World Statesmen.org HOME >

 

 

 





Morocco
 
[Morocco flag 1666-1915]
  1666 - 17 Nov 1915
[Morocco Flag variant 17th
                                    cent. - 1915]
1666 - 17 Nov 1915 Variant

[Flag of
                                  Morocco]
Adopted 17 Nov 1915

Map of Morocco
Hear National Anthem
"Hymne Chérifien"
(Hymn of the Sharif)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1956 (lyrics 1970)
Constitution
(29 Jul 2011)
-------------------------------------

Former Constitution

 (10 Oct 1996- 29 Jul 2011)
Capital: Rabat (ar-Ribaat)
(Rabat, Fez, Meknes,
or Marrakesh 1666-1907;
Tafilalt 1631-66; Marrakesh
1524-1631; Fez 1472-1524;
Asila 1465-1472)
Currency: Moroccan Dirham
(MAD); 1881-1959 Moroccan
Franc (MAF)
National Holiday: 30 Jul (1999)
Throne Day
 (Accession of

King Muhammad VI)
Population: 34,314,130 (2018)
GDP: $298.6 billion (2017)
Exports: $21.48 billion (2017)
Imports: $39.64 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Amazigh (Berber) 45% (of which Arabized 24%),
Arab 44%, Moors 10%, other 1% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 195,800 (2010)
Merchant marine: 87 ships (2018)
Religions: Muslim 99% (official; virtually all Sunni, 0.1% Shia),
 other 1% (includes Christian, Jewish, and Baha'i);
note - Jewish about 6,000 (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, ACS (observer), AfCFTA (signatory), AfDB, AFESD, AIIB (applicant), AL, AMF, AMU, Arabsat, AU, BIS, BTWC, CAEU, CD, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, EBRD, ECOWAS (pending), ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-11, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, Moon, NAM, NATO (mediterranean dialogue), NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), OST, PA (observer), PAM, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SEGIB (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Morocco
Index
Chronology
688 - 750                  Part of Umayyad Caliphate.
750 - 789                  Part of Abbasid Caliphate.
744 - 1058                 Barghawata (Barghwata or Berghouata) rule a
                             Berber kingdom around Tamesna. 
758 - 1055                 Sijilmasa an independent Berber kingdom.
789 - 985                  Maghrib al Aqsa under the Idrisid dynasty;
                             from 920, resisting Fatimid rule.
920 - 925                  Part of Fatimid Caliphate.
927 - 937                  Part of Fatimid Caliphate.  
937 - 1014                 Northern parts of Morocco under Cordoba Caliphate.
974 - 987                  Part of Fatimid Caliphate.
1062                       Marrakesh founded.
1063 - 1147                Part of the Almoravid Sultanate (Morocco and most
                             of the Iberian peninsula, Western Sahara, Mali,
                             and Mauritania and Western Algeria).
 3 Apr 1147 - 1269         Part of the Almohad Caliphate (Morocco and parts
                             of the Iberian peninsula, Algeria, Tunisia and
                             Western Libya)(in opposition to Almoravids
                             from 1121).
1268 - 1465                Marinid dynasty rule (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia,
                             and Southern Spain 1275-1340)(in opposition to
                             the Almohads from 1195).
1472 - 1548                Wattasid dynasty rules from Fez.
1549 - 1666                Sa'adi dynasty established, rules only in southern
                             Morocco until 1554.
 6 Jun 1666                Sharifi Moroccan State (al-Dawla al-Maghribiyya
                             al-Sharifiyya), the A`lawi Filali Sharifi 
                             dynasty, begins rule.
 4 Feb 1860 -  2 May 1862  Tétouan occupied by Spain.
 5 Aug 1907 -  7 Aug 1907  French bombard and occupy Casablanca.
 7 Aug 1907 - 30 Mar 1912  French gradual occupation (Fez on 21 May 1911).
 8 Jun 1910                Spain occupies northern Morocco.
30 Mar 1912 -  2 Mar 1956  French protectorate (see below).
27 Nov 1912 -  7 Apr 1956  Spanish protectorate in so-called Spanish Southern
                             zone (see below).
 1 Jun 1925 - 29 Oct 1956  Tangier zone an international protectorate.
18 Jul 1936                Spanish Nationalists take over Spanish Morocco. 
16 Jun 1940 -  8 Nov 1942  French Morocco administration loyal to Vichy France
                             (from 8 Nov 1942 [under François Darlan and Henri
                             Giraud to 3 Jun 1943], Free French).
14 Aug 1957                Kingdom of Morocco (al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah,
                             literally "the Western Kingdom").
26 Feb 1976                Morocco and Mauritania partition Western Sahara.
11 Aug 1979                Mauritanian part of Western Sahara annexed by
                             Morocco.
Western Sahara
French Morocco
(1912-1956)
Spanish Morocco
(1913-1956)
 Rif Republic
(1921-1923)
 Tangier
(1421-1684,
1925-1956)
 Ifni
(1860-1969)
Portuguese  Possessions
Mazagan

(1506-1769)
Aguz
(1506-1526)
Alcácer Ceguer
(1458-1550)

Arzila
(1471-1550,
1577-1589)
Azamor
(1513-1541)
Larache
(1610-1689)
Mamora
(1614-1681)
Mogador
(1506-1510)
Safim
(1488-1541)
Santa Cruz do
Cabo de Gué
(1505-1541)
 

Note: During the period covered by this record, there are numerous "pretenders" being proclaimed rulers, in part because of the multiplicity of historic capitals. Their names
appear here, with each one being indicated as "in rebellion."

