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Micronesia
 

[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)(Spain)]
1886 - 12 Oct 1899 
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
12 Oct 1899 - 7 Oct 1914 
 
[Japan]
7 Oct 1914 - 1944
 
[US
                                    flag]
1944 - 30 Nov 1978
 
[Flag of
                                    United Nations]
18 Jul 1947 - 19 Aug 1965 Pacific Is.Trust Terr.
 
[Pacific
                                    Islands Trust Territory (Six Star
                                    Flag) 1962-1978 (U.S.)]
24 Oct 1962 - 30 Nov 1978 Pacific Is.Trust Terr.
(unofficial to 19 Aug 1965)
 
[Flag of
                                    Federated States of Micronesia]
Adopted 30 Nov 1978


Map of Micronesia Hear National Anthem
"Patriots of Micronesia"
(or "Across All Micronesia")
Adopted 10 Dec 1991
Former National Anthem
 "Preamble"
(1979-10 Dec 1991)
Constitution
  (10 May 1979)
Capital: Palikir
(Kolonia 1907-4 Nov 1989;
Ponape 1899-1907;
Colonia Santiago de la
Ascensión 1887-1899)
Currency: US Dollar (USD);
1914-1944 Japanese Yen  (JPY)
National Holiday: 10 May (1979)
Constitution Day
Population: 104,832 (2021)
GDP: $336 million (2017)
Exports: $29.8 million (2017)
Imports: $154 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: Chuukese 28%, Pohnpeian 24%, Yapese 10.6%,
Mortlockese 5.6%, Kosraean 5.2%, U.S. white 4.5%,
Ulithian 3.3%, Carolinian 2.8%, Asian 1.3%, Polynesian
and others 14.7% (2000)
Total Police/Maritime Force: 500 (2012)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.S.
Merchant marine: 3 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 52.7%, Protestant 40.6%
(of which Congregationalist 40.1%), Mormon 1%,
Ethno-religionist 3.35%, Baha'i 1.62%, Buddhist 0.43%,
Chinese folk religionist 0.30% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APA (observer), CTBT, CWC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NPT, OPCW, PC, PIF (withdrawing), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, WHO, WMO
Micronesia
Index
Chronology

 1 Oct 1525               Discovered by Portuguese Capt. Diego da Rocha,
                            named Islas Sequeira.
 1 Jan 1528               Re-discovered and claimed for Spain by Alvaro de
                            Saavedra. 
1686                      Re-claimed for Spain by Francesco Lazcano and
                            named Islas Las Carolinas (Caroline Islands)
                            (subordinated to the Philippines), no settlement.
1869                      German trading company J.C. Godeffroy und
                            Sohn establishes a trading station on Yap.

1874                      Spain reasserts its claims to the islands, but
                            does not begin settlement.
1880                      German trading firm the Hernsheim Company
                            establishes trading stations on Yap and Ponape.
Feb 1885                  Spanish ship Velasco asserts Spain's sovereignty.
21 Aug 1885               Spanish arrive in Yap.
25 Aug 1885               German captain
Max Plüddemann (b. 1846 - d. 1910)
                            aboard the Albatros annex Yap
, Chuuk (on 30 Sep
                            1885)
and
Ponape (on 13 Oct 1885) for Germany.
22 Oct
1885               Spanish possession is confirmed by the arbitration
                            of Pope Leo XIII (signed 17 Dec 1885).
12 Feb 1899               Spain sells the islands to Germany.
18 Jul 1899               Part of German New Guinea (see
Papua New Guinea).
                            General supervision over the districts entrusted
                            to the Heads of the district (Bezirkamtleute) of
                            Ponape after 1907 those of District of Jap (Yap); 
                            
named Karolinen- und Palau-Inseln.
29 Sep - 21 Oct 1914      Japanese occupation (Ponape occupied 7 Oct 1914 and
                            Truk on 12 Oct 1914)(see under
Marshall Islands;
                            from 28 Dec 1914 see under Palau).
Sep/Oct 1914 - Mar 1922   Japanese military (naval) administration, from Jul
                            1918, with civil administration department
                            subordinate under the navy. In Dec 1914, the Truk
                            district (Caroline Islands between 148 E & 154 E),
                            Ponape district (Caroline Islands east of 154 E,
                            Marshall Islands west of 164 E incl. Eniwetok and
                            Ujelang Atolls), and from Apr 1915, Yap district
                            (Caroline islands between 137 E & 148 E)(the
                            Caroline Islands west of 137 E are part of the
                            Palau district) are created.
14 Dec 1914               Japan promulgates ordinances for the South Seas
                            Temporary Defense Corps.
28 Dec 1914               Japanese Expeditionary Squadron replaced by the
                            Provisional Naval Garrison.
 
