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Libya
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag (to 1911)]
to 3 Oct 1911

[Kingdom of Italy flag
                                    1861-1946]
3 Oct 1911 - 13 May 1943

[Libyan
                                    flag 1951-1969]
24 Dec 1951 - 7 Nov 1969

[Libya
                                    1969-1971]
7 Nov 1969 - 31 Dec 1971
 
[Flag of
                                    Libya 1972-1977]
1 Jan 1972 - 11 Nov 1977

[Great Socialist
                                    People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyya
                                    flag 1977-2011]
11 Nov 1977 - 10 Aug 2011 (Provisional)
 
[Libyan
                                    flag]
Re-adopted 20 Sep 2011
(Flag in rebellion from 5 Mar 2011)
 


 Map of Libya Hear National Anthem
"Libia, Libia, Libia"
(Libya, Libya, Libya)
(24 Jun 1955 - 1 Sep 1969;
from 10 Aug 2011)
Text of National Anthem
(24 Jun 1955 - 1 Sep 1969;
from 10 Aug 2011)
  Constitution
   (3 Aug 2011, interim)
Former National Anthem
"Allahu Akbar"
(God Is Greatest)
(1 Sep 1969-10 Aug 2011)
1951 Constitution
(24 Dec 1951-21 Sep 1969)
1969 Temporary Constitution
   (11 Dec 1969-10 Aug 2011)
Declaration on the
Establishment of the
Authority of the People

  (2 Mar 1977-10 Aug 2011)
Capital: Tripoli
(co-capital: Benghazi 1951-1972)
Currency: Libyan Dinar (LYD);
1952-71 Libyan Pound (LYP)
National Holiday: 1 Sep (1969)
Revolution Day
Population: 6,754,507 (2017)
GDP: $61.97 billion (2017)
Exports: $18.38 billion (2017)
Imports: $11.36 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Arab 87.1% (of which Libyan 57.2%,
Bedouin 13.8%, Egyptian 7.7%, Sudanese 3.5%,
Tunisian 2.9%), Amazigh (Berber) 6.8%, other 6.1% (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 76,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 98 ships (2018)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%,
Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu 0.1%, folk religion 0.1%,
unaffiliated 0.2% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AfCFTA (signatory), AfDB, AFESD, AIIB (applicant), AL, AMF, AMU, Arabsat, AU, BTWC, CAEU, CEN-SAD, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, EBRD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA (observer), ISESCO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OST, PAM, PCA, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA (signatory), UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Libya Index
Chronology

1521                       Cyrenaica part of the Ottoman Empire.
14 Aug 1551                Tripoli (Tripolitania) part of the Ottoman Empire.
29 Jul 1711 - 1835         Tripoli Regency under de facto hereditary 
                             Qaramanli (Karamanli) dynasty.
26 May 1835                Direct Ottoman rule restored.
Oct 1911 - 23 Mar 1913     Independent government in Tripolitania 
                             (in rebellion against Ottoman sovereignty).
 3 Oct 1911                Italian occupation.
18 Oct 1912                Ottomans agree to evacuate Libya.
16 Nov 1918 - 1923         Tripolitanian Republic
12 Nov 1922                Annexed to Italy (nominally 18 May 1919).
 
1 Jan 1934                Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, Fezzan united as Italian
                             Libya (Libia Italiana), also called Italian North
                             Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana).

 
9 Jan 1939                Italian Libya incorporated into metropolitan Italy
                            (
provinces of Tripoli, Misurata, Bengasi, and Derna)
1941/1942                  Tripolitania and Cyrenaica occupied by U.K., and

                             Fezzan occupied by France.
13 May 1943                End of Italian rule.
15 Feb 1947                Italy formally cedes Libya to the Allies by Treaty
                             of Paris (entered into force 17 Sep 1947).

10 Dec 1949                Libya under United Nations administration (but not
                             a trusteeship), administered by U.K. and France.
29 Mar 1951                Provisional Government constituted by the National
                             Assembly of Libya.
24 Dec 1951                Independence as United Libyan Kingdom.

27 Apr 1963                Libyan Kingdom (federal arrangement abolished).
 1 Sep 1969                Libyan Arab Republic
 1 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977  Part of Federation of Arab Republics (Egypt, Libya
                             and Syria).
28 Nov 1972 - 30 May 1994  Libya occupies (and Sep 1975 annexes) the Aozou
                             (Aouzou) Strip region of Chad.
 2 Mar 1977                Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyya
                             ("state of the masses").

Apr 1986                   Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyya
 5 Mar 2011                Dissident authority is constituted in Benghazi. 
10 Aug 2011                Libya
 8 Jan 2013                State of Libya

Libya
(from 1934)
Tripolitania
(1148-1951)
 Cyrenaica
(1843-1951)
 Fezzan
(1580-1951)
 Historical Maps
of Libya
 
 
 
 
 

Tripolitania
 
[Ottoman flag (to
                            1911)]
to 3 Oct 1911
[Tripoli
                            Regency Karamanli dynasty Flag of war on
                            land and at sea, c.1727-1835 (Libya)]
c.1727 - 1835 Local Flag
[Kingdom of
                            Italy flag 1861-1946]
3 Oct 1911 - 23 Oct 1942
[Tripolitania
                            1911-1913 (Libya)]
Oct 1911 - Mar 1913 Tripolitania
[Tripolitanian
                            Republic flag (reconstruction) 1918-1923
                            (Libya)]
1918 - 1923 Tripolitania Rep.
[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
23 Oct 1942 - 8 Mar 1951
[Libyan flag
                            1951-1969 (in use in Tripolitania from March
                            1951)]
8 Mar 1951 - 24 Dec 1951
Map of Tripolitania
Capital: Tripoli
(Republic: 'Aziziya 1918-1922)
Currency: British Military
  Authority Lira (MAL)
(15 Sep 1943-24 Jun 1952); British Military Authority Pound (1943-30 Nov 1943)
Population:
3,601,853 (2006)
746,100 (1954)

523,200 (1911)

