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China
 
[Chinese War
                            Ensign 1862-1872 (China)]
22 Oct 1862 - 10 Nov 1872 War Ensign
[Flag of Imperial China,
                            1872-1889 (Jack 1863-1872)]
10 Nov 1872 - 1889 (Jack 1863-1872)
[Flag of
                            Imperial China, 1889-1912, 1917]
1889 - 12 Feb 1912;
1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917
[1912-1928
                            Flag of Republic of China]
1 Jan 1912 - 22 Dec 1915;
22 Mar 1916 - 1 Jul 1917;
12 Jul 1917 -  8 Oct 1928
[Imperial flag
                            used by Yuan Shi-kai 1915-1916 (China)]  
22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916
 
 
[Flag of Republic
                            of China, 1928-1949]
8 Oct 1928 - 27 Sep 1949
 
[Flag of People's
                            Republic of China]
Adopted 27 Sep 1949

 

Map of China
Hear National Anthem
"Yiyonggjun Jinxingqu"
(The March of the Volunteers)
Adopted 27 Sep 1949
(provisional to 4 Dec 1982)
Former de facto Anthem
"Dongfang Hong"
(The East is Red)

(1966 - c.1978)
Constitution
  (4 Dec 1982)
China Military Regions Map
Ethno-linguistic Map of China
Map of China in 1912
Civil War Map (1945-1949)
Capital: Beijing
Currency: Yuan Renminbi
(CNY) 
National Holiday: 1 Oct (1949)
Guoqing Jie
(National Day)
Population: 1,394,015,977
(2019)
GDP: $25.36 trillion (2018) 
Exports: $2.49 trillion (2018)
Imports: $2.14 trillion (2018) 
Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other
(includes Hui 0.79%, Manchu 0.78%, Uighur 0.75%, Miao 0.70%,
Yi 0.65%, Tujia 0.62%, Tibetan 0.47%, Mongol 0.44%, Dong
0.21%, Buyei 0.21%, Yao 0.20%, Bai 0.14%, Korean 0.13%,
Hani 0.12%, Li 0.10%, Kazakh 0.10%, Dai 0.9%, and
other nationalities) 7.1% (2010)
Total Active Armed Forces: 2,285,000 (2010)
Declared Nuclear Power (1964): est. 270 weapons (2017)
Merchant marine: 5,594 ships (2019)
Religions: Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%,
folk religion 21.9%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish  0.1%, other 0.7%
(includes Daoist [Taoist]), unaffiliated 52.2% (2010)

note: state is officially atheist 
International Organizations/Treaties (from 1949): AC (observer), ADB, AfDB (nonregional), AIIB, ANT (consultative), APA, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BTWC, CDB (nonregional), CICA, CTBT (signatory), CWC, EAS, EBRD, ECOWAS (partner), ENMOD, ESCR (signatory), FAO, FATF, G-5, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-77 (observer), IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA (association), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IORA (partner), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (observer), NDB, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD (partner), OPCW, OST, PA (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), RCEP (signatory), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNSC (permanent), UNWTO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
China Index
Chronology
 
c.2852 BC - c.2070 BC      Legendary Era of the Three Sovereigns and Five
                             Emperors.
c.2698 BC - c.2598 BC      Rule of the legendary Yellow Emperor, Huangdi.
c.1915 BC - c.1555 BC      Xia (Hsia) semi-mythical dynasty rules.
c.1555 BC - May 1046 BC    Shang (Shang), also known as Yin (Yin), state.
May 1046 BC - 256 BC       Zhou (Chou) state.
551 BC - 479 BC            Lifetime of the philosopher Kong Qiu, called Kongzi
                             (K'ung Tzu)(= Master Kong, in English latinized
                             as 'Confucius').
c.476 BC - 22 Dec 221 BC   Era of the Warring States, disintegration of the
                             Zhou (Chou) state. The main Seven Warring states
                             were: Qin (Ch'in), Han (Han), Wei (Wei), Zhao
                             (Chao), Qi (Ch'i), Chu (Ch'u), and Yan (Yen)
                             alongside the the Zhou king's land.
c.470 BC - c.391 BC        Lifetime of the philosopher Mozi (Mo Tzu),
                             (= Master Mo, in English latinized as 'Micius').
22 Dec 221 BC              Ying Zheng, King of Qin, having conquered all his
                             rivals, assumed imperial status as Shi Huangdi
                             (Shih Huang-ti)(b. 259 BC - d. 210 BC). He rules
                             as the first Emperor of Qin until 10 Sep 210 BC.
22 Dec 221 BC - Oct 207 BC Qin (Ch'in) state (Qin was spelled in Sanskrit as
                             Cina and later latinized as "China" in English).
28 Feb 202BC-10 Dec 220AD  Han (Han) state (interrupted by Xin [Hsin] dynasty
                             of usurper Wang Mang 10 Jan 9 AD - 5 Oct 23 AD).
10 Dec 220 AD - 10 Jul 420 Era of disunity under Warlords. China is not unified
                             under any one power. Huns, Turks and other nomadic
                             tribes invade the northern regions. The 220 - 280
                             era is also called the "Era of Three Kingdoms."
11 Dec 220 -  8 Feb 266    Great Wei (Da Wei) state at Luoyang in center north.
15 May 221 - 23 Dec 263    Great Han (Da Han) state in the southwest.
23 Sep 222 -  1 May 280    Great Wu (Da Wu) at Wuchang (now Ezhou, Hubei) in
                             south.
 8 Feb 266 - 11 Dec 316    (Western) Jin (Chin) state at Luoyang.
 6 Apr 317 - 20 Dec 403    (Eastern) Jin (Chin) state at Jiankang (now
                             Nanjing).
20 Feb 386 -  8 Feb 534    (Northern) Wei (Wei) state in northern China.
 1 Jan 404 - 19 Jun 404    (Southern) Chu (Ch'u) state at Jiankang.
21 Jun 404 -  5 Jul 420    (Eastern) Jin state (restored).
10 Jul 420 - 10 Feb 589    Division into Northern and Southern dynasties.
10 Jul 420 - 27 May 479    (Southern) Song (Sung) at Jiankang (now Nanjing).
29 May 479 - 20 Apr 502    (Southern) Qi (Ch'i) at Jiankang (now Nanjing).
30 Apr 502 - 12 Nov 557    (Southern) Liang (Liang) at Jiankang (now Nanjing).
 8 Nov 534 -  7 Jun 550    (Eastern) Wei state at Yecheng (now Handan, Hebei).
18 Feb 535 - 14 Feb 557    (Western) Wei state at Chang'an (now Xi'an).
 9 Jun 550 - 28 Feb 577    (Northern) Qi (Ch'i) state at Yecheng (now Handan,
                             Hebei).
spring 555 - 26 Oct 587    (Western) Wei at Jingzhou (former Jiangling, Hubei)
15 Feb 557 -  4 Mar 581    (Northern) Zhou (Chou) state at Chang'an (now
                             Xi'an).
16 Nov 557 - 12 Feb 589    (Southern) Chen (Ch'en) state at Jiankang (now
                             Nanjing).
 4 Mar 581 - 23 May 619    Sui (Sui) state (Zheng [Cheng] resistance continues
                             at Luoyang to 4 Jun 621).
18 Jun 618 – 16 Oct 690    Tang (T'ang) state in Chang'an (now Xi'an).
16 Oct 690 - 22 Feb 705    Zhou (Chou) state.
23 Feb 705 -  1 Jun 907    Tang (T'ang)(restored)(proclaimed 3 Mar 705).
12 May 907 -  3 Feb 960    Collapse of central authority, called the "Era of
                             Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms" by historians.
 1 Jun 907 - 18 Nov 932    Great Liang (Da Liang) state, (called "Later Liang"
                             by historians); proclaimed in Bianzhou (now
                              Kaifeng in Henan) on 5 Jun 907.
13 May 923 - 11 Jan 937    Great Tang (Da Tang [Ta T'ang])(called the "Later
                             Tang" by historians), proclaimed in Weizhou
                             (now near Daming, Hebei) on 13 May 923.
18 Nov 932                 Great Liang collapses after military defeat by
                             the armies of the (Later) Tang.
28 Nov 936 - 10 Jan 947    Great Jin (Da Jin [Ta Chin]) state, (called "Later
                             Jin" by historians), is proclaimed at a public
                             ceremony either in Jinyang (now Taiyuan, Shanxi)
                             or in Liulin.
11 Jan 937                 Great Tang collapses after a military defeat by
                             the armies of the (Later) Jin.
10 Jan 947                 Great Jin collapses following the occupation of
                             the capital of Kaifeng by a belligerent force.
16 May 947 - 26 Mar 1125   Great Liao (Da Liao [Ta Liao]) rules North China and
                             Mongolia from Shangjing (modern Baarin Zuoqi)(also
                             called the Khitan [Qidan (Ch'i tan)] state).
 5 Jul 947 -  2 Jan 951    Great Han (Da Han [Ta Han])(also called "Later Han"
                             by historians), proclaimed in Kaifeng.
 2 Jan 951                 Great Han collapsed following the assassination of
                             its last emperor, and then the occupation of
                             the capital of Kaifeng by the invading army of the
                             (Later) Zhou on 3 Jan 951. A remnant Han state
                             regroups 9 Feb 951-979 as Northern Han kingdom
                             (also called Eastern Han) at Taiyuan.
13 Feb 951 -  3 Feb 960    Great Zhou (Da Zhou [Ta Chou]) state, (called the
                             Later Zhou by historians), proclaimed in Kaifeng
                             on 13 Feb 951.
 3 Feb 960                 Great Zhou collapses after its last emperor
                             vacated the throne and the establishment of
                             Song is proclaimed.
 4 Feb 960 -  9 Jan 1127   Song (Sung) state is proclaimed at public ceremonies
                             in Kaifeng.
28 Jan 1115 -  9 Feb 1234  Great Jin (Da Jin [Ta Chin]) in northern China.
 9 Jan 1127 - 12 Jun 1127  Song collapses following the occupation of the
                             capital Kaifeng by invading Jin (Chin) forces.
20 Apr 1127 - 12 Jun 1127  Great Chu (Da Chu [Ta Ch'u]) established with
                             Zhang Bangchang (Chang Pang-ch'ang)(b. 1081 - d.
                             1127) as emperor by support of the Great Jin.
12 Jun 1127 - 21 Feb 1276  Song (Sung) (restored).
 9 Feb 1234                Mongol forces destroy the Great Jin state.
18 Dec 1271                Great Yuan (Da Yuan [Ta Yüan]) founded by Mongols. 
21 Feb 1276                Song (Sung) government ceases to function by
                             imperial edict, pending the occupation of the
                             capital of Lin'an (now Hangzhou) by the invading
                             army of Yuan. Song remnants continue resistance
                             in Fujian and Guangdong 14 Jun 1276 - 19 Mar 1279.
19 Mar 1279                Yuan defeat the last remnants of Song forces at
                             the Battle of Yamen (Naval Battle of Mount Ya).
23 Jan 1368                Great Ming (Da Ming [Ta Ming]) state proclaimed 
                             at public ceremonies in Nanjing.
17 Feb 1616                Nurhaci forms the Jurchen clans into a unified
                             polity as the Great Jin (Da Jin)(referred to
                             by historians "Later Jin"). In 1635, Hong Taiji
                             renamed the Jurchen people and Jurchen language,
                             "Manchu."
15 May 1636                Great Qing (Da Qing [Ta Ch'ing]; in Manchu Daicing)
                             proclaimed in Shengjing/Shenyang (taking Beijing
                             on 6 Jun 1644). Ming elements remain in dissidence
                             in Southern China until Jan 1659.
25 Apr 1644                Ming polity collapses following the occupation
                             of the capital, Shuntian (Shun-t'ien)(now Beijing
                             [Pei-ching]), by a belligerent force.
28 May 1858                Left bank of Amur River annexed by Russia.
14 Nov 1860                Right bank of Amur, below Ussuri junction, annexed
                             by Russia.
 4 Jul 1871 - Feb 1881     Russia occupies Ghulja (Ili basin) region.
 2 Jun 1895 - 25 Oct 1945  Taiwan annexed by Japan.
14 Jul 1900 -  7 Sep 1901  France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, U.K., U.S.,
                             and Austria-Hungary occupy Tientsin (Tianjin)
                             (14 Jul 1900) and Peking (Beijing)(15 Aug 1901)
                             and other areas during the anti-colonial "Boxer
                             Rebellion" (Yihetuan Movement) 2 Nov 1899 -
                             7 Sep 1901.
10 Oct 1911                Revolution begins against the imperial government.
 3 Dec 1911                Republic of China (Zhonghua minguo).
12 Feb 1912                Abdication of the last Emperor proclaimed in
                             Beijing.
Jan 1913 -  7 Oct 1951     Tibet de facto independent.
 1 Dec 1911                Outer Mongolia declares independence.
 1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Empire of Great Qing (Da Qing diguo [Ta Ch'ing
                             ti-kuo]), proclaiming restoration of monarchy.
19 Feb 1920 -  3 Feb 1921  Mongolia briefly re-incorporated.
18 Sep 1931 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupy Manchuria (see Manchukuo).
 7 Nov 1931 - 22 Sep 1937  Communists declare the Soviet Republic of China.
12 Nov 1933 -  6 Feb 1934  East Turkestan revolts and 12 Nov 1944-16 Jun 1946.
Aug 1937 - Sep 1945        Japanese occupation of North Eastern China, Hainan, 
                             Yellow River Valley and most of the coastal area.
 1 Oct 1949                People's Republic of China (Zhonghua renmin
                             gongheguo).
 8 Dec 1949                Remnants of the Nationalist Republic of China
                             forces evacuate to Taiwan.
 1 Jul 1997                Re-integration of the former British colony 
                             of Hong Kong.
20 Dec 1999                Re-integration of the former Portuguese colony 
                             of Macau.
People's
Republic of
China
Administrative
Divisions
Former Colonies
& Concessions
Imperial China
(1572-1912)
   
Rebellions
(1851-1874)
  • Taiping
  • Shengping
  • Dacheng
  • Pingnan Guo
  •  Republic of China:
    Warlord Era
    (1911-1928)
    Republic of China: Nationalist Era
     
    (1917-1949)
    Alternative
    Governments

    (1927-1934)
    Soviet Republic
    of China

     (1931-1937)
    Japanese
    Occupation
     (1937-1945)
    Manchukuo
    (1932-1945)
    Inner Mongolia
    (1936-1945)
    Kashgaria
    (1693-1877)
    ---------------------
    East Turkestan
    (1933-1946)
    Dörben Oyirad
    (1626-1757)
    --------------------
    Qomul
    (1698-1931)
    Tibet
    (until 1950)
    Historical Maps
    of China

    Transliteration note: Names are given in Hanyu Pinyin romanization, without tone-marking diacritics (the first edition of Hanyu Pinyin was approved and adopted by China on 11 Feb 1958). Beginning in the early 1980's, Western publications began using the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system instead of earlier romanization systems. Prior to 1979, names are given in the older Wade-Giles romanization in parentheses, i.e. Li Yuanhong (Li Yüan-hung). For the period 1912-1948, common bynames and nicknames are listed in quotes i.e. "Sun Yat-sen."

    Imperial China
     
    Map of Chinese Empire
    Former National Anthem
    "Li Zhongtang Yue
    (Li Chung-t'ang Yüeh)"
    (Tune of Li Zhongtang
    )
    (1896-1911) (semi-official
     and royal anthem)
    Hear National Anthem
    "Gong Jin'ou"
    (Kung Chin-ou)
    (Cup of Solid Gold)

    (4 Oct 1911-12 Feb 1912
    and 1-12 Jul 1917)
    Constitution
      (none adopted)
    Capital: Beijing [Peking]
    (Ming: Nanjing 1368-1421,
    1644-1645, Beijing 1421-1644;
    Qing: Shengjing 1636-1644)
    Currency: Wen
    National Holiday 1908-1912:
    7 Feb (1906)

    Emperor's Birthday
    Population: 431,735,400 (1900)

    Note: Emperors (huangdi [huang-ti]) are listed by their personal name (ming [ming]) followed by their temple name (miaohao [miao-hao])(comparable with a regnal name, but formally assigned only after the reign). Followed by [the short form of] the posthumous praise name (shi [shih]) and the era name(s)(nianhao [nien-hao]) adopted during the reign.
      Short-lived or deposed emperors, especially minors, were not normally given a temple
    (miaohao [miao-hao]) or a posthumous praise name (shi [shih]). Though the 'era names' (nianhao) are not strictly names of the ruler, but of a given year, they are - in 'Western' sources in particular - commonly used as indirect references of the emperors in question (i.e., the 'Qianlong Emperor', not 'Emperor Qianlong').

