d. 1017)
                             (Raimundus Borellus)
25 Feb 1017 – 31 Mar 1035  Berenguer Ramón I "el Corbat"      (d. 1035)
                             (the Hunchback)(Berengarius Raimundus I)
1017 - 1021                Ermessenda de Carcassona (f)-Regent(b. c.972 – d. 1058)
                             (Ermesidis Carcassonae) (1st time)
1035 - 1076                Ramón Berenguer I "el Vell"        (b. 1023 –d. 1076)
                             (the Old)(Raimundus Berengarius I)
1035 - 1039                Ermessenda de Carcassona (f)-Regent(s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1076 –  5 Dec 1082         Ramón Berenguer II                 (b. c.1053 - d. 1082)
                             "el Cap d'Estope" (the Towhead [Blonde])
                             (Raimundus Berengarius II)
                           - jointly with
1076 - 1097                Berenguer Ramón II "el Fratricida" (d. 1097/99)
                             (the Fratricide)(Berengarius Raimundus II)
                           - jointly with
 5 Dec 1082 – 23 Jan 1131  Ramón Berenguer III "el Gran"      (b. 1082 – d. 1131)
                             (Raimundus Berengarus III)
23 Jan 1131 –  6 Aug 1162  Ramón Berenguer IV "el Sant"       (b. c.1113 - d. 1162)
                             (the Saint)(Raimundus Berengarus IV)
 6 Aug 1162 - 16 Sep 1714  the kings of Aragón
11 Aug 1462 - 23 Apr 1463  Enrique IV de Castilla             (b. 1425 - d. 1474)
                             (in rebellion)
22 Jan 1464 - 29 Jun 1466  Pedro de Portugal                  (b. 1429 – d. 1466)
                             (in rebellion)
14 Oct 1466 - 17 Oct 1472  Renato de Anjou (René d'Anjou)     (b. 1409 – d. 1480)
                             (in rebellion)
23 Jan 1641 - 18 Jan 1653  the kings of France
                             (in dissidence)

French Viceroys (vice-roi de Catalogne)
Nov 1641 - May 1642        Urbain de Maillé, marquis de Brézé (b. 1597 - d. 1650)
25 Jun 1642 - 24 Dec 1644  Philippe de La Mothe-Houdancourt,  (b. 1605 - d. 1657)
                             duc de Cardone et de Fayel
                             (1st time)
24 Dec 1644 - 1647         Henri de Lorraine, comte           (b. 1601 - d. 1666)
                             d'Harcourt, d'Armagnac, de
                             Brionne et vicomte de Marsan         
Apr 1647 - Jun 1647        Louis II de Bourbon-Condé, prince  (b. 1621 - d. 1686)
                             de Condé
Jun 1647 - 31 Aug 1648     Michel Cardinal Mazarin            (b. 1605 - d. 1648)
1649 - 15 Nov 1651         Louis II de Bourbon, duc de        (b. 1612 - d. 1669)
                             Vendôme                 
15 Nov 1651 - May 1653     Philippe de La Mothe-Houdancourt,  (s.a.)
                             duc de Cardone et de Fayel
                             (2nd time)        
Viceroys of the Principality of Catalonia
(post established 1479/1520)
1698 - 1701                Jorge Luis, príncipe de Hesse-     (b. 1669 - d. 1705)
                             Darmstadt
1701 - 1703                Luis Antonio Tomás de Portocarrero (b. 1649 - d. 1723)
                             y Mendoza, conde de Palma del Río
1703 - 1705                Francisco Antonio de Velasco y     (b. 1649 - d. 1716)
                             Tovar, conde de Melgar        
1705 - 1706                José Antonio de Mendoza Caamaño y  (b. 1667 - d. 1746)
                             Sotomayor, marqués de Villagarcía
1706 - 1714                Claude François Bidal, marquis     (b. 1665 - d. 1743)
                             d'Asfeld
- for Carlos [III] in rebellion -
1705 - 1706                José Galceran de Pinós y Rocabertí,(b. 1665 – d. 1718)
                             marqués de Santa Maria de
                             Barberá -Governor
1706 - 1710                Leo de Ulfeldt, conde de Ulfeldt   (b. 1651 - d. 1716)
1711 - 1713                Isabel Cristina de Brunswick-      (b. 1691 - d. 1750)
                             Wolfenbüttel (f)
1713                       Guido Wald Rüdiger, conde de       (b. 1657 - d. 1737)
                             Starhemberg
1713 - 1714                Pedro de Torrellas y Sentmenat,    (b. 1663 - d. 1717)
                             marqués de Torrellas -Governor
French Governor
of Barcelona
Sep 1808 - Feb 1810        Guillaume Philibert Duhesme        (b. 1766 - d. 1815)
French Governors-general of Catalogne (Catalonia)
 8 Feb 1810 - 28 May 1810  Pierre François Charles Augereau,  (b. 1757 - d. 1816)
                             duc de Castiglione
May 1810 - Oct 1811        Jacques Étienne Joseph Macdonald,  (b. 1765 - d. 1840)
                             duc de Tarente 
30 Oct 1811 - 15 Nov 1813  Charles Decaen                     (b. 1769 - d. 1832)
15 Nov 1813 -  1 Dec 1813  Louis Gabriel Suchet, duc          (b. 1770 - d. 1826)
                             d'Albufera (acting)
French Governor of Barcelone
 1 Dec 1813 - 28 May 1814  Pierre Joseph Habert               (b. 1773 - d. 1825)
Prefect of Ter (from 7 Mar 1813, Sègre-Ter)
 2 Feb 1812 -  8 Feb 1814  Prudence Guillaume, baron de       (b. 1779 - d. 1836)
                             Roujoux de Buxeuil
Prefect of Sègre
 2 Feb 1812 -  7 Mar 1813  Jean-Louis Rieul de Viefville des  (b. 1781 - d. 1837)
                             Essarts
Prefect of Montserrat
 2 Feb 1812 -  7 Mar 1813  Achille Libéral, comte Treilhard   (b. 1785 - d. 1855)
Prefect of Bouches-de-l'Ebre (from 7 Mar 1813, Bouches-de-l'Èbre-Montserrat)
12 Feb 1812 - 15 Mar 1813  Jean-Paul Alban de Villeneuve-     (b. 1784 - d. 1850)
                             Bargemont

Deputation General of the Principality of Catalonia
(Diputació del General del Principado de Cataluña)
1359 - 16 Sep 1714         Presidents unrecorded¹
President of Supreme Governing Junta of Principality of Catalonia (in dissidence)
18 Jun 1808 - Dec 1808     Jerónimo Maria de Torres,          (b. 1730 – d. 1816)
                             obispo de Lérida   
French Intendant of Haute-Catalogne (assistant to governor-general for finance)
 1 Apr 1812 7 May 1813  Joseph Marie, baron de Gérando     (b. 1772 - d. 1842)
French Intendant of Basse-Catalogne (assistant to governor-general for finance)
15 Apr 18128 Feb 1814  Bernard François, baron Chauvelin  (b. 1766 - d. 1832)
President of Superior Provisional Junta of Catalonia (in dissidence)
15 Jun 1822 - Oct 1822     Bernardo Francés Caballero, bispo  (b. 1774 – d. 1843)
                             de Urgel
Presidents of Real Junta Superior Gubernativa de Cataluña ("Carlists",in dissidence)
Jan 1837 - Jul 1838        Jacinto de Orteu y de Altimir      (b. 1793 – d. 18..)
                             (1st time)
Jul 1838 - Oct 1839        Carlos de España y Couserans de    (b. 1775 – d. 1839)
                             Cominges, conde de España
Oct 1839 - Jul 1840        Jacinto de Orteu y de Altimir      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Presidents of the Deputation of Catalonia
(Presidente de la Diputación de Cataluña)
(appointed by "Carlists" insurrection leader Carlos (VII); in
Sant Joan de les Abadesses, from 1875 in Vidrà, then Urgell)
 1 Nov 1874 -  9 Mar 1875  Rafael Tristany i Parera (1st time)(b. 1814 - d. 1899)  Mil
 9 Mar 1875 - Aug 1875     Francesc Savalls i Massot          (b. 1817 - d. 1886)  Mil
Aug 1875 - 19 Nov 1875     Rafael Tristany i Parera (2nd time)(s.a.)               Mil

 ¹The Lists of "Presidents" of the Generalitat 1359-1714 are a modern work mainly coming from "Historia de la Generalitat de Catalunya i dels seus presidents" by Josep M. Solé i Sabaté published in 2003. The author picked the most prominent ecclesiastical deputies of the Diputació del General and designated them as presidents. The 109 original volumes of daily proceedings of the Diputació do not mention the elections or appointments of such officials.



