World Statesmen.org HOME >

 
 



 




Singapore
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
6 Feb 1819 - c.1868, 1946 - 12 Sep 1948
 
[British Straits Settlements,
                                    c.1868-c.1879]
c.1868 - c.1879
 
[British Straits Settlements,
                                    c.1879-1904]
c.1879 - 1904

[British
                                  Straits Settlements, 1904-1925]
1904 - 1925
  

[British Straits Settlements,
                                  1925-1942, 1945-1946]
1925 - 15 Feb 1942, 12 Sep 1945 - 1 Apr 1946
 

[Japan]
15 Feb 1942 - 12 Sep 1915
 

[Singapore British Colonial
                                    Ensign 1948-1959]
12 Sep 1948 -  3 Dec 1959
[Singapore]
Adopted 3 Dec 1959

Map of Singapore
Hear National Anthem
"Majulah Singapura"
(Onward Singapore)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 3 Dec 1959
Constitution
(3 Jun 1959)
Capital: Singapore
(Straits Settlements- Penang
1826-1837; Singapore
1837-1946)
Currency: Singapore Dollar
(SGD); 1963-1965 Malaysian
 Ringgit (MYR); 1946-1963
Malaya Dollar (MYAD)

National Holiday:  9 Aug (1965)
Singapore National Day
(Hari Kebangsaan Singapura)
Population: 6,209,660 (2019)
GDP: $528.1 billion (2017)
Exports: $396.8 billion (2017)
Imports: $312.1 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Chinese 74.3%, Malay 13.4%, Indian 9%,
other 3.2% (2018)
Total Armed Forces: 72,500 (2010)
Merchant marine: 3,433 ships (2019)
Religions: Buddhist 33.2%, Christian 18.8%, Muslim 14%, Taoist 10%, Hindu 5%, other 0.6%, none 18.5% (2015)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ADB, AIIB, AOSIS, APA, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, BTWC, C, CP, CPTPP, CTBT, CWC, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA (association), IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IORA, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, OST, PA (associate), PCA, RCEP (signatory), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Singapore Index
Chronology

 6 Feb 1819                British (East India Company) protectorate.
 3 Aug 1824                Ceded to Britain by Sultan of Johore;
                             under British East India Company rule.
14 Aug 1826                Part of the Straits Settlements (Malacca, Penang,
                             Singapore)(under British East India Company 
                             rule 1826-1858).
 1 Nov 1858 -  1 Apr 1867  Subordinated to British India
 1 Apr 1867                Straits Settlements a separate crown colony.
15 Feb 1942 - 12 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation of Singapore (renamed Syonan
                             ["Light of the
South"], from 17 Feb 1942 Syonan
                            
Special Municipality [
Tokubetusi]. In May 1942,
                             the Rio, Linga, Karimun, Tambelan, Anambas, and
                             Natouna archipelago of former Dutch Sumatra are
                             incorporated into the Shonan Special City).
 
5 Sep 1945                British military forces begin to arrive.
12 Sep 1945 -  1 Apr 1946  British military administration.

 1 Apr 1946                Singapore a separate crown colony.
 6 Apr 1955                Autonomy
 
3 Jun 1959                State of Singapore (Negara Singapura).
31 Aug 1963                Independence from U.K. proclaimed.
16 Sep 1963 -  9 Aug 1965  Part of Malaysia (State of Singapore).  
 9 Aug 1965                Singapore is proclaimed independent.
22 Dec 1965                Republic of Singapore (Republik Singapura)

Singapore
Straits Settlements (1826-1946)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Straits Settlements

[British Straits
                      Settlements, c.1868-c.1879]
c.1868 - c.1879

[British Straits
                        Settlements, c.1879-1904]
c.1879 - 1904

[British Straits Settlements, 1904-1925]
1904 - 1925
[British Straits
                      Settlements, 1925-1942, 1945-46] 1925 - 15 Feb 1942, 1945 - 1 Apr 1946

Map of the Straits Settlements
Capital: Singapore
(George Town [Penang]
1826-1829, 1830-1836)
Currency: 1858-1946
Straits Settlements
 Dollar (STSD);
 1826-1858 East India
Company Dollar (XEID)
Population: 1,370,300 (1939)

14 Aug 1826                Straits Settlements (Malacca, Penang, Singapore) 
                             (British East India Company rule to 1 Nov 1858, then
                             subordinated to British India to 1 Apr 1867).
 1 Apr 1867 -  1 Apr 1946  Straits Settlements a separate crown colony.