    Emperors (Huangdi/Huang-ti)
    - Ming -
    19 Jul 1572 - 18 Aug 1620  Zhu Yijun (Chu I-chün)             (b. 1563 - d. 1620)
                                 miaohao: Shenzong (Shen-tsung)/shi: Xian huangdi (Hsien
                                   huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 2 Feb 1573 - 27 Aug 1620: Wanli (Wan-li)
    28 Aug 1620 - 28 Sep 1620  Zhu Changluo                       (b. 1582 - d. 1620) 
                                 miaohao: Guangzong (Kuang-tsung)/shi: Zhen huangdi (Chen
                                   huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 28 Aug 1620 - 21 Jan 1621: Taichang (T'ai-ch'ang)
     1 Oct 1620 - 30 Sep 1627  Zhu Youjiao (Chu Yu-chiao)         (b. 1605 - d. 1627)
                                 miaohao: Xizong (Hsi-tsung)/ shi: Zhe huangdi (Che huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 22 Jan 1621 - 4 Feb 1628: Tianqi (T'ien-ch'i)
     2 Oct 1627 - 25 Apr 1644  Zhu Youjian (Chu Yu-chien)         (b. 1611 - d. 1644)
                                 miaohao: Sizong (Szu-tsung)/ shi: Lie huangdi (Lieh huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 5 Feb 1628 - 25 Apr 1644: Chongzhen (Ch'ung-chen)
    - Shun -
     
    8 Feb 1644 - 1645         Li Zicheng (Li Tzu-ch'eng)         (b. 1606 - d. 1645)

                               (in rebellion, 1642 starting in Xiangfan, 25 Apr 1644 in Beijing)
                                 nianhao 8 Feb 1644 - 5 Jun 1644: Yongchang (Yung-ch'ang) 
    - (Southern) Ming -
    1644 - Jun 1645            Zhu Yousong (Chu Yu-sung)          (b. 1607 - d. 1646)
                               (in dissidence, in Southern China)
                                
    miaohao: Anzong (An-tsung)/ shi: Jian huangdi (Chien huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 1645: Hongguang (Hung-kuang)

    21 Jul 1645 –  6 Oct 1646  Zhu Yujian (Chu Y
    ü-chien)          (b. 1602 - d. 1646)
                               (in dissidence, in Fuzhou)
                                
    miaohao: Shaozong (Shao-tsung)/shi: Xiang huangdi (Hsiang
                                   huang-ti)

                                 nianhao
    Aug 1645 – Oct 1646: Longwu (Lung-wu)
    Dec 1646 – Jan 1647        Zhu Yuyue (Chu
    Yü-yüeh)            (b. 1605? - d. 1647)
                               (in dissidence, in Guangzhou)
                                 miaohao: Wenzong (Wen-tsung)
                                
    nianhao
    Dec 1646 – Jan 1647: Shaowu (Shao-wu)
    24 Dec 1646 -
    Jan 1659     Zhu Youlang (Chu Yu-lang)          (b. 1624 - d. 1662)
                               (in dissidence, in Southern China and Yunnan)
                                
    miaohao: Zhaozong (Chao-tsung)/shi: Kuang huangdi (K'uang
                                   huang-ti)

                                 nianhao
    24 Dec 1646 -  1 Jun 1662: Yongli (Yung-li)
    -
    (Later) Jin -
    17 Feb 1616 - 30 Sep 1626  Nurhachi (Nu-erh-ha-ch'ih)         (b. 1559 - d. 1626)
                                 miaohao: Taizu (T'ai-tsu)/ shi: Gao huangdi (Kao huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 17 Feb 1616 - 15 Feb 1627: Tianming (T'ien-ming)
    20 Oct 1626 - 15 May 1636  Hong Taiji (Hung T'ai-chi)         (b. 1592 - d. 1643)
                                 miaohao: Taizong (T'ai-tsung)/ shi: Wen huangdi (Wen huang-ti) 
                                 nianhao 16 Feb 1627 - 14 May 1636: Tiancong (T'ien-ts'ung)
    -
    Qing -
    15 May 1636 - 21 Sep 1643  Hong Taiji (Hung T'ai-chi)         (s.a.)
                                 miaohao: Taizong (T'ai-tsung)/ shi: Wen huangdi (Wen huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 15 May 1636 - 7 Feb 1644: Chongde (Ch'ung-te)
     8
    Oct 1643 -  5 Feb 1661  Fulin (Fu-lin)                     (b. 1638 - d. 1661)
                                 miaohao: Shizu (Shih-tsu)/ shi: Zhang huangdi (Chang huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 8 Feb 1644 - 18 Feb 1662: Shunzhi (Shun-chih)
     
    8 Oct 1643 - 31 Dec 1650  Regents
                               - Duoergun, Prince Rui             (b. 1612 - d. 1650)
                                 
    (To-erh-kun, Prince Jui)
                               - Jierhalang, Prince Zheng         (b. 1599 - d. 1655)
                                  (Chi-erh-ha-lang, Prince Cheng)
                                  (to 1647)
                               - Duoduo, Prince Yu                (b. 1614 - d. 1649)
                                  (To-to, Prince Yü)
                                 
    (1647 - 29 Apr 1649)  
     7 Feb 1661 - 20 Dec 1722  Xuanye (Hsüan-yeh)                 (b. 1654 - d. 1722)
                                 miaohao: Shengzu (Sheng-tsu)/ shi: Ren huangdi (Jen huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 18 Feb 1662 - 4 Feb 1723: Kangxi (K'ang-hsi)
     7 Feb 1661 - May 1669     Regents
                               - Sukesaha (Su-k'o-sa-ha)(to 1667) (d. 1667)
                               - Suoni (So-ni) (to 12 Aug 1667)   (b. 1601 - d. 1667)
                               - Aobai (Ao-pai)                   (b. 1600 - d. 1669)
                               - Ebilong (O-pi-lung) (to 1667)    (d. 1673)
    10 Jul 1706 - 1707         Wei Zhiye (Wei Chih-yeh)(in rebellion)
                                 nianhao 10 Jul 1706 - 1707: Wenxing (Wen-hsing)
    1707 - 1708                Zhu Cihuan (Chu Tz'u-huan)         (b. 1633 - d. 1708)
                                (styled Ding wang, claiming to head the Great Ming 
                                 Realm, in rebellion)
    26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721  Zhu Yigui (Chu I-kuei)             (b. 1689/90 - d. 1721)
                                (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
                                 nianhao 26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721: Yonghe (Yung-ho)
    27 Dec 1722 -  8 Oct 1735  Yinzhen (Yin-chen)                 (b. 1678 - d. 1735)
                                 miaohao: Shizong (Shih-tsung)/ shi: Xian huangdi (Hsien huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 5 Feb 1723 - 11 Feb 1746: Yongzheng (Yung-cheng)
    18 Oct 1735 -  9 Feb 1796  Hongli (Hung-li)                   (b. 1711 - d. 1799)
                                 niaohao: Gaozong (Kao-tsung)/ shi: Chun huangdi (Ch'un huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 12 Feb 1736 - 8 Feb 1796: Qianlong (Ch'ien-lung)
    Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788     Lin Shuangwen (Lin Shuang-wen)     (b. 1756 - d. 1788)
                                 (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
                                 nianhao Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788: Shuntian (Shun-t'ien)
     9 Feb 1796 -  2 Sep 1820  Yongyan (Yung-yen)                 (b. 1760 - d. 1820)
                                 niaohao: Renzong (Jen-tsung)/ shi: Rui huangdi (Jui huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 9 Feb 1796 - 2 Feb 1821: Jiaqing (Chia-ch'ing)
    Mar 1797 - 1797            Li Shu (Li Shu) (in rebellion)
                                 nianhao Mar 1797 - 1797: Daqing (Ta-ch'ing)
     3 Oct 1820 - 25 Feb 1850  Minning (Min-ning)                 (b. 1782 - d. 1850)
                                niaohao: Xuanzong (Hsüan-tsung)/shi: Cheng huangdi (Ch'eng
                                  huang-ti)
                                nianhao 3 Feb 1821 - 31 Jan 1851: Daoguang (Tao-kuang)
     9 Mar 1850 - 22 Aug 1861  Yizhu (I Chu)                      (b. 1831 - d. 1861)
                                 miaohao: Wenzong (Wen-tsung)/ shi: Xian huangdi (Hsien huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 1 Feb 1851 - 29 Jan 1862: Xianfeng (Hsien-feng)
    21 Aug 1861 -  2 Nov 1861  Regency (imperial assistants in national affairs)
                               - Zaiyuan, Prince Yi               (b. 1816 - d. 1861)
                                  (Tsai-yüan, Prince Yi)
                               - Duanhua, Prince Zheng            (b. 1807 - d. 1861)
                                  (Tuan-hua, Prince Cheng)
                               - Sushun (Su-shun)                 (b. 1816 - d. 1861)
                               - Jingshou (Ching-shou)            (b. 1829 - d. 1889)
                               - Muyin (Mu-yin)                   (d. 1864)
                               - Kuangyuan (K'uang-yüan)          (b. 1815 - d. 1881)
                               - Du Han (Tu Han)                  (b. 1806 - d. 1866)
                               - Jiao Youying (Chiao Yu-ying)     (b. 1814 - d. 1887)
     2 Nov 1861 - 12 Jan 1875 
    Regency
                               - Empress Dowager Cian (Tz'u-an)(f)(b. 1837 - d. 1881)
                               - Empress Dowager Cixi (Tz'u-hsi)  (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
                                 (f)(1st time)
                               - Yixin, Prince Gong               (b. 1833 - d. 1898)
                                  (I-hsin, Prince Kung) 
                                  (to 5 Mar 1865)
    11 Nov 1861 - 12 Jan 1875  Zaichun (Tsai-ch'un)               (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
                                 miaohao: Muzong (Mu-tsung)/ shi: Yi huangdi (I huang-ti)
                                 nianhao 30 Jan 1862 - 5 Feb 1875: Tongzhi (T'ung-chih)
    25 Feb 1875 - 12 Nov 1908  Zaitian (Tsai-t'ien)               (b. 1872 - d. 1908)
                                 miaohao: Dezong (Te-tsung)/ shi: Jing huangdi (Ching huang-ti)                              nianhao 6 Feb 1875 - 21 Jan 1909: Guangxu (Kuang-hsü)
                                 (in refuge at Xi'an 15 Aug 1900 - 7 Jan 1902)
    25 Feb 1875 -  4 Mar 1889  Empress Dowager
    Cixi (Tz'u-hsi)(f) (s.a.)
                                (2nd time) -Regent 
                                (de facto a 3rd time 20 Sep 1898 - 15 Nov 1908;
                                 in refuge at Xi'an 15 Aug 1900 - 7 Jan 1902)
    14 Nov 1908 -  6 Dec 1911  Zaifeng, Prince Chun -Regent       (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
                                 (Tsai-feng, Prince Ch'un)

     
    2 Dec 1908 - 12 Feb 1912  Puyi (
    P'u-i) (1st time)            (b. 1906 - d. 1967)
                                 miaohao: none bestowed/ shi: none bestowed
                                
    nianhao 22 Jan 1909 - 12 Feb 1912: Xuantong (Hsüan-t'ung)
                                (only inside the Forbidden city¹ 13 Feb 1912 - 5 Nov 1924)
     6 Dec 1911 - 12 Feb 1912  Empress Dowager Longyu (Lung-yü)(f)(b. 1868 - d. 1913)
                                 (holder of the Imperial seal) 
     1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Puyi (P'u-i) (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                                 miaohao: none bestowed/ shi: none bestowed
                                
    nianhao 1 Jul - 12 Jul 1917: Xuantong (Hsüan-t'ung)

    Prime Ministers of the Cabinet (Neige zongli dachen/Nei-ko tsung-li ta-ch'en)²
     
    9 May 1911 - 15 Nov 1911  Yikuang, Prince Qing               (b. 1838 - d. 1917)  Non-party
                                 (
    I-k'uang, Prince Ch'ing)
                                 (appointed 8 May 1911)
    16 Nov 1911 - 12 Feb 1912  Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai)
           (b. 1859 - d. 1916)  Mil
                                
    (appointed 1 Nov 1911, re-appointed 9 Nov 1911)
     1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Post abolished

      ¹According to the treaty signed between the Qing (Ch'ing) court and government of the Republic of China, Puyi (P'u-i)(s.a.) retained the title Emperor, received an annual payment from the Republic of China government, had the right to live in the Forbidden City, to be protected by imperial troops, to grant noble and honorary titles, and to maintain certain government organs in the Forbidden City (mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc). Inside the Forbidden City the flag of the Qing dynasty was flown. People in the Forbidden City continued to wear the Qing official dress and used the Qing calendar system. On 1 Dec 1922, the Emperor married and his wife was called Empress. On 5 Nov 1924, Puyi was forced to leave the Forbidden City by Feng Yuxiang's (Feng Yü-hsiang) (b. 1882 - d. 1948) National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China and all the noted privileges were terminated.

     ²During the Qing (Ch'ing) restoration 1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917, General Zhang Xun (Chang Hsün)(b. 1854 - d. 1923) exercised de facto rule, however he purposely avoided assuming any unique office revealing that he was the force behind the restoration. Additionally, the exclusion of any position equal to prime minister from the cabinet structure was intentional and was an attempt to emulate the pre-Revolutionary Qing government where such an office did not exist.


    Polities rebelling against the Qing (Ch'ing) Empire 1851-1872

    Taiping

    [Taiping Heaven and Earth
                Society Flag, simplified from a flag in the Taiping
                Heavenly Kingdom Museum in Nanjing (China)]

    11 Jan 1851                Taiping tianguo (T'ai-p'ing t'ien-kuo)("Heavenly Realm
                                 of Great Peace")
    inaugurated in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, and parts
                                 of
    Anhui, Fujian,
    Hubei and Jiangsu.
    19 Mar 1853                Taiping take Nanjing, which is renamed Tianjing (T'ien-ching)
                                 ("Heavenly Capital").
    19 Jul 1864                Tianjing is retaken by Qing forces.
    25 Oct 1864                Extinguished by Qing empire with the capture of
    Hong Tianguifu.

    Heavenly Kings of Great Peace (title Taiping Tian wang [T'ai-p'ing Tien-wang])
    11 Jan 1851 -  1 Jun 1864  Hong Xiuquan (Hung Hsiu-ch'üan)    (b. 1814 - d. 1864)
     1 Jun 1864 - 25 Oct 1864  Hong Tianguifu (Hung T'ien-kuei-fu)(b. 1849 - d. 1864)


    Shengping

     9 Oct 1854                Shengping tianguo (Sheng-p'ing t'ien-kuo)("Heavenly Realm of
                                 Approaching Peace")
    inaugurated in Hunan.
    24 Jul 1858                Extinguished by Qing empire.

    Kings
     9 Oct 1854 - 24 Jul 1858  Hu Youlu (Hu Yu-lu) (to Oct 1855)  (d. 1855)
                                 (styled Dingnan wang [Ting-nan wang])
                               + Zhu Hongying (Chu Hung-ying)     (d. 1874)
                                 (styled Zhennan wang [Chen-nan wang])


    Dacheng 

    27 Sep 1855                Dacheng Guo (Ta-ch'eng Guo)("Realm of Great Accomplishment")
                                 inaugurated 
    in Guangxi, with a capital at Xunzhou (Hsün-chou)
                                 (modern Guiping) which is renamed Xiujing (Hsiu-ching)
                                 ("Beautiful Capital").
    21 Aug 1861                Extinguished by Qing empire with the fall of Xiujing.
    12 May 1872                Last rebel army, under Li Wencai (d. 1872), is destroyed by
                                 Qing forces
    in Qiandong, Guizhou.

    Kings
    27 Sep 1855 - 21 Aug 1861  Chen Kai (Ch'en K'ai)              (b. 1822 - d. 1861)
                                 (styled Pingxun wang [P'ing-hsün wang]
                               + Li Wenmao (Li Wen-mao)(to 1858)  (d. 1858)
     
                                (styled Pingjing wang [P'ing-ching wang])
                               + Liang Peiyou (Liang P'ei-yu)     (d. 1875)
                                 (
    styled Pingdong wang [P'ing-tung wang])
                               + Liang Dachang (Liang Ta-ch'ang)
                                 (styled Dingbei wang [Ting-pei wang])


    Kashgharia (1864-77): see under East Turkestan

    Pingnan Guo

    1856 - 26 Dec 1872         Pingnan guo (P'ing-nan kuo)("Pacified South State") is a major
                                 Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province, it
                                 is also referred to as the "Panthay rebellion."
    1874                       Qing army completes suppression the rebellion. 

    Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslims)
    (usually referred to in foreign sources as "Sultan")
    1856 - 26 Dec 1872         Sulayman ibn `Abd ar-Rahman        (b. 1823 - d. 1872)
                                 (= Du Wenxiu [Tu Wen-hsiu])


    Republic of China: Warlord Era
     
    [Wuchang
                          Uprising Army flag 1911 (China)]
    10 Oct 1911 - Dec 1911
    Wuchang Uprising Army Flag
    [1912-1928 Flag
                          of Republic of China]
    1 Jan 1912 - 22 Dec 1915;
    22 Mar 1916 - 1 Jul 1917;
    12 Jul 1917 -  8 Oct 1928
    [Imperial flag
                          of Yuan Shi-kai 1915-1916 (China)]
    22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916

    Map of China
    Hear National Anthem
    "Zhong Guo Xiong Li
    Yu Zhou Jian"
    (Chung Kuo Hsiung Li
    Yü Chou Chien)
    (China Heroically Stands

    in the Universe)
    (23 May 1915-1 Jul 1921)
    Hear National Anthem
    "Qing Yun Ge"
     
    (Ch'ing Yün Ke)
    (The Song
    to the
    Auspicious Cloud)

     (28 Apr 1913-23 May 1915,
    and 1 Jul 1921-29 Dec 1928
    )
    -----------------------------------
    Provisional Anthem
    "Wuzu Gonghe Ge"
    (Song of Five Races Under
     One Union)
    (12 Feb 1912-28 Apr 1913)
    Provisional Constitution
      (11 Mar 1912 - 1 May 1914,
    29 Jun 1916 - 10 Oct 1923
    )
    ---------------------------------
    Organizational Outline of
    the Provisional Government

    (15 Dec 1911 - 11 Mar 1912)
    Map of Warlord Control
    Capital: Beijing [Peking]
    (2 Apr 1912-4 Jun 1928)
    (Nanjing [Nanking]
    1 Jan 1912 - 2 Apr 1912;
    Wuchang 20 Nov 1911 - 1 Jan 1912)

    Currency: Yuan (CND)
    -----------------------------------
    National Holiday:

    10 Oct (1911)
     
    Guoqing Jie
    (National Day)
    Population: 485,598,900 (1925)

    10 Oct 1911                Revolution ("Wuchang Uprising") begins against the Qing (Ch'ing)
                                 imperial government
    (a military government claiming to represent
                                 the Republic of China is created in Wuchang, Hubei) starting the
                                 "Xinhai Revolution" (other provincial military governments
                                 supporting a republican form of government were also set up on
                                 and after 22 Oct 1911: Anhui, Fengtian, Fujian, Guangdong,
                                 Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangsu [at Zhenjiang and Jiujiang],
                                 Nanchang in Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai, Shanxi, Sichuan
                                 [at Chengdu and Chongqing], Yunnan, and Zhejiang [see under China
                                 Provinces]).
    20 Nov 1911                Military Government of Hubei province is recognized as the Central
                                 Military Government of China (Zhongyang jūn zhengfu)
    and the
                                 Chief Supervisor of the Hubei Army, Li Yuanhong (Li Yüan-hung),
                                 was authorized to perform some executive functions by resolutions
                                 of the United Assembly of Representatives of the Provincial
                                 Military Governments on 20 Nov 1911 in Shanghai and 30 Nov 1911
                                 in Wuchang.

     
    3 Dec 1911                Republic of China (Zhonghua minguo [Chung-hua min-kuo]) established
                                 by "Organizational Outline of the Provisional Government of the
                                 Republic of China" adopted by the United Assembly of
                                 Representatives of the Provincial Military Governments in
                                 Wuchang. Pending the election of a Provisional President, the
                                 office of Chief Supervisor of the Hubei Army was again recognized
                                 [4 Dec 1911] as the Central Military Government with authority to
                                 represent the provincial military governments by the
    United
                                 Assembly.
    15 Dec 1911                United Assembly (meeting in Nanjing) amends the "Organizational
                                 Outline of the Provisional Government" to authorize the Grand
                                 Marshal to exercise the functions of the Provisional President of
                                 the Republic, pending elections.
    Li Yuanhong (Li Yüan-hung) is
                                 elected Grand Marshal
    by the United Assembly on 17 Dec 1911 (he
                                 takes office on 27 Dec 1911).
    12 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916  President
    Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai) accepted imperial dignity by
                                 a presidential order,
    but cancelled all preparations 22 Mar 1916.
     1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Brief restoration of the Great Qing Empire (see above).
    10 Sep 1917                Nationalist Military Government of the Republic of China founded
                                 in Southern China at Guangzhou [Canton](see below).
     3 Jun 1928                "Warlord" era Beijing government collapses with the departure of
                                
    Zhang Zuolin (Chang Tso-lin)(who dies on 4 Jun 1928) and his
                                 Prime minister from Beijing ahead of advancing Nationalist
                                 Northern Army forces. The Nationalist government in Nanjing
                                 continues as the sole government of the Republic of China.