26 Mar 909 - 977           Incorporated into Egypt.
977                        Part of Zirid kingdom.
1146 - 22 Jan 1160         Tripoli under Norman rule (subordinated to Kingdom of Sicily).
1160 - 1248                Incorporated into Morocco (Almohad Empire).
1172 - 1190                Egyptian rule.
.... - 1202                Egyptian rule. 
1248 - 1327                Incorporated into Tunis.
1327                       Sultanate
1401 - 1482                Incorporated into Tunis.
1412 - 1421                Egyptian rule.
24 Jul 1510 - 1530         Spanish occupation of Tripoli (subordinated to Sicily).
23 Mar 1530                Spanish King Carlos I transfers Tripoli to the Knights of St.  
                             John Hospitaller (Knights take possession 25 Jul 1530).
14 Aug 1551                Province of the Ottoman Empire as Eyalet of Tripolitania
                            
(Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb)(literally "Tripoli in the West").
af.1565                    Administrative authority in Tripoli was vested in a pasha directly
                             appointed by the Ottoman Sultan.
29 Jul 1711 - 1835         Tripoli Regency under de facto hereditary Qaramanli (Karamanli)
                             dynasty.
26 May 1835                Direct Ottoman rule over Tripolitania.
1864                       Vilayet of Tripolitania (Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb).
 
5 Oct 1911                Italian occupation of Tripoli.
Oct 1911 - Mar 1913        Independent government declared (in rebellion against 
                             Ottoman sovereignty). 
 
5 Nov 1911                Italy declares Tripolitania and all Libya under Italian sovereignty.
18 Oct 1912                By the Treaty of Ouchy (first Treaty of Lausanne) the Ottomans
                             agree to evacuate from Trablus and Benghazi vilayets (in exchange
                             Italy was to return the Dodecanese Islands), and Trablus and
                            
Benghazi sanjak were to have local autonomy with an Ottoman
                             regent (naib) and a judge (
kadi) to represent the Ottoman
                             Sultan as Caliph (treaty not fully effected)
.
16 Nov 1918                Tripolitanian Republic 
12 Nov 1922                Annexed to Italy (Italian Tripoli colony) 
                             (nominally from 18 May 1919).
24 Jul 1923                Turkey renounced its privileges in Libya which were defined by
                             the Treaty of Ouchy by Treaty of Lausanne (ratified by Turkey
                             23 Aug 1923 and Italy 12 Mar 1924).
18 Dec 1928                Cyrenaica administratively joined to Tripolitania.

 1 Jan 1934                Tripolitania united with Cyrenaica and Fezzan united as Italian
                             Libya (Libia Italiana)(see below).

23 Oct 1942                British administration (Tripolitania district).
23 Jan 1943                British forces occupy Tripoli (in Benghazi from 20 Nov 1942,
                             and Sirte from 25 Dec 1942
).
15 Feb 1947                Italy formally cedes Libya to the Allies by Treaty of Paris
                             (entered into force 17 Sep 1947).

10 Dec 1949
               
Under United Nations administration (but not a trusteeship),
                             administered by U.K.
24 Dec 1951                Incorporated into Libya, with autonomy.
27 Apr 1963                Autonomy ended (federal arrangement abolished) by Libya.

Norman Kings
1146 - 26 Feb 1154         Roger II of Sicily                     (b. 1095 - d. 1154)
26 Feb 1154 - 22 Jan 1160  William I of Sicily                    (b. 1131 - d. 1166)
Norman governor
1146 - 22 Jan 1160         Abu Yahya ibn Matruh al-Tamimi
                            (continues to 1172 under Almohad rule)
Spanish governors

26 Jul 1510 - 1510         Pedro de Navarro -Commander            (b. c.1460 - d. 1528)
1510                       Diego de Vera
1510 - 1511                Jayme de Requesens

1511 - 1520                Guillem de Moncada
152. - 25 Jul 1530         François Velasquès
Governors of the Knights of Malta
1530 - 1531                Fra Gaspare de Sanguessa
1531 - 1532                Bernardino Macado (acting)
1532 - 1533                Aurelio Bottigella (1st time)          (b. 1480 - d. 1550)

