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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat)
 
[Flag of
                                    Denmark]
Adopted 1380
[Royal Greenland Trading
                                    Company (Den Kongelige Grønlandske
                                    Handel) 1795 - c.1900]
1795 - c.1900  Royal Greenland Trading Company
[Royal Greenland Trading
                                    Company c.1900-1912]
c.1900 - 1912 RGTC flag  (in use locally to 1979)
[Flag of
                                    Greenland]
Adopted 21 Jun 1985

Map of Greenland
Hear National Anthem
"Der er et yndigt land"
(There Is A Lovely Land) 
Hear Local Anthem
"Nunarput utoqqarsuanngoravit"/
"Vort ældgamle land under isblinkens bavn"
(You Our Ancient Land)
Adopted 1916
------------------------------------
  Additional Anthem
"Nuna asiilasooq"/"Landet
af Stor Længde"
(The Land of Great Length)
 Adopted 1979
Home Rule Act
(1 May 1979)
--------------------------------
Act on Self-Government
(21 Jun 2009)
Capital: Nuuk (Godthåb)
(Haabets Ø 1721-1728;
South Greenland: Godthåb 1728-1950; Nord Grønland:  Godhavn 1721-1920;
East Greenland: Ammassalik 1933-1950)
Currency: Danish Krone
(DKK);
1873 - 1 Jul 1967
Greenland Krone (GLK); 1813-76
Greenland Riksbankdaler (GLR);
1776-1813 Greenland Riksdaler
 Courant (GLC)
National Holiday: 21 Jun
Ullortuneq (the Longest Day)
(from 1983)
Population: 57,691 (2018)
GDP: $2.70 billion (2016)
Exports: $911 million (2017)
Imports: $683 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: Greenlandic 89.6%, Danish 7.8%, other
Nordic 1.1%, and other 1.4% (2018)
Total Defense and Police Forces: 200 (2012)
U.S. Forces: 164 (2018)
Defense is the Responsibility of Denmark
Merchant marine: 8 ships (2018)
Religions: Protestant 69.2% (of which Evangelical
Lutheran 64.2%, Pentecostal 2.8%), other Christian 27.4%,
other and non-religious 3.4% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC, ICC, NC, NIB, OS, UPU, WMO
Greenland
Index
Chronology
 