    Chief Supervisor of the Hubei Army of the Military Government of the Province of Hubei, recognized as the Central Military Government (in Wuchang)
    [authorized to perform some executive functions]

    11 Oct 1911 - 27 Dec 1911  Li Yuanhong (Li Yüan-hung)         (b. 1864 - d. 1928)  Mil
    Grand Marshal (in Wuchang)
    27 Dec 1911 -  1 Jan 1912  Li Yuanhong (Li Yüan-hung)         (s.a.)               Mil
                                 (continued as grand marshal to 15 Feb 1912) 

    27 Dec 1911 -  1 Jan 1912  Huang Xing (Huang Hsing)           (b. 1874 - d. 1916)  Mil/TMH
                                 (vice marshal acting for Li in Nanjing)
    Provisional President
    (in Nanjing)
     1 Jan 1912 - 10 Mar 1912  Sun Wen (Sun Wen) "Sun Yat-sen"    (b. 1866 - d. 1925)  TMH
                                 (= Sun Yixian [Sun I-hsien])
                                 (
    handed over seals of office 1 Apr 1912)
    Plenipotentiary for Organizing a Provisional Republican Government¹ (in Beijing)
    13 Feb 1912 - 15 Feb 1912
      Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai)       (s.a.)               Mil
                                 (in opposition to Sun)

    Provisional President (in Beijing)
    15 Feb 1912 - 10 Oct 1913  Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai
    )       (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
                                 (1st time)
    President
    10 Oct 1913 - 12 Dec 1915  Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai)       (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
    Emperor
    -elect²
    12 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916  Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai)       (s.a.)
                                 nianhao 1 Jan 1916 - 23 Mar 1916: Hongxian (Hung-hsien)
                               (this acceptance of imperial dignity by Yuan
                                was not formally consummated by an enthronement)
    Presidents
    22 Mar 1916 -  6 Jun 1916  Yuan Shikai (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
     6 Jun 1916 -  6 Jul 1917  Li Yuanhong (Li Yüan-hung)         (s.a.)               Mil/Prog
                                (prevented from exercising functions on 1 Jul 1917 [restoration
                                of monarchy], moved to Japanese
    legation Beijing 2 Jul 1917,
                                resumed functions, instructing Feng Guozhang to take over)

                                 (1st time)
     
    6 Jul 1917 - 10 Oct 1918  Feng Guozhang (Feng Kuo-chang)     (b. 1859 - d. 1919)  Mil/Zhili
                                 (
    in Nanjing 6 Jul 1917, arrived in Beijing on 1 Aug 1917)
    10 Oct 1918 -  2 Jun 1922  Xu Shichang (
    Hsü Shih-ch'ang)      (b. 1855 - d. 1939)  Anhui
     2 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922  Zhou Ziqi (Chao Tzu-ch'i)(acting)  (b. 1871 - d. 1923)  Comm  
    11 Jun 1922 - 13 Jun 1923  Li Yuanhong (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Mil/Res
                                 (left Beijing 13 Jun 1923, moving to Tianjin then
                                 Shanghai; maintained he never resigned office)
    13 Jun 1923 -
    10 Oct 1923  State Council (acting)
                               - Gao Lingwei (
    Kao Ling-wei)       (b. 1868 - d. 1943)  Anhui
                                 (principal signatory to 23 Jul 1923)
                               - Gu Weijun (Ku Wei-chün)          (b. 1887 - d. 1985)  Non-party
                                 ("V.K. Wellington Koo")
                                 (principal signatory from 23 Jul 1923)

    10 Oct 1923 -  2 Nov 1924  Cao Kun (
    Ts'ao K'un)               (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Mil/Zhili
     2 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924  Huang Fu (Huang Fu)(acting)        (b. 1880 - d. 1936)  Zhili
    Provisional Chief Executive
    24 Nov 1924 - 20 Apr 1926  Duan Qirui (
    Tuan Ch'i-jui)         (b. 1865 - d. 1936)  Mil/Anhui
                               
    (prevented from exercising office and in
                                 refuge in Beijing Legation Quarter 10 - 15 Apr 1926)
    Presidents
    20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926  Vacant
    20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926  Hu Weide (
    Hu Wei-te)(acting)       (b. 1863 - d. 1933)  Non-party
                                (declined to serve as head of government,
                                 continued as foreign minister)

    13 May 1926 - 23 Jun 1926  Yan Huiqing
    "W.W. Yen" (acting)    (b. 1877 - d. 1950)  Zhili
                                 (Yen Hui-ch'ing)
    23 Jun 1926 -  5 Oct 1926  Du Xigui (Tu Hsi-kuei) (acting)    (b. 1875 - d. 1933)  Mil/Zhili
     5
    Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927  Gu Weijun "V.K. Wellington Koo"    (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (Ku Wei-chün) (acting)
    Grand Marshal of the Army and Navy

    18 Jun 1927 -  3 Jun 1928  Zhang Zuolin (
    Chang Tso-lin)       (b. 1873 - d. 1928) Mil/Feng
                               (left Beijing 3 Jun 1928, dies 4 Jun 1928 en-route to Shenyang)


    Prime ministers

    13 Mar 1912 - 29 Jun 1912  Tang Shaoyi (T'ang Shao-i)         (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Beiyang
                                
    (1st time)
    17 Jun 1912 - 25 Sep 1912  Lu Zhengxiang (Lu Cheng-hsiang)    (b. 1870 - d. 1949)  Non-party
                                 (= Pierre-Célestin Lou)
                                 (acting [for
    Tang] to 29 Jun 1912)
    20 Aug 1912 - 16 Jul 1913  Zhao Bingjun (
    Chao Ping-chün)      (b. 1859 - d. 1914)  Beiyang
                                 (acting [for Lu] to 25 Sep 1912)
     
    2 May 1913 - 26 Aug 1913  Duan Qirui(Tuan Ch'i-jui)          (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
                                
    (acting [for Zhao to 16 Jul 1913])
                                 (1st time)
    17 Jul 1913 - 19 Jul 1913  Zhu Qiqian (Chu Ch'i-chien)(acting)(b. 1871 - d. 1964)  Non-party
                                 (appointed, but did not take office)
    26 Aug 1913 - 14 Feb 1914  Xiong Xiling (Hsiung Hsi-ling)     (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
     Beiyang
    14 Feb 1914 -  2 May 1914  Sun Baoqi (Sun Pao-ch'i) (acting)  (s.a.)               Beiyang
    Secretaries of State
     
    2 May 1914 - 22 Dec 1915  Xu Shichang (Chu Ch'i-chien)       (s.a.)               Beiyang 
                                 (1st time)
    28 Oct 1915 - 22 Mar 1916  Lu Zhengxiang (Lu Cheng-hsiang)    (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (acting for Xu to 22 Dec 1915)
    22 Mar 1916 - 23 Apr 1916  Xu Shichang
    (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Beiyang
    23 Apr 1916 - 30 Jun 1916  Duan Qirui (Tuan Ch'i-jui)         (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
    Prime ministers
    30 Jun 1916 - 24 May 1917  Duan Qirui (Tuan Ch'i-jui)         (s.a.)               Mil/Prog
                                 (2nd time)
    24 May 1917 - 13 Jun 1917  Wu Tingfang (Wu T'ing-fang)        (b. 1842 - d. 1922)  Prog

                                
    (acting)
    13 Jun 1917 - 24 Jun 1917  Jiang Zhaozong (Chiang Chao-tsung) (b. 1861 - d. 1943)  Mil  
                                 (acting
    )
    24 Jun 1917 -  5 Jul 1917  Li Jingxi (Li Ching-hsi)(1st time) (b. 1857 - d. 1925)  Prog

     
    5
    Jul 1917 - 23 Nov 1917  Duan Qirui (3rd time)              (s.a.)               Mil/Anhui
                                
    (appointed 2 Jul 1917, arrived in Beijing 14 Jul 1917)

    23 Nov 1917 -  2 Dec 1917  Wang Daxie (Wang Ta-hsieh)         (b. 1859 - d. 1929)  Zhili
                                 (1st time) (acting)
     
    2 Dec 1917 - 24 Mar 1918  Weng Shizhen (Weng Shih-chen)      (b. 1861 - d. 1930)  Anhui
                                 (acting)
    21 Feb 1918
     - 24 Mar 1918  Qiang Nengxun (Ch'iang Neng-hsün)  (b. 1869 - d. 1924)  Anhui
                                 (1st time) (acting for Weng)
    24 Mar 1918 - 11 Oct 1918  Duan Qirui (4th time)              (s.a.)               Mil/Anhui
    11 Oct 1918 - 14 Jun 1919  Qiang Nengxun (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Anhui
                                
    (acting to 21 Dec 1918)
    14 Jun 1919 - 25 Sep 1919  Gong Xinzhan (
    Kung Hsin-chan)      (b. 1871 - d. 1943)  Anhui
                                 (acting)
    25 Sep 1919 -  2 Jul 1920  Jin Yunpeng (Chin Yün-p'eng)       (b. 1877 - d. 1925)  Mil/Anhui 
                                 (1st time)(acting to 5 Nov 1919)
    14 May 1920 - 10 Aug 1920  Sa Zhenbing (Sa Chen-ping)         (b. 1859 - d. 1952)  Mil/Anhui
                                
    (acting [for Yunpeng to 2 Jul 1920])
    10 Aug 1920 - 19 Dec 1921  Jin Yunpeng (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Mil/Anhui
                                 (acting to 14 May 1921)
    19 Dec 1921 - 25 Dec 1921  Yan Huiqing "W.W. Yen" (1st time)  (s.a.)               Zhili
                                 (Yen Hui-ch'ing) (acting)
    25 Dec 1921 -  5 May 1922  Liang Shiyi (Liang Shih-i)         (b. 1869 - d. 1933)  Comm
    27 Jan 1922 - 11 Apr 1922  Yan Huiqing "W.W. Yen" (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Zhili
                                 (acting for Liang)
    11 Apr 1922 - 12 Jun 1922  Zhou Ziqi (Chao Tzu-ch'i)          (s.a.)               Anhui
                                 (acting [for Liang to 5 May 1922])
    12 Jun 1922 -  8 Aug 1922  Yan Huiqing "W.W. Yen" (3rd time)  (s.a.)               Zhili
                                 (acting)
     5 Aug 1922 - 19 Sep 1922  Tang Shaoyi
    (T'ang Shao-i)(2nd time)(s.a.)               Non-party 
                                 (appointed, but did not take office)
     
    8 Aug 1922 - 30 Nov 1922  Wang Chonghui (Wang Ch'ung-hui)    (b. 1881 - d. 1958)  Zhili
                                 (acting [for Tang to 19 Sep 1922])
    30 Nov 1922 - 14 Dec 1922  Wang Daxie (2nd time) (acting)     (s.a.)               Zhili
    14 Dec 1922 -  5 Jan 1923  Wang Zhengting "C.T. Wang"         (b. 1882 - d. 1961)  Non-party
                                 (Wang Cheng-t'ing) (acting)
     
    5 Jan 1923 - 15 Jan 1924³ Zhang Shaozeng (Chang Shao-tseng)  (b. 1879 - d. 1928)  Mil/Beiyang
    13 Jun 1923 -  9 Sep 1923  Li Genyuan (Li Ken-yuan)           (b. 1879 - d. 1965)  Anhui
                                 (in dissidence in Tianjin, appointed by Li Yuanhong)
    12 Oct 1923 - 15 Jan 1924  Gao Lingwei (Kao Ling-wei)         (s.a.)               Anhui
                                 (acting for Zhang)
    15 Jan 1924 -  4 Jul 1924 
    Sun Baoqi (Sun Pao-ch'i)           (s.a.)               Beiyang 
     4 Jul 1924 - 16 Sep 1924
      Gu Weijun "V.K. Wellington Koo"    (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (Ku Wei-chün) (1st time) (acting)
    16 Sep 1924 -  1 Nov 1924 
     Yan Huiqing "W.W. Yen" (4th time)  (s.a.)               Zhili
     
    1 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924
      Huang Fu (Huang Fu) (acting)       (s.a.)               Zhili
    24 Nov 1924 - 28 Dec 1925  Post abolished
    28 Dec 1925 -  6 Mar 1926  Xu Shiying (Hsü Shih-ying)         (b. 1873 - d. 1964)  Anhui
    19 Feb 1926 - 20 Apr 1926  Jia Deyao (Chia Te-yao)            (b. 1880 - d. 1940)  Mil/Anhui
                                 (acting for Xu to 6 Mar 1926)
    20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926  Hu Weide (Hu Wei-te)               (s.a.)               Non-party
                               
    (declined to serve as head of government,
                                 continued as foreign minister)
    20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926  Vacant
    13 May 1926 - 23 Jun 1926 
    Yan Huiqing "W.W. Yen" (5th time)  (s.a.)               Zhili
                                 (acting)  
    23 Jun 1926 -  5 Oct 1926
      Du Xigui (Tu Hsi-kuei)(acting)     (s.a.)               Mil/Zhili  
     5 Oct 1926 - 20 Jun 1927
      Gu Weijun (2nd time)(acting)       (s.a.)               Non-party
    20 Jun 1927 -  3 Jun 1928
      Pan Fu (P'an Fu)                   (b. 1883 - d. 1936)  Feng
                                (from 3 Jun 1928 in Tianjin, left for Dairen 10 Jun 1928)

    Military Government of the Army Protecting the Nation 1916:

    Note: Military government uniting four provinces (Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, and Guizhou), in opposition to Yuan Shikai (s.a.), proclaiming Li Yuanhong (s.a.) President of China and nominally acting in his name from Zhaoqing (Chao-ch'ing) in Guangdong.

    Leaders of the Civil Governors composing the Military Affairs Yuan
     8 May 1916 - 14 Jul 1916  Tang Jiyao (T'ang Chi-yao)         (s.a.)               Mil
                                 (elected but did not take office, remained in Yunnan)
     8 May 1916 - 14 Jul 1916  Cen Chunxuan (Ts'en Ch'un-hsüan)   (b. 1861 - d. 1933)  Mil
                                 (deputy leader, acting for Tang)

    Head of the Government Affairs Committee Leading the Civil Governors
     8 May 1916 - 14 Jul 1916  Liang Qichao (Liang Ch'i-ch'ao)    (b. 1873 - d. 1929)  Prog

     ¹An imperial edict proclaiming the abdication of the Emperor (on 12 Feb 1912) also gave Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai)(s.a.) full authority to organize a provisional republican government. He assumed the office by issuing a notice on 13 Feb 1912. After his election as Provisional President at the session of the Senate held in Nanjing 15 Feb 1912, he also began to exercise the function of this office before his formal inauguration which took place in Beijing on 10 Mar 1912.

     ²Yuan Shikai (s.a.) accepted a proposal to become the emperor by a presidential order dated 12 Dec 1915, and initiated preparations for enthronement; introduced an imperial era (Hongxian) by an order dated 31 Dec 1915; cancelled all preparations on 22 Mar 1916.

     
    ³Prime minister Zhang Shaozeng (Chang Shao-tseng)(s.a.) was discharged by presidential order of 13 Jun 1923. The presidential order was proclaimed null and void on 17 Jun 1923 by the Cabinet acting on resolutions of the House of Representatives and Senate.

    Party/Faction abbreviations: Anhui = Wan xijunfa/Wan hsi-chün-fa (Anhui Clique, 1916-1920, split from Beiyang); Anfu = Anfu julebu/An-fu chü-le-pu (Anfu Club, literally 'Peace and Happiness Club', political wing of the Anhui clique, 7 Mar 1918-1920, split from Beiyang clique); Beiyang = Beiyang xijunfa/Pei-yang hsi-chün-fa (Beiyang Clique, supported Beiyang army, conservative, 1911-1928); Comm = Jiaotong xijunfa/Chiao-t'ung hsi-chün-fa (Communications Clique, powerful interest group of politicians, bureaucrats, technocrats, businessmen, engineers, and labor unionists in Beiyang government 1912-1928, also called Cantonese Clique); Feng = Feng xijunfa/Feng hsi-chün-fa (Fengtian Clique, 1919-1928, split from Beiyang led by Zhang Zuolin); KMT = Zhongguo Guomindang/Chungkuo Kuomintang (National Party of China, "Kuomintang", nationalist, republican, conservative, anti-Communist, 1 Jun 1931 - 28 Sep 1986 state party, est.23 Aug 1912-Nov 1913, re-formed.10 Oct 1919); Mil = Military; Prog = Jinbu dang/Chin-pu Tang (Progressive Party, center-right, 1913-1916); Res = Yanjiu Jituan xijunfa/Yen-chiu Chi-t'uan hsi-chün-fa (Constitution Research Clique, split from Prog, 1918-1924); TMH = Zhongguo Tongmenghui/Chungkuo T'ung-meng Hui (Chinese Common League, 1905-Aug 1912, merged into KMT); Zhili = Zhili xijunfa/Chih-li hsi-chün-fa (Zhili Clique, 1916-1926, clique's base of power Zhili province, split from Beiyang Clique)


    Republic of China: Nationalist Era

    Note: The name of the polity is still Republic of China, which declares itself the legal successor to the preceding polity of that name, it has a different flag (from 1921) and government, and eventually a different capital, Nanjing (Beijing is in fact deprived of the name-part jing, meaning capital, and is renamed Beiping after the demise of the "warlord" regime). During the Sino-Japanese war the capital is moved first to Hankou (17-21 Nov 1937), then to Chongqing (21 Nov 1937 - 5 May 1946). On 8 Dec 1949, the government moves to Taiwan. Coverage of the Republic of China from that point continues under Taiwan.
     