15 Feb 1942 - 12 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation.

Governors
27 Nov 1826 - 12 Nov 1830  Robert Fullerton                   (b. 1773 - d. 1831)
12 Nov 1830 -  7 Dec 1833  Robert Ibbetson                    (b. 1789 - d. 1860)
 7 Dec 1833 - 17 Nov 1836  Kenneth Murchison                  (b. 1794 - d. 1854)
18 Nov 1836 - May 1843     Samuel George Bonham               (b. 1803 - d. 1863)

Jun 1843 - 27 Aug 1843     Edmund Augustus Blundell (1st time)(b. 1804 - d. 1868)
                             (acting)
27 Aug 1843 - 21 Mar 1855  William John Butterworth           (b. 1801 - d. 1856)

21 Mar 1855 -  6 Aug 1859  Edmund Augustus Blundell (2nd time)(s.a.)
 6 Aug 1859 - 17 Mar 1867  William Orfeur Cavenagh            (b. 1821 - d. 1891)
17 Mar 1867 -  3 Mar 1871  Harry St. George Ord (1st time)    (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
 4 Mar 1871 - 22 Mar 1871  Edward Archibald Harbord Anson     (b. 1826 - d. 1925)
                             (1st time) (acting)
23 Mar 1872 -  2 Nov 1873  Sir Harry St. George Ord (2nd time)(s.a.)

 
3 Nov 1872 -  4 Nov 1873  Edward Archibald Harbord Anson     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 4 Nov 1873 - 10 May 1875  Sir Andrew Clarke                  (b. 1825 - d. 1902)

10 May 1875 -  3 Apr 1877  Sir William Francis Drummond       (b. 1821 - d. 1897) 
                            
Jervois
 3 Apr 1877 - 29 Oct 1877  Edward Archibald Harbord Anson     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting) 
29 Oct 1877 - 10 Feb 1879  Sir William Cleaver Francis        (b. 1834 - d. 1897)
                            
Robinson
10 Feb 1879 -  6 May 1880  Edward Archibald Harbord Anson     (s.a.)
                             (4thd time) (acting)
 6 May 1880 - 28 Mar 1884  Sir Frederick Aloysius Weld        (b. 1823 - d. 1891)
                             (1st time)
29 Mar 1884 - 12 Nov 1885  Cecil Clementi Smith (1st time)    (b. 1840 - d. 1916)
                             (acting)
13 Nov 1885 - 13 May 1887  Sir Frederick Aloysius Weld        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
14 May 1887 - 17 Oct 1887  John Frederick Dickson (1st time)
  (b. 1835 - d. 1891)
                             (acting)
17 Oct 1887 -  8 Apr 1890  Sir Cecil Clementi Smith (2nd time)(s.a.)
 8 Apr 1890 - 11 Nov 1890  John Frederick Dickson (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
12 Nov 1890 - 30 Aug 1893  Sir Cecil Clementi Smith (3rd time)(s.a.)

