World Statesmen.org HOME >

 
 


 
 




Nepal
 
[Nepal
                                    Flag of the Kings c.1847-1923]
19th cent. - 1923  Flag of the Kings
[Nepal
                                    Flag of Hereditary Rana Prime
                                    ministers c.1847-1923]
19th cent. - 1923 Rana Prime ministers
[Nepal
                                    Flag 1923-c.1930]
1923 - c.1930
[Nepal Flag
                                    c.1930-1962]
c.1930 - 16 Dec 1962
[Nepal flag]
Adopted 16 Dec 1962



Map of Nepal
Hear National Anthem
"Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka"
 (Hundreds of Flowers)

Adopted 3 Aug 2007

Former National Anthems
"Ras Triya Gaan"
(National Song)
(16 Dec 1962 - 18 May 2006)
(as Royal anthem 1899-1962,
 "Shree Paanchko Salaami")
-----------------------------------------
"Shree Teenko Salaami"
(Anthem of the Prime ministers
1899-1951)
Constitution
(20 Sep 2015)
----------------------------------
Interim Constitution
(15 Jan 2007 - 20 Sep 2015)
----------------------------------
Former Constitution
(9 Nov 1990 -15 Jan 2007)
Capital: Kathmandu
Currency: Nepalese Rupee
(NPR); 1870-1945 Nepal Mohar
(NPM) and Indian Rupee (INR)
National Holiday:
29 May (2008)
Ganatantra Diwas
(Republic Day)
-------------------------------------
2001-2006: 7 Jul (1947)

Birthday of King Gyanendra;
1972-2001: 28 Dec (1945)
Birthday of King Birendra
Population: 29,717,587 (2018)
GDP: $79.19 billion (2017) 
Exports: $818.7 million (2017)
Imports: $10 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%,
 Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%,
 Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 23% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 95,753 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2018)
Religions: Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%,
Kirant 3%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecified 0.2% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB, APA, BIMSTEC, BTWC, CD, CP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, OST, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue partner), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nepal Index
Chronology

643                        Licchavi (Suryavamsa) dynasty restored; usually
                             called Malla dynasty after reign of 
                             Jayasthitirajamalladeva (1382-95).
1484                       Joint rulers divide the state into three kingdoms,
                             named after their capitals Bhaktapura 
                             (Bhatgaon), Banikapura (Banepa), and Kantipura
                             (Kathmandu).
1546                       Additional division creates kingdom of Lalitapura
                             (Lalitapatan), annexed by Nepal Oct 1768.
16..                       Banikapura annexed by Bhaktapura.
25 Sep 1768                Kingdom of Nepal (the last ruler of Gorkha unifies
                             the
Nepal under the Shah [Saha] dynasty).
13 Nov 1769                Bhaktapura (Bhatgaon) annexed.
30 Sep 1792 - 1911         Nepal a tributary of China (no missions 1852-66).
1803 - 1815                Nepal invades and occupies the Indian princely 

                             states of Baghal, Balsan, Bashahr, Bhajji, Bija,
                             Darkoti, Dhami, Jubbal, Keonthal (to 1814), 
                             Kumharsain (to 1816), Kunihar, Kuthar, Mahlog,
                             Mangal, Nalagarh, Sangri, Sikkim (bf.1793-1817),
                             Sirmur, (Tehri-)Garhwal (from 1804) and Tharoch.
15 Mar 1816 - 21 Dec 1923  De facto British protectorate.
Oct 1959                   Autonomy of principalities (rajya) in the western
                             hills abolished.
15 Jan 2007                Nepal (the king is excluded from governance, and
                             Nepal is proclaimed an independent, indivisible,
                             sovereign, secular, inclusive and fully democratic
                             state in accordance with the Interim Constitution
                             of 2007).
28 May 2008                Nepal is proclaimed a federal democratic republic,
                             by resolution of the Constituent Assembly (also
                             in limited official use to 15 Dec 2020: Federal
                             Democratic Republic of Nepal)(m
onarchy is formally
                             abolished
).