Sultans¹
 6 Jun 1666 -  9 Apr 1672  `Ali I ar-Rashid                   (b. 1631 - d. 1672)
                             (actually from 3 Aug 1664)
Apr 1672                   Muhammad I
14 Apr 1672 - 21 Mar 1727  Abu´n Nasr Isma`il "as-Samin"      (b. 1645/46 - d. 1727)
                             (in rebellion from 27 Mar 1672)
1672 - 1684                al-Harrani ibn Muhammad ash-Sharif
                             (in rebellion)
1672 - 1684                Abu´l Abbas Ahmad I ibn Mahraz
                             (in rebellion)
16 Sep 1704 -  7 Jul 1705  al-`Alam ibn Isma`ill al-Samin
                             (in rebellion)
22 Mar 1727 - 13 Mar 1728  Abu´l Abbas Ahmad II "adh-Dhahabi"
                             (1st time)                       (b. c.1677 - d. 1729)
13 Mar 1728 - 18 Jul 1728  `Abd al-Malik
18 Jul 1728 -  5 Mar 1729  Abu´l Abbas Ahmad II "adh-Dhahabi"
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 5 Mar 1729 - 28 Sep 1734  `Abd Allah (1st time)              (b. 1694 - d. 1757)
28 Sep 1734 - 14 Feb 1736  `Ali II "al-A`raj"
14 Feb 1736 -  8 Aug 1736  `Abd Allah (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1736 - 19 Jun 1738  Muhammad II "ibn al-`Arabiyya"
19 Jun 1738 - Feb 1740     al-Mustadi (1st time)              (d. 1759)
Feb 1740 - 13 Jun 1741     `Abd Allah (3rd time)              (s.a.)
13 Jun 1741 - 24 Nov 1741  Zayn al-`Abidin ibn Isma`ill
                             al-Samin
24 Nov 1741 -  3 Feb 1742  `Abd Allah (4th time)              (s.a.)
 3 Feb 1742 - May 1743     al-Mustadi (2nd time)              (s.a.)
May 1743 - 1747            `Abd Allah (4th time)              (s.a.)
1747 - Oct 1748            al-Mustadi (3rd time)              (s.a.)
1748 - Oct 1748            Muhammad III "al-Khatib"           (b. c.1710 - d. 1790)
                             (1st time) 
Oct 1748 - 10 Nov 1757     `Abd Allah (5th time)              (s.a.)
10 Nov 1757 -  9 Apr 1790  Muhammad III "al-Khatib"           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
10 Dec 1790 - Jan 1795     Hisham (1st time)                  (d. 1799/1800) 
                             (in Marrakech only)
11 Apr 1790 - 23 Feb 1792  Yazid (in Fas only)                (b. 1750 - d. 1792)
1790 - 1792                `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Muhammad
                             (in rebellion)
11 Mar 1792 - 28 Nov 1822  Abu´r-Rabi Sulayman                (b. 1760 - d. 1822)
                             (to Jan 1795 in Fas only)
1792 - 1799                Maslama ibn Muhammad
                             (in rebellion in northeast) 
Oct 1795 - 29 Nov 1797     Hisham (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
                             (in rebllion in Marrakech)
1805                       Muhammad Darhazi 
                             (in rebellion in Wazan)
1811 - 1816                Abu Bakr Amha'us 
                             (Berber leader, in rebellion in central Atlas)
10 Nov 1820 - 15 Mar 1821  Ibrahim ibn Yazid 
                             (in rebellion in Fas and Tatuan)
1820 - 1822                Sa`id (in rebellion)
15 Mar 1821 - 1821         Sa`id ibn Yazid (in rebellion)
30 Nov 1822 - 28 Aug 1859  Abu al-Fadl `Abd ar-Rahman         (b. 1778 - d. 1859)
1822                       `Abd as-Salam (in rebellion)
1832                       Muhammad ibn Tayyib
                             (in rebellion in Fas)
28 Aug 1859 - 16 Sep 1873  Muhammad IV                        (b. 1803 - d. 1873)
1859                       `Abd ar-Rahman (in rebellion)
16 Sep 1873 -  9 Jun 1894  Hasan I                            (b. 1827/28 - d. 1894)
1873                       `Abd al-Kabir
                             (in rebellion in Miknasa)
 9 Jun 1894 -  4 Jan 1908  `Abd al-`Aziz                      (b. 1878 - d. 1943)
1895                       Muhammad (V) (in rebellion)        (b. c.1875 - d. af.1909)
 3 Apr 1903 - 22 Aug 1909  Muhammad (V) (in rebellion in Taza)(b. c.1865 - d. 1909)
 5 May 1907 - 24 Nov 1907  `Abd al-Hafiz (1st time)           (b. 1875 - d. 1937)
                             (in rebellion)
 4 Jan 1908 - 12 Aug 1912  `Abd al-Hafiz (2nd time)           (s.a.)
25 Apr 1911 - 1911         al-Za'in                           (d. af.1926)
                             (in rebellion in Miknasa)
Apr 1911 - 1911            al-Kabir ibn `Abd al-`Aziz 
                             (in rebellion)
1911                       `Arafa ibn Muhammad (in rebellion)
13 Aug 1912 - 17 Nov 1927  Yusuf                              (b. 1882 - d. 1927)
18 Aug 1912 -  6 Sep 1912  Ahmad al-Hayba (in rebellion)      (b. c.1870 - d. 1919)
18 Nov 1927 - 20 Aug 1953  Muhammad V (1st time)              (b. 1909 - d. 1961)
                            
(in Madagascar exile to Nov 1955)
20 Aug 1953 - 30 Oct 1955  Muhammad (VI) ibn `Arafa           (b. 1889 - d. 1976)

30 Oct 1955 - 16 Nov 1955  Council of Throne
                           - Mohamed bin `Abd as-Salam        (b. 1851 - d. 1957)
                               al-Muqri (El Mokri)
                           - M'barek al-Bekkai                (b. 1907 - d. 1961)
                           - Tahar Ouassou Loudiyi            (b. 1924 - d. 1993)
                           - Mohamed Sbihi                    (b. 1884 - d. 19..)
 6 Nov 1955 - 14 Aug 1957  Muhammad V (2nd time)              (s.a.)
                            
(returned from exile 16 Nov 1955)
Kings
¹
14 Aug 1957 - 26 Feb 1961  Muhammad V                         (s.a.)
26 Feb 1961 - 23 Jul 1999  Hassan II                          (b. 1929 - d. 1999)
23 Jul 1999 -              Muhammad VI                        (b. 1963)

Grand Viziers
1792 - 18..                Mohamed bin 'Utman
c.1808                     Si Mohammed Slaoui
1820 - 1822                Abu `Abd Allah Mohamed bin         (b. 1797 - d. 1877)

                             Ahmad Akansus 
1822 - 1831                Abu `Abd Allah Mohamed bin Idris   (b. c.1784 - d. 1847)
                             bin Mohamed al-Azamuri al'Amrani 
                             al-Fasi (1st time)
1831 - 1835                ....
1835 - 1847                Abu `Abd Allah Mohamed bin Idris   (s.a.)
                             bin Mohamed al-Azamuri al'Amrani 
                             al-Fasi (2nd time)
c.1848 - c.1853            al-Mukhtar al-Jama'i
1853 - 1854 (2 months)     Mohamed Gharit
1854 - 185.                Mohamed al-Saffar 

1859 - 1878                Musas bin Ahmad                    (d. 1878)
1879 - 1886                Mohamed bin al-Arbi al-Jama'i      (d. 1886)
1886 - 10 Jul 1894         al Mati al-Jama'i
10 Jul 1894 - 17 May 1900  Sidi Ba Ahmad bin Musa             (b. 1841/42 - d. 1900)
May 1900 - Jul 1900        al-Muhtar bin 'Abd Allah bin Hamid
1901 - 1906                Mohamed al-Mufaddal bin 
                             Mohamed al-Garit (acting)
1906 - 1907                al-Amin al-Haji 'Umar Tazi
1907 - 1908                Mohamed bin `Abd as-Salam          (s.a.)
                             al-Muqri (1st time) 
May 1908 - Dec 1908        `Abd al-Karim bin Sulayman         (b. 18.. - d. 1908) 
                             (acting)
Dec 1908 - 26 May 1911     al-Mandani al-Glawi al-Fiqi
Dec 1911 - 1913            Mohamed bin Abd as-Salam           (s.a.)
                             al-Muqri (2nd time) 
 7 Nov 1913 - 1917         Sidi Mohamed bin Mohamed al-Gabbus
29 Aug 1917 - 19 Oct 1955  Muhammad bin Abd-Salam             (s.a.)
                             al-Muqri (3rd time) 
19 Oct 1955 - 22 Nov 1955  Fatmi bin Slimane Pasha            (b. 1898 - d. 1980)  Non-party
Prime ministers (formally President of the Council 7 Dec 1955 - 13 Nov 1963 and
 8 Jun 1965 - 7 Jul 1967; Prime minister 13 Nov 1963 - 8 Jun 1965 and 7 Jul 1967 -
29 Jul 2011
; from 29 Jul 2011, Chief of government)  