30 Aug 1893 - 31 Jan 1894  William Edward Maxwell (acting)    (b. 1846 - d. 1897)
 1 Feb 1894 -  7 Dec 1899  Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell   (b. 1836 - d. 1899)
 7 Dec 1899 -  5 Nov 1901  James Alexander Swettenham         (b. 1846 - d. 1933)
                             (acting)
 5 Nov 1901 - 12 Oct 1903  Sir Frank Athelstone Swettenham    (b. 1850 - d. 1946)
15 Apr 1904 -  9 Apr 1911  Sir John Anderson                  (b. 1858 - d. 1918)
 9 Sep 1911 - 24 Aug 1919  Sir Arthur Henderson Young         (b. 1854 - d. 1938)
 3 Feb 1920 -  5 May 1927  Sir Laurence Nunns Guillemard      (b. 1862 - d. 1951)
 3 Jun 1927 - 20 Oct 1929  Sir Hugh Charles Clifford          (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
21 Oct 1929 -  5 Feb 1930  Sir John Scott (acting)            (b. 1878 - d. 1946)
 5 Feb 1930 - 16 Feb 1934  Sir Cecil Clementi                 (b. 1875 - d. 1947)

17 Feb 1934 -  9 Nov 1934  Sir Andrew Caldecott (acting)      (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
 9 Nov 1934 - 15 Feb 1942  Sir Shenton Whitelegge Thomas      (b. 1879 - d. 1962)

                             (1st time) 
                             (Japanese prisoner 15 Feb 1942 - 15 Aug 1945)
15 Feb 1942 - 12 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation
12 Sep 1945 - 31 Mar 1946  Sir Shenton Whitelegge Thomas      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)



Singapore


British Residents and Commandants

 6 Feb 1819 - 26 Apr 1823  William Farquhar                   (b. 1770 - d. 1839)
27 May 1823 - 15 Aug 1826  John Crawfurd                      (b. 1783 - d. 1868)
Resident Councillors
15 Aug 1826 - 18 Nov 1827  John Prince                        (b. 1772? - d. 1848)
29 Nov 1827 -  6 Dec 1833  Kenneth Murchison                  (b. 1794 - d. 1854)
 
7 Dec 1833 - 18 Nov 1836  Samuel George Bonham               (b. 1803 - d. 1863)
 4 Mar 1837 - 20 Sep 1856  Thomas Church                      (b. 1798 - d. 1860)
22 Sep 1856 - 13 Jul 1859  Henry Somerset MacKenzie           (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
1860 -  1 Apr 1867         Ronald MacPherson                  (b. 1817 - d. 1869)
Governors
14 Aug 1826 - 15 Feb 1942  the Governors of the Straits 
                           Settlements 
Japanese Military Administrators (commanders of of Japanese 25th Army to 8 Apr 1943;
Southern Expeditionary Army 8 Apr 1943 - 22 Mar 1944; from 22 Mar 1944, 7th Army Area)
15 Feb 1942 -  1 Jul 1942  Tomoyuki Yamashita                 (b. 1885 - d. 1946)
 
1 Jul 1942 -  8 Apr 1943  Yaheita Saito                      (b. 1885 - d. 1953)
 8 Apr 1943 - 22 Mar 1944  Count Hisaichi Terauchi            (b. 1879 - d. 1946)

22 Mar 1944 -  7 Apr 1945  Kenji Doihara                      (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
 
7 Apr 1945 - 12 Sep 1945  Seishirō Itagaki                   (b. 1885 - d. 1948)
Japanese Mayors of Syonan (presidents of the special municipality)
 
7 Mar 1942 -  8 Jul 1943  Odate Shigeo                       (b. 1892 - d. 1955)
19 Jul 1943 - 12 Sep 1945  Naito Kanichi                      (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia
 5 Sep 1945 - 12 Sep 1945  Lord Louis Francis Mountbatten     (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
Director of the British Military Administration

12 Sep 1945 - 31 Mar 1946  Lord Louis Francis Mountbatten     (s.a.)
Deputy Chief Civil Affairs Officer in Singapore
12 Sep 1945 - 31 Mar 1946  Patrick Alexander Bruce McKerron   (b. 1896 - d. 1964)
Governors