Nepal
(from 1768)

Provinces
(from 2018)
Princely States
(to 2008)

Bhaktapura
(1673-1769)
Kantipura
(1687-1768)
Lalitapura
(1661-1768)
Gorkha
(1669-1768)
Mustang
(1656-2008)
Map of Ethnic
Groups in Nepa
 

Bhaktapura (Bhatgaon)

Kings
1673 - 1696                Jayasumatijitamitramalla             (d. 1696)
1696 - Apr 1722            Jayabhupatindramalla                 (b. 1674 - d. 1722)

Apr 1722 - 13 Nov 1769     Jyaranajitamalla                     (b. c.1695 - d. 17..)


Kantipura (Kathmandu)

Kings
1687 - 1700                Jayabhupalendramalla
                             (Jayamahipatindramalla)
1700 - 1722                Jayabhaskaramalla
                             (Jayamahendrasimhamalla)
1722 - 1734                Jayajagajjayamalla
1735 - 1746                Jayaprakasamalla (1st time)
1746 - 1752                Jayajyotiprakasamalla
1752 - 25 Sep 1768         Jayaprakasamalla (2nd time)


Lalitapura (Lalitapatan)

Kings
1661 - 1685                Jayasrinivasamalla                 (d. 1687)
                             (styled Manigladhipati Maharajadhiraj)
1685 - 28 Oct 1705         Jayayoganarendramalla
              (d. 1705)
Nov 1705 - Oct 1706        Jayalokaprakasamalla               (b. 1698 - d. 1706)
1706 - Mar 1709            Jayendramalla                      (d. 1709)
1709                       Jayamahendramalla (1st time)       (d. 1715)
1709                       Jayaviranarasimhamalla
1709 - 21 Jan 1715         Jayamahendramalla (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1715 - Jun 1716            Jayariddhinarasimhamalla           (b. 1705 - d. 1716)
1717 - Jun/Aug 1722        Jayabhaskaramalla                  (d. 1722)
                             (Jayamahendrasimhamalla)
1722 - 1729                Jayayogaprakasamalla
1729 - 1745                Sri Jayavishnumalla                (d. 1745)
1745 - Oct 1758            Jayarajyaprakasamalla              (d. 1758)
1758 - Aug 1760            Jayavisvajitmalla                  (d. 1760)
1760 - 1762                Jayaprakasamalla (1st time)
1762 - 1763                Jayaranajitmalla
1763                       Jayaprakasamalla (2nd time)
1764 - 1765                Dalamardana Shah
                             (usurper, Shah dynasty of Gorkha)
1765 - Oct 1768            Jayatejanarayanasimhamalla         (d. af.1770)


Gorkha (Gurkha)

Rajas
1669 - 1716                Prithvipati Shah                   (d. 1716)
1716 - 1742                Narabhpati Shah                    (b. c.1697 - d. 1742)
1742 - 25 Sep 1768         Prithvinarayana Shah               (b. 1722 - d. 1775)



Nepal
 

Kings (title Maharajadhiraja)
25 Sep 1768 - 11 Jan 1775  Prithivi Narayan Shah Deva         (s.a.)
11 Jan 1775 - 17 Nov 1777  Sinha Pratap Shah Deva             (b. 1751 - d. 1777)
17 Nov 1777 - 23 Mar 1799  Rana Bahadur Shah Deva             (b. 1775 - d. 1806)
17 Nov 1777 - 31 Aug 1778  Maharani Rajendra Rajya Lakshmi    (d. 1785)
                             Devi -Regent (1st time)
 2 Sep 1778 - 20 Jun 1779  Bahadur Shah -Regent (1st time)    (b. 1757 - d. 1797)
20 Jun 1779 - 13 Jul 1785  Maharani Rajendra Rajya Lakshmi    (s.a.)
                             Devi -Regent (2nd time)
13 Jul 1785 -  6 Jun 1794  Bahadur Shah -Regent (2nd time)    (s.a.)
23 Mar 1799 - 20 Nov 1816  Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah Deva     (b. 1797 - d. 1816)
23 Mar 1799 - Apr 1800     Maharani Raj Rajeshwari            (b. c.1775 - d. 1806)
                             Devi (f) -Regent (1st time)
Apr 1800 - Feb 1803        Maharani Subarna Prabha            (b. 1779 - d. 18..)
                             Devi (f) -Regent   
Feb 1803 - 1804            Maharani Raj Rajeshwari            (s.a.)
                             Devi (f) -Regent (2nd time)
1804 - 25 Apr 1806         Rana Bahadur Shah Deva -Regent     (s.a.)
25 Apr 1806 -  6 Apr 1832  Maharani Lalit Tipura Sundari      (b. 1794 - d. 1832)
                             Devi (f) -Regent
20 Nov 1816 - 12 May 1847  Rajendra Bikram Shah Deva          (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
1839 -  6 Oct 1841        
Maharani Samrajya Lakshmi          (b. c.1814 - d. 1841)
                             Devi (f) -Regent
                           