Valencia

[Flag of Kingdom of
                        Aragón and Kingdom of Valencia, adopted before
                        1164 (Spain)]
Kingdom of Valencia,
from 1238

714 - 17 Jun 1094          Valencia under Muslim rule.
17 Jun 1094                Principality of Valencia.
10 Jun 1099 –  5 May 1102  Incorporated into Castile, governed by the widow of "El Cid."
 5 May 1102 - 28 Sep 1238  Muslim rule restored.
28 Sep 1238                Incorporated into the crown of Aragón as Kingdom of Valencia.
16 Dec 1705 - 26 Apr 1707  Valencia controlled by Austrian-British forces loyal to Carlos
                             (III) in opposition to Felipe V.
15 Jul 1707                Constitutional abolition of the separate Crown of Aragón,
                             including in Kingdom of Valencia and its institutions (Cortes
                             del Reino and Diputación del General del Reino, the executive
                             body) and fueros (privileges) abolished, by the Nueva Planta
                             decree of King Felipe V. The post of viceroy of Valencia is
                             replaced by a captain-general of Valencia (in 1718 additional
                             post of intendant created for financial matters).
1709                       Valencian representatives for the first time joined the (Spanish)
                             General Cortes.
25 May 1808                Supreme Governing Junta established, ruling in the name of
                             abdicated Fernando VII, in rebellion against the French (on
                             1 Jan 1809 downgraded to an agency of the Supreme Central
                             Governing Junta).
Jan 1812 - Apr 1813        Valencia under French occupation.

Prince
17 Jun 1094 - 10 Jun 1099  Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar "El Cid"      (b. 1043 – d. 1099)
Kings of Valencia
28 Sep 1238 - 15 Jul 1707  the Kings/Queens of Aragón

Viceroys of the Kingdom of Valencia (post established 1520)
1696 - 1700                Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán y Marañon   (b. 1637 - d. 1708)
1700 - 1705                Antonio Domingo de Mendoza Caamaño  (b. 1667 - d. 1746)
                             y Sotomayor, marqués de Villagarcía
1705 - 1706                Joaquín Ponce de León, duque de     (b. 1664 - d. 1729)
                             Arcos
1706 - 1707                Cristóbal de Moscoso Montemayor     (b. c.1653 - d. 1749)
                             y Córdoba, conde de las Torres
1707                       Luis Antonio de Belluga y Moncada,  (b. 1662 - d. 1743)
                             obispo de Cartagena
- for Carlos [III] in rebellion -
1705 - 1706                Juan Bautista Basset y Ramos        (b. 1654 - d. 1728)
1706                       José Folch de Cardona Erill y Borja,(b. 1651 - d. 1729)
                             conde de Cardona 
1706 - 1707                Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Sandoval,(b. 1650 - d. 1720)
                             conde de la Corzana

President of the Supreme Governing Junta of Kingdom of Valencia (in dissidence)
25 May 1808 - Dec 1808     Rafael Vasco y del Campo, conde     (b. 1748 - d. 1811)
                             de la Conquista de los Batanes



Crown of Castile

[Kingdom of Castile and Leon, 1230-1516
                        (Spain)]
Crown of Castile Adopted 1230

23 Jan 1516                Union of the Crown of Castile with the Crown of Aragón (from 1556,
                             as part of the Spanish Monarchy)(for early Castile see under
                             Spain). The Crown of Castile consists of the Kingdoms of
                             Castile, León, Granada, Toledo, Galicia, Murcia, Córdoba, Jaén,
                             Sevilla, the Canary Islands, Principality of Asturias, and the
                             Lordships of Vizcaya (Biscay) and Molina.
1705                       Crown of Castile is administratively divided into the captaincies-
                             general of Andalucía, Burgos, Canary Islands, Castilla la Nueva
                             (from 1714), Castilla la Vieja, Extremadura, Galicia, Granada,
                             and Guipúzcoa.
1709                       Spanish General Cortes (Cortes Generales del Reino) convened for
                             the first time.
 9 Jun 1715                Constitutional abolition of the separate crown of Castile and
                             its institutions (Cortes de Castilla and Diputación de Cortes
                             the executive body) and its fueros (privileges) are abolished
                             by the Nueva Planta decree.
1718                       Former Crown of Castile (except the Basque provinces) additionally
                             divided into 23 intendancies for financial matters, they were
                             subsequently known as provinces (number of intendancies remained
                             unchanged until 1799, when more intendancies were created).
Mar 1808 – Mar 1813        Madrid under the French occupation (interrupted Aug 1808 -
                             Dec 1808 and Aug 1812 - Nov 1812), eventually the French
                             occupy the whole mainland Spain, except Cádiz and Murcia.
25 May 1808                Supreme Governing Juntas established, ruling in the name of the
                             abdicated Fernando VII, in rebellion against the French (on
                             1 Jan 1809 downgraded to agencies of the Supreme Central
                             Governing Junta).

Kings of Castile, León, Granada, Toledo, Galicia, etc.
24 Sep 1230 -  9 Jun 1715  the Kings/Queens of Castile/Spain

Presidents of the Royal and Supreme Council of Crown of Castile (post established 1402)
1699 - 1703                Manuel Arias y Porres,              (b. 1638 - d. 1717)
                             arzobispo de Sevilla
1703 - 1706                José de Solís y Valderrábano,       (b. 1643 - d. 1713)
                             conde de Montellano
1706 - 1713                Francisco Ronquillo Briceño,        (b. 1644 - d. 1717)
                             conde de Gramedo

Provincial Supreme Governing Juntas (in dissidence)
- Asturias: President of the Supreme Governing Junta of Principality of Asturias -
25 May 1808 - Dec 1808     Ignacio Flórez Arango               (b. 1754 - d. 1809)
- Cordoba: President of the Supreme Governing Junta of Cordoba -
28 May 1808 - Dec 1808     Joaquín Fernández de Córdova y      (b. 1754 - d. 1812)
                             Hoces, marqués de la Puebla de
                             los Infantes
- Extremadura: President of the Supreme Provincial Junta of Extremadura -
 1 Jun 1808 - Dec 1808     José Galluzo y Paéz                 (b. 1746 - d. 1817)
- Granada, President of the Supreme Governing Junta of Kingdom of Granada -
30 May 1808 - Dec 1808     Ventura Escalante y Bruin           (b. 1740 - d. 1810)
- Jaén: President of the Supreme Governing Junta of Kingdom of Jaén -
 1 Jul 1808 - Dec 1808     Manuel de Torres y Valdivia
- Murcia, President of the Supreme Governing Junta of Kingdom of Murcia -
25 May 1808 - Dec 1808     José Moñino y Redondo, conde        (b. 1728 - d. 1808)
                             de Floridablanca
- Sevilla: President of the Supreme Governing Junta of Sevilla (from Jun 1808,
self-titled "of Spain and the Indies") -
27 May 1808 - Dec 1808     Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis   (b. 1746 - d. 1819)
- Toledo: President of Supreme Governing Junta of Toledo -
15 Jul 1808 - Dec 1808     Luis María Cardenal de Borbón y     (b. 1777 - d. 1823)
                             Vallabriga, arzobispo de Toledo