1533 - 1535                García Cortés
1535 - 1537                George (Giorgio) Schiling
1537 - 1539                Aurelio Bottigella (2nd time)          (s.a.) 
1539 - 1544                Hernando de Bracamonte
1544 - 1546                Cristofano de Solís Farfan
1546 - 1549                Giovanni La Valette
1549 - 1551                P
edro Nuñez de Herrera
Apr 1551 -
14 Aug 1551     Gaspare de Vallies 
Ottoman Beylerbeyleri
15 Aug 1551 - 1556         Murad Agha
1556 - 23 Jun 1565         Turgut (Dragut) Reis                   (b. 1485 - d. 1565)
17 Jun 1565 - 27 Jun 1568  Kiliç Ali Pasha
27 Jun 1568 - 28 Mar 1571  Yahya Pasha
28 Mar 1571 - 1572         Cafer Pasha
1572 - 1574                Mustafa Pasha
1574 -  5 Jul 1577         Haydar Pasha (1st time)
  5 Jul 1577 - 1578        Hasan Pasha
1578 - 1584                Haydar Pasha (2nd time)
1584 - 1585                Sakizli Mehmed Pasha (1st time)
1585 - 1589                Ramazan Pasha
1589                       Sakizli Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
1589 - Oct 1590            Istanköylü Ahmed Pasha
Oct 1590 - 1595            Sakizli Mehmed Pasha (3rd time)
1595 - Dec 1603            Memi Mehmed Pasha
Dec 1603 - 1614            Safer Dey
1614 - 1626                Sherif Pasha
1626                       Ramazan Dey
1626 - Jan 1631            Sakizli Mehmed Pasha
Jan 1631 - 29 Apr 1672     Sakizli Osman Pasha
29 Apr 1672 - Jul 1672     Osman Reis as-Suhali
Jul 1672 - May 1675        Bali Çavush
18 May 1675 - Jan 1677     Misirliohlu Ibrahim Pasha
Jan 1677                   Inebolulu Ibrahim Çelebi
Jan 1677 - Apr 1677        Istanköylü Büyük Mustafa
Apr 1677 - 1678            Baba Osman
1678 - 1682                Ak Mehmed Timur
1682 - 21 Jun 1682         Abaza Hüseyin
21 Jun 1682 - 1683         Cezayirli Abdullah
1683                       Terzi Ibrahim
1693 - Oct 1687            Halil Pasha
Oct 1687 - 1689            Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 
1689 -  3 Feb 1695         Bosnak Ismail Pasha
 3 Feb 1695 -  1 Aug 1701  Destari Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 
 1 Aug 1700 - 20 Nov 1700  Turgutlulu Kahveci Osman          (b. 1660 - d. ....)
20 Nov 1700 - Dec 1702     Gelibolulu Haci Mustafa
Dec 1702 - 23 Nov 1710     Halil Pasha 
23 Nov 1710 - 20 Jan 1711  Ismail Hoça
20 Jan 1711 -  4 Jul 1711  Mehmed Hüseyin Çavush             (d. 1711)
 4 Jul 1711 - 29 Jul 1711  Abu Umays Mahmud
Sultans
29 Jul 1711 -  2 Nov 1745  Ahmad I Pasha                     (b. c.1686 - d. 1745)
                             (Sidi Hamid Qaramanli Quluglu)
 2 Nov 1745 - 24 Jul 1754  Mehmed Pasha                      (d. 1754)
24 Jul 1754 - 30 Jul 1793  Ali I Pasha                       (d. 1796)
30 Jul 1793 - Nov 1794     Seydi Ali (II) Pahsa (usurper)
Nov 1794 - 24 Jan 1796     Ahmad II Bey
24 Jan 1796 -  5 Aug 1832  Yusuf Pasha                       (b. 1766 - d. 1838)
1817                       Mehmed (1st time) (in rebellion)
1824                       Mehmed ibn Ali (1st time)         (d. 1835)
                             (in rebellion)
1826                       Mehmed (2nd time)(in rebellion)
Jul 1832                   Mehmed (3rd time)(in rebellion)
1835                       Mehmed ibn Ali (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion)
 5 Aug 1832 - 26 May 1835  Ali II Pasha
Walis (governors) (in exile from 1913)
26 May 1835 -  7 Sep 1835  Mustafa Negib Pasha
 7 Sep 1835 -  6 May 1837  Mahmud Raif Pasha
 6 May 1837 -  5 Sep 1838  Çeshmeli Hasan Pasha
 5 Sep 1838 - 15 Jul 1842  Ali Asker Pasha                    (d. 1868)
15 Jul 1842 - 22 Apr 1847  Mehmed Emin Pasha
22 Apr 1847 - 13 Sep 1849  Ragib Pasha  
13 Sep 1849 - 16 Sep 1852  Ahmed Izzet Pasha (1st time)       (b. 1789 - d. 1876)
16 Sep 1852 -  1 Nov 1855  Mustafa Nuri Pasha                 (b. 1798 - d. 1879)
 1 Nov 1855 -  1 Oct 1857  Osman Pasha 
 1 Oct 1857 -  4 Aug 1860  Ahmed Izzet Pasha (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 4 Aug 1860 - 18 Jun 1867  Mahmud Nedim Pasha                 (b. 1818 - d. 1883)
Jun 1867 - Jul 1867        Hassan Pasha (acting)
Jul 1867 - May 1870        Cezayrli Ali Reza Pasha (1st time) (d. 1876)
May 1870 - Jun 1870        Mustafa Pasha (acting)
Jan 1870 - Sep 1871        Mehmed Halet Pasha
Sep 1871 - Apr 1872        Bostancibahizade Mehmed Rashid
                             Pasha

Apr 1872 -  6 Jun 1873     Cezayrli Ali Reza Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.)
 6 Jun 1873 - Nov 1874     Hasan Samih Pasha
Nov 1874 - Feb 1875        Mustafa Asim Pasha (2nd time)
Feb 1875 - Aug 1877        Mustafa Sidki Pasha
1877                       Mehmed Çelaleddin Pasha
Dec 1877 - Feb 1878        Söylemezoglu Ali Kemali            (b. 1819 - d. 1898)
Feb 1878 - Jul 1879        Mehmed Sabri Pasha                 (d. 1879)
Jul 1879 - May 1880        Ahmed Izzet Pasha (2nd time)
May 1880 - Oct 1881        Mehmed Nazif Pasha
Oct 1881 - Jun 1896        Ahmed Rasim Pasha
Jun 1896 - Mar 1899        Nemik Bey
Mar 1899 - Jul 1900        Haçim Bey
Jul 1900 - Dec 1903        Hafiz Mehmed Pasha
Dec 1903 - May 1904        Hasan Husni Pasha (Hüseyin Effendi)
May 1904 - Aug 1904        Abderrahman Bey (acting)
Aug 1904 - Aug 1908        Reçeb Pasha
Dec 1908 - Aug 1909        Ahmed Favzi Pasha                  (b. 1859 - d. 1914)
Aug 1909 - Aug 1910        Hüseyin Husni Pasha                (b. 1856 - d. 1926)
Aug 1910 - 1911            Ibrahim Pasha (acting)             (b. 18.. - d. 1915)
1911                       Bekir Samih Bey (didn't take office)
1911 -  5 Oct 1911         Besim Bey (acting)
1911 - 15 Jan 1913         Neshet Bey 

1913 - 1915                ....
1915 - 1917                Osman Bey
1917 - 1918                Nuri Bey

1918                       Ishaq Bey
Apr 1918 - 16 Nov 1918     Osman Fuad Pasha                   (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
Ruler (in dissidence)
Oct 1911 - 23 Mar 1913     Sulayman ibn Abdullah al-Baruni    (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
Governor-general of Tripolitania (in Misurata)
25 Sep 1916 - 16 Nov 1918  Sulayman ibn Abdullah al-Baruni    (s.a.)
                            (Ottoman governor-general of Tripoli, Tunis and Algiers)
Chairman of the Council of the Republic
(in 'Aziziya)
16 Nov 1918 - Nov 1920     Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid
Chairman of the Central Reform Board (in 'Aziziya)
Nov 1920 - 1922            Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid
Italian Commanders of the Expeditionary Corps
 5 Oct 1911 - 13 Oct 1911  Raffaele Borea Ricci D'Olmo        (b. 1857 - d. 1942)
13 Oct 1911 - 28 Aug 1912  Carlo Francesco Giovanni Battista  (b. 1845 - d. 1922)
                             Caneva
28 Aug 1912 - 31 May 1913  Ottavio Ragni  9 Jan 1913          (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
Governors of Tripolitania 
 