 7 Dec 1955 - 12 May 1958  M'barek Bekkai                     (s.a.)               Non-party
12 May 1958 - 16 Dec 1958  Ahmed Balafrej                     (b. 1908 - d. 1990)  PI
16 Dec 1958 - 20 May 1960  Abdallah Ibrahim                   (b. 1918 - d. 2005) PI;1959 UNFP
20 May 1960 - 26 Feb 1961  Muhammad V                         (s.a.)               Non-party
20 May 1961 - 13 Nov 1963  Hassan II (1st time)               (s.a.)               Non-party
13 Nov 1963 -  7 Jun 1965  Ahmed Bahnini                      (b. 1909 - d. 1971)  FDCI
 7 Jun 1965 -  7 Jul 1967  Hassan II (2nd time)               (s.a.)               Non-party
 7 Jul 1967 -  6 Oct 1969  Mohamed Benhima bin Taiyib         (b. 1924 - d. 1992)  Non-party
 6 Oct 1969 -  6 Aug 1971  Ahmed Moulay Laraki                (b. 1931 - d. 2020)  Non-party
 6 Aug 1971 -  2 Nov 1972  Muhammad Karim Lamrani (1st time)  (b. 1919 - d. 2018)  Non-party
 2 Nov 1972 - 22 Mar 1979  Ahmed Osman                        (b. 1930)            RNI
22 Mar 1979 - 30 Nov 1983  Maati Bouabid                      (b. 1927 - d. 1996)  UC
30 Nov 1983 - 30 Sep 1986  Muhammad Karim Lamrani (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Non-party
30 Sep 1986 - 11 Aug 1992  Azzedine Laraki                    (b. 1929 - d. 2010)  Non-party
11 Aug 1992 - 25 May 1994  Muhammad Karim Lamrani (3rd time)  (s.a.)               Non-party
25 May 1994 -  4 Feb 1998  Abdellatif Filali                  (b. 1928 - d. 2009)  Non-party
 4 Feb 1998 -  9 Oct 2002  Abderrahmane Youssoufi             (b. 1924 - d. 2020)  USFP
 9 Oct 2002 - 19 Sep 2007  Driss Jettou                       (b. 1945)            Non-party
19 Sep 2007 - 29 Nov 2011  Abbas El Fassi                     (b. 1940)            PI
29 Nov 2011 -  5 Apr 2017  Abdelilah Benkirane                (b. 1954)            PJD
 5 Apr 2017 -              Saadeddine El Othmani              (b. 1956)            PJD

 ¹The sultans and kings also held the title of Amir al-Mu´minin (Commander of the Faithful). 

Territorial Disputes: Claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute.

Party abbreviations: PI = Hizb al-Istiqlal/Parti d'Independence (Independence Party "Istiqlal", nationalist, center-right, monarchist, est.1944); PJD = Hizb al-'Adalah wa-t-Tanmiya/Parti de la Justice et du Développement (Justice and Development Party, nationalist, Islamist, conservative, to 1997 as Mouvement Populaire Démocratique et Constitutionnel [Popular Democratic and Constitutional Movement], est.1967); RNI = Rassemblement National des Indépendents (National Rally of Independents, center-right, est.1977); UC = al-Etihad al-Dosturi/Union Constitutionelle (Constitutional Union, liberal-conservative, center-right, est.1983); USFP = al-Ishtirakiy Lilqawat al-Sha'abiyah/Union Socialiste des Forces Populaires (Socialist Union of Popular Forces, social-democratic, center-left, former UNFP, est.1975);
- Former parties: FDIC = Front pour de la Défense des Institutions Constitutionnelles (Front for Defense of Constitutional Institutions, comprising MP, PSD, Constitutional Democratic Party, monarchist, 1963-1965); UNFP = Union Nationale des Forces Populaires (National Union of Popular Forces, socialist, nationalist, anti-monarchist, 1959-1975, became USFP, small faction continued to 2005)


French Morocco

[Morocco French
                          Protectorate civil ensign, 1919-1956
                          (Morocco)]
13 Mar 1919 - 18 Feb 1956 Civil Ensign

Map of French Morocco
Capital: Rabat
Currency: 1907-1956
Moroccan Franc (MAF)
Population: 8,300,000
(1956 est.)


French Military governor
 4 Aug 1907 - 28 Apr 1912  Louis Hubert Lyautey               (b. 1854 - d. 1934)
French Residents-general
28 Apr 1912 - 25 Aug 1925  Louis Hubert Lyautey               (s.a.)
12 Dec 1916 -  7 Apr 1917  Henri Joseph Eugène Gouraud        (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
                             (acting for Lyautey)
 4 Oct 1925 -  1 Jan 1929  Théodore Steeg                     (b. 1868 - d. 1950)
 2 Jan 1929 - 14 Sep 1933  Lucien Saint                       (b. 1867 - d. 1938)
14 Sep 1933 - 22 Mar 1936  Auguste Henri Ponsot               (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
22 Mar 1936 - 16 Sep 1936  Bernard Marcel Peyrouton           (b. 1887 - d. 1983)
16 Sep 1936 -  5 Jun 1943  Hippolyte Noguès                   (b. 1876 - d. 1971)
 5 Jun 1943 - 21 Jun 1943  Jacques Meyrier (acting)           (b. 1892 - d. 1962)
21 Jun 1943 -  4 Mar 1946  Gabriel Puaux                      (b. 1883 - d. 1970) 
 4 Mar 1946 - 14 May 1947  Eirik Labonne                      (b. 1888 - d. 1971)
14 May 1947 - 28 Aug 1951  Alphonse Pierre Juin               (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
28 Aug 1951 - 20 May 1954  Augustin Léon Guillaume            (b. 1895 - d. 1983)
20 May 1954 - 20 Jun 1955  Francis Lacoste                    (b. 1905 - d. 1993)
20 Jun 1955 - 31 Aug 1955  Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval       (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
31 Aug 1955 - 11 Nov 1955  Pierre Boyer de Latour             (b. 1896 - d. 1976)
11 Nov 1955 -  2 Mar 1956  André Louis Dubois                 (b. 1903 - d. 1998)

Spanish Morocco

[Morocco Spanish
                          Protectorate merchant Flag, 1937-1956
                          (Morocco)]
7 Jan 1937 - 7 Apr 1956 Merchant Flag

Map of Spanish Morocco
Capital: Tetuán (Tetuan)
Currency: 1913-1956
Spanish Peseta (ESP)
Population: 1,000,000
 (1955 est.)
795,300 (1940)

Spanish High Commissioners 
(also governors-general of Spanish West Africa 29 Aug 1934 - 20 Jul 1946)
 3 Apr 1913 - 15 Aug 1913  Felipe Alfau y Mendoza              (b. 1845 - d. 1937)
17 Aug 1913 -  9 Jul 1915  José Marina Vega                    (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
 9 Jul 1915 - 18 Nov 1918  Francisco Gómez Jordana (1st time)  (b. 1876 - d. 1944)
27 Jan 1919 - 13 Jul 1922  Dámaso Berenguer y Fauste           (b. 1873 - d. 1953)
15 Jul 1922 - 22 Jan 1923  Ricardo Burguete Lana               (b. 1871 - d. 1938)
16 Feb 1923 - 14 Sep 1923  Lópe Silvela y Casado               (b. 1865 - d. 1928)
25 Sep 1923 - 16 Oct 1924  Luis de Aizpuru y Mondéjar          (b. 1857 - d. 1939)
16 Oct 1924 -  2 Nov 1925  Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja,  (b. 1870 - d. 1930)
                             marqués de Estella
 2 Nov 1925 - Nov 1928     Jorje Sanjurjo Sacanell Buenrostro, (b. 1872 - d. 1936)
                             (from 26 May 1926) marqués de Monte
                             Malmusi (from 1 Oct 1927, marqués
                             del Riff)(1st time) 
Nov 1928 - 19 Apr 1931     Francisco Gómez Jordana (2nd time)  (s.a.)
19 Apr 1931 - 20 Jun 1931  Jorje Sanjurjo Sacanell Buenrostro, (s.a.)
                             marqués del Riff (2nd time)
20 Jun 1931 - May 1933     Luciano López Ferrer                (b. 1869 - d. 1945)
May 1933 - 23 Jan 1934     Juan Moles Ormella (1st time)       (b. 1871 - d. 1945)
23 Jan 1934 - Mar 1936     Manuel Rico Avello y García de      (b. 1886 - d. 1936)
                            