 
León


[Kingdom of Leon flag (Spain)]

718                        Elective kingship set up in Asturias in opposition to Muslim
                             rule in Spain (later referred to as Kingdom of Asturias),
                             claiming sucession from the Visgothic kingdom.
Summer 722                 Reconquista begins with the Battle of Covadonga.
747                        León retaken by Asturias.
842                        Kingship made hereditary.
10 Dec 910                 Capital is moved to León, the polity later becomes known as
                             Kingdom of León (Regnum Legionense/Reino de León).
 4 Sep 1037 - 27 Dec 1065  León annexed by Castile (ratified by coronation 22 Jun 1038).
1055                       Salamanca annexed by León.
27 Dec 1065 - 12 Jan 1072  León and Galicia separated from Castile by agreement.
Jun 1071                   Galicia taken over by Castile by force.
12 Jan 1072 - 21 Aug 1157  Personal union with Castile.
27 Jul 1139                Portugal becomes an independent kingdom.
21 Aug 1157 - 24 Sep 1230  León and Galicia again separated from Castile.
1229/1230                  Extremadura and Mérida annexed by León.
24 Sep 1230                León inherited by Castile (contrary to last testament),
                             both are effectively reunited in the Crown of Castile.
27 May 1808                Supreme Governing Junta established, ruling in the name of
                             abdicated Fernando VII, in rebellion against the French (on
                             1 Jan 1809 downgraded to an agency of the Supreme Central
                             Governing Junta).
Jan 1809 - Aug 1812        León under French occupation.

Kings (Spanish names with Latin in parentheses)
718 - 737                  Pelayo Favilañez                   (b. 68. - d. 737)
                             (Pelagius Fafilanis)  
737 -  1 Jun 739           Favila Pelayez (Fafila Pelagiis)   (b. 71. - d. 739) 
Jun 739 - 757              Alfonso I Pérez "el Católico"      (b. c.705 - d. 757)
                             (Adefonsus I Petris) 
757 - 768                  Froila I Alfonsez                  (b. c.722 - d. 768) 
                             (Froila I Adefonsis)
768 - 774                  Aurelio Froilez (Aurelius Froilis) (b. 73. - d. 774)
774 - 783                  Silo (Silo)                        (b. 73. - d. 783) 
783 - 788                  Mauregato Alfonsez                 (b. 74. - d. 788) 
                             (Mauregato Adefonsis)
788 - 14 Sep 791           Bermudo I "el Diacono"             (b. c.750 - d. 797)
                             (Veremundus I Froilis)
14 Sep 791 - 20 Mar 842    Alfonso II Froilez "el Casto"      (b. c.765 - d. 842)
                             (Adefonsus II Froilis)
20 Mar 842 - May? 842      Nepotiano (Nepocianus)             (b. 78. - d. af.842)
May? 842 -  1 Feb 850      Ramiro I Bermúdez                  (b. c.790 - d. 850)
                             (Ranimirus I Veremundis)   
 1 Feb 850 - 27 May 866    Ordoño I Ramírez                   (b. c.830 - d. 966)
                             (Hordonius I Ranimiris)
27 May 866 - 20 Dec 910    Alfonso III Ordóñez "el Magno"     (b. c.848 - d. 910)
                             (Adefonsus III Hordoniis)
20 Dec 910 - May? 914      García I Alfonsez
                             (Garsea Adefonsis)               (b. c.871 - d. 914)
May? 914 - Apr 924         Ordoño II Alfonsez                 (b. c.873 - d. 924)
                             (Hordonius II Adefonsis)
Apr 924 - Aug 925          Froila II Alfonsez "el Leproso"    (b. c.875 - d. 925)
                             (Froila II Adefonsis)
Aug 926 - Aug 931          Alfonso IV Ordóñez "el Monje"      (b. 89. - d. 933)
                             (Adefonsus IV Hordoniis)
Aug 931 - 31 Jan 951       Ramiro II Ordóñez "el Grande"      (b. 89. - d. 951)
                             (Ranimirus II Hordoniis)
31 Jan 951 - Oct? 956      Ordoño III Ramírez                 (b. c.926 - d. 956)
                             (Hordonius III Ranimiris)
Oct? 956 - Feb 958         Sancho I Ramírez "el Craso"        (b. c.933 - d. 966)
                             (Sancius I Ranimiris)(1st time)
Feb 958 - Jun 960          Ordoño IV Alfonsez "el Malo"       (b. c.926 - d. 962)
                             (Ordoño IV Alfonsez)
Jun 960 - Dec 966          Sancho Ramírez I "el Craso"        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
Dec 966 - 26 Jun 985       Ramiro III Sánchez                 (b. c.961 - d. 985)
                             (Ranimirus III Sanciis)
Dec 966 - c.975            Elvira Ramírez (f) -Regent         (b. c.935 - d. c.986)
                             (Gilvira Ramiris)
26 Jun 985 -  7 Sep 999    Bermudo II Ordóñez "el Gotoso"     (b. c.953 - d. 999)
                             (Veremundus II Hordoniis)
                             (in rebellion from 15 Oct 982)
 7 Sep 999 -  7 Aug 1028   Alfonso V Bermúdez "el Noble"      (b. c.994 - d. 1028)
                             (Adefonsus V Veremundis)
 7 Sep 999 -  6 Oct 1008   Menendo González -Regent           (b. 9.. - d. 1008)
                             (Menendus Gundisalvis)
 7 Aug 1028 -  4 Sep 1037  Bermudo III Alfonsez               (b. 1017 - d. 1037)
                             (Veremundus III Adefonsis)
 4 Sep 1037 - 27 Dec 1065  Fernando I "el Magno"              (b. c.1016 - d. 1065)
                             (Fredenandus I)(also king of Castile)
27 Dec 1065 - 12 Jan 1072  Alfonso VI "el Bravo"              (b. c.1040 - d. 1109)
                            
(Aldefonsus VI Fredenandis)
                             (in León)
27 Dec 1065 - Jun 1071     García Fernández (in Galicia)      (b. c.1042 - d. 1090)
                             (Garsea Fredenandis) 
12 Jan 1072 - 21 Aug 1157  the Kings/Queens of Castile  

Nov 1072 - 13 Feb 1073     García Fernández (in rebellion)    (s.a.)
                            
(Garsea Fredenandis) 
 8 Mar 1126 - 21 Aug 1157  Alfonso VII "el Emperador"         (b. 1105 - d. 1157)
                             (also king of Castile)
21 Aug 1157 - 22 Jan 1188  Fernando II                        (b. 1137 - d. 1188)
22 Jan 1188 - 24 Sep 1230  Alfonso IX                         (b. 1171 - d. 1230)
24 Sep 1230 -  9 Jun 1715  the Kings/Queens of Castile/Spain
1296 - 26 Jun 1300         Juan de Castilla y León            (b. 1260 - d. 1319)
                             (in rebellion)

Presidents of the Supreme Governing Junta of the Kingdom of León
(from 10 Jul 1808, of León and Castile)(in dissidence)
27 May 1808 - 22 Jun 1808  Manuel Castañón y Monroy           (b. 17.. - d. 1826)
22 Jun 1808 - Dec 1808     Antonio Valdés y Bazan             (b. 1744 - d. 1816)

 ¹The style of the ruler:
(a) c.925 - 21 Aug 1157 (in Latin):
Legionis Rex/Regina ("King/Queen of Ln");
(b) from 21 Aug 1157 (in Latin): Rex Legionis et Galleciae
; (in Leonese): Rey de León e de Galicia ("King of León and Galicia").