1 Jun 1913 -  1 Oct 1914  Vincenzo Garioni (1st time)        (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
 1 Oct 1914 – 16 Nov 1914  Giorgio Cigliana                   (b. 1857 – d. 1919)
16 Nov 1914 -  5 Feb 1915  Luigi Druetti                      (b. 1853 - d. 1919)
 9 Feb 1915 - 15 Jul 1915  Giulio Cesare Tassoni              (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
15 Jul 1915 -  1 Aug 1918  Giovanni Battista Ameglio          (b. 1854 - d. 1921)
 2 Aug 1918 - 16 Aug 1919  Vincenzo Garioni (2nd time)        (s.a.)
16 Aug 1919 - 10 Jul 1920  Vittorio Menzinger                 (b. 1861 - d. 1925)
11 Jul 1920 – 31 Jul 1920  Ugo Niccoli (acting)               (b. 1868 - d. 19..)
 1 Aug 1920 - 16 Jul 1921  Luigi Mercatelli                   (b. 1853 - d. 1922)
17 Jul 1921 – 24 Aug 1921  Eduardo Baccari (acting)           (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
24 Aug 1921 -  2 Jul 1925  Giuseppe Volpi conte di Misurata   (b. 1877 - d. 1947) 
 3 Jul 1925 - 18 Dec 1928  Emilio De Bono                     (b. 1866 - d. 1944)
Governor of Tripolitania and of Cirenaica
18 Dec 1928 - 31 Dec 1933  Pietro Badoglio                    (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
Commander, Headquarters Tripolitania Base and Lines of Communication
 3 Mar 1943 - 16 Jul 1943  Brian Hubert Robertson             (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
District Officer Commanding Tripolitania District (from 14 Dec 1943,
Tripolitania Area)
16 Jul 1943 -  2 Feb 1944  Norman Clowes                      (b. 1893 - d. 1980)

Chief Administrator, Tripolitania

1943 - 1951                Travers Robert Blackley            (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
British Resident for Tripolitania
1951 - 24 Dec 1951         Travers Robert Blackley            (s.a.)
Governors (Wali)
Dec 1951 - 14 May 1953     Fadil Ben Zikry (1st time)
14 May 1953 -  3 Dec 1954  Al-Siddiq al-Muntasir              (b. 1912 - d. 1979)
1954 - 1955                Abdul Salam al-Busayri
1955 - 1957                Muhammad Jamal Pasha Agha
1957 - 1960                Tahir Bakir
1960 - 13 Jun 1961         Abu Bakr Na'ama 
13 Jun 1961 - 27 Apr 1963  Fadil Ben Zikry (2nd time)

Chief Civil Affairs Officers, British Military Administration Tripolitania
15 Dec 1942 - 26 Jan 1943  Maurice Stanley Lush               (b. 1896 - d. 1990)
26 Jan 1943 - 1943         Travers Robert Blackley            (s.a.)

Presidents of the Executive Council

Mar 1951 - Dec 1951        Mahmud El Muntasser (al-Muntasir)  (b. 1903 - d. 1970)
1952? - 19 Jan 1954        Ali al-Dib (1st time)
 3 Aug 1954 - 1954        
Mohieddin Fikini                   (b. 1925 - d. 1994)
1954 - 1958                Mahmud al-Bishti
1958 - 1961                Ahmad Own Suf
1961 - 27 Apr 1963         Ali al-Dib (2nd time)


Cyrenaica
 
[Ottoman flag (to
                          1911)]
to  15 Oct 1912
[Sanusiya
                          (Senussi) Order flag, Cyrenaica (Libya)
                          c.1843-1929]
c.1843 - 1929 Sanusiya Local Flag
[Kingdom of
                          Italy flag 1861-1946]
15 Oct 1912 - Feb 1941
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
Feb 1941 - 1947
[Flag of
                          Cyrenaica, 1947-1950 (Libya)]
1947 - 6 Dec 1950;
 Region Flag from 2012
[Libyan flag
                          1951-1969 (in use in Cyrenaica from 1950)]
6 Dec 1950 - 24 Dec 1951
Map of Cyrenaica
Capital: Benghazi
(Bengasi 1912-1935;
Barce 1943-1944)

Currency: Egyptian
 Pound (EGP)
(1942-25 Apr 1952)

Population:
1,613,749 (2006)
391,300 (1954)

190,600 (1911)

1521                       Cyrenaica part of the Ottoman Empire (subordinate to Tripoli).
1578                       Turks invade Benghazi rule it from Tripoli.
26 May 1835                Ottoman direct rule over
Tripoli (and Cyrenaica).
1843
                       Leader of the Sanusiya (Senussi) Order (a Sufi order founded in
                             Mecca in 1837) settles in Cyrenaica, near Sidi Rafaa' (Bayda)
                             and founds the Zawiya Bayda (White Monastery).
1855                       Sanusiya (Senussi) Order moves farther south to Jaghbub (Giarabub)
                             oasis, then in Egypt (from 6 Dec 1925, part of Libya).
1875                       Sanjak of Benghazi (Bingazi Sancağı), separated from Tripoli;
                             directly dependent on Constantinople.
10
Oct 1911                Italians occupy Tobruk; Derna 18 Oct 1911 and Benghazi 20 Oct 1911.
 
5 Nov 1911                Italy declares Cyrenaica (Cirenaica) under Italian sovereignty.
18 Oct 1912                Ottomans agree to evacuate Libya in Treaty of Lausanne. 
Apr 1917                   U.K. and Italy conclude an agreement with the Sanusiya (Senussi).
17 May 1919               
Italian colony (Cirenaica).
25 Oct 1920                Italian government recognizes the Sanusiya (Sensussi) Order as
                             administering southeastern Cyrenaica [Ajdabiyah (Agedabia),
                             Awjilah (Augila) and Kufra (Cufra)].
 6 Dec 1925               
British Egypt cedes Kufra and Jaghbub to Italian Libya.
18 Dec 1928                Cirenaica administratively joined to Tripolitania.
1929                       Italy de-recognizes governing authority of the Order.