c.985                      Colonized by Norse migrants as a dependency
                             of Iceland.
1000                       Greenlandic Vikings convert to Christianity.
1261                       Under Norwegian suzerainty.
12 Sep 1380                Danish rule over Norway (and dependencies including
                             Greenland) begins.
1408                       Last written record of the Norseman from the eastern
                             settlement, of a wedding in the church of Hvalsey.
by 1550                    Last Nordic settlement in Greenland dies out.
1585                       English navigator John Davis landed near present-day
                             Nuuk while searching for the Northwest Passage.
 3 Jul 1721                Possession of Denmark-Norway claimed by Norwegian
                             Hans Egede, he founded the Haabets Ø colony.
 3 Jul 1721 -  6 Mar 1775  Subordinated to Iceland
1728                       Haabets Ø colony moved to Nuuk and renamed Godthaab.
1731                       Danish Government withdraws support for the
                             Greenland colony and orders it to disband. Hans
                             Egede and a few companions remain, but most of the
                             colonists return to Denmark.
16 May 1774                Royal Greenland Trading Department (Den Kongelige
                             Grønlandske Handel; renamed 1781, Den Kongelige
                             Grønlandske, Islandske, Finmarkske og Færøske
                             Handel) is established, with a monopoly on the
                             Greeland trade 18 Mar 1776 to 1950.
13 Apr 1775                Danish colony (Grønland), administered by the Royal
                             Greenland Trading Department 1775-1908. From 1912,
                             subordinated to the Danish Ministry of Interior.
19 Apr 1782                Instruction of 1782 divided the colony into northern
                             and southern halves and regulated relations
                             between the missionaries and traders and
                             principles for proper behavior towards the Inuit
                             (Instrux, hvorefter Kiøbmændene eller de som enten
                             bestyre Handelen eller forestaaeHvalfanger-
                             Anlæggene Grønland, ...").
24 Jan 1814                Recognized as a Danish possession by the Treaty
                             of Kiel following the end of union with Norway.
27 May 1908                Administration under Danish Ministry of Interior
                             (the Styrelsen af ​​Kolonierne i Grønland
                             department).
21 May 1921                Denmark formally declared that all of Greenland was
                             subject to Danish sovereignty.
12 Jul 1932                Norway proclaims annexation of the east coast of 
                             Greenland between 71 degrees 30 minutes and 75
                             degrees 45 minutes north latitude (Eric the
                             Red's Land).
 5 Apr 1933                Permanent Court of International of Justice awards
                             sovereignty over eastern coast to Denmark, 
                             Norway withdraws.
 3 May 1940 -  5 May 1945  Greenland's local administrative councils meet in
                             Godhavn and vote to assume powers which the Danish
                             Government can no longer exercise. The councilors
                             reaffirm their allegiance to King Christian X and
                             request United States protection.
20 May 1940 - May 1945     U.S. protectorate (formally from 9 Apr 1941).
Mar 1942 - 16 Oct 1944     German weather stations on the east coast
                             repeatedly found and destroyed by Allied forces
                             (Holzauge 27 Aug 1942-25 May 1943, Bassgeiger Sep
                             1943 - 3 Jun 1944, Edelweiss I 1 Sep 1944, and
                             Edelweiss II 1-4 Oct 1944, Externsteine 16 Oct
                             1944).
14 Dec 1946                U.S. offers to purchase Greenland from Denmark in
                             exchange for $100 million, which is rejected.
27 May 1950                Northern and Southern Greenland united (Greenland
                             Acts of 1950).
 5 Jun 1953                Danish province (Grønlands amt).
 1 Jan 1973 -  1 Feb 1985  Part of European Communities, as part of Denmark.
17 Jan 1979                Referendum on greater autonomy in which 70% of
                             voters voted in favor of Home Rule.
 1 May 1979                Self-government (by Act. No. 577 of 29 Nov 1978);
                             Greenland (Grønland [Kalaallit Nunaat]).
23 Feb 1982                Referendum opposes European Communities membership,
                             53.02% to 46.9%.
21 Jun 2009                Expanded autonomy enacted (Act 473 of 12 Jun 2009).
Erik the Red's Land
(1932-1933)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Rulers
c.985 - c.1010             Eiríkr "the Red" Thorvaldsson      (b. c.950 - d. c.1010)
c.1010 - c.1020            Leifr Eiríksson                    (b. c.975 - d. c.1020)
c.1020's                   Thórgils Leifsson                  (b. 999 - d. 10..)
c.1110's                   Eirik Gnupasson
c.1120's                   Sokki Thorisson
Governors
1261 - ....                .... 
c.1350                     Ivar Bardarsson
.... - 1410                ....
Superintendents
 3 Jul 1721 - 1728         Hans Egede (missionary to ... 1721)(b. 1686 - d. 1758)
                             (1st time)
1728 - 1731                Claus Enevold Paarss (Pors, Paars) (b. 1683 - d. 1762)
1731 - 1734                Hans Egede (2nd time)              (s.a.)