1 Jul 1918               Civil Administration Department established in each
                            district (under Naval Garrison Commander).
28 Jun 1919               Germany formally renounces claim to the islands by
                            the Treaty of Versailles.
17 Dec 1920               League of Nations mandate (South Seas Islands).

Jul 1921                  Japanese transfer civil administration from Truk
                            (Chuuk) to
Koror in Palau.
11 Feb 1922               Signed the "Japan-U.S. Treaty on the Delegated
                            Governing Islands of the Yap Island and other
                            equatorial northern Pacific Islands.
 1 Apr 1922               South Seas Government (see under
Palau) created
                           (directly under the Prime minister to 8 Jun 1929,
                            then under Ministry of Treasury/Ministry of
                            Overseas Affairs; from 1 Nov 1942 under Ministry
                            of Greater East Asian Affairs).

1935                      Japan declares that the mandated islands are an
                            "integral part of the Japanese Empire."
Dec 1941                  Martial law declared.
 5 Nov 1943               Reorganization, the Truk and Ponape districts become
                            the Eastern Area
(headquarters in Truk), and Yap
                            part of the Western Area (headquarters in Palau).
20 Sep 1944               U.S. occupation begins (
Ulithi Atoll and Yap from
                            5 Sep 1945).

14 Aug 1945               Japanese mandate revoked by Potsdam agreement;
                            recognized 28 Apr 1952 by peace of San Francisco)
Sep 1945 - 30 Jun 1951    U.S. Navy military administration.
18 Jul 1947               Part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific
                            Islands (TTPI)(Marshall Islands, Micronesia,
                           
Northern Mariana Islands, & Palau [TTPI is divided
                            into
districts: Marshalls, Ponape [incl. Kosrae],
                            Truk, Yap, Palau, the Mariana Islands [and
                            10 Mar 1955 - 1 Jul 1962, Rota]).
 1 Jul 1951 - 10 May 1979 Administered by the U.S. Department of Interior.
10 May 1979               Autonomy (Federated States of Micronesia) 
                            (formerly the Ponape, Truk and Yap districts).
 3 Nov 1986               Compact of Free Association with the U.S. effective.
10 Jul 1987               Trust territory dissolved.
22 Dec 1990               Final independence (Security Council ratifies 
                            termination of trusteeship).

Micronesia
Districts and
States

(from 1947)
Traditional
states
Trust Territory
of the Pacific
Islands
(1947-1986)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
 
[Pacific Islands
                            Trust Territory (Six Star Flag) 1962-1978
                            (U.S.)]
Adopted 24 Oct 1962
(unofficial to 19 Aug 1965)
[Flag of the U.S.
                          High Commissioner 1947-1987, (Pacific Islands
                          Trust Territory)]
High Commissioner's Flag 1947 - 1987
 
Map of Trust Territory of Pacific
Capital: Saipan
(Agana, Guam 1944-1951)
Population: 132,929 (1980)

18 Jul 1947               Part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific
                            Islands (TTPI)(Marshall Islands, Micronesia,
                           
Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau [TTPI is divided
                            into
districts: Marshalls, Ponape [incl. Kosrae],
                            Truk, Yap, Palau, the Mariana Islands [and
                            10 Mar 1955 - 1 Jul 1962, Rota]).
10 May 1979               Federated States of Micronesia formed from the districts  
                            of Ponape, Truk and Yap districts.
21 Oct 1986               U.S. ends its administration of the Marshall Islands district.
10 Jul 1987               High Commissioner retires , TTPI As Palau administered by the
                            Office of Territorial and International Affairs of the U.S.
                            Department of Interior.
22 Dec 1990               United Nations formally ends
trusteeship for Chuuk, Yap, Kosrae,
                            Pohnpei, Mariana Islands, and Marshall Islands districts.
25 May 1994               United Nations formally ends trusteeship for Palau district. 