20 Jan 1931                Italy occupies the Kufra district.
 1 Jan 1934               
Cirenaica (Cyrenaica) merged with Tripolitania and Fezzan as
                             Italian Libya (Libia Italiana)(see below).

20 Jul 1934                Ma'tan as-Sarra ceded Italian Libya as part of the Sarra Triangle
                             by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Dec 1940 - Mar 1941        British forces occupy Bardia (5 Jan 1941), Tobruk (22 Jan 1941), 
                             Derna (Feb 1941), El Agheila and Benghazi (Feb 1941).
Feb 1941                   British administration (Cyrenaica district).
Mar 1941 - Nov 1941        Axis forces retake El Agheila (24 Mar 1941), Benghazi (3 Apr), 
                             Derna (Apr 1941), and Tobruk 30 (Apr 1941).
 
2 Mar 1941                "Free" French forces under Leclerc occupy the Kufra oasis.
18 Nov 1941 - 31 Dec 1941  British forces retake Benghazi (24 Dec 1941), Derna (Dec 1941),
                             Tobruk (4 Dec 1941) and Gazala (15 Dec 1941).
21 Jan 1942 -  7 Jul 1942  Axis forces retake Benghazi (29 Jan 1942), Derna (Dec 1941), 
                             Tobruk (21 Jun 1942), and Bardia (June 1942).
11 Nov 1942                British forces re-occupy Bardia, Tobruk (on 13 Nov 1942), Derna
                             (on 15 Nov 1942) and Benghazi (20 Nov 1942). Divided into three
                             districts: Benghazi in west, el Jebel in center, and Derna in
                             the east.
Oct 1946                   Sanusi emir recognized by the U.K. (administering the territory
                             for the United Nations).

15 Feb 1947                Italy formally cedes Libya to the Allies by Treaty
                             of Paris (entered into force 17 Sep 1947).

 1 Mar 1949                Independence proclaimed (
Emirate of Cyrenaica).
 1 Jun 1949                Independence recognized by U.K.
21 Nov 1949                Cyrenaica autonomous.
10 Dec 1949                Under United Nations administration (but not a trusteeship),
                             administered by U.K.

24 Dec 1951                Incorporated into Libya.
27 Apr 1963                Autonomy ended (federal arrangement abolished) by Libya.
 6 Mar 2012
                Cyrenaica transitional council formed by the Transitional National
                             Council (not recognized by
Tripoli government).
 1 Jun 2013               
Cyrenaica declares autonomy (not recognized by Tripoli government).

Sheikhs
1843 -  7 Sep 1859         Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali al-Sanusi  (b. 1787 - d. 1859)
 7 Sep 1859 -  2 Jun 1902  Sayyid Muhammad ibn Sayyid         (b. 1844 - d. 1902)
                             Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Sanusi
 2 Jun 1902 - 21 Aug 1918  Sayyid Ahmad ibn Sayyid Muhammad   (b. 1873 - d. 1933) 
                             ash-Sharif al-Sanusi 
21 Aug 1918 - 25 Oct 1920  Muhammad Idris al-Mahdi al-Sanusi  (b. 1890 - d. 1983)
Emir
25 Oct 1920 - 1929         Muhammad Idris al-Mahdi al-Sanusi  (s.a.)
                             (1st time)(in Egypt exile from 1923)
1923 - 1928                Sayyid Muhammad ar-Rida (acting)   (b. 1890 - d. 1955)
1928 - 1929                Umar Mukhtar (acting)              (b. 1858 - d. 1931) 
Italian Commandant of the Corps of Occupation in Cirenaica
 2 Sep 1912 -  9 Jan 1913  Ottavio Briccola                   (b. 1853 - d. 1924)
Governors
of Cirenaica
 
9 Jan 1913 -  6 Nov 1913  Ottavio Briccola                   (s.a.)
 6 Nov 1913 -  8 Aug 1918  Giovanni Battista Ameglio          (b. 1854 - d. 1921)

                             (acting from 15 Jul 1915)
 
8 Aug 1918 -  1 Jul 1919  Vincenzo Garioni (acting)          (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
 
1 Jul 1919 - 23 Nov 1921  Giacomo De Martino                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
                             (from 30 Dec 1920, Giacomo, conte De Martino)
23 Nov 1921 - 30 Sep 1922  Luigi Pintor (acting)              (b. 1882 - d. 1925) 

 
1 Oct 1922 -  1 Dec 1922  Eduardo Baccari                    (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
 
1 Dec 1922 -  6 Jun 1923  Oreste De Gaspari (acting)         (b. 1864 - d. 1933)
 6 Jun 1923 - 24 May 1924  Luigi Bongiovanni                  (b. 1866 - d. 1941)

24 May 1924 - 22 Nov 1926  Ernesto Mombelli                   (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
23 Nov 1926 - 18 Dec 1928  Attilio Teruzzi                    (b. 1882 - d. 1950)
Governor of Tripolitania and of Cirenaica
18 Dec 1928 - 21 Jan 1929  Pietro Badoglio                    (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
Vice-governors
(subordinated to governors of Tripolitania)
21 Jan 1929 - 15 Mar 1930  Domenico, conte Siciliani          (b. 1879 - d. 1938)
15 Mar 1930 - 31 May 1934  Rodolfo Graziani                   (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
 