(de facto regent)
 

 1 Jan 1843 - Nov 1846     Kancha Maharani Rajya Lakshmi      (b. c.1814 - d. 1899?)

                             Devi (f) -Regent 
                            (de facto regent from 6 Oct 1841)
12 May 1847 - 17 May 1881  Surendra Bikram Shah Deva          (b. 1829 - d. 1881)
17 May 1881 - 11 Dec 1911  Prithivi Bir Bikram Shah Deva      (b. 1875 - d. 1911)
17 May 1881 -  8 Aug 1893  Kancha Maharani Lalit Rajeshwori   (b. 1854 - d. 1917) 
                             Rajya Lakshmi Devi (f) -Regent
11 Dec 1911 -  7 Nov 1950  Tribhuvana Bir Bikram Shah Deva    (b. 1906 - d. 1955)
                             (1st time)
                             (in India exile 11 Nov 1950 - 15 Feb 1951)
11 Dec 1911 - 27 Dec 1919  Maharani Revati Raman Rajya        (b. 1878 - d. 1926) 
                             Lakshmi Devi Shahamam Sada
                             Sabhajnabtinam (f) -Regent
 7 Nov 1950 -  7 Jan 1951  Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva     (b. 1947)
                             (1st time)
 7 Jan 1951 - 13 Mar 1955  Tribhuvana Bir Bikram Shah Deva    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
14 Mar 1955 - 31 Jan 1972  Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva      (b. 1920 - d. 1972)
31 Jan 1972 -  1 Jun 2001  Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva      (b. 1945 - d. 2001)
 1 Jun 2001 -  4 Jun 2001  Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva      (b. 1971 - d. 2001)
 4 Jun 2001 - 28 May 2008  Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
                             (regent for Dipendra 2-4 Jun 2001;
                             suspended from 15 Jan 2007)
15 Jan 2007 - 23 Jul 2008  Girija Prasad Koirala              (b. 1925 - d. 2010)  NC
                             (acting head of state)
Presidents
23 Jul 2008 - 29 Oct 2015  Ram Baran Yadav                    (b. 1947)            NC
29 Oct 2015 -              Bidhya Devi Bhandari (f)           (b. 1961)        CPN-UML;2018 NCP

Chief ministers
1799 - 1804                Damodar Pande                      (b. 1752 - d. 1804)
1804 - 25 Apr 1806         Rana Bahadur Shah Deva             (s.a.)
Apr 1806 - 1837            Bhimsen Thapa                      (b. 1775 - d. 1839)
1837                       Rana Jang Pande (1st time)         (b. 1789 - d. 1843)
Dec 1837 - Aug 1838        Ranga Nath Poudyal (1st time)      (b. 1773 - d. 18..)
Aug 1838 - 1839            Puskar Shah                        (b. 1784 - d. 1846)
1839 - Nov 1840            Rana Jang Pande (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Nov 1840                   Ranga Nath Poudyal (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Nov 1840 - Jan 1843        Fateh Jang Chautaria (1st time)    (b. 1805 - d. 1846)
28 Nov 1843 - 17 May 1845  Madhabar Singh Thapa               (b. 1798 - d. 1845)
Sep 1845 - 14 Sep 1846     Fateh Jang Chautaria (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Prime ministers
15 Sep 1846 -  1 Aug 1856  Jang Bahadur Kunwar (1st time)     (b. 1817 - d. 1877)
  Non-party
                             (from 5 May 1848, Jang Bahadur Kunwar Rana)
 1 Aug 1856 - 25 May 1857  Bam Bahadur Kunwar Rana (acting)   (b. 1818 - d. 1857)  Non-party
25 May 1857 - 28 Jun 1857  Krishna Bahadur Kunwar Rana        (b. 1823 - d. 1863)  Non-party
                             (acting)
28 Jun 1857 - 25 Feb 1877  Sir Jang Bahadur Kunwar Rana       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)

