World Statesmen.org HOME >

 

 








 

Marshall Islands 
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
15 Oct 1885 - 3 Oct 1914
 
[Ralik Islands - Jalui Company
                                    1885-1906 (Marshall Islands)]
21 Jan 1888 - 1 Apr 1906 Jaluit Company Flag
 
[Japan]
3 Oct 1914 - 23 Feb 1944

[United
                                    States flag]
23 Feb 1944 - 21 Oct 1986
 
[Flag of
                                    United Nations]
18 Jul 1947 - 3 Oct 1962 Pacific Is. Trust Terr.
 
[Pacific
                                    Islands Trust Territory Six Star
                                    Flag 1962-1979]
3 Oct 1962 - 1 May 1979 Pacific Is.Trust Terr.
 
[Marshall
                                    Islands]
Adopted 1 May 1979

Map of the Marshall
Islands
Hear National Anthem
 “Rammon Aelin kein am”
 (Forever Marshall Islands)
 Adopted 1991
Former National Anthem
"Ij Yokwe Lok Aelon Eo Ao"
(My Beloved Homeland,
My Birthright)
(1979-1991)
Constitution
(1 May 1979)
Capital: Majuro
(Eten 1889-1906,
  Jabor, Jaluit 1906-1914)
Currency: US Dollar (USD);
and from 1979 Marshall Islands
Dollar (MHD); 1914-1944
Japanese Yen (JPY)
National Holiday: 1 May (1979)
Constitution Day
Population: 75,684 (2018)
GDP: $196 million (2017)
Exports: $325 million (2017)
Imports: $8.79 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Marshallese 92.1%, mixed Marshallese 5.9%,
other 2% (2006)
Total Police Force: 130 (2012)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.S.
Merchant marine: 3,419 ships (2018)
Religions: Protestant 80.5% (United Church of Christ 47%,
Assembly of God 16.2%, Bukot Nan Jesus 5.4%, Full
Gospel 3.3%, Reformed Congressional Church 3%, Salvation
Army 1.9%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, Meram in Jesus 1.2%,
other Protestant 1.1%), Roman Catholic 8.5%, Mormon 7%, Jehovah's Witness 1.7%,  other 1.2%, none 1.1% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APA (observer), APM, BTWC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ITU, NPT, OPCW, PC, PIF, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, WHO, WIPO, WMO (observer)
Marshall
Islands Index
Chronology

21 Aug 1526               Discovered and claimed for Spain by Alonso
                            de Salazar.
 1 Oct 1529               Sighted by Spanish Capt. Antonio Saavedra,
                            named Islas de Los Reyes
30 Jun 1788               Re-discovered by British Capt. John Marshall,
                            later islands are named
the Marshall Islands.
1816                      First visit by Russian Capt. Otto von Kotzebue.
1874                      Spain reasserts its claim to the islands, but
                            does begin settlement.
18 Nov 1878               Treaty of Friendship signed by the chiefs of the
                            Ralik islands granting Germany exclusive use
                            of Jaluit harbor.

15 Oct 1885               Marshall Islands (Marshall-Inseln) are annexed
                            by Germany.

13 Sep 1886               German protectorate formally declared
                            (Kaiserliches Kommissariat Jaluit). 
21 Jan 1888 - 1 Apr 1906  Administered by Jaluit-Gesellschaft (Jaluit Company)
                            (as Kaiserliches Kommissariat Jaluit ;from 1893,
                            Landeshauptmannschaft Jaluit).
 1 Apr 1906               Part of German New Guinea (see
Papua New Guinea)
                            (Bezirksamt Jaluit [from 1911 Station Jaluit],
                            subordinated to district officer in Caroline Is.])
29 Sep 1914               Japanese occupation in Eniwetok and Jaluit (on 30
                            Sep 1914 and 3 Oct 1914 respectively).

28 Jun 1919               Germany formally renounces claims to the islands.
17 Dec 1920               League of Nations mandate (from 1 Apr 1922, 

                            South Seas Government; see under Palau).
Jul 1921                  Japanese transfer civil administration from
                             Chuuk to Koror, Palau.
1935                      Japan declares that the mandated islands are an
                            "integral part of the Japanese Empire."
20 Feb 1944               U.S. occupation (see Micronesia)(from 2 Feb 1944
                            on Kwajalein, on Eniwetok 20 Feb 1944, Majuro 
                            on 1 Mar 1944, Bikini on 29 Mar 1944).
Mar 1944 - 30 Jun 1951    U.S. Navy military administration.
18 Jul 1947              
Marshall Islands District of the United Nations
                            Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
                            (see Micronesia)(Marshall Islands District).
 
1 Jul 1951 - 30 Apr 1979 Administered by the U.S. Department of Interior.
30 Jul 1977               Marshall Islands district votes in referendum to be
                            separated from Micronesia - 4,763 yes to 2,871 no.
 1 May 1979               Autonomy (Republic of the Marshall Islands).