Galicia

[Galicia Flag of
                        the 16th century (Spain)]
16th century Flag

409                        Suebi found a kingdom in the province of Gallaecia.
585 - 712                  Part of the Visigothic kingdom.
718                        Part of the kingdom founded in Austrias; later called
                             the Kingdom of León (see León).
20 Dec 910 - May? 914      Kingdom of Galicia (Galliciense Regnum), separated from León.
926 - 929                  Kingdom of Galicia, in rebellion from León.
27 Dec 1065                León and Galicia separated from Castile by agreement.
Jun 1071                   Galicia taken over by Castile by force.
1296 - 26 Jun 1300         Kingdom of Galicia, in rebellion from Castile.
Jun 1369 - 31 Mar 1371     Kingdom of Galicia, occupied by Portugal in Castile succession
                             dispute.
25 Jul 1386 -  8 Jul 1388  Kingdom of Galicia, in rebellion from Castile.
 5 Jun 1475 -  4 Sep 1479  Kingdom of Galicia, in rebellion from Castile.
 2 Jun 1808                Supreme Governing Junta established, ruling in the name of the
                             abdicated Fernando VII, in rebellion against the French (on
                             1 Jan 1809 downgraded to an agency of the Supreme Central
                             Governing Junta).
Jan 1809 - Jun 1809        Galicia under the French occupation.
15 Apr 1846 – 23 Apr 1846  Regionalist insurrection establishes a Junta at Santiago de
                             Compostela.

Kings (Spanish with Latin names in parentheses until 1126)
20 Dec 910 - May? 914      Ordoño II Alfonsez                  (b. c.873 - d. 924)
                             (Hordonius II Adefonsis)
                             (from May? 914, King of León)
926 - 929                  Sancho I Ordóñez                    (b. c.895 - d. 929)
                             (Sancius I Hordoniis)
27 Dec 1065 - Jun 1071     García II (Garsea II Fredenandis)   (b. c.1142 - d. 1190)
                             (in dissidence in León Nov 1072 - 13 Feb 1073)
17 Sep 1111 -  9 Mar 1126  Alfonso VII "el Emperador"-Co-ruler (b. 1105 - d. 1157)
                             (Aldefonsus VII)
                             (from 9 Mar 1126, King of
León)
1296 - 26 Jun 1300         Juan de Castilla y León             (b. 1260 - d. 1319)
                            
(in dissidence)
Jun 1369 - 31 Mar 1371     Fernando I de Portugal              (b. 1345 - d. 138
3)
25 Jul 1386 -  8 Jul 1388  Juan de Gante (in dissidence)       (b. 1340 - d. 1399)
                             (John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster)
 5 Jun 1475 -  4 Sep 1479  Afonso V de Portugal                (b. 1432 - d. 1481)
                             (king of Portugal 1438-1481)
                           + Juana de Castilla (f) -Queen      (b. 1462 - d. 1530)
                          (in dissidence, in Toro; from 1476 in Portugal exile)

President of the Supreme Governing Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia
(in dissidence)
 2 Jun 1808 - Dec 1808     Pedro María Cisneros de Castro y    (b. 1770 - d. 1824)
                             Ulloa, conde de Gimonde
President of the Superior Governing Junta of Galicia (in dissidence)
15 Apr 1846 - 23 Apr 1846  Pío Rodríguez-Terrazo Blanco        (b. 1800 - d. 1872)



Basque Provinces

[Baque Flag of
                        Political Conference 1859-1877 (Spain)]
Political Conference Flag 1859-1877

c.1040                     Lordship of Bizcaya, under the Kingdom of Navarra.
1077                       Fief of Castile (1134 - 1199 again under Navarra), the fueros
 
                           (separate fiscal and other laws and privileges) granted in the
                             Navarrese period continued within the Crown of Castile.
1379                       Lordship of Bizcaya held by the king of Castile.
1718                       Three Basque provinces (Álava [Araba], Vizcaya [Bizkaia], and
                             Guipúzcoa [Gipuzkoa]) omitted from the division of the former
                             crown of Castile into intendancies, retained their fueros.
1775 - 1877                Political Conferences of the Basque Provinces, consisting of the
                             representatives of each provincial assembly (Juntas Generales)
                             and chaired by the chief executive (Diputado General) of the
                             province hosting the conference (majority hosted by Guipúzcoa),
                             dealing with general Basque matters (sanctioned by the Royal
                             Sanction of 1800).
16 Feb 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  Basque provinces are occupied by the French.
 6 Jul 1808                Napoleonic constitution of Spain admits existence of fueros of
                             the Basque provinces.
 8 Feb 1810 - 11 Dec 1813  Government of Biscay (covering all three Basque provinces)
                             directly subordinate to the French Emperor, but nominally part
                             of the Kingdom of Spain, traditional provincial institutions
                             are abolished.
19 Mar 1812                Anti-Napoleonic constitution of Spain omits any references to the
                             Basque fueros (on 15 Oct 1814 the king of Spain confirms the
                             fueros).
May 1820 - May 1823        Traditional provincial institutions are abolished (and again
                             1835 - Dec 1839 and 1842 - 1844).
24 Aug 1822 - May 1823     Anti-constitutionalist insurrection establishes a united Basque
                             Junta at Villanueva (Hiriberri) in Navarra.
12 Oct 1833 - Feb 1836     "Carlists" insurrection establishes a Junta of Álava (at Vitoria,
                             lost by "Carlists" 19 Nov 1833, later at Bernedo), in other two
                             Basque provinces insurgent Deputations were established as well.
25 Oct 1839                Law approved confirming the fueros of the Basque Provinces without
                             prejudice to the constitutional unity of the (Spanish) Monarchy,
                             the fueros remain in a restricted form.
21 Jul 1876                Almost all remaining fueros of the Basque Provinces are abolished,
                             as well as the traditional provincial institutions (effective
                             in 1877).

French Military governor of Biscay (in Vitoria)
17 Feb 1810 - Dec 1813     Pierre Thouvenot                    (b. 1757 - d. 1817)
                             (from 13 Feb 1811, Pierre, baron Thouvenot)
Governing Junta (in some sources Junta Superior or Junta General)
of the Basque Provinces
(in dissidence)
24 Aug 1822 - May 1823     Junta   
                           - Manuel Fernando Zavala Vidarte    (b. 1788 - d. 1853)
                              (president)
                           - José Ignacio de Uranga Azcune     (b. 1788 - d. 1860)
                           - Francisco María de Gorostidi      (d. 1835)
President of the Royal Governing Junta of Alava (in dissidence)
12 Oct 1833 - Feb 1836     Valentín de Verástegui y Varona     (b. 1789 - d. 1878
)


Navarra

[Standard of the
                        Kings of Navarra since 1212, also used as flag
                        of Basse Navarre] c.1212 - 16 Aug 1841

Map of Kingdom of Navarra
Capital: Pamplona (Iruña)
Population: 222,000 (1803)

6.. - 781                  Pamplona under Frankish rule (part of Gascogne).
714 - 755                  Pamplona city occupied by Muslims.
781 - 798                 
Pamplona under Muslim rule.
798 – 824                  Pamplona under Frankish rule (part of Gascogne).
824                        Separated from Gascogne by revolt; Kingdom of Pamplona
                             (Pampilonensium regnum).
18 Oct 1035                Pamplona divided into separate Kingdom of Navarra (Regnum
                             Navarrae
), Kingdom of Aragón, and Kingdom of Castile.
 4 Jun 1076 - Sep? 1134    Incorporated into Aragón by force.
1199                       Álava (Araba) and Vizcaya (Bizkaia) are annexed by Castile.
 2 Feb 1231 -  8 May 1234  Inherited by Aragón.
 8 May 1234 -  6 Apr 1305  Inherited by County of Champagne (Comitatus Campaniensis/Conté
                             de Champaigne
).