    [1912 Flag of
                            Republic of China]
    10 Sep 1917 - 5 May 1921
    [Flag of Republic
                            of China 1921-1949]
    Adopted 5 May 1921
    Map of China Hear National Anthem
    "Zhonghua minguo guoge"
    (Chung-hua min-kuo kuo-ke)
    (National Anthem of the Republic of China)
    unofficially "San Min Chu-i"
    (The Three Principles of
     the People)
    Text of National Anthem
    Adopted 16 Jun 1937
    (proposed 24 Mar 1930)
    Constitution
    (25 Dec 1947)
    --------------------------------

    Provisional Constitution of
    the Political Tutelage Period
    (1 Jun 1931 -  25 Dec 1947)
    ---------------------------------
     
    Organic Law
      (4 Oct 1928 - 1 Jun 1931)
    --------------------------------
    Organic Law of the
    Military Government
    (30 Aug 1917 - 7 Apr 1921)
    Capital: Nanjing [Nanking]
    (18 Apr 1927-17 Nov 1937
    and 5 May 1946-23 Apr 1949)
    (Guangzhou [Canton]
     10 Sep 1917-20 Mar 1927; Hankou/Wuhan
    20 Mar - 20 Sep 1927 and
    17-21  Nov 1937;

    Chongqing [Chungking] 
    21 Nov 1937 - 5 May 1946

    and 11 Oct - 28 Nov 1949;
    Chengdu 28 Nov - 8 Dec 1949)

    Hear Provisional Anthem
    "Guomin Geming Ge"
    (Kuo-min Ke-ming Ke)
    (Revolution of the Citizens)

    (1 Jul 1926-16 Jun 1937)
    Currency: Chinese Dollar/
    Yuan (CND)
    ----------------------------------
    National Holiday:
    Guoqing Jie
    (
    National Day)
    10 Oct (1911)

    Population: 481,151,700 (1936)

    10 Sep 1917                Nationalist Military Government of the Republic of China in
                                 Southern China formed at
    Guangzhou [Canton].
    21 May 1918                Sun Wen publishes a notice on termination of functions of the Grand
                                 Marshal on his departure from Guangdong (following his
                                 resignation from the office of the Grand Marshal dated 4 May 1918
                                 submitted to the extraordinary session of the Congress on
                                 7 May 1918, pending the acceptance which was never voted).
     6 Aug 1918                House of Representatives of the National Assembly re-convenes in
                                 Guangzhou follow being forcibly dissolved in Beijing, followed by
                                 the Senate on 7 Aug 1918.
    29 Nov 1920                Restoration of the Military Government proclaimed at Guangzhou  
                                 (following its dissolution on
    24 Oct 1920).
    21 Feb 1923                Military Government restored at Guangzhou (following its collapse
                                
    on 9 Aug 1922 after the coup of 16 Jun 1922).
    18 Apr 1927 - 20 Sep 1927  Members of the National Government present in Nanjing constitute a
                                 de facto rival government (opposed to
    the government in Wuhan
                                 [
    Hankou]).
     1 Aug 1927 -
    22 Sep 1937  Civil war begins between Nationalist and Communist forces.
     
    1 Jul 1925                Establishment of a national government in Nanjing (Nan-ching)
                                 [Nanking](followed by a flight to Wuhan/Hankou on 1 Jul 1925 and
                                 subsequent reconciliation in Nanjing on 20 Sep 1927).
     3 Jun 1928                Collapse of the "Warlord" era Beijing government with the departure
                                
    of Zhang Zuolin from Beijing. On 15 Jun 1928, the Nationalist
                                 government issues a national unification declaration to foreign
                                 diplomats ("formal declaration on the subject of foreign
                                 policy").
    18 Sep 1931                Japanese invasion and occupation of
    Northeastern China begins
                                 (
    Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning [Fengtian] provinces)
    (see
                                 under
    Manchuria)

     7 Nov
    1931 - 22 Sep 1937  Chinese Soviet Republic in rebellion against Republic of China
                                
    (see below).
    Aug 1937 - Sep 1945        Japanese occupation of Northeastern China, the Yellow River

                                 valley and most of the coastal provinces. The capital is moved to
                                 first to
    Wuhan/Hankou (17-21 Nov 1937), then to Chongqing (21 Nov
                                 1937 - 5 May 1946).
    20 Jul 1946 -  8 Dec 1949  Renewed civil war between Nationalist and Communist forces.
     8 Dec 1949                Republic of China government moves to Taibei (
    T'ai-pei), Taiwan.

    Grand Marshal of the Navy and Army (at Guangzhou)
    10 Sep 1917 - 21 May 1918  Sun Wen (Sun Wen) "Sun Yat-sen"    (b. 1866 - d. 1925)  CMT/Mil
                                (= Sun Yixian [Sun I-hsien])
              
                                (resignation of 4 May 1918 not formally accepted;
                                published a notice on termination of functions on
                                departure from Guangdong on 21 May 1918)
    21 May 1918 -  5 Jul 1918  Vacant
    Military Government of the Republic of China
    (at Guangzhou)
     5 Jul 1918 - 21 Aug 1918  Directors-General of Government Affairs          
                               - Tang Jiyao (T'ang Chi-yao)       (b. 1883 - d. 1927)  Mil
                               - Wu Tingfang (Wu T'ing-fang)      (b. 1842 - d. 1922)  CMT
                               - Lin Baoyi (Lin Pao-i)            (b. 1863 - d. 1927)  Mil
                               - Lu Rongting (Lu Jung-t'ing)      (b. 1859 - d. 1928)  Mil
                               - Cen Chunxuan (Ts'en Ch'un-hsüan) (b. 1861 - d. 1933)  Mil     
    21 Aug 1918 - 24 Oct 1920  Cen Chunxuan (Ts'en Ch'un-hsüan)   (s.a.)               Mil

                                (presiding director-general of Government Affairs)
    24 Oct 1920 - 29 Nov 1920  Vacant
    29 Nov 1920 -  5 May 1921 
    Directors-General of Government Affairs  
                               - Tang Shaoyi                      (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Mil
                               -
    Sun Wen "Sun Yat-sen"            (s.a.)               KMT
                               - Wu Tingfang                      (s.a.)               KMT
                               - Tang Jiyao (absent to 2 Apr 1921)(s.a.)               Mil/KMT
    President (and Grand Marshal of the Army and Navy)
    (colloquially styled "Extraordinary President")
     5 May 1921 -  9 Aug 1922  Sun Wen "Sun Yat-sen"              (s.a.)               KMT
                                (forced to depart Guangzhou 9 Aug 1922, did not resign)
     
    9 Aug 1922 - 21 Feb 1923  Vacant
    Grand Marshal of the Army and Navy

    21 Feb 1923 - 12 Mar 1925  Sun Wen "Sun Yat-sen"              (s.a.)               KMT
    Chief Counselor of the Headquarters acting as Grand Marshal, Governor of Guangdong

    12 Mar 1925 -  1 Jul 1925  Hu Hanmin                          (s.a.)               KMT
                                (acting for absent Sun 13 Nov 1924 - 12 Mar 1925)
    Chairman of the Meetings of
    the Committee of the National Government
     
    1 Jul 1925 -  2 Jul 1925  National Government (at Guangzhou)
                               - Wang Zhaoming "Wang Jingwei"     (b. 1883 - d. 1944)  KMT
                                 (Wang Chao-ming
    "Wang Ching-wei")
                               - Hu Hanmin (Hu Han-min)           (s.a.)               KMT
                               - Tan Yankai (T'an Yen-k'ai)       (b. 1880 - d. 1930)  Mil/KMT
                               - Xu Chongzhi (Hsu Ch'ung-chi)     (b. 1887 - d. 1965)  Mil/KMT
                               - Lin Sen (Lin Sen)                (b. 1867 - d. 1943)  KMT
                               - Liao Zhongkai (Liao Chung-k'ai)  (b. 1877 - d. 1925)  KMT
                               - Wu Chaoshu "CC Wu" (Wu Ch'ao-shu)(b. 1887 - d. 1934)  KMT
                               - Gu Yingfen (Ku Ying-fen)         (b. 1873 - d. 1931)  KMT
                               - Zhu Peide (Chu P'ei-teh)         (b. 1889 - d. 1937)  Mil/KMT
                               - Sun Ke "Sun Fo" (Sun K'o)        (b. 1891 - d. 1973)  KMT
                               - Cheng Qian (Ch'eng Ch'ien)       (b. 1882 - d. 1968)  Mil/KMT
     2 Jul 1925 - 20 Mar 1927  Wang Zhaoming "Wang Jingwei"       (s.a.)               KMT
                                 (Wang Chao-ming "Wang Ching-wei")

                                
    (in Guangzhou; absent 11 May 1926 - 10 Apr 1927)
     
    2 Jul 1925 - 20 Sep 1927  Standing Committee of the National
                               Government
    (at Wuhan [Hankou])
                               -
    Wang Zhaoming "Wang Ching-wei"   (s.a.)               KMT
                                  (absent to
    1 Apr 1927, arrived Hankou 10 Apr 1927)
                               - Hu Hanmin4                       (s.a.)               KMT
                                  (to 22 Sep 1925 and from 5/6 Feb 1926)     
                               -
    Tan Yankai (T'an Yen-k'ai)       (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
                               -
    Xu Chongzhi (Hsu Ch'ung-chi)     (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
                                  (to 22 Sep 1925
                               -
    Lin Sen (Lin Sen)                (s.a.)               KMT
                                  (to 5/6 Feb 1926)
      
                            - Wu Chaoshu4 "CC Wu"              (s.a.)               KMT
                                  (
    22 Sep 1925 - 20 Mar 1927)
                               - Gu Yingfen4 (Ku Ying-fen)        (s.a.)               KMT
                                  (22 Sep 1925 - 20 Mar 1927)
                               - Zhang Renjie4 (Chang Jen-chieh)  (b. 1877 - d. 1950)  KMT
                                  (2 Jun 1926 - 20 Mar 1927)
                               - Song Ziwen
    "T.V. Soong"          (b. 1894 - d. 1971)  KMT
                                  (Sung Tzu-wen)(from 2 Jun 1926)
                               - Sun Ke "Sun Fo" (Sun K'o)        (s.a.)               KMT
                                  (from 20 Mar 1927)
                               - Xu Qian
    "George Hsu" (Hsu Ch'ien)(b. 1871 - d. 1940)  KMT
                                  (from 20 Mar 1927)
    18 Apr 1927 - 
    7 Feb 1928  Standing Committee of the National
                               Government
    (at Nanjing; in opposition to 20 Sep 1927)
                               - Hu Hanmin (to 20 Sep 1927)       (s.a.)               KMT
                                  (presided at most meetings 30 Apr - 10 Aug 1927)
                               - Gu Yingfen (Ku Ying-fen)         (s.a.)               KMT
                                  (to 20 Sep 1927)
                               - Wu Chaoshu "CC Wu" (
    Wu Ch'ao-shu)(s.a.)               KMT
                                  (to 20 Sep 1927)
                               - Zhang Renjie (Chang Jen-chieh)   (s.a.)               KMT
                                  (to 20 Sep 1927)
                               - Cai Yuanpei (
    Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei)    (b. 1868 - d. 1940)  KMT
                                  (from 20 Sep 1927)
                               - Tan Yankai (from 20 Sep 1927)   
    (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
                                  (presided at most meetings
    from 20 Sep 1927)
                               - Li Liejun (Li Lie-chün)          (b. 1882 - d. 1946)  KMT
                                  (from 20 Sep 1927)

                               - Jiang Zhongzheng
                     (b. 1887 - d. 1975)  KMT/Mil
                                  (Chiang Chung-cheng) "Chiang Kai-shek"
                                  (from 3 Jan 1928)
    Presidents of the National Government

     
    7 Feb 1928 - 10 Oct 1928  Tan Yankai                         (s.a.)               KMT
    10 Oct 1928 - 15 Dec 1931  Jiang Zhongzheng "Chiang Kai-shek"
    (s.a.)               KMT/Mil
                                 (Chiang Chung-cheng) (1st time)
    15 Dec 1931 -  1 Aug 1943  Lin Sen (Lin Sen)                  (s.a.)               KMT
                                
    (acting to 1 Jan 1932)
     1 Aug 1943 - 20 May 1948  Jiang Zhongzheng "Chiang Kai-shek" (s.a.)               KMT/Mil
                                 (2nd time)(acting to 10 Oct 1943) 
    Presidents
    20 May 1948 -  8 Dec 1949  Jiang Zhongzheng "Chiang Kai-shek" (s.a.)               KMT/Mil
                                 (continues to 5 Apr 1975 on Taiwan)
    21 Jan 1949 -  8 Dec 1949  Li Zongren (
    Li Tsung-jen)          (b. 1890 - d. 1969)  KMT
                                 (acting for Zhongzheng)
                                 (continues to 1 Mar 1950 on
    Taiwan)

    Heads of the Executive Yuan (Prime ministers)
    25 Oct 1928 - 22 Sep 1930  Tan Yankai (T'an Yen-k'ai)         (s.a.)               KMT
    22 Sep 1930 - 24 Nov 1930  Song Ziwen "T.V. Soong" (1st time) (s.a.)               KMT
                                 (Sung Tzu-wen) (acting) 
    24 Nov 1930 - 15 Dec 1931  Jiang Zhongzheng "Chiang Kai-shek" (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
                                 
    (Chiang Chung-cheng) (1st time)
    15 Dec 1931 -  1 Jan 1932  Chen Mingshu (
    Ch'en Ming-shu)      (b. 1890 - d. 1965)  KMT
                                 (acting) 
     1 Jan 1932 - 29 Jan 1932  Sun Ke "Sun Fo" (Sun K'o)(1st time)(s.a.)               KMT
    29 Jan 1932 - 16 Dec 1935  Wang Zhaoming "Wang Jingwei"       (s.a.)               KMT
                                 (Wang Chao-ming "Wang Ching-wei")
     4 Sep 1932 - 30 Mar 1933  
    Song Ziwen (acting for Wang)       (s.a.)               KMT
    20
    Jul 1935 - 23 Aug 1935  Kong Xiangxi "H.H. Kung"           (b. 1880 - d. 1967)  KMT
                                 (Kung Hsiang-hsi)(acting for Wang)
     
    8 Nov 1935 - 16 Dec 1935  Kong Xiangxi "H.H. Kung"           (s.a.)               KMT
                                 (acting for Wang)
    16 Dec 1935 -  4 Jan 1938 
    Jiang Zhongzheng "Chiang Kai-shek" (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
                                 (prisoner of Zhang Xueliang 12-26 Dec 1936)
                                 (2nd time)
    13 Dec 1936 - 28 Dec 1936  Kong Xiangxi "H.H. Kung"           (s.a.)               KMT
                                 (Kung Hsiang-hsi)(acting for Jiang)
     6 Apr 1937 - 29 May 1937  Wang Chonghui (Wang Ch'ung-hui)    (b. 1881 - d. 1958)  KMT
                                 (acting for
    Jiang)
     
    4 Jan 1938 - 11 Dec 1939  Kong Xiangxi "H.H. Kung"           (s.a.)               KMT
    11 Dec 1939 - 25 Jun 1945 
    Jiang Zhongzheng "Chiang Kai-shek" (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
                                
    (3rd time)
     
    7 Dec 1944 - 25 Jun 1945  Song Ziwen (acting for Jiang)      (s.a.)               KMT
    25 Jun 1945 -  1 Mar 1947  Song Ziwen (2nd time)              (s.a.)               KMT

    27 Jun 1945 - 17 Jul 1945  Weng Wenhao "W.H. Wong"            (b. 1889 - d. 1971)  KMT
                                 (Weng Wen-hao) (acting for Song)          
     5 Aug 1945 -  6 Oct 1945  Weng Wenhao (acting for Song)      (s.a.)               KMT
     1 Mar 1947 - 23 Apr 1947 
    Jiang Zhongzheng "Chiang Kai-shek" (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
                                 (4th time) (acting)
    23 Apr 1947 -  1 Jun 1948  Zhang Qun (Chang Ch'ün)            (b. 1889 - d. 1990)  Mil/KMT
     1 Jun 1948 - 23 Dec 1948  Weng Wenhao "W.H. Wong"            (s.a.)               KMT
    23 Dec 1948 - 24 Mar 1949 
    Sun Ke "Sun Fo" (Sun K'o)(2nd time)(s.a.)               KMT
    24 Mar 1949 - 13 Jun 1949  He Yingqin (Ho Ying-ch'in)         (b. 1889 - d. 1987)  Mil/KMT
    13 Jun 1949 -  8 Dec 1949  Yan Xishan (Yen Hsi-shan)          (b. 1883 - d. 1960)  Mil/KMT
                                 (continues to 15 Mar 1950 on Taiwan)

     4Refused to recognize their replacement by the members elected on 11 Mar 1927 in Hankou (Wuhan) and constituted a de facto rival Standing Committee in Nanjing on 18 Apr 1927.

    Party abbreviations: KMT = Zhongguo Guomindang/Chungkuo Kuomintang (National Party of China, "Kuomintang", nationalist, republican, conservative, anti-Communist, 1 Jun 1931 - 28 Sep 1986 state party, est.23 Aug 1912-Nov 1913, re-formed.10 Oct 1919); CMT = Zhongguo Geming Dang/Chungkuo Koming tang (Chinese Revolutionary Party, formed by Sun Wen from KMT, 8 Jul 1914 - 10 Oct 1919, merged into KMT); Mil = Military


    Alternative governments of the Republic of China:

    [Flag of Republic of China
                1921-1949]

     9 Sep 1930                A rival National Government is inaugurated in Beijing (Pei-ching)
                                 after its election by a dissident faction of the Central Party
                                 Department of the KMT on 1 Sep 1930
    .
    23 Sep 1930                Northeast Army (Manchurian) army enters Beijing.
    27 Oct 1930                The dissident Central Party Department of the KMT, that created
                                 the government, dissolves itself.
    bf.4 Nov 1930              Government ceased to function after military defeat by the armed
                                 forces of the (Nanjing-based) Republic of China.

    President of the Committee of the National Government (at Beijing [Pei-ching])
     
    9 Sep 1930-bf.4 Nov 1930  Xishan (Yen Hsi-shan)              (b. 1883 - d. 1960)  Mil/KMT
                                 (left Beijing 20 Sep 1930, continues
                                 in
    Shanxi to bf.4 Nov 1930)


    [Flag of Republic of China
              1921-1949]

    28 May 1931                National Government established at Guangzhou by KMT dissidents.
     5 Jan 1932                Guangzhou falls to forces of (Nanjing-based) Republic of China.

    Standing Committee of the National Government (at Guangzhou [Kuang-chou])
    28 May 1931 -  5 Jan 1932  Members [no chairman elected]
                               - Tang Shaoyi (T'ang Shao-i)       (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  KMT
                               - Wang Zhaoming "Wang Jingwei"     (b. 1883 - d. 1944)  KMT
                                  (Wang Chao-ming "Wang Ching-wei")
                               - Gu Yingfen (Ku Ying-fen)         (b. 1873 - d. 1931)  KMT
                                  (to 28 Oct 1931)
                               - Zou Lu (Tzou Lu)                 (b. 1885 - d. 1954)  KMT
                               - Sun Ke "Sun Fo" (Sun K'o)        (b. 1891 - d. 1973)  KMT

                               - Deng Zeru (Teng Tse-ju)          (b. 1869 - d. 1934)  KMT


    Polities rebelling against the Republic of China:

    People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China
     

    [Flag of People's Revolutionary
                            Government of the Republic of China, at
                            Fuzhou 1933-34 (similar to later Vietnamese
                            NLF flag)]
    20 Nov 1933 - 12 Jan 1934

    20 Nov 1933                China is proclaimed a democratic republic by the Chinese People's
                                 Provisional Congress in Fuzhou (Fu-chou)[Foochow].
    22 Nov 1933                People's Revolutionary
    Government of the Republic of China
                                
    (Republic of China: Zhonghua gongheguo as opposed to Zhonghua
                                 minguo
    ) established at Fuzhou by the Chinese People's
                                 Provisional Congress
    .
    13 Jan 1934                State collapses with the occupation of Fuzhou by forces of the
                                 Republic of China.