Lañón
Mar 1936 - May 1936        Juan Moles Ormella (2nd time)       (s.a.)
May 1936 - 18 Jul 1936     Arturo Álvarez-Buylla (acting)      (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
18 Jul 1936 - Jul 1936     Eduardo Sáenz de Buruaga            (b. 1893 - d. 1963)
Jul 1936 -  2 Oct 1936     Francisco Franco Bahmonde           (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
 2 Oct 1936 - Mar 1937     Luis Orgaz y Yoldi (1st time)       (b. 1881 - d. 1946)
Aug 1937 - 12 Aug 1939     Juan Luis Beigbeder Atienza         (b. 1888 - d. 1957)
16 Aug 1939 - 12 May 1941  Carlos Asensio Cabanillas           (b. 1896 - d. 1969)
12 May 1941 -  4 Mar 1945  Luis Orgaz y Yoldi (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1945 - 24 Mar 1951  José Enrique Varela Iglesias        (b. 1891 - d. 1951)
24 Mar 1951 -  7 Apr 1956  Rafael García Valiño y Marcén       (b. 1898 - d. 1975)

Representatives of the Sultan in the Spanish Zone
27 Apr 1913 - 24 Oct 1923  Mulay Muhammad al-Mahdi bin Ismail  (b. 18.. - d. 1923)
24 Oct 1923 -  8 Nov 1925  Pasha Sidi Muhammad el Hach (acting)
 
8 Nov 1925 -  7 Apr 1956  Mulay Hassan bin al-Mahdi           (b. 1912 - d. 1984) 



Rif Republic

[Flag of Republic
                          of the Rif 1921-1926 (Morocco)]
18 Sep 1921 - 27 May 1926

Map of the Rif Republic
Hear National Anthem
Text of Anthem
Constitution
(18 Sep 1921)
Capital: Axdir (Ajdir)
Currency: 1921-1926 Rif
Republic
Riffan (MARR)
National Holiday: 18 Sep (1921)
Independence Day
Population: N/A
International Organizations/Treaties: None

18 Sep 1921                Independence of the Rif proclaimed (al-Rif).
 1 Feb 1923                Rif Republic (Dawlat al-Jumhuriyya al-Rifiyya).
27 May 1926                Dissolved by Franco-Spanish forces.

Emir (style Amir al-Rif)
18 Sep 1921 -  1 Feb 1923  Abd el-Krim                        (b. 1882 - d. 1963)
                            (Sayyidi Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi)
Head of State (style Ra'is al-Dawla)
 1 Feb 1923 - 27 May 1926  Abd el-Krim                        (s.a.)

Prime minister
Jul 1923 - 27 May 1926     Ben Hajj Hatmi



Tangier
[Tangier National
                            and Civil Ensign (Flag of Morocco)
                            1923-1940, 1945-1956 (Morocco)]
1923 - 1940, 1945 - 29 Oct 1956
Tangier National and Civil Ensign
 
[Tangier
                            International Zone Merchant Flag 1953-1957
                            (Morocco)]
20 Jun 1953 - 11 Apr 1957
Tangier Merchant Ensign
 
Map of  Tangier Zone
Capital: Tangier
National Holiday: N/A
Tangier Statute
 (1 Jun 1925)
Capital: Tangier
Currency: Moroccan Francs
 (MF) and Spanish Pesetas
 1923-1956
Population: 183,729 (1955)
60,000 (1940)
2,225 (1677)
Ethnic groups: Arab and
 Berber 50%, European 40%,
 Jews 9%, other 1% (1956 est.)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $2.49 billion MF (1953)
Imports: $ 2.59 billion MF (1953)
Total Police Force: 250
Defense was Responsibility of the Signatory Powers
International Organizations/Treaties 1925-1956: UPU
 
929 - 1014                 Part of Caliphate of Córdoba.
1014 - 1078                Part of Ceuta Taifa state.
1078 - 1148                Part of Almoravid Empire.

1148 - 1269                Part of Almohad Caliphate.
1269 - 1273                Occupied by the Hafsids.
1273 - 12..                Part of Morocco.
12.. - 1359                Emirate of Tangier, separated from Morocco.
1359 - 1421                Part of Morocco.
1421                       Emirate of Tangier, separated from Morocco.
13 Sep 1437 - 19 Oct 1437  Failed siege by Portugal.
28 Aug 1471                Portuguese possession (Tânger).
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Tangier, along with Portugal, a Spanish possession.
29 Jan 1662                Ceded to England.
 4 Jun 1668                Tangier was declared a free city by charter, with a mayor.
 6 Feb 1684                Re-incorporated into Morocco.
Nov 1912                   French and Spanish division of Morocco into separate protectorates
                             leaves the status of Tangier as undefined.

18 Dec 1923                Tangier made an international zone under the joint administration
                             of France, Spain, and U.K. nominally under suzerainty of Morocco

                            
(Tangier International Zone) (ratified 14 May 1924).
 1 Jun 1925                International administration begins (representing France, Spain,

                             U.K. [and later, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands,
                             Sweden, United States, and from 1945 Soviet Union]).
14 Jun 1940                Occupied by Moroccan troops under Spanish command.
 4 Nov 1940 - 11 Oct 1945  De facto incorporated into Spanish Morocco (not recognized by
                             the Allies).

29 Oct 1956                Re-incorporated into Morocco.
18 Apr 1960                Re-integrated with Morocco financially; international
                             status formally abolished.