1734 -  3 Jun 1789         Poul Hansen Egede                  (b. 1708 - d. 1789)
                             (returned to Denmark 1740)
Inspectors in South Greenland (Sydgr
ønland)
1782 - 1789                Bendt Olrik                        (b. 1749 - d. 1793)
1789 - 1795                Andreas Molbech Lund               (b. 1749 - d. 1820)
1795 - 1797                Claus Bendeke                      (b. 1764 - d. 1828)
1797 - 1802                Niels Rosing Bull                  (b. 1760 - d. 1841)
1802 -  7 Dec  1821        Marcus Nissen Myhlenphort          (b. 1759 - d. 1821)
                             (acting to 1803)
1821 - 1823                Christian Alexander Platou         (b. 1779 - d. 1827)
                             (1st time)(acting)
1823                       Arent Christopher Heilmann         (b. 1781 - d. 1830)
                             (acting)
1823 - 1827                Christian Alexander Platou         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting to 1824)
1827 - 1828                Ove Valentin Kielsen               (b. 1803 - d. 1864)
1828 - 1832                Carl Peter Holbøll (1st time)      (b. 1795 - d. 1856)
1832 - 1833                Frederik Lassen (acting)           (b. 1798 - d. 1872)
1833 - 1836                Carl Peter Holbøll (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1836 - 1837                Jørgen Nielsen Møller (1st time)   (b. 1801 - d. 1862)
                             (acting)
1837 - 1839                Carl Peter Holbøll (3rd time)      (s.a.)
1839 - 1840                Edvard Emil Meyer (acting)         (b. 1803 - d. 1879)
1840 - 1846                Carl Peter Holbøll (4th time)      (s.a.)
1846 - 1847                Jørgen Nielsen Møller (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1847 - 1848                Carl Peter Holbøll (5th time)      (s.a.)
1848 - 1849                Holger Biilmann (acting)           (b. 1797 - d. 1864)
1849 - 1850                Carl Peter Holbøll (6th time)      (s.a.)
1850 - 1851                Edvard Emil Meyer (acting)         (b. 1803 - d. 1879)
1851 - 1856                Carl Peter Holbøll  (7th time)     (s.a.)
1856 - 1857                Jørgen Nielsen Møller (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)

1857 - 1868                Hinrich Johannes Rink              (b. 1819 - d. 1893)
                             (acting to 1858)

1868 - 1869                Albert Emil Blichfeldt Høyer       (b. 1822 - d. 1879)
1870 - 1873                Hannes Peter Stephensen (1st time) (b. 1833 - d. 1908)
                             (acting to 1871)

1873 - 1874                Lorentz Frederik Mathiesen (acting)(b. 1832 - d. 1920)
1874 - 1882                Hannes Peter Stephensen (2nd time) (s.a.)
1882 - 1884                Frederik Tryde Lassen (acting)     (b. 1838 - d. 1920)

1884 - 1888                Carl Julius Peter Ryberg (1st time)(b. 1854 - d. 1929)
1888 - 1889                Laurits Hans Christian Bistrup     (b. 1850 - d. 1914)
                             (1st time)(acting)
1889 - 1890                Carl Julius Peter Ryberg (2nd time)(s.a.)
1890 - 1891                Johan Carl Joensen (acting)        (b. 1857 - d. 1907)

1891 - 1892                Conrad Poul Emil Brummerstedt      (b. 1857 - d. 1939)
                             (acting)
1892 - 1893                Edgar Christian Fencker (1st time) (b. 1844 - d. 1904)
1893 - 1894                John Christian Gustav Baumann      (b. 1863 - d. 1939)
                             (acting)
1894 - 1897                Edgar Christian Fencker (2nd time) (s.a.)
1897 - 1898                Herjulf Carl Georg Jørgensen       (b. 1856 - d. 1911)
                             (acting)
1898 - 1902                Regnar Stephensen                  (b. 1866 - d. 1902)
                             (acting to 1899)

1902 - 1903                Oscar Peter Cornelius Koch (acting)(b. 1860 - d. 1937)
1903 - 1914                Ole Bendixen (1st time)            (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
1906 - 1907                Laurits Hans Christian Bistrup     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
1907                       Ole Bendixen (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1907 - 1908                Laurits Hans Christian Bistrup     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1908 - 1913                Ole Bendixen (3rd time)            (s.a.)
1913 - 1914                Oluf Hastrup (1st time)(acting)    (b. 1875 - d. 1933)