Military Governors of the Marshall, Caroline, and Mariana Islands

Mar 1944 - 19 Jun 1944     John Henry Hoover                  (b. 1887 - d. 1970)  Mil
19 Jun 1944 - 24 Nov 1945  Chester William Nimitz             (b. 1885 - d. 1966)  Mil
24 Nov 1945 -  3 Feb 1946  Raymond Ames Spruance              (b. 1885 - d. 1969)  Mil 
 3 Feb 1946 - 28 Feb 1947  John Howard Towers                 (b. 1885 - d. 1955)  Mil
28 Feb 1947 - 18 Jul 1947  Louis Emil Denfeld                 (b. 1891 - d. 1972)  Mil
High Commissioners of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
18 Jul 1947 - 17 Apr 1948  Louis Emil Denfeld                 (s.a.)               Mil
17 Apr 1948 -  1 May 1949  DeWitt Clinton Ramsey              (b. 1888 - d. 1961)  Mil
 1 May 1949 -  6 Jan 1951  Arthur William Radford             (b. 1896 - d. 1973)  Mil
 6 Jan 1951 - 11 Feb 1953  Elbert Duncan Thomas               (b. 1883 - d. 1953)  Dem 
13 Mar 1953 -  1 Sep 1954  Frank Elbert Midkiff               (b. 1887 - d. 1983)
 1 Sep 1954 -  1 May 1961  Delmas Henry Nucker                (b. 1907 - d. 1985)
                             (acting to 26 Nov 1956)
 1 May 1961 - 27 May 1966  Maurice Wilfred Goding             (b. 1911 - d. 1989)  Dem
27 May 1966 -  1 May 1969  William Robert Norwood             (b. 1909 - d. 1981)
                             (acting to 1 Aug 1966)
 1 May 1969 -  1 Jul 1976  Edward Elliott Johnston            (b. 1918 - d. 2011)
 1 Jul 1976 - Feb 1977     Peter Tali Coleman (acting)        (b. 1919 - d. 1997)
  Rep
Feb 1977 -  9 Jul 1977     James Boyd Mackenzie (acting)      (b. 1918 - d. 1978)
 9 Jul 1977 - 1981         Adrian Paul Winkel                 (b. 1915 - d. 1994)  Dem

1981 - Dec 1981            Daniel Joseph High (acting)        (b. 1938)
Dec 1981 - 10 Jul 1987     Janet Jenkins McCoy (f)            (b. 1916 - d. 1995)  Rep
Director, Office of Transition of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
 
3 Nov 1986 - 30 Sep 1991  Charles "Chuck" D. Jordan  

Party abbreviations: Dem = Democratic Party (U.S. Democratic Party, liberal, center-left, est.1829); Rep = Republican Party (U.S. Republican Party, conservative, center-right, est.1854); Mil = Military



Micronesia


Political and Military Governors 
- for western Caroline islands and Palau (Yap [and from 1907 Saipan])-
1886 - 1887                Manuel de Elisa y Vergara
1887 - 1888
(6 months)     Mariano Torres de Navarra          (b. 1845 - d. 1889)
                             (1st time)
1888 - 1889                José Montes de Oca y Aceñero       (b. 1844 - d. 1897)
                             (1st time)
1889 - 1890                Mariano Torres de Navarra          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1890 - 1892                José Montes de Oca y Aceñero       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
16 Jun 1892 - 23 Feb 1894  Manuel Antón e Iboléon             (b. 1850 - d. 1908)
23 Feb 1894 - 1895         José Montes de Oca y Aceñero       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
13 Nov 1895 - Jan 1897     Jacobo Marina Vega                 (b. 1847 - d. 19..)
1897 -  2 Nov 1899         Salvador Rafael Cort
és y Samit     (b. 1848 - d. 1928)
Nov 1899 - 1906            Arno Senfft (1st time)             (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
Apr 1906 - 1907            Georg Fritz (1st time)(acting)     (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
1907 - Feb 1909            Arno Senfft (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1909                       Rudolf Karlowa                     (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
1909 - 1910                Georg Fritz (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1910 - 1911                Hermann Kersting                   (b. 1863 - d. 1937)
1911 - 1914                Baumert
- for eastern Caroline islands (Ponape [and from 1911 Marshall Islands])-
 1 Mar 1886 - Jul? 1886    Isidro Posadillo y Posadillo       (b. 1840 - d. 1887)                              (1st time)
26 Jul 1886 -  6 Aug 1886  Luis Bayo y Hernández Pinzón
       (b. 1846 - d. 1906)
1886 - 1887                Enrique Capriles y Osuna           (b. 1850 - d. ....) 