1 Jun 1934 -  1 Jul 1935  Guglielmo Nasi (acting)            (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
British Military Governors and General Officers Commanding-in-chief, Cyrenaica
22 Jan 1941 -  4 Feb 1941  Richard Nugent O'Connor            (b. 1889 - d. 1981)
 4 Feb 1941 - 27 Feb 1941  Sir Henry Maitland Wilson          (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
28 Feb 1941 -  7 Apr 1941  Philip Neame                       (b. 1888 - d. 1978)
                             (Italian prisoner 7 Apr 1941 - 1943)
 8 Apr 1941 - 14 Apr 1941  Sir John Dudley Lavarack (acting)  (b. 1885 - d. 1957)
14 Apr 1941 - 22 Oct 1941  Leslie Morshead                    (b. 1889 - d. 1959)
22 Oct 1941 - 13 Dec 1941  Ronald Mackenzie Scobie            (b. 1883 - d. 1969)
13 Dec 1941 - 14 May 1942  Isaac Pierre de Villiers           (b. 1891 - d. 1967)
14 May 1942 - 21 Jun 1942  Hendrik Balzazar Klopper           (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
21 Jun 1942 - 13 Nov 1942  Axis re-occupation

13 Nov 1942 - 15 Feb 1943  Bernard Law Montgomery             (b. 1887 - d. 1976)
                             (general officer commanding-in-chief 8th Army)
District Officers Commanding Cyrenaica District (from 15 Dec 1943, Cyrenaica Area)
(in Benghazi to Mar 1943, then Barce)
15 Feb 1943 - 1943         Angus Lyell Collier                (b. 1893 - d. 1971)
1943                       Anthony Sillery                    (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
19 Dec 1943 - 1944         Henry Ronald Hall                  (b. 1895 - d. 1984)
Chief Administrators, Cyrenaica (Benghazi)

10 Mar 1943 - 30 Oct 1945  Duncan Cameron Cumming             (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
30 Oct 1945 - 1946         Peter Bevil Edward Acland          (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
1946 - 1948                James William Norris Haugh         (b. 1894 - d. 1969)
1948                       Arthur Stanley Parker (acting)
1948 - 17 Sep 1949         Eric Armar Vully de Candole        (b. 1901 - d. 1989)

British Resident in Cyrenaica
17 Sep 1949 - 24 Dec 1951  Eric Armar Vully de Candole        (s.a.)
Emir
Oct 1946 - 24 Dec 1951     Muhammad Idris al-Mahdi al-Sanusi  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Governors (Wali)
24 Dec 1951 - May 1952     Muhammad Sakizli (1st time)        (b. 1892 - d. 1976)
May 1952 - 15 Oct 1961     Hussein Maziq                      (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
                             (suspended 2 Oct 1954 - Oct 1954)
Oct 1961 - c.Dec 1962      Mahmud Abu Hidma (Buhdmat)
c.Dec 1962 - 27 Apr 1963  
Muhammad Sakizli (1st time)        (s.a.)
Heads of the C
yrenaica Transitional Council (from Oct 2013, Council of Cyrenaica in Libya)
 
5 Mar 2012 - 201.         Ahmed Mindas bin Sayyid al-Zubayr  (b. 1934)
                            
al-Sanusi (not recognized by Tripoli government)
24 Oct 2013 - 2017         Ibrahim al-Jadhran                 (b. 1981)
                             (head of Political Bureau of Cyrenaica [renamed
                             Council of Cyrenaica in Libya]; in rebellion in Ra's Lanuf)
Military Governor
Jun 2016 -                 Abdul Razzaq al-Nazhuri                                 Mil
                             (appointed by House of Representatives)

Chief Political Officers, Cyrenaica
1941 - 1942                Stephen Hemsley Longrigg           (b. 1893 - d. 1979)

21 Dec 1942 - 10 Mar 1943  Duncan Cameron Cumming             (s.a.)
Prime ministers

 
9 Nov 1949 - 18 Mar 1950  Omar Mansur Kikhia                 (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
                             (designated 5 Jul 1949)
18 Mar 1950 - 24 Dec 1951  Muhammad Sakizli                   (s.a.)
Presidents of the Executive Council
1952 - 1962                Wanis al-Qadhdhafi (Qaddafi)       (b. 1924 - d. 1986)
1962 - 27 Apr 1963         Hamid Abbar
Head of the Government
 3 Nov 2013 - 201.         Abd-Rabbo al-Barassi
                             (in rebellion against Transitional Council,
                            
in Ajdabiya; appointed by al-Jadhran)


Fezzan
 
[Ottoman flag (to
                          1912)]
to 15 Oct 1912
[Kingdom of
                          Italy flag 1861-1946]
15 Oct 1912 - 12 Jan 1943
[French flag]
12 Jan 1943 - 24 Dec 1951
Map of Fezzan
Capital  Sabha 1943-1951
(Sebha 1930-1943;
Murzuk c.1566-1912)

Currency: Algerian
Franc (DZF)
(1943-12 Apr 1952)
Population: 442,090 (2006)
59,315 (1954)

50,679 (1939)

918                        Sultanate of Fezzan founded.
1190 - 12..                Annexed by Egypt.
1212                       Annexed by Borno (Kanem).
13..                       Independence recovered.
1580 - 1582                Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
1612 - 1614                Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
1623 - 1626                Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
1689 - 1690                Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
1843                       Incorporated into Ottoman Empire (Fizan [Fezzan] Sanjak).
1909 - 1914                Sanusi rule.
 
5 Nov 1911                Italy declares Fezzan (Fezzàn) under Italian sovereignty.
15 Oct 1912                Annexed by Italy.

 
3 Mar 1914 - Jan 1915     Italian occupation.
1915 - 1923                Sanusi rule (restored).
1923 - 1927                Anarchy, ruled by Arab nomads.
14 Dec 1929                Italians occupy Sabha (Sebha) (al-Biraq [Barach] 5 Dec 1929, Um
                             Al-Aranib [Umm el Araneb] 8 Jan 1930, and Murzuk [Murzuch] on
                             21 Jan 1930).
1930                       Military Territory of South Tripolitania (part of Tripolitania)
                             (Territorio Militare del Sud tripolitano).
 1 Jan 1934                Fezzan (Fezzàn) united with Tripolitania and Cyrenaica as Italian
                             Libya (Libia Italiana)(see below).

 
3 Dec 1934                Southern Military Territory (Territorio Militare del Sud)(separate
                             administration within Libya).
12 Jan 1943                Fezzan
occupied by Free French, forces enter Sebha (in Murzuk
                            
from 13 Jan 1943 and Ghat on 23 Jan 1943).
11 Apr 1943                Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames, under French administration
                            
(Territoire Militaire du Fezzan-Ghadamès).
15 Feb 1947                Italy formally cedes Libya to the Allies by Treaty
                             of Paris (entered into force 17 Sep 1947).