1914                       Ole Bendixen (4th time)            (s.a.)
1914 - 1915                Oluf Hastrup (2nd time)(acting)    (s.a.)
1915 - 1923                Carl Frederik Harries              (b. 1872 - d. 1938)

1924                       Christian Simony (acting)          (b. 1881 - d. 1961)
1924                       Knud Honoré Petersen (acting)      (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
Governors in South Greenland (Sydgrønland)
1925 - 1929                Knud Honoré Petersen (1st time)    (s.a.)
                             (from 1929, Knud Honoré Petersen Oldendow)

1930                       Frederik Albert Madsen (acting)    (b. 1894 - d. af.1956)
1931                       Knud Honoré Petersen Oldendow      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1932 - 17 May 1941         Aksel Svane                        (b. 1898 - d. 1991)

1934                       Eske Brun (acting for Svane)       (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
1941 - 1945                Eske Brun (acting)                 (s.a.)

1945 - 1950                Carl Frederik Simony               (b. 1909 - d. 1983)
Inspectors in North Greenland (Nordgrønland)(in Godhavn)
1782 - 1786                Johan Friedrich Schwabe            (b. 1749 - d. 1821)
1786 - 1790                Jens Clausen Wille                 (b. 1750 - d. 1820)
1790 - 1797                Børge Johan Schultz                (b. 1764 - d. 1826)
1797 - 1803                Claus Bendeke                      (b. 1763 - d. 1828)
1803 - 1817                Peter Hanning Motzfeldt            (b. 1774 - d. 1835)
1815 - 1817                Frederik Diderick Sechmann         (b. 1783 - d. 1849)
                             
Fleischer (acting for Motzfeldt)
1817 - 1824                Johannes West                      (b. 1782 - d. 1835)

1824 -  4 Oct 1824         Nicolai Julius Rasmussen (acting)  (b. 1777 - d. 1824)
1825                       Johan Lorentz Mørch (acting)       (b. 1783 - d. 1834)
1825 - 1828                Carl Peter Holbøll (acting)        (b. 1795 - d. 1856)

1828 - 1843                Ludvig Fasting                     (b. 1789 - d. 1863)
1843 - 18 Oct 1845         Hans Peter Christian Møller        (b. 1810 - d. 1845)
                             (acting)

1845 - 1846                Nicolai Zimmer (acting)            (b. 1810 - d. 1894)
1846 - 1866                Christian Søren Marcus Olrik       (b. 1815 - d. 1870)
1866 - 1867                Carl August Ferdinand Bolbroe      (b. 1833 - d. 1878)
                             (acting)

1867 - 1882                Sophus Theodor Krarup-Smith        (b. 1834 - d. 1882)
1882 - 1883                Hjalmar Christian Reinholdt        (b. 1859 - d. c.1940)
                             Knuthsen (acting)
1883 - 1898                Niels Alfred Andersen              (b. 1843 - d. 1900)
1898 - 1900                Johan Carl Joensen (acting)        (s.a.)
1900 - 1912                Jens Daugaard-Jensen               (b. 1871 - d. 1938)
1912 - 1913                Anders Peter Olsen (acting)        (b. 1862 - d. 1932)
1913 - 1924                Harald Lindow                      (b. 1886 - d. 1972)
Governors in North Greenland (Nordgrønland)(in Godhavn)
1925 - 1927                Philip R. Rosendahl (1st time)     (b. 1893 - d. 1974)
                             (acting)
1928 - 1929                Jørgen Peter Berthelsen (acting)   (b. 1895 - d. 1989)
1929 - 1939                Philip R. Rosendahl (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1935 - 1936                Eske Brun (acting for Rosendahl)   (s.a.)
1939 - 1945                Eske Brun                          (s.a.)