    President of the Committee of the People's Revolutionary Government (at Fuzhou [Fu-chou])
    22 Nov 1933 - 13 Jan 1934  Li Jishen (Li Chi-shen)            (b. 1885 - d. 1959)  SRD
                                 (fled Fuzhou 12 Jan 1934)


    Soviet Republic of China

    [Soviet Republic
                          of China state flag 1931-1937 (Jiangxi,
                          China)]
    7 Nov 1931 - 22 Sep 1937
    Map of the Soviet
    Republic of China

    National Anthem
    "Yingtenaxiongnai'er"
    (The Internationale)
    (1931-1937)

    Capital: Ruijin
    (7 Nov 1931-16 Oct 1934)
    (in Long March 1934-1935;
    Bao'an 1936–1937;
    Yan'an 1937)
    Constitution
    (7 Nov 1931)
    -------------------------------
    Currency: Chinese Soviet Yuan (CNC) (1931-1937)

     7 Nov 1931                Soviet Republic of China (Zhonghua suweiai gongheguo)(sometimes
                                 called by historians the "
    Chinese Soviet Republic" or "Jiangxi
                                
    Soviet Republic") is established
    in Ruijin (Jui-chin) in Jiangxi
                                 (
    Chiang-shi) province by the Congress of the Representatives of
                                 All National Soviets of the Workers, Peasants and Soldiers of
                                 China (in rebellion against Republic of China)
    .
     
    1 Dec 1931                Provisional Central Government of the Soviet Republic of China is
                                 established.
    16 Oct 1934                Ceased to exist de facto after the loss of its capital and
                                 territory to the armed forces of the Republic of China.
    16 Oct 1934 - 22 Oct 1935  Loss of capital, followed by the "Long March" to the North-west.
    22 Sep 1937                Soviet Republic of China ceases to exist de jure following the
                                 publication of the declaration of co-operation between the
                                 Communist Party of China and the Nationalist Party of China.

    General Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
    Sep 1931 - 17 Jan 1935     Bo Gu (Po Ku)                      (b. 1907 - d. 1946) 
                                
    (acting to 15 Jan 1934) 
    17 Jan 1935 - 22 Sep 1937  Zhang Wentian (Chang Wen-t'ien)    (b. 1899 - d. 1976)
                                 (acting)(continues to 20 Mar 1943) 

    Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Republic of China
     1 Dec 1931 - 22 Sep 1937  Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)          (b. 1893 - d. 1976)  CPC
                                 (elected 21 Nov 1931)

    Chairmen of the People's Committee of the Soviet Republic of China
     1 Dec 1931 - 
    3 Feb 1934  Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)          (s.a.)               CPC
     3 Feb 1934 - 16 Oct 1934
      Zhang Wentian (Chang Wen-t'ien)    (s.a.)               CPC

    Party abbreviations: CPC = Zhongguo Gongchandang (Communist Party of China, communist, authoritarian, Chinese nationalist, Marxist-Leninist, state party from 1 Oct 1949, est.23 Jul 1921); KMT = Zhongguo Guomindang/Chungkuo Kuomintang (National Party of China, "Kuomintang", nationalist, republican, conservative, anti-Communist, 1 Jun 1931 - 28 Sep 1986 state party, est.23 Aug 1912-Nov 1913, re-formed.10 Oct 1919); SRD = Shengchan Renmin Dang/Shengch'an Jenmin Tang (Producer People's Party, moderate socialist, anti-Japanese, anti-Chiang Kaishek, split from KMT, 20 Nov 1933 - 13 Jan 1934); Mil = Military


    East Turkestan (1933-34, 1944-46): see under East Turkestan


    China under Japanese occupation:
     
    [1912 Flag of
                          Republic of China used by pro-Japanese
                          Provisional Government 1937-1940]
    14 Dec 1937 - 30 Mar 1940
    National Government
    [China
                          Reformed National Government - Japanese
                          occupation flag 1940-41]
    11 Apr 1940 - 24 Feb 1941
    [Pro-Japanese China
                          National Government Flag 1941-45 (indoor only
                          to 1943)(China)]
    24 Feb 1941 - 16 Aug 1945
    (In-door only until 3 Feb 1943)
    [China National
                          Government, Japanese puppet outdoor state flag
                          1941-43 (China)]
    24 Feb 1941 - 3 Feb 1943
    Outdoor State Flag
    [Pro-Japanese
                          China National Government - outdoor State Flag
                          1943-45 (China)]
    3 Feb 1943 - 16 Aug 1945
    Out-door State Flag



    Map of China
    Hear National Anthem
    "Qing Yun Ge"
     
    (Ch'ing Yün Ke)
    (The Song
    to the
    Auspicious Cloud)
     (14 Dec 1937-5 Feb 1943)
    Hear National Anthem
    "Zhonghua minguo guoge"
    (Chung-hua min-kuo kuo-ke)
    (National Anthem of the Republic of China)

    (5 Feb 1943-16 Aug 1945)
    Constitution
    Map of Japanese Occupation (1937-1945)
    Capital: Nanjing [Nanking]
    (30 Mar 1940- 16 Aug 1945)

    (Beiping [Peiping] 14 Dec
    1937 - 30 Mar 1940;
    and Nanjing [Nanking]
    28 Mar 1938 - 30 Mar 1940)

    Currency: Nanking Yuan (CNPN)
    (6 Jan 1941-Sep 1945);
    Peking Yuan (CNPP)
    (21 Nov 1935-30 Apr  1944)
    -----------------------------------
    National Holiday:

    10 Oct (1911)
     
    Guoqing Jie
    (National Day)
    Population: N/A (1940)

    Aug 1937 - Sep 1945        Japanese occupation of North Eastern China (from Sep 1931), the
                                 Yellow River
    valley, Hainan, and most of the coastal provinces.
    14 Dec 1937                Provisional Government
    organized at Beijing under Japanese
                                 occupation.

    28 Mar 1938                Reformed Government setup at Nanjing under Japanese occupation.
    30 Mar 1940                National Government reorganized under Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei)
                                
    at Nanjing
    (as a merger of the Provisional Government and the
                                 Reformed
    Government and from 4 Aug 1941, Mengjiang)(it was
                                 recognized as the government of China only by the Axis powers,

                                 most A
    xis satellite states, and Spain).
    20 Nov 1940                Sino-Japanese Basic Treaty signed, by which Japan recognized the
                                 Wang Jingwei Nationalist government, and Wang Jingwei's
                                 National Government government recognized Manchukuo.
    16 Aug 1945                National Government declares its dissolution.

    Head of the Executive Committee of the Provisional Government (at Beijing)
    14 Dec 1937 - 30 Mar 1940  Wang Kemin (Wang K'o-min)          (b. 1873 - d. 1945)  Non-party

    Head of the Executive Yuan of the Reformed Government
    (at Nanjing)
    28 Mar 1938 - 30 Mar 1940  Liang Hongzhi (Liang Hung-chih)    (b. 1883 - d. 1946)  Non-party
                                 (acting to 29 Jul 1938)


    Presidents of the National Government (at Nanjing)
    30 Mar 1940 - 10 Nov 1944  Wang Zhaoming "Wang Jingwei"       (b. 1883 - d. 1944)  KMT-WC
                                 (Wang Chao-ming "Wang Ching-wei")

                                 (acting to 29 Nov 1940; departed for Japan 3 Mar 1944)

    22 Mar 1944 - 16 Aug 1945  Chen Gongbo (Ch'en Kung-po)       
    (b. 1892 - d. 1946)  KMT-WC
                                 (acting [for Wang to 10 Nov 1944] to 12 Nov 1944)

    Heads of the Executive Yuan (Prime ministers)(at Nanjing)
    30 Mar 1940 - 10 Nov 1944  Wang Zhaoming "Wang Jingwei"       (s.a.)               KMT-WC
                                 (Wang Chao-ming "Wang Ching-wei")
                                 (departed for Japan 3 Mar 1944)

    10 Nov 1944 - 12 Nov 1944  Zhou Fohai (Chou Fo-hai) (acting)  (b. 1897 - d. 1948)  KMT-WC
    12 Nov 1944 - 16 Aug 1945  Chen Gongbo (Ch'en Kung-po)        (s.a.)               KMT-WC
                               

    Chairmen of the North China Government Affairs Committee (at Beijing)
    (subordinated to the National Government in Nanjing)
    30 Mar 1940 -  6 Jun 1940  Wang Kemin
    (Wang K'o-min)(1st time)(s.a.)               Non-party
     
    6 Jun 1940 -  8 Feb 1943  Wang Yitang
    (Wang I-t'ang)         (b. 1877 - d. 1948)  KMT-WC
     8 Feb 1943 -  2 Jul 1943  Zhu Shen
    (Chu Ch'en)               (b. 1879 - d. 1943)  KMT-WC
     6 Jul 1943 - 15 Feb 1945  Wang Kemin (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Non-party
    15 Feb 1945 - 16 Aug 1945  Wang Yintai
    (Wang Yin-t'ai)        (b. 1886 - d. 1961)  Non-party


    Japanese Commanders of Shanghai Expeditionary Army

    15 Aug 1937 -  2 Dec 1937  Iwane Matsui                       (b. 1878 - d. 1948) 
     2 Dec 1937 - 14 Feb 1938  Prince Yasuhikō Asaka              (b. 1887 - d. 1981)
    Commanders of China Expeditionary Army
    22 Sep 1939 -  1 Mar 1941  Nishio Toshizō (Nishio Juzo)       (b. 1881 - d. 1960)
     1 Mar 1941 - 23 Nov 1944  Shūnroku Hata                      (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
    23 Nov 1944 -  9 Sep 1945  Yasuji Okamura                     (b. 1884 - d. 1964)
    Commander of Central China Area Army
    30 Oct 1937 - 14 Feb 1938  Iwane Matsui                       (s.a.) 
    Commanders of Central China Expeditionary Army
    14 Feb 1938 - 14 Dec 1938  Shunroku Hata                      (b. 1879 - d. 1962) 
    15 Sep 1938 - 23 Dec 1939  Otozō Yamada                       (b. 1881 - d. 1965) 
    Commanders of Central District Army
     2 Aug 1937 - 26 Aug 1937  Kesago Nakajima                    (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
    26 Aug 1937 - 28 Dec 1937  Shigeru Hasunuma                   (b. 1883 – d. 1954)
    28 Dec 1937 -  1 Aug 1939  Hisao Tani                         (b. 1882 - d. 1947)
     1 Aug 1939 -  9 Mar 1940  Waichirō Sonobe (Ichiro Sonobe)    (b. 1883 – d. 1963)
     9 Mar 1940 - 20 Jun 1941  Yoshio Iwamatsu                    (b. 1886 – d. 1958)
    20 Jun 1941 - 17 Aug 1942  Yōji Fujii                         (b. 1887 – d. 1945)
    17 Aug 1942 - 21 Feb 1944  Jun Ushiroku                       (b. 1884 - d. 1973)  
    21 Feb 1944 -  1 Dec 1944  Shōjirō Iida                       (b. 1888 - d. 1980) 
     1 Dec 1944 -  7 Apr 1945  Masakazu Kawabe                    (b. 1886 - d. 1965) 
     7 Apr 1945 - 30 Sep 1945  Eitarō Uchiyama                    (b. 1887 - d. 1973)
    Commanders of Northern China Area Army 
    26 Aug 1937 -  9 Dec 1938  Count Hisaichi Terauchi            (b. 1879 - d. 1946) 
     9 Dec 1938 - 12 Sep 1939  Hajime Sugiyama                    (b. 1880 - d. 1945)
    12 Sep 1939 -  7 Jul 1941  Hayao Tada                         (b. 1882 - d. 1948)
     7 Jul 1941 - 25 Aug 1944  Yasuji Okamura                     (s.a.)
    25 Aug 1944 - 22 Nov 1944  Noasaburō Okabe                    (b. 1886 - d. 1946) 
    22 Nov 1944 - 19 Aug 1945  Sadamu Shimomura                   (b. 1887 - d. 1968)
    19 Aug 1945 -  2 Sep 1945  Hiroshi Nemoto                     (b. 1891 - d. 1961) 
    Commanders of Southern Area Army
    10 Feb 1940 -  5 Oct 1940  Rikichi Andō                       (b. 1884 - d. 1946) 
     5 Oct 1940 - 26 Jun 1941  Jun Ushiroku                       (s.a.) 
     6 Nov 1941 - 12 Sep 1945  Count Hisaichi Terauchi            (s.a.)


    East Hebei Anti-Communist Autonomous Government

    [Republic of
                          China 1912 Flag, used by East Hebei
                          anti-Communist Autonomous Government,
                          1935-1938 (China)]
    25 Nov 1935 - 1 Feb 1938
    Map of the East Hebei
    Anti-Communist
    Autonomous Government

    Capital: Tongzhou (T'ung-chou)
     (Tangshan [T'ang-shan]
    Aug 1937 - 1 Feb 1938)
    Currency: Chi Tung Bank-issued Yuan
    (1936-1938)
    -------------------------------
    North China Autonomous Army: N/A
    Population: 7,000,000
    (1937)

    25 Nov 1935                East Hebei Anti-Communist Autonomous Committee established
                                 by Japanese
    forces as a buffer between the Republic of China
                                 and Manchukuo.
    25 Dec 1935                Renamed East Hebei Anti-Communist Autonomous Government.
     1 Feb 1938                Absorbed into the Japanese-sponsored Provisional Government
    of
                                 China at Beijing (Pei-ching).

    Chairman of the East Hebei Anti-Communist Autonomous Committee (at Tongzhou [T'ung-chou])
    25 Nov 1935 - 25 Dec 1935  Yin Rugeng (Yin Ju-keng)           (b. 1885 - d. 1947)  KMT
    Directors of Government Affairs of the East Hebei Anti-Communist Autonomous Government
    (at Tongzhou [T'ung-chou]; from Aug 1937, Tangshan [T'ang-shan])

    25 Dec 1935 -
    29 Jul 1937  Yin Rugeng (Yin Ju-keng)           (s.a.)               KMT
    29 Jul 1937 -  1 Feb 1938  Chi Zongmo (Ch'ih Tsung-mo)        (b. 1890 - d. 1951)  Non-party?

    Party abbreviations: KMT = Zhongguo Guomindang/Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang (National Party of China, "Kuomintang", nationalist, republican, conservative, anti-Communist, 1 Jun 1931 - 28 Sep 1986 state party, est.23 Aug 1912-Nov 1913, re-formed.10 Oct 1919); KMT-WC = Zhongguo Guomindang - Wang Jingwei/Chungkuo Kuomintang - Wang Ching-wei (National Party of China - Wang Jingwei faction, anti-Communist, pan-Asianism, KMT opposition, pro-Japanese puppet government state party, 30 Mar 1940-16 Aug 1945); Mil = Military


    Manchukuo
     
    [Flag of Manchukuo, 1932-1945 (China)]
    1 Mar 1932 - 17 Aug 1945
    Map of Manchukuo
    Hear National Anthem
    "Manzhoudiguo guoge"
    (Man-chou-ti-kuo kuo-ke)
    (
    National Anthem of the
    Empire of Manchuria)

    (5 Sep 1942 - 17 Aug 1945)
    Hear Former Anthem
    "Jian guoge"
    (Chien kuo-ke)
    (
    Nation's Foundation Song)

     (1 Mar 1932 - 5 Sep 1942)

    Constitution
    (1 Mar 1934; in German)
    -----------------------------
    Constitution of 1932
    (9 Mar 1932 - 1 Mar 1934;
    in German)
    Capital: Xinjing
    (Hsin-ching [Hsinking])
    (Dalizigou [
    Talizikou]
      13 - 17 Aug 1945)
    CurrencyManchurian
     (Manchukuo) Yuan (CNMY)
    (
    11 Jun 1932-Aug 1945)
    National Holidays:
    1 Mar (1934)

    State Foundation
    Celebration Day
    ---------------------------------
    from 1935: 7 Feb (1906)
    Emperor's Birthday
    Population: 43,233,954 (1940)
    30,880,00 (1934)

    GNP: 4.73 billion Yen (1944)
    Exports: $148.9 million (1937)
    Imports: $221.7 million (1937)
    note: excluding trade with
    the rest of China
    Ethnic groups: Chinese and Manchu 94.65%, Japanese
    (and Korean)
    5.18%, other (Russian, Mongolian, etc.)
     0.16% (1940)

    Total Armed Forces: 111,044 (1934)
    Japanese Troops: 1,000,000 (1945 est.)
    Merchant marine: N/A
    Religions: Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic,
    Shinto, Orthodox Christian, Chinese folk-religionist,
    Jewish, Shamanist

    International Organizations/Treaties: None

    18 Sep 1931                Japanese invasion and occupation of Manchuria (North Eastern
                                 Provinces of China - Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces)
                                 begins.
    18 Feb 1932                North Eastern Provinces of China are declared independent by
                                 resolution of a conference of governors of the North Eastern
                                 provinces at Changchun, renamed Xinjing (Hsin-ching)[Hsinking]
                                 on 13 Mar 1932.

     1 Mar 1932                Manchuria (Chinese: Manzhouguo [Man-chou-kuo], in Japanese:
                                 Manshūkoku
    )(Romanized as "Manchukuo"); achieving only limited
                                 international recognition¹.

    21 Jan 1933                Jehol province of China annexed to Manchukuo.
     1 Mar 1934                Empire of Manchuria (Chinese: Manzhoudiguo [Man-chou-ti-kuo], in
                                 Japanese:
    Manshū teikoku)(
    Manzhouguo [Manchuria] also in
                                 official use).
     1 Dec 1937                Japan renounces extraterritoriality in Manchukuo.
     9 Aug 1945                Soviet invasion begins (Hailar and Suifenhe occupied on 9 Aug 1945;
                                 Mudanjiang on 16 Aug 1945;
    Harbin on 18 Aug 1945; Fengtian
                                 [Shenyang],
    Qiqihar, and Xinjing [Changchun] are occupied on
                                 20 Aug 1945).
    17 Aug 1945                Abdication of the emperor proclaimed at the town of Dalizigou,
                                 Linjiang county in Tonghua province (now part of the city of
                                 Linjiang, Jilin Province).