 6 Apr 1305 -  1 Feb 1328  Inherited by France.
27 Jun 1458 - 19 Jan 1479  Personal union with Aragón.
25 Jul 1512                Upper Navarra (Kingdom of Navarra south of the Pyrenees) is
                             annexed to Castile and Aragón (from 1556, the Spanish monarchy),
                             but retaining its institutions and many fueros (separate fiscal
                             and other laws and privileges), eventually neither part of the
                             Crown of Aragón, nor the Crown of Castile (Navarra declined
                             representation at Cortes of Castile); oath of allegiance of
                             of Estates 23 Mar 1513.

May 1521 - 30 Jun 1521     Navarrese-Béarnese army supporting the House of Albret occupies
                             Spanish Navarra.
 2 Aug 1589                Lower Navarre (Basse-Navarre) is inherited by the King of
                             France (see under Provinces of France).
16 Feb 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  Navarra occupied by the French.
 
6 Jul 1808                Napoleonic constitution of Spain admits existence of fueros of
                             Navarra.
 8 Feb 1810 - Oct 1813     Government of Navarra directly subordinate to the French Emperor,
                             but nominally part of the Kingdom of Spain, institutions of the
                             Kingdom of Navarra abolished.
19 Mar 1812                Anti-Napoleonic constitution of Spain omits any references to the
                             Kingdom of Navarra or fueros.
1813                       Navarrese representatives for the first time joined the Spanish
                             General Cortes.
 4 May 1814                Institutions of the Kingdom of Navarra restored, fueros confirmed
                             by the king.
May 1820 - 16 Apr 1823     Institutions of the Kingdom of Navarra abolished (the kingdom is
                             declared extinguished on 21 Jan 1822).
11 Dec 1821 - 16 Apr 1823  Anti-constitutionalist insurrection establishes a Junta at
                             Ochagavía (Otsagi).
15 Nov 1833 - 31 Aug 1839  "Carlists" insurrection establishes the Real Junta Gubernativa de
                             Navarra
at Estella (Lizarra).
25 Oct 1839                Law approved confirming the fueros of Navarre without prejudice to
                             the constitutional unity of the (Spanish) Monarchy, fueros
                            
remain in a restricted form.
16 Aug 1841                Kingdom of Navarra is fully incorporated into Spain (but with
                             provincial fiscal autonomy), its institutions (Cortes del Reino
                             and Diputación del Reino, the executive body) and the post of
                             viceroy are abolished.
1872 - 1875                "Carlists" insurrection re-establishes the Real Junta Gubernativa
                             de Navarra
at Urdax (Urdazubi), later Elizondo.
21 Jul 1876                Almost all of the last remaining fueros of Navarra are abolished.

Kings of Pamplona (style Rex Pampilonensium)
(Spanish named with Latin and Basque in parentheses)
824 – 852                  Iñigo Iñíguez                       (b. c.789 – d. 852)
                             (Enneco Enneconis Arista)
                             (Eneko Aritza)

852 – 882                  García Iñíguez                      (b. 82. - d. 882)
                             (Garsia Enneconis)(Gartzea Eneko)
882 – 905                  Fortún Garcés                       (b. 84. - d. af.905)
                             (Fortunus Garseranis)
                             (Fortun Gartzea)
905 - 11 Dec 925           Sancho I Garcés                     (b. c.880 - d. 925)
                             (Sancius I Garseanis)
                             (Antso I Gartzes)

29 May 925 - 22 Feb 970    García I Sanches                    (b. c.919 – d. 970)
                             (Garsia I Sancionis)
                             (Gartzea I Santxez)
11 Dec 925 - 29 May 931    Jimeno Garcés -Regent               (b. 88. - d. 931)
                             (Eximinus Garseanis)(Semeno Gartzes)
29 May 931 - Feb? 933      Íñigo Garcés -Regent                (b. 86. - d. af.933) 
                             (Enneco Garseanis)(Eneko Gartzea)
Feb? 933 - 937             Toda Aznárez (f) -Regent            (b. c.885 - d. 96.) 
                             (Tota Isinaris)(Toda Aznar)
22 Feb 970 - Dec 994       Sancho II Garcés "Abarca"           (b. c.937 – d. 994)
                             (Sancius II Garseanis)
                             (Antso II Gartzez Abarka)
                           - jointly with -
22 Feb 970 -  8 Jul 981    Ramiro Garcés (in Viguerra)         (b. c.939 - d. 981)
                             (Ranimirus Garseanis)(Ramiro Gartzea)  
Dec 994 - Dec 999          García II Sánchez                   (b. c.964 - d. 999)
                             (Garsia II Sancionis)
                             (
Gartzea II Santxez)         
Dec 999 - 18 Oct 1035      Sancho III Garcés "el Mayor"        (b. c.992 – d. 1035)
                             (Sancius III Garseanis)
                             (Antso III Gartzez Nagusia)        
Dec 999 - 1005             Jimena Fernández (f) -Regent        (b. 96. - d. af.1035)
                             (Eximina Fredinandis)
                             (
Semena Fernandez
18 Oct 1035 -  1 Sep 1054  García Sánchez III                  (b. 100. – d. 1054)
                             (Garsea III Sancionis)
                             (Gartzea III Santxez)          
 1 Sep 1054 -  4 Jun 1076  Sancho IV Garcés "el Noble"         (b. 1039 – d. 1076)
                             (Sancius IV Garsianis)
                             (Antso IV Nafarroakoa)     
 4 Jun 1076 -  4 Jun 1094  Sancho I Ramírez (Sancius Ranimiris)(b. 1042 - d. 1094)
                             (Antso V Ramiro)(also king of Aragón)
 4 Jun 1094 – 29 Sep 1104  Pere I Sánchez (Petrus I Sanciis)   (b. 1068 – d. 1104)
29 Sep 1104 - Sep? 1134    Alfons I Sánchez "el Bataller"      (b. 1073 – d. 1134)
                             (Adefons I Sanciis)
                             (Alfontso I Borrokalaria)
Sep? 1134 - 21 Nov 1150    García IV "el Restorador" (Garsea V)(b. 1105? - d. 1150)
                             (Gartzea IV Berrezarlea)
Kings of Navarra¹
(Spanish or French names with Basque in parentheses)
21 Nov 1150 - 27 Jun 1194  Sancho VI "el Sabio"
               (b. 1132 – d. 1194)  
                             (
Antso VI Jakintsua)    
24 Jun 1194 -  7 Apr 1234 
Sancho VII "el Fuerte"              (b. 1154? – d. 1234)
                             (
Antso VII Azkarra) 
 8 May 1234 -  8 Jul 1253  Thibaut I (
Tibalt I Koblakaria)     (b. 1201 – d. 1253)
 8 Jul 1253 -  4 Dec 1270  Thibaut II (
Tibalt II Gaztea)       (b. 1237 – d. 1270)
 4 Dec 1270 - 22 Jul 1274  Henric I (
Henrike I Gizena)         (b. 1238 – d. 1274)
22 Jul 1274 -  6 Apr 1305  J
ehanne I (Joana I) –Queen          (b. 1273 – d. 1305)
                           - jointly with -
22 Jul 1274 – 27 Aug 1274 
Blanche d'Artois (f) –Regent        (b. 1248 – d. 1302)
                             (
Blanka Artoiskoa)
16 Aug 1284 -  6 Apr 1305  Philippe I (
Filipe I Ederra)        (b. 1268 – d. 1314)
                             (from 2 Oct 1285, Philippe IV "le Bel" King of France) 
 6 Apr 1305 -  5 Jun 1316  Louis I (Luis I)  
                 (b. 1289 – d. 1316)
                             (Louis X "le Hutin" King of France)  
 5 Jun 1316 - 17 Jul 1316  Charles, comte de Valois -Regent    (b. 1270 - d. 1325)
17 Jul 1316 - 15 Nov 1316  Philippe, comte de Poitiers -Regent (b. 1293 - d. 1322)
                             (1st time)
15 Nov 1316 – 19 Nov 1316  Jean I (Joanes I)
                  (b. 1316 – d. 1316)
                             (Jean I "le Posthume" King of France) 
15 Nov 1316 - 19 Nov 1316  Philippe, comte de Poitiers -Regent (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
19 Nov 1316 -  3 Jan 1322 
Philippe II (Filipe II)             (s.a.)
                             (Philippe V "le Long" King of France)
                             (= Philippe, comte de Poitiers)
 3 Jan 1322 -  1 Feb 1328  Charles I (Karlos I)               
(b. 1292 – d. 1328)
                             (Charles IV "le Bel" King of France)
 1 Feb 1328 -  6 Oct 1349  Jehanne II (
Joana II) –Queen        (b. 1311 – d. 1349)
                           - jointly with  -
 9 Oct 1328 – 26 Sep 1343 
Philippe III "la Sage" (Filipe III) (b. 1306 – d. 1343)
 6 Oct 1349 –  1 Jan 1387  Charles II "le Male" (
Karlos II)    (b. 1332 – d. 1387)
 1 Jan 1387 -  8 Sep 1425  Charles III "le Noble" (
Karlos III) (b. 1361 – d. 1425)
 8 Sep 1425 -  3 Apr 1441  Blanche I (
Blanka I) -Queen         (b. 1385 - d. 1441)
                           - jointly with -
 8 Sep 1425 – 19 Jan 1479 
Joan II (Joanes II)                 (b. 1398 – d. 1479)
                             (from
27 Jun 1458, Joan II "el Sense Fe" King of Aragón)
 1 Apr 1441 – 23 Sep 1461  Charles (IV) de Viana (
Karlos [IV]) (b. 1421 – d. 1461)
                             (in opposition)
23 Sep 1461 -  2 Dec 1464  Blanche (II)(
Blanka [II])Queen    (b. 1424 – d. 1464)
                             (in opposition) 
19 Jan 1479 - 12 Feb 1479 
Leonor I (Elionor I) -Queen         (b. 1425 - d. 1479)
                             (regent 30 May 1471 - 19 Jan 1479)
12 Feb 1479 - 30 Jan 1483  François I Phèbus                   (b. 1466 – d. 1483)
                             (Frantzisko I Febus)
12 Feb 1479 -  3 Nov 1482  Cardinal Pierre de Foix -Regent
    (b. 1449 - d. 1490)
30 Jan 1483 – 25 Jul 1512  Catharina I (Katalina I) –Queen     (b. 1468 – d. 1517)
                           - jointly with -
                             (continues in
Basse-Navarre only to 12 Feb 1517)
14 Jul 1484 - 25 Jul 1512  Jean III d'Albret (Joanes III)      (b. 1469 - d. 1516)
                             (continues in Basse-Navarre only to 14 Jun 1516)
23 Mar 1513 - 23 Jan 1516  Fernando I "el Católico"            (b. 1452 - d. 1516)
                             (Fernando II as king of Aragon 1479 – 1516)
                             (assumed the title of King of Navarra in Aug 1512)
23 Jan 1516 - 12 Apr 1555  Juana III "la Loca" –Queen          (b. 1479 - d. 1555)
                             (Joana III)
                             (Juana I as queen of Castile 1504-1555)
                           - jointly with -
23 Jan 1516 – 16 Jan 1556  Carlos IV (Karlos IV)               (b. 1500 - d. 1558)
                             (Carlos I as king of Castile 1516 - 1556)
16 Jan 1556 - 16 Aug 1841  the Kings/Queens of Spain