Captains
28 Aug 1471 - 1484         Rodrigo (Rui) Afonso de Melo,     (b. c.1430 - d. 1487)
                             (from 21 Jul 1476) conde de
                             Olivença
1484 - 1486                Manuel de Melo                    (b. c.1440 - d. 1493)
 6 Aug 1486 -  9 Jun 1489  João de Meneses, conde de Tarouca (b. c.1460 - d. 1522)
                             (1st time)
1487 - 1489                Fernando (Fernão) Martins
                             Mascarenhas (interim)
1489 - 1490                Manuel Pessanha (interim)
1490 - 1501                Lopo Vaz de Azevedo "o Monge"     (b. c.1430 - d. 15..)
1501 - 1502                Rodrigo de Castro (de Monsanto)   (b. c.1440 - d. af.1503)
                             (interim)
1502 - 1508                João de Meneses, conde de Tarouca (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1508 - 1521                Duarte de Meneses (1st time)      (b. bf.1488 - d. 1539)
1521 - 1522                Henrique de Meneses (acting)      (b. c.1490 - d. af.1536) 
1522 - 1532                Duarte de Meneses "o d'Evora"     (b. c.1450 - d. af.1532)
1532 - 1533                Álvaro de Abranches               (b. c.1480 - d. 1563)
26 Sep 1533 -  4 Oct 1536  Gonçalo Mendes Sacoto (Caçoto)
 4 Oct 1536 - 1539         Duarte de Meneses (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1539 -  3 Mar 1546  João de Meneses "o Púcaro"        (b. c.1520 - d. 1557)
 3 Mar 1546 - 18 Dec 1548  Francisco Botelho                 (b. c.1510 - d. af.1548)
18 Dec 1548 - 16 Jun 1550  Pedro de Meneses                  (b. c.1520 - d. 1550)
16 Jun 1550 - 21 Nov 1552  João Álvares de Azevedo (acting)
1552 - 13 Mar 1553         Luís de Loureiro                  (b. c.1490 - d. 1553)
1553                       Fernando de Meneses               (b. c.1530 - d. ....)
1553                       Pedro Garcia
1553                       Pedro Álvares Correia
1553                       Diogo Lopes de Franca (1st time)  (b. c.1520 - d. 1578)
Sep 1553 - 29 Apr 1554     Ls da Silva de Meneses          (d. 1554)
1554 - 1564                Bernardim de Carvalho             (b. c.1510 - d. af.1574)
1564                       Diogo Lopes da Franca (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (interim)
 1 Apr 1564 - 1566         Lourenço Pires de Távora          (b. c.1500 - d. 1573)
1564 - 1566                Diogo Lopes da Franca (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                             (interim)
15 Jul 1566 -  1 Aug 1572  João de Meneses "o Craveiro"
1572 - 1573                Rui de Sousa de Carvalho          (b. 1536? - d. 1573)
1573 - Jul 1574            Diogo Lopes da Franca (4th time)  (s.a.)
                             (interim)
1574 - 15 Aug 1574         António de Portugal, prior do     (b. 1531 - d. 1595)
                             Crato
1574 - 1577                Duarte de Meneses (1st time)      (b. 1537 - d. 1588)
1577                       Pedro da Silva (1st time)(interim)(b. c.1554 - d. 1578?)
1577 - 1578                Duarte de Meneses (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1578 - Sep 1578            Pedro da Silva (2nd time)(interim)(s.a.)
 7 Sep 1578 - 25 Jul 1581  Jorge de Mendonça Cação           (b. c.1515 - d. ....)
25 Jul 1581 - 1590         Francisco de Almeida              (b. c.1550 - d. af.1613)
1590 - Jun 1591            Belchior da Franca                (b. c.1550 - d. c.1591)
                           + Simão Lopes de Mendonça
                           (interim)
17 Jun 1591 - 24 Aug 1599  Aires de Saldanha                 (b. 1542 - d. 1605)
24 Aug 1599 - 22 Sep 1605  António Pereira Lopes de Berredo  (b. c.1550 - d. c.1614)
22 Sep 1605 - Mar 1610     Nuno de Mendonça                  (b. c.1560 - d. 1633?)
Mar 1610 - Jun 1614        Afonso de Noronha                 (b. c.1550 - d. 1627)
Jun 1614 - Oct 1614        Luís de Meneses, conde de Tarouca (b. c.1570 - d. 1614)
Oct 1614 - Aug 1615        Luís de Noronha e Meneses,        (b. 1570 - d. 16..) 
                             conde de Vila Real (interim)
Aug 1615 - 22 Dec 1616     João Coutinho, conde de Redondo   (b. c.1540 - d. 1619)
22 Dec 1616 -  1 Jul 1617  André Dias da Franca (1st time)
                             (interim)
 1 Jul 1617 - 1621         Pedro Manuel
1621 - 13 Mar 1622         André Dias de Franca (2nd time)
                             (acting)
13 Mar 1622 - Jul 1624     Jorge de Mascarenhas, marquês     (b. 1597 - d. 1652)
                             de Montalvão
Jul 1624 - 14 May 1628     Miguel de Noronha, conde de       (b. 1585 - d. 1647)
                             Linhares
14 May 1628 - 18 Jun 1628  Glaaz Fernandes da Silveira
                             (interim)
18 Jun 1628 - 1637         Fernando de Mascarenhas, conde    (b. c.1610 - d. 1651)
                             de Torre 
1637                       André Dias da Franca (3rd time)
                             (interim)
15 Apr 1637 - 28 Aug 1643  Rodrigo Lobo da Silveira, conde   (d. 1656)
                             de Sarzedas
1643 - 16 Apr 1645         André Dias da Franca (4th time)
                           + Baltasar Martins de Lordelo
                           + Francisco Lopes Tavares
                           + Francisco Banha de Sequeira
16 Apr 1645 - 20 Nov 1649  Caetano Coutinho
20 Nov 1649 - Jan 1653     Luís Lobo, barão de Alvito
Jan 1653 -  7 Mar 1656     Rodrigo de Lencastre
 7 Mar 1656 - 1661         Fernando de Meneses, conde        (b. 1614 - d. 1699)
                             da Ericeira
1661 - 29 Jan 1662         Luís de Almeida Portugal          (b. c.1610 - d. 1671)
Governors
29 Jan 1662 - 1663         Henry Mordaunt, Earl of           (b. 1621 - d. 1697) 
                             Peterborough
1663 -  4 May 1664         Andrew Rutherford, Earl of Teviot (d. 1664)
 4 May 1664 - 1664         Tobias Bridge (acting)            (d. af.1672)
1664 - Apr 1665            John Fitzgerald (acting)          (d. 1678)
Apr 1665 - 1666            John Belasyse, Baron Belasyse     (b. 1614 - d. 1689)
1666 - 1668                Sir Henry Norwood                 (b. c.1614 - d. 1689)
1669 - 1670                John Middleton, Earl of           (b. c.1608 - d. 1674) 
                             Middleton (1st time)
1670 - 1672                Sir Hugh Cholmeley (acting)       (b. 1632 - d. 1689)
1672 - Jun 1674            John Middleton, Earl of           (s.a.)
                             Middleton (2nd time)
1674 - 1675                Budgett Meakin (acting)
1675 - 1680                William O'Brien, Earl of          (b. 1640 - d. 1692) 
                             Inchiquin
1675 - 1680                Sir Palmes Fairborne              (b. 1644 - d. 1680)
                            (acting [for often absent Earl Inchiquin to ... 1680])
 1 Oct 1680 - 17 Oct 1680  Charles FitzCharles, Earl of      (b. 1657 - d. 1680)
                             Plymouth
Oct 1680 - 28 Dec 1681     Sir Edward Sackville (acting)     (b. c.1640 - d. 1717)
28 Dec 1681 - Aug 1683     Sir Percy Kirke                   (b. c.1646 - d. 1691)
Aug 1683 -  6 Feb 1684     George Legge, Baron Dartmouth     (b. 1648 - d. 1691)
Mayors
21 Aug 1668 - 1669         John Bland (1st time)             (b. 1612 - d. 1680)
16 Nov 1669 - 1670         Samuel Taylor                     (b. 1624 - d. 1679)
 3 Nov 1670 - 1671         John Bland (2nd time)             (s.a.)
16 Nov 1671 - c.1673       William Staines (Staynes)
167. - 167.                John White
c.Oct 1677                 Walwin Gascoigne                  (b. 1635 - d. 1698)
 1 Oct 1681 - 1682         Jenkin Thomas
11 Nov 1682 - 18 Oct 1683  William "Tangier" Smith           (b. 1655 - d. 1705)