13 Mar 1887 -  3 Jul 1887  Isidro Posadillo y Posadillo       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

29 Oct 1887 - Jan 1891     Luis Cadarso y Rey                 (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
19 Feb 1891 - Feb 1892     Julio Merás y Urio
28 Feb 1892 - 28 Apr 1892  José Padriñan (or Padman)
28 Apr 1892 - May 1893     Bienvenido Flandes (acting)
19 May 1893 - Aug 1894     Fernando Claudin

Aug 1894 - Aug 1896        José Pidal y Rebollo               (b. 1849 - d. 1920)
23 Aug 1896 -  2 Jan 1897  Francisco Jiménez y Villavicencio  (b. 1847 - d. 19..)
Jan 1897 - 1897            Michael Velasco
bf.Nov 1897 - May 1899     José Fernández de Córdoba 
31 May 1899 -  2 Oct 1899  Ricardo de Castro y Candara (acting)
 
2 Oct 1899 - 1901         Albert Hahl                        (b. 1868 - d. 1945)

 1 Sep 1901 - 30 Apr 1907  Victor Berg                        (b. 1861 - d. 1907)
1907                       August Ueberhorst (1st time)(acting)
1907 - 1909                Georg Fritz                        (s.a.) 
Oct 1909 - 18 Oct 1910     Gustav Boeder                      (b. c.1862 - d. 1910)
18 Oct 1910 - Feb 1911     Max Girschner (acting)             (b. 1861 - d. 1927)
1911 -  7 Oct 1914         August Ueberhorst (2nd time)
Bezirksamtmann Bezirk Ponape (Bezirk der Ostkarolinen)
(and to 1907, Vice-governors of German New Guinea)
Jul 1899 - 1901            Albert Hahl                        (s.a.)
1902 - 30 Apr 1907         Victor Berg                        (s.a.)
1907 - 1908                Wilhelm Stuckhardt                 (b. 18.. - d. 1909)
1908 - 1909                Georg Fritz                        (s.a.)
1909 - 1911                Gustav Boeder                      (s.a.)
1911 - 1914                Hermann Kersting                   (s.a.)
Stationsleiter Stationsbezirk Truk
(subordinated to Ponape)
1909 - 1911                Max Scharlauch
1911 - 1913                Gentner
1913 - 1914                Otto Paulisch

Bezirksamtmann
Bezirk Jap (Yap) (Bezirk der Westkarolinen)
(and from 1907, Vice-governors of German New Guinea)
1899 - 1909                Arno Senfft                        (s.a.)
1909                       Rudolf Karlowa                     (s.a.)
1909 - 1910                Georg Fritz                        (s.a.)
1910 - 1911                Hermann Kersting                   (s.a.)
1911 - 1914                Baumert 

Governors 
18 Jul 1899 -  7 Oct 1914  the Governors of German New Guinea
 7 Oct 1914 -  1 Apr 1922  the Commanders of Interim Southern
                           Islands Defense Unit (see Palau)
 1 Apr 1922 -  2 Sep 1945  the Directors of the South
                           Seas Government (see Palau)
Chiefs of the Truk Branch of the South Seas Government
 
1 Apr 1922 - 30 May 1922  Eijirō Kamada
1922 - 1925?               Takayuki Shimakura
                             (acting to 20 Nov 1922)
1925 - 1929?               Abo Tadano
1929 - 1932?               Kiichi Kōsaka (1st time)
1932 - 1936?               Yūzaburō Yamaguchi
Jan 1936 - 1938?           Shigezō Yamamoto
1938 - 1941                Shigechika Yomitsu
Apr 1941 - 1943?           Kiichi Kōsaka (2nd time)

Chiefs of the Ponape Branch of the South Seas Government
 1 Apr 1922 - 25 Mar 1924  Motomichi Mitsukawa
25 Mar 1924 - 1924         Eijirō Kamada
12 Dec 1924 - 1929?        Taira Fukushima
1929 - 1933?               Abo Tadano
1933 - 1934                Jun'ichirō Noda
1934                       Shigeru Tateyama
1934 - 1935?               Shigeru Tanaka (1st time)
1935 - 1936?               Yasaburō Fushida
1936 - 1938?               Shigeru Tanaka (2nd time)
1938 - Sep 1940            Yoshizō Hayama
Sep 1940 - 1943?           Kaneto Tsukahara
Chiefs of the Yap Branch of the South Seas Government