 1 Apr 1946 - 20 Mar 1952  Sir Franklin Charles Gimson        (b. 1890 - d. 1975)
20 Mar 1952 - 21 Apr 1952  Wilfred Lawson Blythe (acting)     (b. 1896 - d. 1975)
21 Apr 1952 -  2 Jun 1955  John Fearns Nicoll                 (b. 1899 - d. 1981)

                             (from 24 Jun 1952, Sir John Fearns Nicoll) 
 
2 Jun 1955 - 30 Jun 1955  Sir William Allmond Codrington     (b. 1907 - d. 1986)
                             Goode (1st time) (acting)
30 Jun 1955 -  9 Dec 1957  Robert Brown Black                 (b. 1906 - d. 1999)

                             (from 9 Jun 1955, Sir Robert Brown Black) 
 9 Dec 1957 -  2 Jun 1959  Sir William Allmond Codrington     (s.a.)
                             Goode (2nd time) 
Heads of State (title Yang di-Pertuan Negara Singapura)
 3 Jun 1959 -  3 Dec 1959  Sir William Allmond Codrington     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Goode 
 3 Dec 1959 - 22 Dec 1965  Yusof bin Ishak                    (b. 1910 - d. 1970)PAP/Non-party
Presidents
22 Dec 1965 - 23 Nov 1970  Yusof bin Ishak                    (s.a.)             PAP/Non-party
23 Nov 1970 -  2 Jan 1971  Yeoh Ghim Seng (1st time) (acting) (b. 1918 - d. 1993)  PAP
 2 Jan 1971 - 12 May 1981  Benjamin Henry Sheares             (b. 1907 - d. 1981)PAP/Non-party
12 May 1981 - 24 Oct 1981  Yeoh Ghim Seng (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)               PAP
24 Oct 1981 - 27 Mar 1985  Chengara Veetil "C.V." Devan Nair  (b. 1923 - d. 2005)PAP/Non-party
27 Mar 1985 - 29 Mar 1985  Wee Chong Jin (acting)             (b. 1917 - d. 2005)PAP/Non-party
29 Mar 1985 -  1 Sep 1985  Yeoh Ghim Seng (3rd time) (acting) (s.a.)               PAP
 1 Sep 1985 -  1 Sep 1993  Wee Kim Wee                        (b. 1915 - d. 2005)PAP/Non-party
 1 Sep 1993 -  1 Sep 1999  Ong Teng Cheong                    (b. 1936 - d. 2002)PAP/Non-party
 1 Sep 1999 -  1 Sep 2011  Sellapan Ramanathan "S.R." Nathan  (b. 1924 - d. 2016)PAP/Non-party
 1 Sep 2011 -  1 Sep 2017  Tony Tan Keng Yam                  (b. 1940)          PAP/Non-party
 1 Sep 2017 - 14 Sep 2017  Joseph Yuvaraj Pillay (acting)     (b. 1934)            Non-party
14 Sep 2017 -              Halimah Yacob (f)                  (b. 1954)          PAP/Non-party

Chief ministers
 6 Apr 1955 -  8 Jun 1956  David Saul Marshall                (b. 1908 - d. 1995)  LF
 8 Jun 1956 -  5 Jun 1959  Tun Lim Yew Hock                   (b. 1914 - d. 1984)  LF
Prime ministers
 5 Jun 1959 - 28 Nov 1990  Lee Kuan Yew                       (b. 1923 - d. 2015)  PAP
28 Nov 1990 - 12 Aug 2004  Goh Chok Tong                      (b. 1941)            PAP
12 Aug 2004 -              Lee Hsien Loong                    (b. 1952)            PAP
15 Feb 2015 -  2 Mar 2015  Teo Chee Hean                      (b. 1954)            PAP
                             (acting for Lee)

Territorial Disputes: Disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait

Party abbreviations: PAP = People's Action Party/Parti Tindakan Rakyat (social conservative, democratic socialist, est.1954);
- Former parties: LF = Labour Front/Barisan Buroh (center-left, 21 Aug 1954 - 28 Feb 1960)







Ben Cahoon