21 Oct 1986               Compact of Free Association with the U.S. effective.
10 Jul 1987               Trust territory dissolved.
22 Dec 1990               Final independence (Security Council ratifies

                            termination of trusteeship).

Traditional
states
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Kommissar
1885 - 1886                Gustav von Oertzen                 (b. 1836 - d. 1911)

Kaiserlicher Kommissare (Imperial Commissioners)
1886 -  5 Oct 1887         Wilhelm Knappe                     (b. 1855 - d. 1910)
 5 Oct 1887 - 29 Mar 1889  Franz Leopold Sonnenschein         (b. 1857 - d. 1897)
                             (acting to 14 Apr 1888)
29 Mar 1889 - 14 Apr 1890  Eugen Brandeis (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1846 - d. 1919) 
14 Apr 1890 - Feb 1892     Friedrich Louis Max Biermann       (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
Feb 1892 - 1893            Eugen Brandeis (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.) 
1893 - 1894                Ernst Schmidt-Dargitz              (b. 1859 - d. 1924)
Landeshauptleute
11 May 1894 - Mar 1898     Georg Irmer                        (b. 1853 - d. 1931)
24 Mar 1898 - 18 Jan 1906  Eugen Brandeis                     (s.a.) 
                             (acting to 22 Feb 1900)
18 Mar 1902 - 1903         Waldemar von Bunsen
                             (acting for Brandeis)
1903                       Konrad Geppert                     (b. 18.. - d. 1908)
                            
(acting for Brandeis)
18 Jan 1906 - May 1906     Ludwig Kaiser (acting)             (b. 1862 - d. 1906)
 1 Apr 1906 -  3 Oct 1914  the governors of German New Guinea
Bezirksamtleute (District magistrates)
1906 - 30 Apr 1907         Victor Berg                        (b. 1861 - d. 1907)
1907                       Joseph Siegwanz (acting)
1908 - Nov 1909            Wilhelm Stuckhardt                 (b. 18.. - d. 1909)
Nov 1909 - 1910            Erich Berghausen (interim)
1910 - 1911                Georg Merz
Stationsleiter (Station chief)
1911 -  3 Oct 1914         Georg Merz
                             (deported by Japanese on 31 May 1915)
Commanders of Japanese South Seas Squadrons
 3 Oct 1914 - 28 Dec 1914  Tanin Yamaya                       (b. 1866 - d. 1940) 
                           (in occupation of Central and eastern
                            Caroline [from 3 Oct 1914] and Marshall islands)
 7 Oct 1914 - 28 Dec 1914  Tatsuo Matsumura                   (b. 1868 - d. 1932)
                           (in occupation of western Caroline, the
                            Northern Marianas [from 14 Oct 1914]
                            and Palau [from 8 Oct 1914] islands)
Governors
28 Dec 1914 -  1 Apr 1922  the commanders of Interim Southern
                           Islands Defense Unit (see Palau)
 1 Apr 1922 -  2 Feb 1944  the Administrators of South
                           Seas Agency (see Palau)
Commanders of the Imperial Japanese Navy 6th Fleet Forces Service (in Kwajalein) 
15 Jan 1941 -  1 Feb 1942  Sukeyoshi Yatsushirō               (b. 1890 - d. 1942)
 5 Feb 1942 - 29 Nov 1943  Kōsō Abe                           (b. 1892 - d. 1947)
29 Nov 1943 -  6 Feb 1944  Monzō Akiyama                      (b. 1891 - d. 1944)
Commanders-in-chief U.S. Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas,
Military Governors of the Marshall Islands
 2 Feb 1944 - 24 Nov 1945  Chester William Nimitz             (b. 1885 - d. 1966)
24 Nov 1945 -  3 Feb 1946  Raymond Ames Spruance              (b. 1886 - d. 1969)
 3 Feb 1946 - 28 Feb 1947  John Henry Towers                  (b. 1885 - d. 1955)
28 Feb 1947 -  1 Jul 1947  Louis Emil Denfeld                 (b. 1891 - d. 1972)

U.S. Military Administrators

 1 Jun 1945 - 18 Jul 1947  the Commanders U.S. Naval Forces
                          
Marianas Area (see Northern Marianas)
U.S. Commanders of (Kwajalein Atoll to 1 May 1944) Marshall Islands Subarea
1 May - 1 Oct 1944; from 1 Oct 1944
Marshalls-Gilberts Area;
and from 1 Jun 1944,
Deputy Military Governors of the M
arshall Islands
 2 Feb 1944 -  6 Nov 1944 
Alva Douglas Bernhard              (b. 1886 - d. 1955)
 6 Nov 1944 - 26 Feb 1945  Harold Bushnell "Slats" Sallada    (b. 1895 - d. 1977)
26 Feb 1945 - 1945         William Keene Harrill              (b. 1892 - d. 1962)
Governors, Marshall Islands and Commanders U.S. Naval Base Kwajalein
Jul 1945 - 1947            Ben Harrison Wyatt                 (b. 1894 - d. 1968)