    17 Aug 1945 -  3 May 1946  Manchuria (Man'chzhuriya) occupied by the Soviet Union.

    Japanese
    Commander, Kwantung Army
    18 Sep 1931 - 17 Feb 1932  Baron Shigeru Honjō                 (b. 1876 - d. 1945)
    Head of the Administrative Committee of the Northeast
    17 Feb 1932 -  9 Mar 1932  Zhang Jinghui (Chang Ching-hui)     (b. 1871 - d. 1959)
    Chief Executive

     9 Mar 1932 -  1 Mar 1934  Puyi (P'u-i)                        (b. 1906 - d. 1967)
                                 nianhao: Datong (Ta-t'ung)
    Emperor
    (Huangdi)
     1 Mar 1934 - 17 Aug 1945  Puyi                                (s.a.)
                                 nianhao: Kangde (K'ang-te)
                               (left Xinjing 11 Aug 1945, abdicated at Dalizigou 17 Aug 1945)
    Commander-in-chief of Soviet Forces in the Far East
    17 Aug 1945 -  3 May 1946  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevskiy  (b. 1895 - d. 1977)

    Prime Minister
     
    9 Mar 1932
    -  1 Mar 1934  Zheng Xiaoxu (Cheng Hsiao-hsü)      (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
                                 (inauguration ceremony 10 Mar 1932)
    Ministers of State (prime ministers)
     1 Mar 1934 - 21 May 1935  Zheng Xiaoxu (Cheng Hsiao-hsü)      (s.a.)
    21 May 1935 - 17 Aug 1945 
    Zhang Jinghui (Chang Ching-hui)     (s.a.)

    Japanese Ambassadors and Commanders, Kwantung Army (Kantō-gun)
    14 Sep 1932 - 27 Jul 1933  Baron Nobuyoshi Mutō                (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
    29 Jul 1933 - 10 Dec 1934  Takashi Hishikari                   (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
    10 Dec 1934 -  6 Mar 1936  Jirō Minami                         (s.a.)
     6 Mar 1936 -  7 Sep 1939  Kenkichi Ueda                       (b. 1875 - d. 1962)
     7 Sep 1939 - 18 Jul 1944  Yoshijirō Umezu                     (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
    18 Jul 1944 - 17 Aug 1945  Otozō Yamada                        (b. 1881 - d. 1965) 

     ¹Manchukuo was only recognized by the following countries: Japan (14 Sep 1932), El Salvador (3 Mar 1934), Italy (20 Nov 1937), Spain (2 Dec 1937), Germany (12 May 1938), Hungary (14 Jan 1939), Slovakia (1 Jun 1939), Poland (19 Oct 1939), Rumania (3 Dec 1940), Bulgaria (14 May 1941), Finland (19 Jul 1941), Denmark (Aug 1941), Thailand (1 Aug 1941) and Croatia (2 Aug 1941); along with the Japanese sponsored governments - Wang Jingwei's National Government of China (30 Nov 1940), Philippine Republic of José Laurel (1943), and the Provisional Government of Free India (1944). The Holy See (Vatican City) sent a representative ad tempus (18 Apr 1934), but did not formally recognize Manchukuo.


    Inner Mongolia (Mengjiang)
     
    [Flag of
                          Military Government of Mongolia, 1936-37
                          (China)]
    28 Jun 1936 - 29 Oct 1937
    [United
                          Committee of the Mongolian Border, 1937-39
                          (China)]
    29 Oct 1937 - 1 Sep 1939
    [United Autonomous Government of
                          the Mongolian Border (Mengjiang), 1939-45
                          (China)]
    1 Sep 1939 - 19 Aug 1945
    Map of United Autonomous
    Government of the
    Mongolian Border

    Capital: Zhangjiakou [Kalgan](Chang-chia-k'ou)
    1 Sep 1939-19 Aug 1945;
    Hohhot (Hu-ho-hao-t'e)
    [Guisui] 27 Oct 1937 - 1 Sep 1939; Jabsar [Huade]
    12 May 1936-27 Oct 1937

    Currency 1936-1945:
    Mengjiang (Bank of Inner Mongolia) Yuan (CNPM)
    Articles of Corporation
    (1 Sep 1939)
    ---------------------------------

    Population
    : 7,174,200 (1936)

    1936 - 1945                Chahar, Suiyuan, and the northern part of Shanxi provinces under
                                 Japanese occupation.
    12 May 1936                Military Government of Mongolia (or Mongolian Military Government)
                                 (Menggu jun zhengfu) established in Jabsar (Huade) by
    pro-
                                 Japanese Mongol elements.

    27 Oct 1937                Autonomous Government of the Mongolian Union (Menggu lianmeng zizhi
                                 zhengfu).
    22 Nov 1937                United Committee of the Mongolian Border
    (Meng jiang lianhe
                                 weiyuanhui) formed
    by the Autonomous Government of South Chahar,
                                
    the Autonomous Government of North Shanxi, and the Autonomous
                                 Government of the Mongolian Union
    (referred to as "Mengguguo"
                                 or "Mengkukuo" in analogy to Manchukuo).
      
     1 Sep 1939                United Autonomous Government of the Mongolian Border (Meng jiang
                                 lianhe zizhi zhengfu)(
    referred to as "Mengjiang" in analogy to
                                 Manchukuo).

     4 Aug 1941                Autonomous State of Mongolia (Menggu zizhi bang). An autonomous
                                 part of the
    Japanese-sponsored National Government of China at
                                 Nanjing.
     9 Aug 1945                Soviet–Mongolian joint motor division enters Inner Mongolia.
    19 Aug 1945                Government dissolves with the departure of Dewang.
    21 Aug 1945                Kalgan occupied by Soviet forces.

    Chairman of the Military Government of Mongolia
    24 May 1936 - 28 Oct 1937  Yunduan Wang Chu Ke (= Yun Wang)  (b. 1871 - d. 1938)
                                 (Yün-tuan Wang Ch'u K'o)
    Chairman of the Autonomous Government of the Mongolian Union
    28 Oct 1937 - 22 Nov 1937  Yunduan Wang Chu Ke (= Yun Wang)  (s.a.)       
    Chairmen of the United Committee of the Mongolian Border
    22 Nov 1937 - 24 Mar 1938  Yunduan Wang Chu Ke (= Yun Wang)  (s.a.)          
    24 Mar 1938 -  1 Sep 1939  Demuchukedonglupu "Dewang"        (b. 1902 - d. 1966)
                                 (Te-mu-ch'u-k'o-tung-lu-p'u)   
                                
    (= Demchigdonrov)   
    Chairman of the United Autonomous Government of the Mongolian Border
     1 Sep 1939 -  4 Aug 1941
      Demuchukedonglupu "Dewang"        (s.a.)  
    Chairman of the Autonomous State of Mongolia
     4 Aug 1941 - 19 Aug 1945  Demuchukedonglupu "Dewang"        (
    s.a.)
                                 (Mongolian prisoner Feb-18 Sep 1950;
                                 Chinese prisoner 18 Sep 1950-1963)

    Vice-chairman of the Executive Council of the Military Government of Mongolia
     8 Jan 1936 - 28 Oct 1937  Demuchukedonglupu "Dewang"        (s.a.)
                                 (Te-mu-ch'u-k'o-tung-lu-p'u)   
                                
    (= Demchigdonrov)   

    Director of the Executive Branch of the Autonomous Government of the Mongolian Union

    28 Oct 1937 - 22 Nov 1937  Demuchukedonglupu "Dewang"        (s.a.)
    Vice-chairman and Director of the Executive Branch of United Committee of the Mongolian Border
    22 Nov 1937 -
    24 Mar 1938  Demuchukedonglupu "Dewang"        (s.a.)

    Deans of the Council of State Affairs of the United Autonomous Government
    of the Mongolian Border (from 4 Aug 1941, Autonomous State of Mongolia)

     1 Sep 1939 - Jun 1941    
    Jodovjav (= Zhuotebazhabu)        (b. 1873 - d. 1947)
                                
    (Zhuo Shihai [Cho Shih-hai])
    Jun 1941 - 1944            Ünenbayan (Wu Heling [Wu Ho-ling])(b. 1896 - d. 1979)
    1944 - 19 Aug 1945         Demuchukedonglupu "Dewang"        (s.a.)

    Japanese Supreme Advisers
    1937 - 27 Nov 1941         Shōji Kanai
    (= Altan Khudagh)     (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
    27 Nov 1941 -  3 Sep 1942  Tadakazu Ohashi                   (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
    26 Feb 1945 - Aug 1945     Shōichi Kanki                     (b. 1897 - d. 1964)


    Commanders of the Japanese Mongolia Garrison Army
    (Chūmōgun)
    28 Dec 1937 - 31 Aug 1939  Shigeru Hasunuma                  (b. 1883 - d. 1954)

                               
    (commander of corps in Mongolia to 4 Jul 1938)
    31 Aug 1939 - 12 Sep 1939  Hajime Sugiyama                   (b. 1880 - d. 1945)

    12 Sep 1939 - 29 Sep 1940  Noasaburō Okabe                   (b. 1886 - d. 1946) 
    29 Sep 1940 - 20 Jan 1941  Masataka Yamawaki                 (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
    20 Jan 1941 -  2 Mar 1942  Shigetaro Amakasu                 (b. 1887 - d. 1958)
     2 Mar 1942 - 28 May 1943  Ichirō Shichida                   (b. 1886 - d. 1957)
    28 May 1943 - 22 Nov 1944  Yoshio Kōzuki                     (b. 1886 - d. 1971)
    22 Nov 1944 - 19 Aug 1945  Hiroshi Nemoto                    (b. 1891 - d. 1961)



    People's Republic of China

    [Flag of People's
                          Republic of China]
    Adopted 27 Sep 1949

    Transliteration note: Names are given in Hanyu Pinyin romanization, without tone-marking diacritics (the first edition of Hanyu Pinyin was approved and adopted by China on 11 Feb 1958). Prior to 1979, names are given in the older Wade-Giles romanization in parentheses, i.e. Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung).

     1 Oct 1949                People's Republic of China (Zhonghua renmin gongheguo).

    Note: Deng Xiaoping (Teng Hsiao-p'ing)(b. 1904 - d. 1997) was de facto leader from the late 1970's to the early 1990's. He did not take over the chairmanship of the State, the Government or the General Secretary of the Party, but from 1978 to his death 19 Feb 1997 he was the unquestionable Paramount Leader. He was Chairman of the Military Affairs Committee 22 Dec 1978 - 9 Nov 1989; he rose to power after being rehabilitated in Jul 1977 and became more and more frail in the 1990's (his last public appearance was 9 Feb 1994).

    Chairmen of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
    20 Mar 1943 -  9 Sep 1976  Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)          (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
     9 Sep 1976 - 29 Jun 1981  Hua Guofeng (Hua Kuo-feng)         (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
                                 (acting to 9 Oct 1976)
    29 Jun 1981 - 12 Sep 1982  Hu Yaobang (Hu Yao-pang)           (b. 1915 - d. 1989)
    General Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
    (top party post from 12 Sep 1982)
    29 Feb 1980 - 16 Jan 1987  Hu Yaobang                         (s.a.)
    16 Jan 1987 - 24 Jun 1989  Zhao Ziyang (acting to 2 Nov 1987) (b. 1919 - d. 2005) 
    24 Jun 1989 - 15 Nov 2002  Jiang Zemin                        (b. 1926)
    15 Nov 2002 - 15 Nov 2012  Hu Jintao                          (b. 1942)
    15 Nov 2012 -              Xi Jinping                         (b. 1953)

    Chairman of the Central People's Government
     1 Oct 1949 - 27 Sep 1954  Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)          (s.a.)               CPC
    Chairmen¹
    27 Sep 1954 - 27 Apr 1959  Mao Zedong                         (s.a.)               CPC
    27 Apr 1959 - 31 Oct 1968  Liu Shaoqi (Liu Shao-ch'i)         (b. 1898 - d. 1969)  CPC
    31 Oct 1968 - 24 Feb 1972  Dong Biwu (Tung Pi-wu)             (b. 1886 - d. 1975)  CPC
                               + Song Qingling (f)                (b. 1893 - d. 1981)  CPC
                                 (Sung Ch'ing-ling)
                               (acting)
    24 Feb 1972 - 17 Jan 1975  Dong Biwu (acting)                 (s.a.)               CPC
    Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
    17 Jan 1975 -  6 Jul 1976  Zhu De (Chu Te)                    (b. 1886 - d. 1976)  CPC
     6 Jul 1976 -  5 Mar 1978  Vacant²
     5 Mar 1978 - 18 Jun 1983  Ye Jianying (Yeh Chien-ying)       (b. 1897 - d. 1986)  CPC
    Presidents¹
    18 Jun 1983 -  8 Apr 1988  Li Xiannian                        (b. 1909 - d. 1992)  CPC
     8 Apr 1988 - 27 Mar 1993  Yang Shangkun                      (b. 1907 - d. 1998)  CPC
    27 Mar 1993 - 15 Mar 2003  Jiang Zemin                        (s.a.)               CPC
    15 Mar 2003 - 14 Mar 2013  Hu Jintao                          (s.a.)               CPC
    14 Mar 2013 -              Xi Jinping                         (s.a.)               CPC

    Premier of the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government
     1 Oct 1949 - 27 Sep 1954  Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai)           (b. 1898 - d. 1976)  CPC  
    Premiers of the State Council
    27 Sep 1954 -  8 Jan 1976  Zhou Enlai                         (s.a.)               CPC
     8 Jan 1976 -  2 Feb 1976  Vacant³
     2 Feb 1976 - 10 Sep 1980  Hua Guofeng (Hua Kuo-feng)         (s.a.)               CPC
                                 (acting to 7 Apr 1976)
    10 Sep 1980 - 24 Nov 1987  Zhao Ziyang                        (s.a.)               CPC
    24 Nov 1987 - 17 Mar 1998  Li Peng (acting to 9 Apr 1988)     (b. 1928 - d. 2019)  CPC
    17 Mar 1998 - 16 Mar 2003  Zhu Rongji                         (b. 1928)            CPC
    16 Mar 2003 - 15 Mar 2013  Wen Jiabao                         (b. 1942)            CPC
    15 Mar 2013 -              Li Keqiang                         (b. 1955)            CPC

     ¹The title "chairman" for the heads of state in 1954-1975 represents the same Chinese term (zhuxi) that is commonly translated "president" for the heads of state after 1983.

     ²Deputy Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress during the vacancy: Wu De (b. 1914 - d. 1995)(mostly performed the chairman's functions), Song Qingling (f) (s.a.), Liu Bocheng (b. 1892 - d. 1986), Wei Guoqing (b. 1913 - d. 1989), Saifuding Aizezi (Seypidin)(b. 1915 - d. 2003), Chen Yun (b. 1905 - d. 1995), Tan Zhenlin (b. 1902 - d. 1983), Li Jingquan (b. 1909 - d. 1989), Ulanhu (b. 1906 - d. 1988), Guo Moruo (b. 1892 - d. 1978), Xu Xiangqian (b. 1901 - d. 1990), Nie Rongzhen (b. 1899 - d. 1992), Zhang Dingcheng (b. 1898 - d. 1981), Cai Chang (f)(b. 1900 - d. 1990), Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (b. 1910 - d. 2009), Zhou Jianren (b. 1888 - d. 1984), Xu Deheng (b. 1890 - d. 1990), Hu Juewen (b. 1895 - d. 1989), Li Suwen (f) (b. 1935), Yao Lianwei (b. 1935 - d. 2012), and, from 2 Dec 1976, Deng Yingchao (f)(b. 1904 - d. 1992). 

     ³Vice-Premiers of the State Council acting during the vacancy: Deng Xiaoping (s.a.), Li Xiannian (s.a.), Chen Xilian (b. 1915 - d. 1999), Ji Dengkui (b. 1923 - d. 1988), Hua Guofeng (s.a.), Chen Yonggui (b. 1915 - d. 1986), Wu Guixian (f)(b. 1938), Wang Zhen (b. 1908 - d. 1993), Yu Qiuli (b. 1914 - d. 1999), Gu Mu (b. 1914 - d. 2009), and Sun Jian (b. 1936 - d. 1997).

    Party abbreviations: CPC = Zhongguo Gongchandang (Communist Party of China, communist, authoritarian, Chinese nationalist, Marxist-Leninist, state party from 1 Oct 1949, est.23 Jul 1921); Mil = Military

    Territorial Disputes: China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to a number of boundary disputes across the 2,000 mile shared border; India does not recognize Pakistan's 1964 ceding to China of the Aksai Chin, a territory designated as part of the princely state of Kashmir by the British Survey of India in 1865; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to a number of boundary disputes across the 2,000 mile shared border; China claims most of the Indian state Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas, but The U.S. recognizes the state of Arunachal Pradesh as Indian territory; Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China's Chumbi salient; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys, and in 2017 China and ASEAN began confidential negotiations for an updated Code of Conduct for the South China Sea designed not to settle territorial disputes but establish rules and norms in the region; this still is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in early 2018 China deployed advanced military systems to disputed Spratly outposts; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; China and Taiwan continue to reject both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and in 23 Nov 2013 China's declaration of an "air defense identification zone" in an area that includes islands and Japan's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East China Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privation and oppression; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests; Hong Kong plans to reduce its 2,800-hectare Frontier Closed Area (FCA) to 400 hectares by 2015, the FCA was established in 1951 as a buffer zone between Hong Kong and mainland China to prevent illegal migration from and the smuggling of goods.


    Communist Regional Governments of Northern China:

    [Flag of
                          Chinese Communist Party 1942-1966 (China)]
    19 Aug 1948 - 27 Sep 1949

    26 Sep 1948                People's Government of North China (dissolved 31 Oct 1949).
    27 Aug 1949                People's Government of the Northeast (dissolved 23 Jan 1953).
     1 Oct 1949                People's Republic of China (PRC) founded.
     
    Chairman of the People's Government of North China

    26 Sep 1948 -  1 Oct 1949  Dong Biwu (Tung Pi-wu)             (b. 1886 - d. 1975)  CPC
                                 (continues under PRC to 31 Oct 1949)

    Chairman of the People's Government of the Northeast
    27 Aug 1949 -  1 Oct 1949  Gao Gang (Kao Kang)                (b. 1895 - d. 1954)  CPC
                                 (continues under PRC to 23 Jan 1953)



    Kashgaria andEast Turkestan
     
    [Kingdom of
                          Kashgaria (Xinjiang) 1864/66-1877 (China)]
    1864/66 - 28 Dec 1877
    Kashgaria
    [Islamic Republic
                          of Eastern Turkestan (Xinjiang) 1933-34
                          (China)]
    12 Nov 1933 - 6 Feb 1934
    Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan
    [Republic of
                          Eastern Turkestan (Xinjiang) 1944-1946
                          (China)]
    12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946
    East Turkestan Republic
    Capital: Ghulja (Yining) 1944-1949;
     
    (Kashi [Kashgar] to 1757, 1865-1877,
    1933-1934)

    National Anthem
    "Qozghal, Birlesh" (March, Unite)
    (1933-1934, 1944-1949) 
    Population: 4,360,000
    (1943, Xinjiang prov.)
    Currency: Tilla (1933-1934),
    Som (1944-1949)
    Military: 22,000 (1933); 25,000 (1946,
     East Turkestan National Army)
    Constitution

    1347                       Mogholistan Khanate (capital Almalik [modern Ghulja], later Turpan)
                                 split from Djagataide (Chagatai) Khanate.
    1514                       Khanate of Kashgaria (capital Yarkand, from 1596 Kashgar) founded
                                 from southern part of Mogholistan Khanate, the northern part of
                                 Mogholistan is later known as Khanate of Turpan (annexed by
                                 Dzungars in 1690).
    17th cent.                 Divided into several minor khanates (Alti Shahar "Six Cities")
                                 without importance under Djagataide rulers, real power going to
                                 the so-called the Khwaja, Arabic Islamic religious leaders.
    1678                       Hidayat Allah Hazrat Afaqi of the Aq Taghliq ("White Khwajas"),
                                 based in Kashgar, with the help of the Dzungars, ousted the rival
                                 Qara Taghliq ("Black Khwajas"), based in Yarkand, becoming the
                                 real ruler of Kashgaria under Dzungar (Dörben Oyirad) protection.
    1694 - 1720                Occupied by and under the suzerainty of Dörben Oyirad (last
                                 Djagataide
    khans deposed: in Kashgar in 1696, in Yarkand in
                                 1705).