Note: After 1556 under the Castilian/Spanish rulers Navarra continued to be a kingdom in more than name until 16 Aug 1841. A significant symbol of this fact is that in Navarra the kings were proclaimed with a different numbering than in the crown of Castile/Spanish Monarchy, as follows:

16 Jan 1556 - 13 Sep 1598  Felipe IV (Felipe II in Spain)
13 Sep 1598 - 31 Mar 1621  Felipe V (Felipe III in Spain)
31 Mar 1621 - 17 Sep 1665  Felipe VI (Felipe IV in Spain)
17 Sep 1665 -  1 Nov 1700  Carlos V (Carlos II in Spain)
16 Nov 1700 - 14 Jan 1724  Felipe VII (1st time)(Felipe V in Spain)
14 Jan 1724 - 31 Aug 1724  Luis II (Luis I in Spain) 
 6 Sep 1724 -  9 Jul 1746  Felipe VII (2nd time) 
 9 Jul 1746 - 10 Aug 1759  Fernando II (Fernando VI in Spain)
10 Aug 1759 - 14 Dec 1788  Carlos VI (Carlos III in Spain) 
14 Dec 1788 - 19 Mar 1808  Carlos VII (Carlos IV in Spain)
19 Mar 1808 -  6 May 1808  Fernando III (Fernando VII in Spain)
 6 May 1808 -  4 May 1814  interruption
 
4 May 1814 - 21 Jan 1822  Fernando III (2nd time)
21 Jan 1822 - 16 Apr 1823  interruption
16 Apr 1823 – 29 Sep 1833  Fernando III (3rd time)
29 Sep 1833 - 16 Aug 1841  Isabel I -Queen (Isabel II in Spain) 
 1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839  Carlos VIII (Carlos V in Spain) 
                             (Carlist insurrection)

Viceroys of Navarra (post established 1512)
1699 - 1702                Domingo Pignatelli y Vagher,       (b. 1642 - d. 1703)
                             marqués de San Vicente    
1702 - 1706                Luis Francisco de Benavides y      (b. 1665 - d. 1706)
                             Aragón, marqués de Solera   
1706                       Fernando de Moncada Aragón
y       (b. 1646 - d. 1712)
                             Gaetano de la Cerda, duque de
                             San Juan (1st time) 
1706 - 1709                Alberto Octavio Tserclaes de Tilly (b. 1646 - d. 1715)
1709 - 1712                Fernando de Moncada Aragón y       (s.a.)
                             Gaetano de la Cerda, duque de
                             San Juan (2nd time)
1712 - 1713                Pedro Nuño Colón de Portugal y     (b. 1676 - d. 1733)
                             Ayala, duque de Veragua  
1713 - 1721                Tomás de Aquino y Aquino,          (b. 1669 - d. 1721)
                             príncipe de Castiglione
1722 - 1722                Gonzalo Chacón de Orellana y       (b. c.1651 - d. 1722)
                             Mendoza
1723 - 1739                Cristóbal de Moscoso Montemayor
y  (b. c.1653 - d. 1749)
                             Córdoba, conde de Las Torres 
1739 - 1749                Antonio Pedro Nolasco de Lanzós    (b. 1688 - d. 1754)
                             y Taboada, conde de Maceda
1749 - 1753                Juan Buenaventura Dumont, conde    (b. 1682 - d. 1753)
                             de Gages
1754 - 1760                Manuel de Sada y Antillón          (b. 1677 - d. 1764)
1760                       Juan Francisco Güemes y Horcasitas,(b. 1681 - d. 1766)
                             conde de Revillagigedo 
1760 - 1765                Luis Carlos González de Albelda    (b. 1686 - d. 1765)
                             y Cayro, marqués del Cairo 
1765                       Honorato Ignacio de Glimes de      (b. 1725 - d. 1804)
                             Brabante, conde de Glimes   
1765 - 1768                Ambrosio de Funes Villalpando y    (b. 1720 - d. 1780)
                             Abarca de Bolea, conde de Ricla
1768 - 1773                Alonso Vicente de Solís y Folch    (b. 1708 - d. 1780)
                             de Cardona, duque de Montellano
1773 - 1780                Francisco de Paula de Bucarelli    (b. 1708 - d. 1780)
                             y Ursúa Lasso de la Vega Villacís
                             y Córdova
1780 - 1787                Manuel de Azlor y Urriés           (b. 1708 - d. 1787)
1788 - 1795                Martín Antonio Álvarez de Sotomayor(b. 1723 - d. 1819)
                             y Soto Flores, conde de Colomera
1795 - 1796                Pablo de Sangro Gaetani d'Aragona  (b. 1746 - d. 1815)
                             y Merode, príncipe de Castelfranco
1796 - 1798                Joaquín de la Fonsdeviela y Undiano(b. 1730 - d. 1798)
1798 - 1807                Jerónimo Morejón Girón, marqués    (b. 1741 - d. 1819)
                             de Las Amarillas
1807                       José Miguel de Carvajal-Vargas y   (b. 1771 - d. 1828)
                             Manrique de Lara Polanco, duque
                             de San Carlos
1807 - 1808                Leopoldo de Gregorio y Paternó,    (b. 1749 - d. 1819)
                             marqués de Vallesantoro
1808 - 1809                Francisco Javier de Negrete y      (b. 1763 - d. 1827)
                             Adorno, conde del Campo de Alange
1809 - 1810                Luis Antonio de Bertón des Balbes  (b. 1775 - d. 1832)
                             y Román, duque de Mahón
French Military governors of Navarra