27 Feb 1877 - 22 Nov 1885  Sir Ranaudip Singh Bahadur Rana    (b. 1825 - d. 1885)  Non-party
22 Nov 1885 -  5 Mar 1901  Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana     (b. 1852 - d. 1901)  Non-party
                             (from 25 May 1892, Sir Bir Rana)
 
5 Mar 1901 - 27 Jun 1901  Deva Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana    (b. 1862 - d. 1914)  Non-party

27 Jun 1901 - 26 Nov 1929  Chandra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1863 - d. 1929)  Non-party
26 Nov 1929 -  1 Sep 1932  Bhim Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana    (b. 1865 - d. 1932)  Non-party
                             (from 24 Dec 1911, Sir Bahim Rana)
 
1 Sep 1932 - 29 Nov 1945  Juddha Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana  (b. 1875 - d. 1952)  Non-party

                             (from 1 Jan 1917, Sir Juddha Rana)
29 Nov 1945 - 30 Apr 1948  Padma Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana   (b. 1882 - d. 1961)  Non-party

                             (from 4 Feb 1919, Sir Padma Rana)
30 Apr 1948 - 12 Nov 1951  Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana   (b. 1885 - d. 1967)  Non-party

                             (from 17 Jan 1924, Sir Mohan Rana)
16 Nov 1951 - 14 Aug 1952  Matrika Prasad Koirala (1st time)  (b. 1912 - d. 1997)  NC 