    1754                       Kashgaria independent from the Dzungars.
    1758                       Xinjiang (Hsin-chiang)[Sinkiang] annexed by Qing (Ch'ing) Empire,
                                 with a governor-general at Ghulja (see under China provinces).
    Jul 1759                   Kashgaria occupied by the Qing (Ch'ing) Empire (Kashgar from 1757,
                                 and Yarkand from 1759).
    May 1826 - 1828            Aq Taghliq rebellion in Kashgar, supported by Kokand troops
                                 (also in Sep 1830, 1846, and May 1857).
    1864                       Khanate of Qäshqäriyä (Kashgaria), detached from the Qing Empire.
                                 Minor khanates or sultanates established in Kucha, Khotan,

                                 Urumchi (Ürümqi)(all annexed by Kashgaria by 1870) and Ghulja.
    1870                       Polity renamed Jiti Shahar ("Seven Cities").
     4 Jul 1871 - Feb 1881     Ghulja (Ili basin) occupied by Russia under Gerasim Alekseyevich
                                 Kolpakovskiy (b. 1819 - d. 1896)(Ili is subordinated to Russian
                                 Turkestan), sultanate of Ghulja abolished.
    1872                       Kashgarian trade treaty with Russia (in 1874 also with United
                                 Kingdom), polity formally not recognized.
    28 Dec 1877                Kashgaria re-incorporated into Qing Empire (Urumchi taken in 1876).
    12 Nov 1933 -  6 Feb 1934  Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan (in rebellion)
                                (also known originally as 'Uighuristan' or 'Turkic Islamic
                                 Republic of East Turkestan').
     6 Feb 1934                Re-incorporation into China declared.
    12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946  East Turkestan Republic (in rebellion).
    16 Jun 1946                Re-incorporated into China as autonomous "Three Districts" (also
                                 referred to as the Ili region), within Xinjiang province.
                                 Independence set aside by the agreement of 2 Jan 1946.
    15 Aug 1949                Communist rule recognized by agreement, the Three Districts fully
                                 disbanded by Nov 1949.
     1 Oct 1955                Creation of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

    Khans of Yarkand
    1695 - 1705                Muhammad Mumin Akbash Khan
    1705 - 1720                Daniyal Khwaja
    Khans of Kashgar

    1696 - 1720                Ahmad Khwaja                       (d. af.1720)
    1720 - 1754                Daniyal Khwaja
    1754 - 1757                Yusuf Khwaja ibn Daniyal
    1757                       `Abd Allah Badshah Khwaja ibn Yusuf
    1757 - Jul 1759            Burhan ad-Din Khwaja ibn Ahmad     (d. 1760)
                                 (in Yarkand)
    Jul 1759 - 1864            direct Qing rule (see Xinjiang)
    May 1826 - 1828            Jahangir Khwaja (in rebellion)     (b. 1788 - d. 1828)
    Sep 1830 - Dec 1830        Muhammad Yusuf Khwaja (in rebellion)
    1846 (45 days)             Ihsan Khwaja (in rebellion)
    May 1857 - Aug 1857        Wali Khan Khwaja (in rebellion)    (d. 1865)
    Khans of Kashgaria
    1864 - Feb 1865            Qutlugh Beg
    Feb 1865 - 1866            Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir
                                 (1st time)
    1866                       Muhammad Amin Khwaja ibn Jahangir
    1866 - 1867                Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir
                                 (2nd time)
    1867 -  6 Dec 1873         Muhammad Ya`qub Beg ibn Pir        (b. c.1820 - d. 1877)
                                 Muhammad Mirza 
    Amir Khans of Jiti Shahar
     6 Dec 1873 - 29 May 1877  Muhammad Ya`qub Beg ibn Pir        (s.a.)
                                 Muhammad Mirza 
    29 May 1877 - 28 Dec 1877  Quli Beg                           (b. 1821 - d. 1877)
    President of the Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan
    12 Nov 1933 -  6 Feb 1934  Khwaja Niyaz Haji (Xoca Niyaz Haci)(b. 1887 - d. 1938)  Mil
                                 (took office 13 Jan 1934)
    President of the East Turkestan Republic

    12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946  Alikhan Tore                       (b. 1884 - d. 1976)  Non-party?
    Chairman of the Government of Three Districts (Ili region)
    18 Jun 1946 - Nov 1949     Jahangir Hakim Bek Khwaja          (b. c.1873–d.af.1950)DLPS?

    Prime minister
    12 Nov 1933 -  6 Feb 1934  Sabit Damolla Abdulbaki            (b. 1883 - d. 1934)  ETIA
                                 (continued to Apr 1934 in Yangi Hissar [Yengisar])

    Party abbrevations: DLPS = Xinjiang Democratic League of Peace Safeguarding (included Democratic Revolutionary Party and other groups, 1948-1949); ETIA = East Turkestan Independence Association (until 1933 as Committee for National Revolution, 1932-1934)


    Dörben Oyirad (Dzungaria)

    c.1620                     Dörben Oyirad ("Four Confederates") or Dzungar Oriot state,
                                 at the largest extent covering Xinjiang region of China,
                                 Kyrgyzstan, eastern Kazakhstan, southern Siberia, and western
                                 Mongolia (capital - Kubakseray [modern Tacheng], later in Ghulja).
     2 Dec 1717 - 24 Sep 1720  Tibet under suzerainty of the Dörben Oyirad.
    1755                       Chinese annexation.
     4 Oct 1755 -  4 Oct 1757  In rebellion against Chinese suzerainty.
    Mar 1756                   Declared re-annexed by China

    Supreme rulers (title Khong Tayiji)(often referred to as Khans)
    1634 - 1653                Erdeni Batur                        (d. 1653)
    1653 - 1671                Sengge                              (b. c.1630 - d. 1671)
    1671 - 1676                Tseten                              (d. 1676)
    1676 -  3 May 1697         Galdan                              (b. 1644 - d. 1697)
                                (from 1679, personal style Boshugtu Khan, granted by Dalai Lama)
    1697 - 1727                Tsewang Rabdan                      (b. 1663 - d. 1727)
    1727 - Aug/Sep 1745        Galdan Tseren                       (b. 1695 - d. 1745)
    1745 - 1750                Tsewang Dorji Namrgyal              (b. 1732 - d. 1750)
    1750 - 1753                Lamdarjaa (Lama Dorji)              (b. 1728 - d. 1753)
    1753 - 1755                Dawaachi (Dawa Qi)                  (d. 1759)
    1755                       Bandi (Pan-ti)-Chinese Commissioner (d. 1755)
    Oct 1755 -  4 Oct 1757     Amursana (in rebellion)             (b. 1722 - d. 1757)


    Qomul (Kumul)

    1647                       Split from khanate of Turpan, became a Qing (Ch'ing) tributary.
    1670 - 1698                Vassal of the Dörben Oyirad.
    1698 - 1757                Vassal of the Qing (Ch'ing) Empire (called "Hami" by the Chinese).
    1757                       Incorporated into China (khans continue to rule).
    1931                       Khanate abolished by the Xinjiang provinical government.
    20 Feb 1931 - Jul? 1934    Rebellion against the Xinjiang provincial government.

    Khans (with the Mongol title Jasak Darhan)
    1698 - 1709                Abdullah Beg                        (d. 1709)
    1709 - 1711                Gopa Beg                            (d. 1711)
    1711 - 1739                Amin                                (d. 1739)
    1739 - 1767                Yusuf                               (d. 1767)
    1767 - 1779                Ishaq                               (d. 1779)
    1779 - 1813                Ardashir                            (d. 1813)
    1813 - 1866                Baighir                             (d. 1866)
    1866                       Ishaq Khwaja (in rebellion)
    1866 - 1881                Mahmud Shah                         (d. 1881)
    1881 - Mar 1930            Maqsud Shah                         (b. 1864 - d. 1930)
    1930 - 1931                Nasir Shah                          (d. 1934)
    Feb 1931 - 1934            Yulbars Khan                        (b. 1888 - d. 1971)
                                 (in rebellion, in the name of Nasir Shah)

    Vizier
    1922 - Mar 1930            Yulbars Khan                        (s.a.)



    Tibet (before 1950)
     
    [Tibetan flag
                          1920-c.1924 (China)]
    1920 - c.1924
    [Tibetan flag
                          c.1924-1950 (China)]
    c.1924  - 7 Oct 1950
    Map of Tibet 1904-1950
    Hear National Anthem
    "Bod Rgyal Khab Chen Po'i
    Rgyal Glu" a.k.a "Gyallu"
    (Tibetan Government
    National Anthem)

    Text of National Anthem
    Adopted 1949 (or 1960)
    Constitution
    Charter of the Tibetans in Exile
     (14 Jun 1991)
    Capital: Lhasa
    (Lasa)
    Currency: 1912-1951 Tibet
    Silver Rupee (TBR); 1735-1912
     Tibet Tangka (TBT)

    National Holiday
     (1939-1950):
    7 Jul (1935)
    Dalai Lama's Birthday
    Population: 1,200,000
    (1950 est.)
    463,200 (1911 official)
    Total Armed Forces: 10,000 (1949)
    4,000 (1914)

    Religions: Buddhist, Lamanist
    International Organizations/Treaties: 1912-1950 None;  Exile govt.: UNPO (from 1991)
    Tibetan Buddhism

    641 AD                     Tibetan state formed, according to tradition.
    842 - 1216                 Era of fragmentation, central authority collapses.
    1247 - 1368                Under Mongol (from 1271, Yuan dynasty) rule.

    1641 -  2 Dec 1717         Under suzerainty of the Qoshot
    (Khoshut) Khanate.
    1642                       Güshi Khan formally recognizes the Fifth Dalai Lama's authority,
                                 effectively making him the temporal ruler of all Tibet.
     2 Dec 1717 - 24 Sep 1720  Under suzerainty of the
    Dörben Oyirad (Dzungar Khanate).
    24 Sep 1720                Under suzerainty of the Qing (Ch'ing)(Chinese) Empire.
     
    2 Jun 1789                Makes a tributary payment to Nepal.
    24 Mar 1856 -  7 Sep 1904  Makes tributary payments to
    Nepal.
     3 Aug 1904 - 23 Sep 1904  Lhasa occupied by British forces under Francis E. Younghusband
                                 (b. 1863 - d. 1942).
     7 Sep 1904                Treaty of Lhasa allows the U.K to trade in Yadong (Yatung),
                                 Gyantse, and Gartok while Tibet is to pay a large indemnity,
                                 with the Chumbi Valley occupied (to
    8 Feb 1908) by U.K. until
                                 payment is received. Tibet is prevented from having relations
                                 with any other foreign powers
    .
    27 Apr 1906                U.K. agrees not to annex Tibetan territory or to interfere in the
                                 administration of Tibet, while China engaged not to permit any
                                 other foreign state to interfere within the territory of Tibet.

    31 Aug 1907                Anglo-Russian Convention bound both the contracting countries to
                                 respect the territorial integrity of Tibet and to abstain from
                                 interference in its internal administration (ratified 23 Sep
                                 1907).
    12-25 Feb 1910             Chinese General Zhao Erfeng (Chao Erh-feng) conquers Eastern Tibet
                                 and occupies Lhasa, expelling the Dalai Lama and overthrowing
                                 the Tibetan government.
    Dec 1911                   Chinese forces are driven eastward from Lhasa following the Chinese
                                 revolution and the Dalai Lama returns from exile in Jun 1912.
     
    4 Apr 1912                Kingdom of Tibet declares its independence from the newly formed
                                 Republic of China.

    17 Aug 1912                In Memorandum to the Chinese government, the U.K. accepts Chinese
                                 suzerainty over Tibet if China repudiates all claims that Tibet
                                 is an integral part of China and agrees not to station troops.

     
    2 Feb 1913                Treaty of friendship and alliance between the governments of
                                 Mongolia and Tibet signed.
     3 Jul 1914                Simla Convention initialed by delegations from U.K., Tibet, and
                                 China. The U.K. agreed to recognize Chinese suzerainty over all
                                 of Tibet. Tibet is to be divided into Outer Tibet, which is to
                                 be autonomous and China would refrain from interference in its
                                 administration and Inner Tibet (eastern Kham and Amdo) where
                                 Lhasa would retain control of religious matters only. The
                                 McMahon Line is agreed to as the effective boundary between
                                 China and British India (China refuses to ratify the convention).

    Nov 1946                   Tibetan delegates refuse to sign Chinese Constitution of 1947.
     8 Jul 1949                Tibet ejects the
    Nationalist (KMT) representatives of China.
     7 Oct 1950                People's Republic of China government forces intervention.

    23 May 1951                Re-incorporation into China completed (see Tibetan region).

    Note: Although the dates are firm in the Tibetan calendar, the correspondence between the Tibetan and the Gregorian calendars is only approximate, as are, consequently, the dates
    given here.

    Secular rulers (title Junwang, usually translated king)
    1642 - 14 Jan 1655         Güshi (Gushri) Khan                (b. 1582 - d. 1655)
    1656 - 12 Mar 1668         Dayan Khan                         (d. 1668)

    1668 - 1671                Dali Khung Taiji Dashi             (d. 1714)
                                 Batur -Regent
    1671 - 1700                Gonchug Dalai Khan                 (d. 1700) 

    1701 - 1703                sDe-srid Sangs rgyas-rgya-mtsho    (b. 1653 - d. 1705)
                                (= Sanggye Gyatso)
    -Regent
    1703 -  2 Dec 1717         'Lha-bzang Khan                    (d. 1717)
     2 Dec 1717 - 24 Sep 1720  sTag-rtse-pa lha-rgyal-rab-brtan   (d. 1720)
                                 (regent)(
    = Tagtsepa Lhagyel Raben)
    1728 - 12 Mar 1747         Pho-lha-nas bSod-nams-stobs-rgyas  (b. c.1689 - d. 1747)
                                 "Mi-dbang Pho-lha"
                                 (= Miwang Pholhanas Sönam Tobgye)

                                 (administrator to
    11 Jan 1740)
    1747 - 11 Nov 1750         Pho-lha-nas 'Gyur-med-rnam-rgyal   (d. 1750)
                                 "Ta-la'i-ba-dur" (= Gyurme Namgyel)
    Dalai Lamas
    14 Jul 1679 - 1703         sDe-srid Sangs rgyas-rgya-mtsho    (s.a.)
                                (= Sanggye Gyatso)
                                (adminstrator to 1683, then regent)
     8 Dec 1697 - 27 Jun 1706  Rin-chen-blo-bzang-rig-'dzins-
                                 tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho
                                 (6th Dalai Lama)                 (b. 1683 - d. 1706)
    1703 - 1706                sDe-srid Ngag-dbang Rin-chen -Regent
                                (= Ngawang Rinchen)
    27 Jun 1706 - 1707         Vacant
    1707 - 1717                Ngag-dbang-ye-shes-rgya-mtsho      (b. 1681/5 - d. 1723)
                                 (usurping Dalai Lama)
    1717 - 24 Sep 1720         sTag-rtse-zhabs-drung -Regent   
                                 (= Taktse Shabdrung)
    24 Sep 1720 - 1721         Yanxin -Chinese military commander
                                
    (Yen-hsin)
    16 Oct 1720 - 22 Mar 1757  rGyal-dbang-blo-bzang-bskal-
                                bzang-rgya-mtsho (7th Dalai Lama) (b. 1708 - d. 1757)
                                (ritually presumed to have ruled from 1708)
    22 Mar 1757 - 29 Apr 1757  Council of Ministers
    29 Apr 1757 - 28 Aug 1762  De-mo sprul-sku Ngag-dbang-'jam-   (d. 1770)
                                 dpal-bde-legs-rgya-mtsho -Regent
    28 Aug 1762 - 19 Nov 1804  Blo-bzang-'jam-dpal-rgya-mtsho
                                 (8th Dalai Lama)                 (b. 1758 - d. 1804)
    1804 -  5 Mar 1808         Kun-bde-gling rTa-tshag-rje-drung- (d. 1810)
                                 sprul-sku Ye-shes-blo-bzang-
                                 bstan-pa'i-mgon-po -Regent
     5 Mar 1808 - 26 Mar 1815  Blo-bzang-lung-rtogs-rgya-mtsho
                                 (9th Dalai Lama)                 (b. 1806 - d. 1815)
    1815 - 28 Mar 1819         De-mo sPrul-sku Blo-bzang-thub-
                                 bstan-'jigs-med-rgya-            (d. 1819)
                                 mtsho -Regent 
    30 Mar 1819 -  6 Feb 1822  mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku         (d. 1844)
                                 Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims
                                 (1st time) -Regent
     6 Feb 1822 - 30 Sep 1837  Blo-bzang-tshul-khrims-rgya-mtsho
                                 (10th Dalai Lama)                (b. 1816 - d. 1837)
    30 Sep 1837 - 29 Sep 1841  mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku         (s.a.)
                                 Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims
                                 (2nd time) -Regent
    29 Sep 1841 - 31 Jan 1856  Blo-bzang-mkhas'-grub-rgya-mtsho
                                 (11th Dalai Lama)                (b. 1838 - d. 1856)
    31 Jan 1856 - 1856         Council of Ministers
    1856 - 26 Feb 1858         Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Ngag-dbang-   (d. 1888)
                                 ye-shes-tshul-khrims-rgyal-
                                 mtshan -Regent
    26 Feb 1858 - 25 Apr 1875  Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-'phrin-las-
                                 rgya-mtsho (12th Dalai Lama)     (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
    25 Apr 1875 - 1875         Council of Ministers
    1875 - 12 Feb 1878         Kun-bde-gling sPrul-sku rTa-tshag- (d. 1886)
                                 rje-drung-ngag-dbang-dpal-ldan-
                                 chos-kyi-rgyal-mtshan -Regent
    12 Feb 1878 - 17 Dec 1933  Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-thub-bstan-
                                 rgya-mtsho-'jigs-bral-dbang-phyug-
                                 phyogs-las-rnam-rgyal
                                 (13th Dalai Lama)                (b. 1876 - d. 1933)
                               (30 Jul 1904 - Dec 1909 in Mongolia, later China exile;
                                25 Feb 1910 - Jun 1912 in India exile)
    30 Jul 1904 - 1910         Ganden Tripa Rinpoche Lobsang      (b. 1840 - d. 1910)
                                 Gyaltsen -Administrator
                                 (for exiled Dalai Lama) 
    23 Feb 1910 - 1913         Gaden Tripa Ngawang Lobsang        (b. 1844 - d. 1919?)
                                 Gyaltsen Tenpey
    -Administrator
                                 (for exiled Dalai Lama) 
    17 Dec 1933 - Jan 1934     Council of Ministers
    Jan 1934 - 25 Aug 1939     Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Thub-bstan-   (b. 1911 - d. 1947)
                                'jam-dpal-ye-shes-rgyal-mtshan -Regent
                                (regent [for the Dalai Lama to 16 Jan 1941])
    25 Aug 1939 -              rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-
                                 blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-
                                 rgya-mtsho (14th Dalai Lama)     (b. 1935)
                                (Head of state Mar 1951 - Mar 1959)
                                (from 31 Mar 1959 in exile [from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala, India])
    16 Jan 1941 - 1950         Stag-brag ngag-dbang gsung-rab -Regent
                                (=Taktra Rimpoche Sungrab Ngawang)(b. 1874 - d. 1952) 
    31 Mar 1959 - Dec 1964     Bskal-bzang Tshe-brtan -Head of state
                                (10th Panchen Lama)               (b. 1938 - d. 1989)
    Chinese Military Commander-in-chief
    Jan 1951 - Feb 1967        Zhang Guohua (Chang Kuo-hua)       (b. 1914 - d. 1972)