Administrators

24 Aug 1926 - 19 Aug 1929  Paul Alberge (France)
19 Aug 1929 -  1 Aug 1940  Pierre Xavier Le Fur (France)
 1 Aug 1940 -  4 Nov 1940  Manuel Amieva Escandón (Spain)    (b. 1889 - d. 1960)
Spanish Military governor
14 Jun 1940 -  3 Nov 1940  Antonio Yuste Segura              (b. 1889 - d. 1971)
Governors-general
 
3 Nov 1940 - Mar 1941     Antonio Yuste Segura              (s.a.)
1941 - 18 Nov 1942         Genaro Uriarte Arriola            (b. 1881 - d. 1967)
18 Nov 1942 - 11 Oct 1945  Juan Potous y Martínez
Administrators
11 Oct 1945 - 18 Jun 1948  Luis António de Magalhães Correia (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
                             (Portugal) 
15 Aug 1948 -  9 Apr 1951  Jonkheer Hendrik Frederik         (b. 1905 - d. 1981)
                             Lodewijk Karel van Vredenburch
                             van Vredenburch (Netherlands) 

 9 Apr 1951 - 21 Jun 1954  José Luís Archer (Portugal)       (b. 1901 - d. 1979)
21 Jun 1954 - 31 Dec 1954  Étienne de Croÿ, prince de        (b. 1898 - d. 1990)
                             Croÿ-Roeulx (Belgium)
 4 Jan 1955 -  5 Jul 1956  Robert van de Kerckhove           (b. 1890 - d. 1974)    
                             d'Hallebast (Belgium)

Presidents of the Legislative Assembly
(and Representatives of the Sultan of Morcco)
1923 - 16 Mar 1941         Muhammad at-Tazi Bu Ashran (1st time)
16 Mar 1941 - 11 Oct 1945  Post abolished
Oct 1945 - 1954            Muhammad at-Tazi Bu Ashran (2nd time)
1954 -  8 Jul 1956         Si Ahmad at-Tazi



Ifni

[State and War
                          Flag and War Ensign 1945-1977 (Spain)]
11 Oct 1945 - 4 Jan 1969

Map of Ifni
Capital: Ifni
Currency: 1934-1969
Spanish Peseta (ESP)
Population: 51,521 (1958)
  
26 Apr 1860                Morocco cedes Sidi Ifni, a 1,000 sq. KM enclave, to
                             Spain by the Treaty of Tetuán (not occupied by Spain until 1934).
 6 Apr 1934                Ifni first occupied by Spain.
  9 Apr 1934                Ifni organized as a Gobierno especial.
29 Aug 1934                High Commissioner for Spanish Morocco becomes governor-general
                             of Infi, Saguia el Hamra and Río de Oro (Territory of Ifni;
                             from 17 May 1940, Territories of Ifni and Sahara).
18 Sep 1936                Spanish Nationalist forces take control of Ifni.
20 Jul 1946                Ifni, Río de Oro and Saguia el Hamra united as Spanish West Africa
                             (see Western Sahara).
23 Oct 1957 - 30 Jun 1958  Moroccan siege of Ifni.
10 Jan 1958                Ifni a Spanish overseas province.
30 Jun 1969                Ifni retroceded to Morocco by Spain (retroactive to 4 Jan 1969).

Government delegates in the Territory of Ifni
(subordinated to the Spanish High Commissioners for Morocco)
 6 Apr 1934 - 1934         Osvaldo Fernando Capaz Montes        (b. 1874 - d. 1936)
                             (military commander)
 6 Sep 1934 – 10 May 1935  Rodríguez de la Herranza
10 May 1935 – 15 Aug 1936  Juanjo Montero Cabañas
15 Aug 1936 – 15 Oct 1937  Rafael Molero Pimentel
16 Oct 1937 – Mar 1952     Juan Fernández Aceytuno y Montero
Mar 1952 – 11 Aug 1957     José Martín Álvarez-Chas de Berbén   (b. 1918 - d. 1957)
11 Aug 1957 – Aug 1957     Jos
é María Troncoso Palleiro
Aug 1957 - Mar 1958        Francisco Mena Díaz                  (b. 1913 - d. 2007)
Governors-general
of Ifni
12 Jan 1958 - 12 Feb 1959  Mariano Gómez Zamalloa y Quirce      (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
12 Feb 1959 - 15 Nov 1961  Pedro Latorre Alcubierre             (b. 1900 - d. 1995)
15 Nov 1961 -  3 May 1963  Joaquín Agulla y Jiménez-Coronado    (b. 1902 - d. 1971)
 3 May 1963 -  5 Nov 1965  Adolfo Artalejo Campos               (b. 1905 - d. 1965)
11 Nov 1965 - 30 Apr 1967  Marino Trovo Larrasquito             (d. 1967)
 
9 May 1967 - 25 Jun 1969  José Miguel Vega Rodríguez           (b. 1913 - d. 1992)


Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña

1478 - 1526                Spanish settlement of Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña located
                             on Moroccan Atlantic coast (said to be near modern Sidi Ifni,
                             but the exact modern location is disputed), abandoned 1485-96
                             (subordinated to Canary Islands).


Alcaíde
s of Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña
1478 - Jun 1485            Diego García de Herrera              (d. 1485)
1485 - 1496                abandoned
1496 - 1517                the governors of Grán Canaria
10 Aug 1517 -  5 Sep 1519  Hernán Darias de Saavedra
                             (de facto)
 5 Sep 1519 - 28 Mar 1522  Luis de Zapata (to 1521)
                           + Francisco de Vargas
                           + Cristóbal Bivas (from 1521)
28 Mar 1522 -  4 Aug 1525  Juan de Chaves                       (d. 1525)
                           + Diego Vargas
Aug 1525 - 1526            the governor of Grán Canaria
                           + Diego Vargas (to ... 1525)
                           + Luis de Aday (interim)
                              (19 Apr - 8 May 1526)
Lieutenants of the Alcaíde at Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña
1478 - 1479                Alonso de Cabrera
1479 - 1485?               Jofre de Tenorio
1485 - 1496                abandoned
1496 - 1497                Diego Ramirez
11 Dec 1497 - Dec 1498     Rodrigo de Narvaez
1498? - 1501               Alonso de Valenzuela
1504 - 1508?               Juan Fernandes Portugués
c.1508                     Diego de Cabrera
15.. - Aug 1517            Hernando de Baeza
c.1519                     Cristóbal Bivas (Vivas)    
13 Nov 1522 - 1524         Pedro Hernandez de Lugo
1524 - 1526                Luis de Aday


Former Portuguese Possessions

Mazagão (Mazagan)

1505                       Mazagan (El Jadida) claimed for Portugal.
1514                       Portuguese possession (Mazagão).
18 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Mazagan along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
11 Mar 1769                Mazagan re-incorporated into Morocco.