1948 -
24 Dec 1951         Ghadamis attached
administratively to Tunisia and Ghat to Algeria
                             by the French administration.

10 Dec 1949                Fezzan under United Nations administration (but not a trusteeship),
                             administered by France.
24 Dec 1951                Incorporated into Libya, with autonomy.
  
27 Apr 1963                Autonomy ended (federal arrangement abolished) by Libya.
26 Sep 2013                Fezzan declares autonomy (not recognized by
Tripoli or Benghazi
                             based governments).


Ottoman Governor
1577 - 1582                Mahmud Bey (Mami)
Sultans

c.1566 - 15..              Muhammad al-Fasi
15.. -  1580               al-Mustansir ibn Muhammad

1580 - 1599                an-Nasr
1599 - 1612                al-Mansur
1612 - 1614                Husayn al-Na'cal                   (d. 1614)
                             (Tripolitan governor)

1614 - 1623                Tahir I
1623 - 1626                Ahmad bin Huwaydi -Tripolitan governor
1626 - 1658                Muhammad I
1658 - 1682                Nagib
1682 - 1689                Muhammad II an-Nasr (1st time)
1689                       Muhammad al-Mukni -Tripolitan governor
1689                       Temmam
1689 - 1690                Muhammad III
1690                       Ali al-Mukni -Tripolitan governor
1690 - 1709/18             Muhammad II an-Nasr (2nd time)
1709/18 - 1767             Ahmad I 
1767 - 1776                Tahir II
1776 - 1780                Ahmad II al-Munsur
1789 - 1804                Sharif Muhammad V ibn al-Mansur    (d. 1804)
                             al-Hakim
1804 - 1811                Sharif Muhammad VI ibn al-Mansur 
1811 - 1831                Yusuf al-Mukkani (usurper)
1831 - 1842                Sayf an-Nasr `Abd al-Jalil ibn Rad (d. 1842)
1835 - 1842                Jumah ibn Khalifa (1st time)       (d. 1856)
                             (in rebellion)
1854 - 1856                Jumah ibn Khalifa (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion)
Walis (governors)
1842 - 1846                Bekir Pasha
1846 - 1855                Hassan Pasha al-Bal`azi
1855 - 1859                ....
1859 - 1865                Halim Pasha (1st time)
1865                       Hamid Bey (acting)
1865 - 1870                Halim Pasha (2nd time)
c.1872                     Abdul Halim Pasha
c.1876                     Ali Bey
1879 – 1885                Mustafa Faik Pasha (2nd time)
1885 – 1888                Yahya Nüzhet Bey
1888 – 18..                Mansur Pasha
1891? - ....               Mustafa Faik Pasha (1st time)

1900 - c.1906              Mahmud Bey
c.1906 - 1909              Samih Bey
Sanusi Governors
1909 - 15 Oct 1912         Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (1st time)
 
3 Mar 1914 - Jan 1915     Italian occupation
1915 - 1923                Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (2nd time)
Italian Commanding Officer Southern Libyan Territories
(from 1930, Military Territory of South Tripolitania)
1927 - 1931                Ugo Gigliarelli Fiumi              (b. 1880 - d. 1944)
Commanding officer in Sebha
1930 - 1935                Luigi Amato
Italian Commander of the Southern Military Territories

1935 - 31 Dec 1939         Francesco Moccia
Italian Commander of the Libyan Sahara Territories

 1 Jan 1940 -  4 Nov 1940  Michele Leo
Italian Military Commanders of the Libyan Sahara

 3 Mar 1941 - 24 Oct 1942  Conte Umberto Piatti dal Pozzo     (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
24 Oct 1942 - 12 Jan 1943  Alberto Mannerini                  (b. 1891 - d. 1962)
French Military Governors

12 Jan 1943 - Sep 1943     Raymond Jean Marie Delange         (b. 1898 - d. 1976)
                             (commander of
Group "M" in the Leclerc column)
Oct 1943 - Dec 1945        Robert Marie Rémi Thiriet          (b. 1899 - d. 1956)
Jan 1946 - Mar 1947        Pierre Florimond

Mar 1947 - 12 Feb 1950     Maurice Sarazac                    (b. 1908 - d. 1974)
21 May 1949 - 1950?        Jacques Édouard Marie Leneveu
                             (acting for
Sarazac)
Residents of France in the Fezzan
12 Feb 1950 - Oct 1951     Maurice Sarazac                    (s.a.)
Nov 1951 - Mar 1953        Auguste Cauneille (interim)        (b. 1911 - d. 1965)

Hakim

1946 - 12 Feb 1950         Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr                 (b. c.1876 - d. 1954)
Wali (Chef du territoire)
12 Feb 1950 - 24 Dec 1951  Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr                 (s.a.)
Governors (Wali)
24 Dec 1951 - 12 Jun 1954  Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr                 (s.a.) 
26 Jun 1954 - 27 Apr 1963  Omar Sayf an-Nasr
President of the Province (Ra'is)
26 Sep 2013 -              Nouri M
uhammad al-Qouizi (al-Ghuayzi)
                             (not recognized by Tripoli government)
 
Presidents of the Executive Council
1952 - 1954                Ghaith Abdul Majid Sayf an-Nasr
 1 Jul 1954 - 27 Apr 1963  Abdul
Jalil Sayf an-Nasr


Libya

 1 Jan 1934                Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, Fezzan united as Italian Libya
                             (Libia Italiana), also called Italian North Africa
                             (Africa Settentrionale Italiana).