 1 Apr 1922 - 30 May 1922  Yoshiyoshi Fujisaki
30 May 1922 - 25 Mar 1924  Eijirō Kamada
25 Mar 1924 - 23 Apr 1924  Motomichi Mitsukawa
23 Apr 1924 - 1924         Hoe Sawada
12 Dec 1924 - 17 Jul 1929  Shigeru Tateyama
1929 - 1932?               Shūichi Nakahashi
1932 - 1934?               Hayato Takagi
1934 - 1935                Hideo Ikumatsu (acting)
1935 - 1936?               Kisaku Mizuno
1936 - 1937?               Yoshizō Hayama
1937 - 1943?               Kiyoichi Kobayashi
Jun 1943 -  5 Nov 1943     Naoya Fujimaki
Chief, Eastern Area Branch, South Seas Government (in Truk) 
 5 Nov 1943 - 
2 Sep 1945  Aihara Aritaka                     (b. 1889 - d. 1950)
Japanese Commanders-in-chief of the 4th Fleet
(in Truk)
15 Nov 1939 - 15 Nov 1940  Eikichi Katagiri                   (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
15 Nov 1940 - 11 Aug 1941  Shirō Takasu                       (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
11 Aug 1941 - 26 Oct 1942  Shigeyoshi Inoue                   (b. 1889 - d. 1975)
26 Oct 1942 -  1 Apr 1943  Baron Tomoshige Samejima           (b. 1889 - d. 1966)
11 Apr 1943 - 19 Feb 1944  Masami Kobayashi                   (b. 1890 - d. 1977)
19 Feb 1944 -  2 Sep 1945
  Chūichi Hara                       (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
Commanders-in-chief U.S. Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas,
Military Governors of the Caroline Islands

 2 Sep 1945 - 24 Nov 1945  Chester William Nimitz             (b. 1885 - d. 1966)

24 Nov 1945 -  3 Feb 1946  Raymond Ames Spruance              (b. 1886 - d. 1969)
 3 Feb 1946 - 28 Feb 1947  John Henry Towers                  (b. 1885 - d. 1955)
28 Feb 1947 -  1 Jul 1947  Louis Emil Denfeld                 (b. 1891 - d. 1972)
Military Administrators

 
2 Sep 1945 - 18 Jul 1947  the Commanders of U.S. Naval Forces
                          
Mariana Islands (see Northern Marianas)
Governors, Western Caroline Islands
Sep 1947 - 30 Jun 1951     the Civil Administrators Palaus
Governors, Eastern Caroline Islands

Sep 1947 - Dec 1947        Harold D. Huxley                   (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
Dec 1947 - Mar 1948        Loren Hall Kiser (acting)          (b. 1918 - d. 2009)
Mar 1948 - Mar 1949        Edward Robert Nelson, Jr.          (b. 1910 - d. ....)
Jun 1949 - Sep 1950        Robert Davis Law (1st time)        (b. 1917 - d. 1982)
Dec 1950 - Mar 1951       
Roland Walker Kenney               (b. 1904 - d. 1995)
Mar 1951 - Jun 1951        ....
Jun 1951
- 30 Jun 1951     Robert Davis Law (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Presidents

11 May 1979 - 11 May 1987  Tosiwo Nakayama                    (b. 1931 - d. 2007)  Non-party
11 May 1987 - 11 May 1991  John Richard Haglelgam             (b. 1949)            Non-party
11 May 1991 -  8 May 1997  Bailey Olter                       (b. 1932 - d. 1999)  Non-party
 8 Nov 1996 - 11 May 1999  Jacob Nena                         (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (acting for incapacitated Olter to 8 May 1997)
11 May 1999 - 11 May 2003  Leo Amy Falcam                     (b. 1935 - d. 2018)  Non-party
11 May 2003 - 11 May 2007  Joseph John Urusemal               (b. 1952)            Non-party
11 May 2007 - 11 May 2015  Emmanuel "Manny" Mori              (b. 1948)
            Non-party
11 May 2015 -
11 May 2019  Peter Martin Christian             (b. 1947)            Non-party
11 May 2019 -              David W. Panuelo                   (b. 1964
)            Non-party

No Formal Political Parties Exist








© Ben Cahoon