Captains-major
1514 - 1517                Martim Afonso de Melo                 (b. c.1480 - d. af.1523)
1517 – 1520                Alvaro de Noronha
1520 - 1535                António Leite (1st time)
1535 - 1537                Manuel de Sande
1537                       António Leite (2nd time)
1537 - Mar 1541            João Gomes
Mar 1541 - 1548            Luís de Loureiro                      (b. c.1490 - d. 1553)
1548 - 1551                Tristão de Ataíde
1551 - 1561                Álvaro de Carvalho (1st time)
1561 - 1562                Rui de Sousa de Carvalho (1st time)   (b. c.1536 - d. 1573)
1562                       Álvaro de Carvalho (2nd time)
1562                       Rui de Sousa de Carvalho (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1562 - 1564                Francisco de Barros de Paiva
1564 - 1572                Rui de Sousa de Carvalho (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1572 - 1574                Pedro Álvares de Carvalho             (b. c.1480 - d. 15..)
1574                       Bernardim de Carvalho                 (b. c.1510 - d. af.1574)
1574 - 1577                Gil Fernandes de Carvalho (1st time)
1577 - 1578                Francisco de Figueiredo (interim)
1578                       Martim Correia da Silva               (d. 1582)
1578 - 1581                João de Mendonça Furtado              (b. 1530 - d. 1578)
1581 - 1582                Pêro de Mendonça Furtado
1582 - 1586                Francisco de Mendonça Furtado
1586                       Gil Fernandes de Carvalho (2nd time)
1586 - 1607                Diogo Lopes de Carvalho
Governors
1607 - 1610                Manuel Mascarenhas
 7 Sep 1610 - 1615         Henrique Correia da Silva             (b. c.1560 - d. 1644)
1615 - 1619                Jorge Mascarenhas, marquês            (b. 1597 - d. 1652)
                             de Montalvão  
1619 - 1624                Brás Teles de Meneses
15 Mar 1624 - Jun 1627     Gonçalo Coutinho
26 Jun 1627 -  7 Jun 1631  Francisco de Almeida
 7 Jun 1631 - 1635         João da Silva Telo de Meneses,        (b. c.1600 - d. 1651)
                             conde de Aveiras
1635 - Mar 1640            Francisco de Mascarenhas
                             conde de Castelho Novo 
Mar 1640 - Jun 1640        Luísa Antónia de Velasco (f)
                           + Nuno da Cunha da Costa 
                           (acting)
25 Jun 1640 - 1642         Martim Correia da Silva (interim)  
1642 - Nov 1645            Rui de Moura Teles                    (b. c.1595 - d. 1676)
10 Nov 1645 - May 1648     João Luís de Vasconcelos e Meneses    (b. 1600 - d. 1649) 
May 1648 - Jul 1648        Junta 
                           - António Dinis Barbosa
                           - Gonçalo Barreto
                           - Gaspar Rodrigues
1648 - 1649                Nuno da Cunha da Costa (1st time)
1649                       Francisco de Noronha (1st time)
1649 - 1650                Nuno da Cunha da Costa (2nd time)
1650 - 1654                Francisco de Noronha (2nd time)
29 Jan 1654 - 1658         Alexandre de Sousa Freire  
1658 - 1661                Francisco de Mendonça Furtado
1661 - 1667                Cristóvão de Melo                     (b. c.1625 - d. ....) 
1667 - 27 Nov 1671         Martinho Mascarenhas, conde de        (b. c.1630 - d. 1676)
                             Santa Cruz 
Nov 1671 - 1677            Marco de Noronha  
Feb 1677 - 1681            Cristóvão de Almada                   (b. 1632 - d. 1713)
1681 - 1687                Bernardim de Sousa de Távora Tavares
1687 - 1691                Manuel de Sousa de Castro
1691 - 1692                Domingos de Matos  
1692 - 1695                João de Saldanha de Albuquerque       (b. c.1640 - d. 1723)
Governors and Captains-general
1695 - 1698                Luís de Saldanha da Gama 
1698 -  9 Oct 1702         Sancho de Faro e Sousa,               (b. 1659 - d. 1719) 
                             conde do Vimieiro 
 9 Oct 1702 - Sep 1705     Manuel de Sousa Tavares de Távora 
 1 Oct 1705 - 27 Jul 1713  Francisco de Melo e Castro
27 Jul 1713 - 1719         Manuel Rolim de Moura Tavares         (b. 1668 - d. 1738)  
1719 - 1724                Duarte Sodré Pereira                  (b. 1666 - d. 1738)
1724                       António José de Miranda Henriques     (b. c.1695 - d. 17..) 
1724 - 1734                João Jacques de Magalhães
1734 -  4 Aug 1745         Bernardo Pereira de Berredo e Castro  (d. c.1748)
Aug 1745 - 1752            António Álvares da Cunha, conde de    (b. 1700 - d. 1791)
                             Cunha
1752 - 1757                José Leite de Sousa                   (b. c.1715 - d. ....) 
1757 - Sep 1763            José Joaquim Vasques da Cunha
Sep 1763 - 11 Mar 1769     Dinis Gregório de Melo e Castro       (b. 1735 - d. 1793)
                             Mendonça


Aguz

1506 - 1525                Portuguese rule at Aguz (Souira Guedima).

Captains
1506 - 1507                Diogo de Azambuja                     (b. 1432 - d. 1518)
c.1510 - c.1516            Francisco Mendes
15.. - c.1522              Diogo de Azambuja, Jr.
152. - 1525                Gonçalo Mendes Sacoto


Alcácer Ceguer  (Qsar es-Seghir)

23 Oct 1458 - 1550         Portuguese rule at Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir).

Captains

1458 - 1464                Duarte de Meneses, conde de Viana     (b. 1414 - d. 1464)
1464 - 1480                Henrique de Meneses
1480 - 1488                Rodrigo (Rui) Vaz Pereira
1488 - 1501                Martim de Sousa e Távora              (b. c.1450 - d. ....)
1501 - 1512?               Rodrigo de Sousa
151. - 151.                António de Sousa
1516 - 1516/17             Ruy Dias de Sousa                     (d. 1516/17)
1517 - 1518                Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
1521? - 1523?              Pedro de Sousa, conde de Prado        (b. c.1468 - d. c.1563)
c.1529 - 1531              Francisco de Carvalho
1531 - 1545                Pedro Álvares de Carvalho
1545 - 1549                Alvaro de Carvalho
1549 - 1550                Bernardim de Carvalho

Arzila (Arcila) 

24 Aug 1471                Portuguese rule at Arzila (Asilah). 
Aug 1550 - 1577            Restored to Morocco.
1577                       Portuguese rule restored.
18 Jul 1580                Arzila along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
1589                       Restored to Morocco.

Captains
1471 - 1479                Henrique de Meneses  
1480 - 1481                Lopo Dias de Azevedo
1482 - 1486                João de Meneses 
1486 - 1488?               Álvaro de Faria
1488? - 1495               Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (b. c.1450 - d. 1522)
                             (1st time)(interim to 1490)
1495?                      Rodrigo Coutinho
1495                       João de Meneses (1st time)(interim)
1495 - 1501                Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1501 - 1502                João Coutinho (1st time)(interim)
1502 - 1505                João de Meneses (2nd time)(interim)
1505 - 1508                Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1508                       Jorge Barreto
1508 - 1513                Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)
1513                       João Coutinho (2nd time)(interim)
1513 - 1514                Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (s.a.) 
                             (4th time)
1514 - 1523                João Coutinho (3rd time)(interim)
1523                       Manuel de Meneses (interim)
1523                       Fernão Caldeira (interim)
1523 - 1525                João Coutinho (4th time)(interim)
1525 - Oct 1529            António da Silveira (substitute)
1529 - 1538                João Coutinho (5th time)(interim)
1538 - 1544?               Manuel Mascarenhas
1544 - 1546                Sebastião de Vargas
1546 - 1549                Francisco Coutinho, conde de Redondo  (b. 1517 - d. 1564)
1549 - Aug 1550            Luís de Loureiro                      (d. 1553)
Aug 1550 - 1577            Moroccan rule
1577 - 1578                Duarte de Meneses
1578                       Pedro de Mesquita
1578 - 1580?               Pedro de Silva 
1580 - 1589?               Vasco Fernandes Homem