1945 - 1947                Carl Frederik Simony (acting)      (s.a.)
1947 - 1950                Niels Otto Christensen (acting)    (b. 1917 - d. 2003)
Inspector in East Greenland (Ostgrønland)
1933 - 1950                Ejnar "Miki" Mikkelsen             (b. 1880 - d. 1971)
Governors of Greenland (Landshøvdinge Grønland)
 1 Jun 1950 -  1 Sep 1960  Poul Hugo Lundsteen                (b. 1910 - d. 1988)
1955 - 1956                Niels Otto Christensen             (s.a.)
                             (acting for Lundsteen)
 1 Sep 1960 -  1 Jun 1963  Finn Carsten Nielsen (interim)     (b. 1913 - d. 1995)

 1 Jun 1963 -  1 Jan 1973  Niels Otto Christensen             (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1973 - 30 Apr 1979  Hans Jacob Lassen                  (b. 1926 - d. 2011)  
High Commissioners (Rigsombudsmanden i Grønland)
 1 May 1979 - 13 Jul 1992  Torben Hede Pedersen               (b. 1937 - d. 2000)

 1 Aug 1992 -  1 Jul 1995  Steen Spore                        (b. 1938)
 1 Jul 1995 - 31 Mar 2002  Gunnar Martens                     (b. 1940)
 1 Apr 2002 - 31 Mar 2005  Peter Lauritzen                    (b. 1959)
 1 Apr 2005 - 31 Mar 2011  Søren Hald Møller                  (b. 1960)
 1 Apr 2011 -              Mikaela Engell (f)                 (b. 1956)

Chairman of the Regional Council (Grønlands Landsråd)
26 Sep 1951 - 23 May 1967  the governors
23 May 1967 - 12 May 1971  Erling Jens Peter Høegh            (b. 1924 - d. 1993)  KF 

12 May
1971 -  1 May 1979  Lars Hans Jens Josva Chemnitz      (b. 1925 - d. 2006)  At
Prime ministers
 1 May 1979 - 18 Mar 1991  Jonathan Jakob Jørgen Otto         (b. 1938 - d. 2010)  St
                            
Motzfeldt (1st time)
18 Mar 1991 - 19 Sep 1997  Lars-Emil Johansen                 (b. 1946)            St
19 Sep 1997 - 14 Dec 2002  Jonathan Jakob Jørgen Otto         (s.a.)               St
                             Motzfeldt (2nd time)
14 Dec 2002 - 12 Jun 2009  Hans Enoksen                       (b. 1956)            St
12 Jun 2009 -  5 Apr 2013  Jakob Edvard Kuupik Kleist         (b. 1958)            IA
 5 Apr 2013 - 15 Oct 2014  Aleqa Hammond (f)                  (b. 1965)            St
30 Sep 2014 - 23
Apr 2021  Kim Marius Kielsen                 (b. 1966)            St
                             (acting [for Hammond to 15 Oct 2014] to 12 Dec 2014)
23 Apr 2021 -              Múte Inequnaaluk Bourup Egede      (b. 1987)            IA


United States Consul-generals 

22 May 1940 - 26 Sep 1942  James Kedzie Penfield              (b. 1908 - d. 2004)
26 Sep 1942 - 1944         John Burdon Ocheltree              (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
13 Jul 1944 - May 1945     Arvid G. Holm (acting)

("Free") Danish Minister to the United States, Chair American-Danish Greenland Commission
25 Apr 1940 -  5 May 1945  Henrik Louis Hans von Kauffmann    (b. 1888 - d. 1963)