14 Aug 1952 - 15 Jun 1953  King Tribhuvana Bir Bikram Shah    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Deva
15 Jun 1953 - 14 Apr 1955  Matrika Prasad Koirala (2nd time)  (s.a.)               RP
14 Apr 1956 - 27 Jan 1956  King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva (s.a.)               Non-party
27 Jan 1956 - 26 Jul 1957  Tanka Prasad Acharya               (b. 1912 - d. 1992)  NPP
26 Jul 1957 - 15 Nov 1957  Kunwar Indrajit Singh              (b. 1906 - d. 1982)  UDP
15 May 1958 - 27 May 1959  Subarna Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1910 - d. 1977)  Non-party
27 May 1959 - 15 Dec 1960  Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala         (b. 1914 - d. 1982)  NC
15 Dec 1960 -  2 Apr 1963  King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (1st time)
26 Dec 1960 - 23 Dec 1963  Tulsi Giri (1st time)              (b. 1926 - d. 2018)  Non-party
                             (first minister to 2 Apr 1963) 
23 Dec 1963 - 26 Feb 1964  Surya Bahadur Thapa (1st time)     (b. 1928 - d. 2015)  Non-party
26 Feb 1964 - 26 Jan 1965  Tulsi Giri (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Non-party
26 Jan 1965 -  7 Apr 1969  Surya Bahadur Thapa (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
 7 Apr 1969 - 13 Apr 1970  Kirti Nidhi Bista (1st time)       (b. 1927 - d. 2017)  Non-party
13 Apr 1970 - 14 Apr 1971  King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
13 Apr 1970 - 14 Apr 1971  Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari       (b. 1923 - d. 1994)  Non-party
                             (first minister) (acting)
14 Apr 1971 - 16 Jul 1973  Kirti Nidhi Bista (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Non-party
16 Jul 1973 -  1 Dec 1975  Nagendra Prasad Rijal (1st time)   (b. 1927 - d. 1994)  Non-party
 1 Dec 1975 - 12 Sep 1977  Tulsi Giri (3rd time)              (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Sep 1977 - 30 May 1979  Kirti Nidhi Bista (3rd time)       (s.a.)               Non-party
30 May 1979 - 12 Jul 1983  Surya Bahadur Thapa (3rd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Jul 1983 - 21 Mar 1986  Lokendra Bahadur Chand (1st time)  (b. 1940)            Non-party
21 Mar 1986 - 15 Jun 1986  Nagendra Prasad Rijal (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting) 
15 Jun 1986 -  6 Apr 1990  Marich Man Singh Shrestha          (b. 1942 - d. 2013)  Non-party
 6 Apr 1990 - 19 Apr 1990  Lokendra Bahadur Chand (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Non-party
19 Apr 1990 - 26 May 1991  Krishna Prasad Bhattarai (1st time)(b. 1924 - d. 2011)  NC
26 May 1991 - 30 Nov 1994  Girija Prasad Koirala (1st time)   (s.a.)               NC 
30 Nov 1994 - 12 Sep 1995  Man Mohan Adhikari                 (b. 1920 - d. 1999)  CPN-UML
12 Sep 1995 - 12 Mar 1997  Sher Bahadur Deuba (1st time)      (b. 1946)            NC 
12 Mar 1997 -  7 Oct 1997  Lokendra Bahadur Chand (3rd time)  (s.a.)               RPP 
 7 Oct 1997 - 15 Apr 1998  Surya Bahadur Thapa (4th time)     (s.a.)               RPP
15 Apr 1998 - 31 May 1999  Girija Prasad Koirala (2nd time)   (s.a.)               NC 
31 May 1999 - 22 Mar 2000  Krishna Prasad Bhattarai (2nd time)(s.a.)               NC 
22 Mar 2000 - 26 Jul 2001  Girija Prasad Koirala (3rd time)   (s.a.)               NC
26 Jul 2001 -  4 Oct 2002  Sher Bahadur Deuba (2nd time)      (s.a.)               NC 
 4 Oct 2002 - 11 Oct 2002  King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Deva (1st time)
11 Oct 2002 -  5 Jun 2003  Lokendra Bahadur Chand (4th time)  (s.a.)               RPP
 5 Jun 2003 -  3 Jun 2004  Surya Bahadur Thapa (5th time)     (s.a.)               RPP
 3 Jun 2004 -  1 Feb 2005  Sher Bahadur Deuba (3rd time)      (s.a.)               NC
 1 Feb 2005 - 30 Apr 2006  King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Deva (2nd time)
30 Apr 2006 - 18 Aug 2008  Girija Prasad Koirala (4th time)   (s.a.)               NC
18 Aug 2008 - 25 May 2009  Pushpa Kamal Dahal "Prachanda"     (b. 1954)            CPN-M
                             (1st time)
25 May 2009 -  6 Feb 2011  Madhav Kumar Nepal                 (b. 1953)            CPN-UML
 6 Feb 2011 - 29 Aug 2011  Jhalanath Nath Khanal              (b. 1950)            CPN-UML
29 Aug 2011 - 14 Mar 2013  Baburam Bhattarai                  (b. 1954)            CPN-M
14 Mar 2013 - 11 Feb 2014  Khil Raj Regmi (acting)            (b. 1949)            Non-party
                             (chairman of cabinet)
11 Feb 2014 - 12 Oct 2015  Sushil Koirala                     (b. 1939 - d. 2016)  NC
16 Jun 2014 - 22 Jul 2014 
Bam Dev Gautam                     (b. 1944)            CPN-UML
                             (acting for absent Koirala)
12 Oct 2015 -  4 Aug 2016  Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli (1st time)(b. 1952
)            CPN-UML
 4 Aug 2016 -  7 Jun 2017 
Pushpa Kamal Dahal "Prachanda"     (s.a.)               CPN-M
                             (2nd time)
 7 Jun 2017 -
15 Feb 2018  Sher Bahadur Deuba (4th time)      (s.a.)                NC
15 Feb 2018 - 13 Jul 2021 
Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli (2nd time)(s.a.)         CPN-UML;2018-21 NCP
13 Jul 2021 -              Sher Bahadur Deuba (5th time)      (s.a.)                NC