Azamor

 3 Sep 1513                Portuguese rule in Azamor (Azemmour).
30 Oct 1541                Restored to Morocco.

Captains
 3 Sep 1513 - 1513         Jaime de Bragança
1513 - 1514                Rui Barreto 
May 1514 - Sep 1514        João Soares (acting)
 2 Sep 1514 - 1516         Pedro de Sousa 
1516                       Nuno Gato (acting)
1516 - Dec 1517            Simão Correia
30 Dec 1517 - 1525         Álvaro de Noronha                     (b. c.1475 - d. 15..)
Jun 1525 - 1529            Jorge Viegas
10 Sep 1529 - 1530         António Leite (1st time)
1530 - 1534                Pedro de Mascarenhas
1534 - 1535                Lançarote de Freitas (interim)
1535 - 1537                Álvaro de Abranches
17 Sep 1537 - Mar 1541     António Leite (2nd time)
1541 - 1542                Fernando de Noronha


Larache

20 Nov 1610                Larache (El Araich) a Spanish possession, named Castillo
                             de Nuestra Señora de Europa, popularly called Las Cigüeñas.
 6 Dec 1689                Retaken by Morocco.

Governors

1610 - 1614                Gaspar de Valdés                      (b. 1561 - d. 1639)
1614 - 1618                Pedro Rodríguez de Sanistéban y       (b. c.1555/53 - d. c.1628)
                             y Dávalos (1st time)
1618 - 1622                Francisco Carrillo de Santoyo
                             (acting)
1622 - 1623                Pedro Rodríguez de Santisteban y      (s.a.)
                             Dávalos, marqués de Cropani
                             (2nd time)
1623                       Pedro Francisco de Sanisteban         (d. c.1636)
 5 Oct 1623 - Sep 1627     Juan Jaraquemada y Codina             (b. c.1563 - d. 1627)
1627 -  1 Aug 1628         Diego de Vera Ordóñez (acting)        (d. 1648)
 1 Aug 1628 - 1630         Alonso de Alvarado y Velasco,         (b. c.1579 - d. 1632)
                             conde de Villamor
18 Jul 1630 - 1631         Sebastián Granero de Alarcón          (b. c.1569 - 1639/40)
                             y Pérez Coronado (1st time)
1631 - 1633                Fernando de Navarrete (acting)
1633 - 1637                Sebastián Granero de Alarcón          (s.a.)
                             y Pérez Coronado (2nd time)
1637 - 1641                Luis de Sotomayor                     (b. c.1584 - d. 1649)
1641 - 1644                Cristobál de Unzueta Labrit y
                             Nuñez de Prado
 4 Apr 1644 - 1649         Diego de Moreda y Munilla             (b. c.1601 - d. 1657)
1649 - 1652                Alfonso Palomino Rajadel (acting)
1652 - 1655                Diego de Vera (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1655 - 1664         Benito Figueroa y Barrantes y         (d. 1670)
                             de la Puerta
1664 - 1668                Juan Alvarado Bracamonte
                             y Saravia
1668 - 1677                Juan de Barbosa                       (b. c.1613 - d. ....)
22 Jun 1677 - 1679         Diego Pacheco y Arce                  (b. c.1621 - d. c.1710)
1679 - 1683                Lorenzo de Ripalda y Ayanz (acting)
1683 - 1689                Fernando de Villerías y Medrano

Mamora (Mehdiya)

1515                       Briefly occupied by Portugal and renamed São João da Mamora.
Aug 1614                   Spanish rule, named San Miguel de Ultramar.
30 Apr 1681                Re-taken by Morocco, later named Mehdiya.

Governors
Dec 1614 - 1622            Cristóbal Lechuga                     (b. 1556 - d. 1622)
Sep 1622 - 1626            Diego de Escobedo y Gallego           (b. c.1562 - d. c.1632)
1626 - 1629                Francisco de Murga y Ortiz de Orue    (d. 1634)
1629 - 1636                Toribio de Herrera y Gutiérrez        (b. c.1589 - d. 1636)
1636 - 1647                Fernando Dorado de Astorga            (d. c.1666)
1647 - 1656                José de Medrano de los Rios
1656 - 1667                Alonso Prieto de Valencia y Angulo
1667 -  5 Mar 1671         Diego Lopez Gallardo
1671 - 19 Dec 1671         Juan Torres de Vivar (1st time)
19 Dec 1671 - 11 May 1672  Pedro Cajés (1st time)(acting)
11 May 1672 - Oct 1673     Juan Torres de Vivar (2nd time)
1673 - 1680                Pedro Cajés (2nd time)
1680 - 1681                Juan de Peñalosa y Estrada


Mogador

Aug 1506                   Castello Real de Mogador (Essaouira) built.
Nov 1510                   Re-taken by Morocco.

Captains
Aug 1506 - 1510            Diogo de Azambuja, Sr.                (b. 1432 - d. 1518)
27 Jun 1507 - 1510         Francisco de Miranda
                            (acting for Azambuja)
1510 - May 1510            Pedro de Azevedo
May 1510 - Nov 1510        Nicolão de Sousa

Safim

1488 - Oct 1541            Portuguese rule at Safim (Safi).

Captains
1488 - 1506                no administration
1508 - 1509                Diogo de Azambuja, Sr.                (b. 1432 - d. 1518)
1509 - 1510                Pedro de Azevedo
17 Apr 1510 - 19 May 1516  Nuno Fernandes de Ataíde
1516                       Nuno Gato (interim)
1516 – 1520                Nuno Mascarenhas
1520 – 1522                Francisco Lopes Girão (1st time
                             (acting)
1522 –  9 Oct 1525         Gonçalo Mendes Sacoto
 9 Oct 1525 – 1529         Garcia de Melo
1529 - 1534                Francisco Lopes Girão (2nd time)
                             (acting)
Mar 1534 – May 1534        Luis de Loureiro (1st time)           (d. 1553)
May 1534 – Sep 1534        Garcia de Noronha
Sep 1534 – 1535            Jorge de Noronha
1535 – 1541                Rodrigo de Castro
1541 - 1542                Luis de Loureiro (2nd time)           (s.a.)   



Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué

1505 - 12 Mar 1541         Portuguese rule at Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir).

Governors
1505 - 1512                João Lopes de Sequeira
                             (holder of the factory)
1513 - 1517                Francisco de Castro (1st time)
1517                       Pêro Leitão (interim)
1517 - 1521                Francisco de Castro (2nd time)
1521 - 1523                Simão Gonçalves da Costa (interim)
1523 - 1525                António Leitão de Gambôa (1st time)    (b. c.1490 - d. 1529)
1525 - 1528                Luís Sacoto
1528 - Feb 1529            António Leitão de Gambôa (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Feb 1529 - Jul 1529        António Rodrigues de Parada (interim)
1529 - 1533                Simão Gonçalves da Costa
1533 - 1534                Simão Gonçalves da Câmara (interim)    (b. 1512 - d. 1580)
1534                       Rui Dias de Aguiar (interim)
1534                       Guterre de Monroy (1st time)           (b. c.1479 - d. 1548)
1534 - 1538                Luís de Loureiro                       (d. 1553)
1538 - 1541                Guterre de Monroy (2nd time)           (s.a.)


Tânger (1471-1661): see under Tangier





© Ben Cahoon