Danish Ministers for Greenland (in Copenhagen)
30 Aug 1955 - 28 May 1957  Johannes Kjaerbøl                  (b. 1885 - d. 1973)  SD
28 May 1957 - 18 Nov 1960  Kai Lindberg                       (b. 1899 - d. 1975)  SD
18 Nov 1960 - 26 Sep 1964  Mikael Gam                         (b. 1901 - d. 1982)  Non-party
26 Sep 1964 -  2 Feb 1968  Carl Peter Jensen                  (b. 1906 - d. 1987)  SD
 2 Feb 1968 - 11 Oct 1971  Arnold Christian Normann           (b. 1904 - d. 1987)  RV
11 Oct 1971 - 19 Dec 1973  Knud Ludvig Johannes Hertling      (b. 1925 - d. 2010)  SD
19 Dec 1973 - 13 Feb 1975  Erik Holger Hansen                 (b. 1929 - d. 2015)  RV
13 Feb 1975 - 20 Jan 1981  Jørgen Peder Hansen                (b. 1923 - d. 1994)  SD
20 Jan 1981 - 10 Sep 1982  Tove Lindbo Larsen                 (b. 1928 - d. 2018)  SD
10 Sep 1982 -  1 Sep 1987  Tom Høyem                          (b. 1941)            CD
 1 Sep 1987 - 10 Sep 1987  Mimi Vibeke Jakobsen (acting)      (b. 1948)            CD

Directors of the Royal Greenland Trading Department (in Copenhagen)
1774 - 1781                ....
1781 - 22 Aug 1816         Hartvig Marcus Frisch              (b. 1754 - d. 1816)
1816 - 1821                Friedrich Martini                  (b. 1739 - d. 1821)
                             (co-director 1782-1816)
1821 - 1831                Hans Leganger Wexelsen             (b. 1755 - d. 1835)
1831 - 1850                Wilhelm August Graah               (b. 1793 - d. 1863)
1850 - 13 Mar 1866         Peter Bentzen                      (b. 1785 - d. 1866)
1866 - 14 Dec  1870        Christian Søren Marcus Olrik       (b. 1815 - d. 1870)
                             (acting to 1869)
1871 - 1882                Hinrich Johannes Rink              (b. 1819 - d. 1893)
1882 - 1889?               Hugo Egmont Hørring                (b. 1842 - d. 1909)
22 Sep 1889 - 1902         Hannes Peter Stephensen            (b. 1832 - d. 1908)
1902 - 1912                Carl Julius Peter Ryberg           (b. 1854 - d. 1929)
                           + Oskar Wesche (1908–1912?)        (b. 1869 - d. 1951)

Territorial Disputes: Managed dispute between Canada and Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission. 

Party abbreviations: At = Atassut ('Feeling of Community' [Solidarity], center-right, liberal conservative, agrarian, pro-home rule from 2007, pro-union with Denmark, pro-EU, est.29 Apr 1978); IA = Inuit Ataqatigiit/ Folkets Samfund ('Community of the People', democratic socialist, pro-independence, environmentalist, left-wing nationalist, split from St, est.1978); LP-V = Danmarks Liberale Parti "Venstre" (Liberal Party of Denmark "Left", moderate-liberal, center-right, 1870-95 named Forenede Venstre [United Left], 1895-1910 named Venstrereformpartiet [Left Reform Party], est.1870); RV = Radikale Venestre (Radical Left [Radical Liberal], social-liberal, center-left, split from LP-V, est.1905); St = Siumut/Frem ('Forward', social-democratic, "Greenlandization," pro-independence from 2013, pro-autonomy to 2013, Eurosceptic, est.29 Jul 1977);
- Former parties: CD = Centrum-Demokraterne (Center Democrats, centrist, 7 Nov 1973-1 Feb 2008); KF = Konservative Folkeparti (Conservative People's Party of Denmark, center-right, former Højre, est.1915) 


Eric the Red's Land

[Flag of Norway]
 
Map of Eric the
Red's Land
Currency: Norwegian
Krone (NOK) 
Chief Settlement:
Kong Oskars Fjord
Population: 6 (1933)

27 Jun 1931                Greenland coast between 71°30 N - 75°40 N claimed for Norway
                             by Hallvard Devold.
12 Jul 1932                Annexation of East Greenland by Norway as Eric the Red's Land
                             (Eirik Raudes Land).
 5 Apr 1933                International Court rules in favor of Denmark; Norway withdraws.

Governor (sysselmann)
12 Jul 1932 -  5 Apr 1933  Helge Marcus Ingstad               (b. 1899 - d. 2001)







© Ben Cahoon