 

British Residents
1802 - Mar 1803            William Hunter Douglas Knox        (b. 1762 - d. 1829)
                            
(East India Company resident)
1803 - 1816               
Vacant 
17 Apr 1816 - 1816         John Peter Boileau (acting)        (b. 1790 - d. 1818)
1816 - 1829                Edward Gardner                     (b. 1784 - d. 1861)
1829 - 1831                Brian Houghton Hodgson (1st time)  (b. 1800 - d. 1894)
                             (acting)
1831 - 1833                Thomas Herbert Maddock             (b. 1792 - d. 1870)
1833 - 1843                Brian Houghton Hodgson (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1843 - 1845                Henry Lawrence                     (b. 1806 - d. 1857)
1845 - 1847                John Russell Colvin                (b. 1807 - d. 1857)
1847 - 1850                Charles Thoresby                   (b. 1793? - d. 1862)
1850 - 1852                John Cadwallader Erskine           (b. 1804 - d. 1882)
1852 - 1867                George Ramsay                      (b. 1812 - d. 1887)
1867 - 1872                Richard Charles Lawrence           (b. 1817 - d. 1896) 
1872 - 1888                Charles Edward Ridgway Girdlestone (b. 1839 - d. 1889)
1888 - 1891                Edward Law Durand                  (b. 1845 - d. 1920) 
1891 - 1899                Henry Wylie                        (b. 1844 - d. 1918)
1899                       Archibald Mungo Muir               (b. 1847 - d. 1899)
1899 - 1901                William Loch                       (b. 1846 - d. 1901)
1901 - 1902                Thomas Caldwell Pears              (b. 1851 - d. 1921)
Mar 1902 - 1905            Charles Withers Ravenshaw          (b. 1851 - d. 1935)
1905 - 1916                John Manners Smith                 (b. 1864 - d. 1920)
1912 - 1914                Herbert Lionel Showers             (b. 1861 - d. 1916)
                             (acting for Smith)
1916 - 1918                Steuart Farquharson Bayley         (b. 1863 - d. 1938)
1918 - 1923                William Frederick Travers          (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
                             O'Connor (from 1920, Envoy) 

 Style of Licchavi rulers from c.1200: Rajadhiraja Paramesvara Paramabhattaraka Sri Sri N.N. Vijayarajye Nepala.

Territorial Disputes: Joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of illegal cross-border activities; approximately 106,000 Bhutanese Lhotshampas (Hindus) have been confined in refugee camps in southeastern Nepal since 1990.

Party abbreviations (political parties banned 15 Dec 1960 - 19 Apr 1990): CPN-M = Communist Party of Nepal - Maoist Centre (communist, Marxist-Leninist-Maoist, Communist Party of Nepal [Maoist] 1994-2009, as Unified Communist Party of Nepal [Maoist] 2009-2016, 1994-17 May 2018, merged into NCP, restored 8 Mar 2021); CPN-UML = Nepal Kamyunist Parti - Ekikrit Marksvadi ra Leninvadi (Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist, communist, 1991-17 May 2018, merged into NCP, restored 8 Mar 2021); NC = Nepalese Congress (social-democratic, anti-Rana, est.1950); RPP = Rastriya Prajatantra Party (National Democratic Party, liberal conservative, est.1990);
- Former parties: NCP = Nepalese Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist communist, federalist, democratic centralist, merger of CPN-M and CPN-UML, 17 May 2018-8 Mar 2021, dissolved); NPP = Nepal Praja Parishad (Nepal People's Council, anti-Rana, social-democratic, 1936-1960); RP = Rastriya Praja Parishad (National People's Party, conservative, split from NC, 1952-1959); UDP = Samyukta Prajatantra Parishad (United Democratic Party, democratic monarchist, K.I. Singh personalist, 1955-1959)