 8 Feb 1810 - Jul 1810
    Georges Joseph Dufour              (b. 1758 - d. 1820)
Jul 1810 - Feb 1812        Honoré Charles Michel Joseph,      (b. 1775 - d. 1860)
                             comte Reille               
Feb 1812 - Oct 1813        Jean-Nicolas Louis, baron Abbé     (b. 1764 - d. 1834)
Viceroys of Navarra
1813 - 1814                Post abolished
1814 - 1820                José Manuel de Ezpeleta y Galdeano
                             Dicastillo y Prado, conde de
                             Ezpeleta de Beire                (b. 1742 – d. 1823)
1820 - 1823                Post abolished
1823                       Carlos de España y Couserans de
                             Cominges, conde de España        (b. 1775 – d. 1839)
1823 - 1824                Luis Rebolledo de Palafox y Melzi,
                             marqués de Lazán                 (b. 1772 – d. 1843)
1824 - 1826                Juan José Ruiz de Apodaca y Eliza,
                             conde de Venadito                (b. 1754 – d. 1835)
1826 - 1830                Prudencio de Guadalfajara y        (b. 1761 - d. 1855)
                             Aguilera, duque de Castro-Terreño
1830 - 1832                Manuel Llauder y Camín, marqués
                             del Valle de Rivas               (b. 1789 – d. 1851)
1832 - 1834                Antonio Solá de Figueras
1834                       Pedro Sarsfield y Waters, conde
                             de Sarsfield                     (b. 1779 – d. 1837)
1834 - 1837                Joint or single Viceroys appointed
                           for periods of a few months

1837 - 1838                Manuel Latre Huarte                (b. 1789 – d. 1840)
1838                       Isidro de Alaix Fábregues, conde
                             de Vergara                       (b. 1790 – d. 1853)
1838 - 1839                Diego de León y Navarrete, conde
                             de Belascoaín                    (b. 1807 – d. 1841)
1839 - 1840                José Felipe Ribero y Lemoine       (b. 1797 – d. 1873)

Secretaries of the Diputación del Reino and of the Cortes del Reino
1776 - 1810                Diego María de Basset y Aldaz      (b. 1753 – d. 18..)
                             (1st time)
1810 - 1814                Post abolished
1814 - 1816                Diego María de Basset y Aldaz      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1816 - 1820                José Javier de Basset (1st time)
1820 - 1823                Post abolished
1823 - 1834                José Javier de Basset (2nd time)
1834 - 1839                José Yanguas y Miranda             (b. 1782 – d. 1863)
Presidents of the Real Junta Gubernativa de Navarra

11 Dec 1821 - 16 Apr 1823  Joaquín Antonio Lacarra            (b. 1767 – d. 1831)
                            (in dissidence)
15 Nov 1833 - 31 Aug 1839  Juan Echeverría                    (b. 1795 - d. c.1865)
                            (from 15 May 1838, president of Diputación Provisional del Reino)

                            ("Carlist", in dissidence)

1872 - 1875                Cesáreo Sanz y López               (b. 1810 - d. c.1875)

                            ("Carlist", in dissidence)

 ¹The style of the ruler:   
(a) Sep? 1134 - 18 May 1234 (in Latin): Rex Navarrae ("King of Navarre");
(b) 8 May 1234 - 5 Oct 1285 (in Castilian): 
Rei/Reina de Navarra ("King/Queen of Navarre");
(c) 5 Oct 1285 - 6 Apr 1305, 29 Sep 1314 - 1 Feb 1328 (in Castilian): Rei/Reina de Francia et de Navarra; (in Latin): Franciae et Navarrae Rex/Regina
("King/Queen of France and of Navarre");
(d) 6 Apr 1305 - 29 Sep 1314, 1 Feb 1328 - 27 Jun 1458 (in Castilian): Rei/Reina de Navarra; (in Latin): Rex/Regina Navarrae
("King/Queen of Navarre");
(e) 27 Jun 1458 - 19 Jan 1479 (in Castilian):
Rei/Reina Daragón, de Navarra, de Sicilia, de Valencia, de Mallorcas, de Cerdenya, de Córçega; (in Latin): Rex/Regina Aragonum, Navarrae, Siciliae, Valenciae, Maioricarum, Sardiniae et Corsicae ("King/Queen of Aragón, of Navarre, of Sicily, of Valencia, of Majorca, of Sardinia and Corsica);
(f) 19 Jan 1479 - 6 May 1808, 11 Dec 1813 - 16 Aug 1841 (in Spanish): Rei/Reina de Navarra; (in Latin): Rex/Regina Navarrae
("King/Queen of Navarre").



Minorca

[Flag of the
                          Great Britian 1606]
24 Sep 1708 - 28 May 1756;
10 Feb 1763 - 20 Jan 1782;
15 Nov 1798 - 27 Mar 1802

Map of Minorca
Capital: Port Mahon
(Ciutadella 1708-1714)
Population: 28,000 (1787)

24 Sep 1708                Minorca (Menorca) Island occupied by British forces in
                             the name of King Carlos (III).
Aug 1712                   British take over administration.
13 Jul 1713                Formally ceded to U.K. by the Treaty of Utrecht.
1714                       British colony.
28 May 1756 - 10 Feb 1763  French occupation.
 5 Feb 1782                Spanish occupation.
20 Jan 1783                Restored to Spain by the Treaty of Paris.
15 Nov 1798 - 27 Mar 1802  British occupation.
27 Mar 1802                Restored to Spain by the Peace of Amiens.

British Military commander
24 Sep 1708 - 1711         James Stanhope                     (b. 1673 - d. 1721)
Governors
1708 - 1711                José de Izaguirre
                             (Spanish civil governor)
1711 - Aug 1712            Francisco Tomás
                             (Spanish civil governor)

 7 Jun 1712 - 1713         John Campbell, Duke of Argyll      (b. 1680 - d. 1743)

 
1 Apr 1714 - 1714         Charles Mordaunt, Earl of          (b. 1658 - d. 1735)
                             Peterborough
 
5 Oct 1714 - 29 Jun 1716  John Campbell, Duke of Argyll      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
16 Jul 1716 - 10 Feb 1732  George Carpenter (from 29 May 1719)(b. 1657 - d. 1732)
                            
Baron Carpenter, of Killaghy in
                             the County of Kilkenny
1732 - 31 Dec 1736         Richard Kane                       (b. 1666 - d. 1736)
26 Sep 1737 - Mar 1742     Algernon Seymour, Earl of Hertford (b. 1684 - d. 1750)
17 Apr 1742 - 1747         John Dalrymple, Earl of Stair      (b. 1673 - d. 1747)
1747 - 28 May 1756         James O'Hara, Baron Tyrawley,      (b. 1682 - d. 1774)
                            