    Chief ministers (Lönchen)
    1907 - 1920                Changkhyim                         (b. 18.. - d. 1920)
                                (= Ngawang Khyenrab Palsang)
                                (ngag-dbang mkhyen-rab dpal-bzang)
    1907 - 1919                Shatra Paljor Dorje                (b. c.1860 - d. 1919)
                                (bshad-Sgra dpal 'byor-rdo-rje)
    1907 - 1925                Sholkhang Thondup Phuntso          (b. 1862 - d. 1925)
                                (Sho-kang Lzhol-khang)
    Ministers of state (Silön)
    1926 - Apr 1939           Yapshi Langdun Kunga Wangchuk       (b. 1906 - d. 1980)
                                (yab-gzhis glang-mdun gung)
    Dec 1950 - May 1952        Losang Tashi (blo-bzang bkra-shis) (b. 1897 - d. 1966)
                               + Lukhangwa (= Tsewang Rabden)     (b. 1895 - d. 1966)
                                 (klu-khang-ba tshe-dbang rab-brtan)
    Commissioner and Administrator of Civil and Military Affairs for Tibet

    1951 - 1965                Zhang Jingwu (Chang Ching-wu)      (b. 1906 - d. 1971)
     

    Chinese Ambans
    ([Zhuzang Dachen] representatives of the Emperors at the court of Dalai Lama)
    1709 - 1711                Ho Shou (Ho-shou) -Envoy           (d. 1719)
    1711 - 1720                Vacant
    24 Sep 1720 - 1721         Yanxin (Yen-hsin) -Military commandant
    1721 - 1723                Ts'eban Norbu -Military commandant
                                
    (Ts'e-pan No'r-p'u)
    1723 - 1724                Orai (O-lai)

    1724 - 1726                Vacant
    1726                       Oci (O-t'zu)
                               + Bandi (Pan-ti)(1st time)         (d. 1755)
    1726 - 1727                Vacant
    1727 - 1733                Sengko (or Sengge)(Seng-ke)
                               + Mala (Ma-la) (to 1728)
                               + Mailu (Mai-lu) (from 1728)
    1727 - 1728                Jalangga -Military commandant      (b. af.1680 - d. 1747)
                                 (Ch'a-lang-ka)
    1733 - 1734                Qingbu (Ch'ing-p'u)
                               + Miaoshou (Miao-shou)
    1734                       Arxun (or A'erxun)(A-erh-hsün)
                               + Nasutai (Na-su-t'ai)(1st time)
    1734 - 1737                Nasutai (2nd time)
    1737 - 1739                Hangyilu (Hang-i-lu)
    1739 - 1742                Jishan (Chi-shan) (1st time)
    1742 - 1745                Suobai (So-pai) (1st time)
    1745 - 1747                Fuqing (or Fujing)(Fu'ch'ing)      (d. 1750)
                                
    (1st time) 
    1747 - 1748                Suobai (2nd time)

                               + Fuqing (2nd time)                (s.a.)
    1748                       Suobai (3rd time)
    1748 - 1749                Labdon (= La-bu-dun) (La-pu-tun)   (b. 1703 - d. 1750)
    1749 - 1750                Jishan (2nd time)
    1750                       Fuqing (3rd time)                  (s.a.)
    1750                       Jishan (3rd time) 
    1750 - 1751                Vacant
    1751                       Bandi (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
    1751                       Ts'ebin -Commissioner
    1751 - 1752                Bandi (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
                               + rNamrgyal (Namuzhale)
    1752 - 1754                Duo'erji (or Zhaohui) (To-erh-chi) (b. 1708 - d. 1764)
    1754 - 1757                Salashan (Sa-la-shan) 
    1757 - 1761                Guanbao (Kuan-pao)(1st time)       (b. 1695 - d. 1776)
    1761 - 1764                Funai (Fu-nai)
    1764 - 1766                Aminertu (or Amiletu)(A-min-erh-t'u)
    1766 - 1767                Guanbao (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
    1767 - 1773                Manggulai (Mang-ku-lai)
    1773 - 1775                Wumitai (Wu-mi-t'ai)               (b. 1713 - d. 1786)
    1775 - 1779                Liubaozhu (Liu-pao-chu)(1st time)
    1779 - 1780                Suolin (So-lin)                    (d. 1780)
    1780 - 1785                Boqing'e (or Boqing)(Pao-ch'ing)   (b. 1721 - d. 1785) 
    1785 - 1786                Liubaozhu (2nd time)
    1786 - 1788                Qingli (Ch'ing-li)
    1788 - 1789                Fozhi (Fo-chih)
    1788 - 1790                Shulian (Shu-lien)
                               + Bazhong (Pa-chung)(to 1789) 
    1790                       Pu-fu (P'u-fu)                     (d. 1805?)
    1790 - 1791                Bao-tai (Pao-t'ai) 
    1791 - 1792                Ehui (O-hui)
    1792                       Eledengbao (O-le-teng-pao)         (b. 1748 - d. 1805)
    1792 - 1794                Chengde (Ch'eng-te) 
                               + Helin (or Heliyen)(Ho-lin)       (b. 1753 - d. 1796) 
    1794 - 1799                Songyun (Sung-yün)                 (b. 1752 - d. 1835) 
    1799 - 1803                Yingshan (Ying-shan)
    1803 - 1804                Funing (Fu-ning)                   (b. 1739 - d. 1814)
    1804 - 1805                Ce-ba-ke (Ts'e-pa-k'o)
     
    1805 - 1808                Yu-ning (Y'u-ning)                 (d. 1814?)
    1808 - 1810                Wenbi (Wen-pi)
    1810 - 1812                Yangchun (Yang-ch'un)
    1812 - 1814                Hutuli (Hu-t'u-li)                 (d. 1814) 
    1814 - 1817                Xi-ming (Hsi-ming)                 (d. 1818)
    1817 - 1820                Yulin (Yü-lin)                     (d. 1833) 
    1820 - 1823                Wen-gan (or Wenning) (Wen-kan)     (b. 1765 - d. 1823)
    1823 - 1827                Songting (Sung-t'ing)
    1827 - 1830                Huixian (Hui-hsien)
    1830 - 1833                Xingke (Hsing-k'o) 
    1833 - 1834                Longwen (Lung-wen)                 (d. 1841)
    1834 - 1835                Wenwei (Wen-wei)
    1835 - 1836                Qinglu (Ch'ing-lu)                 (b. 1819 - d. 1861)
    1836 - 1839                Guanshengbao (Kuan-sheng-pao) 
    1839 - 1842                Mengbao (Meng-pao)
    1842 - 1843                Haipu (Hai-p'u)
    1843 - 1847                (Borzigit) Qishan (Ch'i-shan)      (b. 1786 - d. 1854)
    1847 - 1848                Binliang (Pin-liang)               (d. 1848)
    1848 - 1852                Muteng'e (Mu-t'eng-o)              (d. 1852)
    1852 – 1853                Baoqing (Pao-ch'ing)               (d. 1853)
    1853 - 1855                Zhunling (Chun-ling)
    1855 - 1857                Hetehe (Ho-t'e-ho)                 (b. 1805 - d. 1857) 
    1857 - 1861                Manqing (Man-ch'ing)
    1861 - 1869                Jingwen (Ching-wen)
    1869 - 1872                Enlin (En-lin)                     (d. 1876)
    1872 - 1874                Chengji (Ch'eng-chi)
    1874 - 1879                Songgui (Sung-kuei)                (b. 1833 - d. 1907) 
    1879 - 1885                Seleng'e (Se-leng-o)
    1885 - 1888                Wenshi (Wen-shih)                  (b. 1837 - d. ....)
    1888 - 1890                Changgeng (Ch'ang-keng)
    1890 - 1892                Shengtai (Sheng-t'ai)              (d. 1892)
    1893 - 1897                Kuihan (K'uei-han)
    23 Mar 1896 - 1900         Wenhai (Wen-hai)                   (b. 1832? - d. 1900)
    28 Oct 1900 - 1902         Yugang (Yü-kang) 
     2 Dec 1902 -  5 Dec 1906  Yutai (Yü-t'ai)                    (b. 1846? - d. 1910)
     5 Dec 1906 -  6 Mar 1908  Wang Lianyu (Wang Lien-yü)         (b. 1858? - d. 19..)
                                 (1st time)
     6 Mar 1908 - 20 Apr 1911  Zhao Erfeng (Chao Erh-feng)        (b. 1845 - d. 1911)
    20 Apr 1911 - Jun 1912     Wang Lianyu (Wang Lien-yü)         (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)

    Chinese Special Envoys to Tibet

     9 May 1912 -  2 Apr 1914  Zhong Ying (Chung Ying)            (b. 1887 - d. 1915)
     2 Apr 1914 - 16 May 1924  Lu Xingqi (Lu Hsing-ch'i)
                                
    (did not stay in Tibet)
     2 Mar 1916 - 16 May 1924  Li Jiazhe (Li Chia-che)
                                 (acting for Lu)

    Directors of the Tibetan Affairs Commission in Lhasa
    Nov 1934 - Jan 1935        Liu Puchen (Liu Pa-ch'en)          (b. 1882 - d. 1935)  KMT
    Jan 1935 - Jan 1938        Jiang Zhiyu (Chiang Chi-yu)        (b. 1894 - d. 1962)  KMT
    May 1938                   Gao Changzhu (Kao Ch'ang-chu)      (b. 1902 - d. 1979)
                                 (acting)

    Aug 1938 - Mar 1940        Zhang Weibai (Chang Wei-pai)       (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
                                 (acting)

     1 Apr 1940 -  8 Oct 1943  Kong Qingzong (K'ung Ch'ing-tsung) (b. 1895 - d. 1981)  KMT
     8 Oct 1943 - Jan 1946     Shen Zonglian (Shen Tsung-lien)    (b. 1898 - d. 1978)  KMT
    Jan 1946 -  8 Jul 1949     Chen Xizhang (Ch'en Hsi-chang)     (b. 1919)            KMT
    British Trade Agents in Gyantse
    (subordinated to the British Residents in Sikkim)
     1 Oct 1904 - 23 Dec 1905  William Frederick Travers O'Connor (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
                                 (1st time)
    23 Dec 1905 - 15 Dec 1906  Frederick Marshman Bailey          (b. 1882 - d. 1967)
                                 (1st time) (acting)
    15 Dec 1906 - 18 Jul 1907  William Frederick Travers O'Connor (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    18 Jul 1907 - 27 Jul 1907  Frederick Marshman Bailey          (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)(acting)
    27 Jul 1907 -  1 Aug 1907  William Frederick Travers O'Connor (s.a.)
                                 (3rd time)
     1 Aug 1907 -  5 Jun 1909  Frederick Marshman Bailey          (s.a.)
                                 (3rd time)
     5 Jun 1909 - 13 Dec 1909  Robert Siggins Kennedy (acting)    (b. 1882 - d. 1962)
    13 Dec 1909 - 23 Jan 1911  James Leslie Rose Weir (1st time)  (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
    23 Jan 1911 -  1 Apr 1911  David Macdonald (1st time)(acting) (b. 1870 - d. 1962)
     1 Apr 1911 - 10 Aug 1911  James Leslie Rose Weir (2nd time)  (s.a.)     
    10 Aug 1911 - 30 Dec 1911  David Macdonald (2nd time)(acting) (s.a.)
    30 Dec 1911 - 15 Feb 1912  James Leslie Rose Weir (3rd time)  (s.a.)
    15 Feb 1912 -  4 May 1912  David Macdonald (3rd time)(acting) (s.a.)
     4 May 1912 - 31 Mar 1913  Basil John Gould                   (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
    31 Mar 1913 - 24 Feb 1916  David Macdonald (4th time)(acting) (s.a.)
    24 Feb 1916 - 31 Mar 1918  William Lachlan Campbell           (b. 1880 - d. 1937)
    31 Mar 1918 - 20 Jun 1924  David Macdonald (5th time)         (s.a.)
    20 Jun 1924 - 31 May 1926  Frederick Williamson               (b. 1891 - d. 1935)
    31 May 1926 -  3 Jan 1927  Robert Lancelot Vance (acting)     (b. 1890 - d. 1961)
     3 Jan 1927 - 30 Apr 1928  Arthur John Hopkinson              (b. 1894 - d. 1953)
    30 Apr 1928 -  1 Mar 1929  Herbert Gordon Rivett-Carnac       (b. 1892 - d. 1962)
                                 (1st time)

     1 Mar 1929 - 18 May 1929  William James Leslie Neal (acting) (b. 1903 - d. 1966) 
    18 May 1929 - 18 Sep 1929  Herbert Gordon Rivett-Carnac       (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)

    18 Sep 1929 - 19 Nov 1929  Daniel Richard Smith               (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
    19 Nov 1929 - 19 Nov 1931  Edward Walter Fletcher             (b. 1899 - d. 1958)
    19 Nov 1931 - 18 Apr 1933  Alexander Alfred Russell           (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
    18 Apr 1933 -  1 Dec 1933  Meredith Worth                     (b. 1905 - d. ....)
     1 Dec 1933 - 20 Jun 1935  Philip Coates Hailey               (b. 1903 - d. 1980)
    20 Jun 1935 - 20 Jul 1936  Richmond Keith Molesworth Battye   (b. 1905 - d. 1958)
    20 Jul 1936 - Feb 1937     Hugh Edward Richardson             (b. 1905 - d. 2000)
    Heads of
    British Mission in Lhasa
    Feb 1937 - Jul 1937        Hugh Edward Richardson (1st time)  (s.a.)
    Jul 1937 - Oct 1938        Norbu Dhondup (1st time)           (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
    Oct 1938 - Oct 1939        Hugh Edward Richardson (2nd time)  (s.a.)
    Oct 1939 - Apr 1942        Norbu Dhondup (2nd time)           (s.a.)
    Apr 1942 - Apr 1943        Frank Ludlow                       (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
    Apr 1943 - Jun 1944        George Sheriff (1st time)          (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
    Jun 1944 - Sep 1944        Hugh Edward Richardson (3rd time)  (s.a.)
    Sep 1944 - Apr 1945        George Sheriff (2nd time)          (s.a.)
    Apr 1945 - Apr 1946        Pemba Tsering (1st time)           (b. 1905 - d. 1954)
    Apr 1946 - 14 Aug 1947     Hugh Edward Richardson (4th time)  (s.a.)       
    Chiefs of the Mission of India to Lhasa
    15 Aug 1947 - Sep 1947     Hugh Edward Richardson (1st time)  (s.a.)     
    Sep 1947 - Dec 1947
           Pemba Tsering                      (s.a.)
    Dec 1947 - 1950            Hugh Edward Richardson (2nd time)  (s.a.)

    1950                       Surendra Mohan Krishnatry          (b. 1921)

    Aug 1950 - Sep 1952        Sumal Sinha                        (b. 1920 - d. 1983)

    Tibetan Government in Exile

    [Tibetan flag]

    28 Apr 1959                Central Tibetan Administration (from 1 May 1960, in Dharamsala,
                                 India exile).
    10 Mar 1963                Draft democratic constitution for future Tibet promulgated by
                                 the Dalai Lama.
    14 Jun 1991                Charter of the Tibetans in Exile adopted.

    Dalai Lama
    25 Aug 1939 -              rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-    (s.a.)
                                 blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-
                                 rgya-mtsho (14th Dalai Lama) 
                              (from 31 Mar 1959 in exile [from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala,
                               India]; political role ended 31 May 2011)

    Chairmen of the Cabinet (Kalon Tripa; from 26 Sep 2012, Sikyong)(in exile)
    1959 - 1960                Jangsa Tsang                                            Non-party
    1960 - 1965                Zurkhang Ngawang Gelek             (b. 1910 - d. 1977)  Non-party
    1965 - 1970                Shenkha Gurmey Topgyal                                  Non-party
    1970 - 1975                Garang Lobsang Rigzin              (b. 1905 - d. 19..)  Non-party
    1975 - 1980                Kunling Woeser Gyaltsen            (b. 1915 - d. 2001)  Non-party
    1980 - 1985                Wangdue Dorjee                     (b. 1919 - d. 1994)  Non-party
    1985 - May 1990            Juchen Thupten Namgyal             (b. 1929 - d. 2011)  Non-party
    May 1990 - Aug 1991        Kelsang Yeshi (1st time)           (b. 1941)            Non-party
    Aug 1991 - Feb 1993        Gyalo Thondup                      (b. 1928)            Non-party
    Feb 1993 -  4 Jun 1996     Tenzin Namgyal Tethong             (b. 1947)            Non-party
     4 Jun 1996 - Apr 1997     Kelsang Yeshi (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Non-party
    Apr 1997 -  5 Sep 2001     Sonam Topgyal                      (b. 1934 - d. 2012)  Non-party
     5 Sep 2001 -  8 Aug 2011  Samdhong Rinpoche (=Lobsang Tenzin)(b. 1937)            Non-party
     8 Aug 2011 - 27 May 2021  Lobsang Sangay                     (b. 1968)            Non-party
    27 May 2021 -             
    Penpa Tsering                      (b. 1967)            Non-party

    Note: No political parties existed prior to the 7 Oct 1950 Chinese invasion.







    © Ben Cahoon