Mustang (Mastang)

[Mastang Former Royal flag to 2008 (Nepal)]
Former Royal Flag
[Flag of Mustang
                      (Mastang) kingdom to 2008 (Nepal)]
to 7 Oct 2008   

Map of Mastang
Hear Local Anthem
None
National Anthem
(the anthem of Nepal)
Constitution
(the constitution of Nepal)
Capital: Lo
(Lo Manthang)
Currency: Nepalese
Rupee (NPR) 
Local Holiday: N/A
Population: 13,452 (2011)
15,869 (2008)
GDP: $ N/A
(included in Nepal figure)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
(included in Nepal figures)
Ethnic groups: Bahra Gaunle, Brahmin, Chhetri,
Darjee, Gurung, Kami, Loba,  Magar, Tamang, Thakali
Total Armed Forces: None
Defense was the Responsibility of Nepal
Merchant marine
: None
Religions: Buddhist 58.7%, Hindu 39.1%,
others 1.2%
International Organizations/Treaties: None

c.1350                     Kingdom of Mastang under the alternating suzerainty 
                             of Tibet and later Jumla.
1544 - 1560                Occupied by Jumla.
c.1740 - 1780              Occupied by Jumla.
1788                       Vassal of the Gorkha kingdom.
19 May 1790                Under suzerainty of Nepal.
 
9 Apr 1961                State formally abolished by Nepal, but royalty continues.
 5 Oct 1961                Nepal-China boundary treaty confirms inclusion within Nepal.

 7 Oct 2008                Traditional kingship abolished by Nepal.

Kings (title Glo rgyal-po)
1656 - 1710                Sa-dbang dSam-grub dPal-'bar       (b. c.1639 - d. 17..)
1711 - 1723                Tshe-dbang-Ihun-grub               (d. bf.1725)
                             (Amgon Tshe-dbang-bsam-grub)
1723 - c.1728              bKra-shis-rnam-rgyal               (d. c.1728)
                             (Krathis Namgyal)
c.1728 - c.1750            bSod-nams bsTan-'dzin dbang-rgyal  (b. c.1717 - d. c.1750)
                             (Tenzing Anjia)
c.1728 - 1734              Nor-dzin bde-legs                  (d. af.1735)
                             dbang-mo (f) -Regent
c.1750 - 1797              dBang-rgyal-rdo-rje (Anjia Dorje)  (b. c.1738 - d. 1797)
1797 - 1815                bKra-shis-sin-po (Krathis Ningpo)
1815 - 1837                'Jam-dpal-dgra-'ldus               (d. 1837)
                             (Jampel Traldus)
1837 - 1857                Kun-dga'-nor-bu (Kunga Norbu)      (d. 1857)
1857 - 1863                'Jam-dbyangs-dban-'dus             (d. 1863)
                             (Jamian Angdu) 
1857 - 1863                rGyal-mo bKra-shis 
                             bu-khrid (f) -Regent
1863 - 1893                dNgos-grub-dpal-'bar               (d. 1893)
1863 - 1868                rGyal-mo Tshe-mchog                (d. 1871)
                             sGrol-ma (f) -Regent
1893 - 1935                'Jam-dbyangs-dpal-'bar             (d. 1935)
                             (Jambian Pelbar)
1935 - 1955                A-mgon-bsTan-'dzin-dgra-'dul       (b. 1923 - d. 1964)
                             (1st time)(Angun Tenzing Trandul) 
1955 - 1958                A-ngdu-sin-po (Angdu Nyingpo)     (b. 19.. - d. 1958)
1958 - 1964                A-mgon-bsTan-'dzin-dgra-'dul       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1964 -  7 Oct 2008         'Jigs-med-rdo-rje-dgra-'dul        (b. 1930 - d. 2016)
                             (= 'Jigs-med-dpal-'bar Bista) 
                             (Jigme Palbar Bista)






Ben Cahoon