Sep 1947 - 24 Oct 1947     George Albert Seitz                (b. 1897 - d. 1947)
Dec 1947 - 16 Jul 1949     John Pinckney Wheeler Vest         (b. 1901 - d. 1993)
16 Jul 1949 - Jun 1950     Cecil Bachelder Gill               (b. 1902 - d. 1992)
Sep 1950 - 30 Jun 1951     Stanhope Cotton Ring               (b. 1902 - d. 1963)
Officers in Charge, Military Government South Sector (Kwajalein)
Sep 1945 - Oct 1945        Chester Morey Carré                (b. 1902 - d. 1968)
Nov 1945 - Jun 1946        Clyde L. Ogden                     (b. 1906)
Jul 1946 - Aug 1946        Hector C. Cyr                      (b. 1920 - d. 2005)
Officers in Charge, Military Government North Sector (Roi)
Sep 1945 - Dec 1945        Frank E. O'Reilly                  (b. 1904 - d. 1946)
Jan 1946 - Apr 1946        Herbert C. Meade

Officer in Charge, Military Government Kwajalein Atoll
Sep 1946 - Jun 1947        Edward B. Miller                   (b. 1902 - d. 19..)
Civil Administrators Kwajalein
Sep 1947 - 1947            Edward B. Miller                   (s.a.)
Dec 1947 - 1948            Edward Robert Nelson, Jr.          (b. 1910 - d. ....)
Mar 1948 - 30 Sep 1948     Edward Franklin Ferguson          
(b. 1910 - d. ....)
Military Government Officers Majuro
Sep 1945 - Dec 1945        Douglas Woodley DeLaurier          (b. 1901 - d. 1967)
Jan 1946 - Apr 1946        Frank E. O'Reilly                  (s.a.)
Oct 1946 - Jun 1947        Chester Eugene Herrick
             (b. 1908 - d. 19..)
Civil Administrators Majuro
Sep 1947 - 21 Aug 1948     Chester Eugene Herrick             (s.a.)
21 Aug 1948 - 30 Sep 1948  Edward Franklin Ferguson           (s.a.)

Civil Administrators
Marshall Islands

 1 Oct 1948 - Dec 1949     Edward Franklin Ferguson           (s.a.)

Mar 1950 - Sep 1950        Roland Walker Kenney               (b. 1904 - d. 1995)
Dec 1950 - Jun 1951        Frank Wilson Avila                 (b. 1914 - d. 1993)
Marshall Islands District Administrators
(Distad)
Jul 1951 - 1954            Donald W. Gilfillan                (b. 1904 - d. 1979)

1954 - 1960                Maynard Neas                       (b. 1906 – d. 1979)
1960 - 1961                William E. Finale                  (b. 1924 – d. 2006)
27 May 1961 - 1965         Peter Tali Coleman                 (b. 1919 - d. 1997)  
15 Oct 1965 - 1969         Dwight Heine                       (b. 1919 - d. 1984) 
1969 - 1970                Robert Davis Law                   (b. 1917 - d. 1982)
1970 - 1979                Oscar DeBrum                       (b. 1929 - d. 2002)
Presidents

 1 May 1979 - 21 Dec 1996  Amata Kabua                        (b. 1928 - d. 1996)  Non-party;
                             (acting to 17 Nov 1979)                               c.1991 AKA
21 Dec 1996 - 17 Jan 1997  Kunio David Lemari (acting)        (b. 1942 - d. 2008)  AKA
17 Jan 1997 - 10 Jan 2000  Imata Jabro Kabua                  (b. 1943 - d. 2019)  AKA
10 Jan 2000 -  7 Jan 2008  Kessai Hesa Note                   (b. 1950)            UDP
 7 Jan 2008 - 21 Oct 2009  Litokwa Tomeing                    (b. 1939)            UPP
21 Oct 2009 -  2 Nov 2009  Ruben Rakin Zackhras (acting)      (b. 1947)            UDP
 2 Nov 2009 - 10 Jan 2012  Jurelang Zedkaia                   (b. 1950 - d. 2015) AKA;2011 KEA
10 Jan 2012 - 11 Jan 2016  Christopher Jorebon Loeak          (b. 1952)            AKA
11 Jan 2016 - 28 Jan 2016  Casten Ned Nemra                   (b. 1971)            KEA
28 Jan 2016 -              Hilda Cathy Heine (f)              (b. 1951)            Non-party


Territorial Dispute
: Claims U.S. territory of Wake Island.

Party abbreviations (political parties are mostly unofficial groupings): AKA = Ailon Kein Ad (Our Islands, also called the 'presidential caucus' [or 'Kabua party'], supported by traditional chiefs, from c.1991, formally est.2002); UDP = United Democratic Party (reformist, est.c.1997); KEA = Kien Eo Am (Our Government, split from AKA, est.2011); UPP = United People's Party 







© Ben Cahoon