Baron Kilmaine
1756 - 1758                Hyacinthe Gaëtan, comte de Lannion (b. 1719 - d. 1762)
                             (1st time)
 1 May 1758 -  2 Apr 1759  Jean Toussaint de la Pierre de     (b. 1697 - d. 1759) 
                             Frémeur, marquis de Frémeur 
1759 - 1760                Louis-Félicien de Boffin           (b. 1716 - d. 1778)
                             d'Argenson, marquis de Puisigneu
                             (1st time)
1760 - 21 Oct 1762         Hyacinthe Gaëtan, comte de Lannion (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1762 - 1763                Louis-Félicien de Boffin           (s.a.) 
                             d'Argenson, marquis de Puisigneu
                             (2nd time) 
1763 - 1766                Sir Richard Lyttelton              (b. 1718 - d. 1770)
1766 - Feb 1768            Sir George Howard                  (b. 1718 - d. 1796)
 
2 Mar 1768 - 16 Feb 1779  John Mostyn                        (b. 1710 - d. 1779)
Apr 1779 -  5 Feb 1782     James Murray                       (b. 1719 - d. 1794)
 5 Feb 1782 - 15 Nov 1798  Spanish rule
15 Nov 1798 - 25 Mar 1801  Charles Stuart                     (b. 1753 - d. 1801)
                            
(from 8 Jan 1799, Sir Charles Stuart)
1801 - 27 Mar 1802         Henry Edward Fox                   (b. 1755 - d. 1811)

Lieutenant governors (often acting for absentee governors)
1708 - 1711                Lewis Des Etans Petit              (b. 1665? - d. 1720)
                             (also appointed
Spanish lieutenant governor)
Aug 1711 - 1712            John Fermo
r                        (b. 1674 - d. 1722)
10 Nov 1712 - 1733         Richard Kane                       (s.a.)
1717 - 1719               
George Forbes (acting for Kane)    (b. 1685 - d. 1765)
1719 - 1720                Lewis Petit
(acting for Kane)      (s.a.)
1725 - 1726                James Otway (acting for Kane)      (b. 1672 - d. 1726)
 
5 Jun 1733 - 1747         Philip Anstruther                  (b. c.1680 - d. 1760)
1736 - 1738                William Pinfold                    (d. 1760)
                             (acting for Anstruther)
1742 - 1744                Roger Peter Handasyde?             (b. c.1684 - d. 1763)
                             (acting for Anstruther)
1745 - 1747                John Wynyard                       (b. 1677 - d. 1752)
                             (acting for Anstruther)
30 May 1748 - 28 May 1756  William Blakeney                   (b. 1672 - d. 1761)
Intendant of the French Army on Minorca
28 May 1756 - 1763         Antoine de Causan
Lieutenant governors
 
3 Jun 1763 - 1774         James Johnston                     (b. 1721 - d. 1797)
1764 -  4 Dec 1765         Thomas Townshend                   (b. 1725 - d. 1773)
                             (acting for Johnston)
24 Dec 1774 - Apr 1779     James Murray                       (s.a.)
1779 -  5 Feb 1782         Sir William Draper                 (b. 1721 - d. 1787)
 5 Feb 1782 - 15 Nov 1798  Spanish rule
1798 - Nov 1799            Sir James St. Clair Erskine        (b. 1762 - d. 1837)
Nov 1799 - 1801            Henry Edward Fox                   (s.a.)
1801 - 27 Mar 1802         William Douglas MacLean Clephane   (b. 1759 - d. 1803)



Cantonal Revolution of 1873


Note: The Cantonal Revolution was a leftist political movement favoring federalism during first Spanish Republic. The federalist sentiment did not give rise to autonomous states, but instead it burst into a constellation of "independent" cantons (cantòns) intended to become part of a Spanish Federation. The insurrection began in Cartagena on 12 July 1873 (although the Alcoy "Revolución del Petróleo" (Oil Revolution) had broken out three days earlier), extending into the regions of Andalusia, Murcia, and Valencia and other parts of Spain. Some cantons were provincial in nature, like Valencia or Málaga, but most comprised only a city and its environs. Cantonal revolts occurred in: Alcoy (9-13 Jul 19873), Algeciras (22 Jul - 8 Aug 1873), Alicante (20-23 Jul 1873), Almansa (19-21 Jul 1873), Andújar (22 Jul 1873), Bailén (22 Jul 1873), Béjar (22 Jul 1873), Cádiz (19 Jul - 4 Aug 1873), Camuñas (1873), Cartagena (12 Jul 1873 - 13 Jan 1874), Castellón (21-26 Jul 1873), Córdoba (23-24 Jul 1873), Granada (20 Jul - 12 Aug 1873), Gualchos (23 Jul 1873), Jaén, Jumilla, Loja, and Málaga (22 Jul - 19 Sep 1873), Motril (22-26 Jul 1873), Murcia (14 Jul - 12 Aug 1873), Lorca (25-26 Jul 1873), Orihuela (30 Aug 1873), Plasencia (1873), Salamanca (19 Jul 1873), Sevilla (30 Jun - 1 Jul 1873), Tarifa (22 Jul 1873), Torrevieja (19-25 Jul 1873), and Valencia (18 Jul - 8 Aug 1873). Only Cartagena, which had imposed its authority over a wider area, became a major center of the federalist movement and resisted for six months.


[Red flag used by
                        Cantonal Revolts 1873 (Spain)]

Cantonal Authorities
-
Algeciras, Mayor (Alcalde) -
22 Jul 1873 -  8 Aug 1873
 Francisco Guerrero 
- Alicante, President of the Committee of Public Safety -
20 Jul 1873 - 23 Jul 1873  Antonio Gálvez Arce             (b. 1819 - d. 1898)
-
Cádiz, Mayor (Alcalde) - Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety -
19 Jul 1873
 -  4 Aug 1873  Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez      (b. 1842 - d. 1907)
- Torrevieja - President of the Canton Junta -
19 Jul 1873 - 25 Jul 1873  Concepción "Concha" Boracino    (b. 1859 - d. af.1887)
                             Calderón (f)
-
Castellón, President of Revolutionary Junta -
21 Jul 1873 - 26 Jul 1873  Francisco González Chermá       (b. 1832 - d. 1896)
-
Málaga, Civil Governor -
22 Jul 1873 - 19 Sep 1873
 Francisco Sorlier
-
Motril, President of the Committee of Public Safety -
23 Jul 1873 - 26 Jul 1873  Ruperto Vidaurreta de la Cámara (b. c.1853 - d. ....)

- Valencia, President of the Revolutionary Junta -
19 Jul 1873 -  8 Aug 1873  Pedro Barrientos Robles         (b. 1818 - d. 1891)
-
Cartagena, President of the Junta of Public Salvation (from 2 Sep 1873, Sovereign Junta) -
12 Jul 1873 -
12 Jan 1874  Pedro Gutiérrez de la Puente    (b. 1818 - d. 1875)
-
Sevilla, President of the Revolutionary Junta (from 31 Jun 1873,
President of the Social Federal Democratic Junta) -

30 Jun 1873 -  1 Jul 1873  Miguel Mingorance
- Sevilla, Mayor (Alcalde)(from 29 Jul 1873, President of the Committee of Public Safety) -
18 Jul 1873 - 31 Jul 1873 
Pedro Ramón de Balboa
- Granada,
President of the Committee of Public Safety -
21 Jul 1873 - 12 Aug 1873  Francisco Lumbreras Sáez
 
The umbrella government at Cartagena:

[Red flag used by Cantonal
                Revolt 1873-1874 (Spain)]

                                        
President of the Provisional Directory
24 Jul 1873 - 27 Jul 1873  Juan Contreras y Román          (b. 1807 - d. 1881)  Mil
President of the Provisional Government of the Spanish Federation
27 Jul 1873 - 12 Jan 1874  Juan Contreras y Román          (s.a.)               Mil



© Ben Cahoon