13 May 1943                End of Italian rule.
24 Dec 1951                Independence as United Libyan Kingdom
27 Apr 1963                Libyan Kingdom
 1 Sep 1969                Libyan Arab Republic
 2 Mar 1977                Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyya 
Apr 1986                   Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyya
10 Aug 2011                Libya
 8 Jan 2013                State of Libya

Leader and Guide of the First of September Great Revolution (de facto Chief of State)
 
2 Mar 1979 - 10 Aug 2011  Muammar al-Qadhdhafi (Qaddafi)     (b. 1942 - d. 2011) Mil/Non-party
                             (continues in opposition at Sirte to 20 Oct 2011)

Governors-general
 1 Jan 1934 - 28 Jun 1940  Italo Balbo                        (b. 1896 - d. 1940)
 1 Jul 1940 - 25 Mar 1941  Rodolfo Graziani, marchese di      (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
                             Neghelli 
25 Mar 1941 - 19 Jul 1941  Italo Gariboldi                    (b. 1879 - d. 1970)
19 Jul 1941 -  2 Feb 1943  Ettore Bastico                     (b. 1876 - d. 1972)
 2 Feb 1943 - 13 May 1943  Giovanni Messe (acting)            (b. 1883 - d. 1968)
United Nations Commissioner
10 Dec 1949 - 24 Dec 1951  Adrian Pelt (Netherlands)          (b. 1892 - d. 1981)
                             (arrived in Tripoli 18 Jan 1950)
King
¹
24 Dec 1951 -  1 Sep 1969  Idris I                            (b. 1890 - d. 1983)
                             (= Muhammad Idris al-Mahdi al-Sanusi)
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council
 1 Sep 1969 -  2 Mar 1977  Muammar al-Qadhdhafi               (s.a.)              Mil/Non-party
Secretaries General of the General People's Congress
 2 Mar 1977 -  2 Mar 1979  Muammar al-Qadhdhafi               (s.a.)               Non-party
 2 Mar 1979 -  7 Jan 1981  Abdul Ati al-Ubaydi (al-Obeidi)    (b. 1939)            Non-party
 7 Jan 1981 - 15 Feb 1984  Muhammad al-Zarruq Rajab           (b. 1940)            Non-party
15 Feb 1984 -  2 Mar 1986  Miftah al-Usta Umar                (b. 1935 - d. 2010)  Non-party
Secretar
ies of the General People's Congress
 2 Mar 1986 -  7 Oct 1990  Miftah al-Usta Umar                (s.a.)               Non-party
 7 Oct 1990 - 18 Nov 1992  Abdul Razzaq al-Sawsa                                   Non-party
18 Nov 1992 -  3 Mar 2008  al-Zanati Muhammad al-Zanati       (b. 1937)            Non-party
                             (Zentani)
 3 Mar 2008 -  5 Mar 2009  Miftah Muhammad al-Sanusi Ku'ayba  (b. 1942)            Non-party
                             (Kaiba)

 5 Mar 2009 - 26 Jan 2010  Imbarik Abdallah al-Shamikh        (b. 1950)            Non-party
26 Jan 2010 - 10 Aug 2011  Muhammad Abul Qasim al-Zuwayy      (b. 1952)            Non-party
                             (Zwai)
President of the (Interim) Transitional National Council
 5 Mar 2011 -  8 Aug 2012  Mustafa Muhammad Abdul Jalil Fadil (b. 1952)            NTC
                             (in Benghazi, in opposition to 10 Aug 2011)
Presidents of the General National Congress
 
8 Aug 2012 -  9 Aug 2012  Muhammad Ali Salim (acting)        (b. 1935)            Non-party  
 
9 Aug 2012 - 28 May 2013  Muhammad al-Maqariyyaf (al-Megarif)(b. 1940)            NFP
28 May 2013 - 25 Jun 2013  Juma'a Ahmad Atayqa (acting)       (b. 1950)            Non-party
                             (Giuma Attaiga)
25 Jun 2013 -  4 Aug 2014  Nuri Ali Abu Sahmayn               (b. 1956)            Non-party
                             (Nouri Abusahmain)
                            
(
in Tripoli, in opposition 4 Aug 2014 - 5 Apr 2016)
Presidents of the House of Representatives
(in Tobruk)
 4 Aug 2014 -  5 Aug 2014  Abu Bakr Mustafa Ba'ira (acting)   (b. 1941)            Non-party
 
5 Aug 2014 -              Aqila Salih Isa Qwaydar al-Abaydi  (b. 1944)            Non-party
                             (internationally recognized to 30 Mar 2016)
President of the Presidential Council of the Government of National Accord

30 Mar
2016 -              Fayiz Mustafa al-Sarraj            (b. 1960)            Non-party
                             (in Tunis 17 Dec 2015-30 Mar 2016, then in Tripoli)


Prime minister of the Provisional Government
29 Mar 1951 - 24 Dec 1951  Mahmud El Muntasser (al-Muntasir)  (b. 1903 - d. 1970)  Non-party

Prime ministers

24 Dec 1951 - 19 Feb 1954  Mahmud El Muntasser (1st time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
19 Feb 1954 - 12 Apr 1954  Muhammad Sakizli
                  (b. 1892 - d. 1976)  Non-party
12 Apr 1954 - 26 May 1957  Mustafa Ben Halim                  (b. 1921)            Non-party
26 May 1957 - 17 Oct 1960  Abdul Majid Kubar                  (b. 1909 - d. 1986)  Non-party
17 Oct 1960 - 19 Mar 1963  Muhammad Osman Said                (b. 1924 - d. 2007)  Non-party
19 Mar 1963 - 20 Jan 1964  Mohieddin Fikini                   (b. 1925 - d. 1994)  Non-party
20 Jan 1964 - 20 Mar 1965  Mahmud El Muntasser (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Mar 1965 -  2 Jul 1967  Hussein Maziq                      (b. 1918 - d. 2006)  Non-party
 2 Jul 1967 - 25 Oct 1967  Abdul Qadir al-Badri               (b. 1921 - d. 2003)  Non-party
25 Oct 1967 -  4 Sep 1968  Abdul Hamid al-Bakkoush            (b. 1933 - d. 2007)  Non-party
 4 Sep 1968 - 31 Aug 1969  Wanis al-Qadhdhafi (Qaddafi)       (b. 1922 - d. 1986)  Non-party
 8 Sep 1969 - 16 Jan 1970  Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi        (b. 1935 - d. 2009)  Non-party
16 Jan 1970 - 16 Jul 1972  Muammar al-Qadhdhafi (Qaddafi)     (s.a.)               Non-party
16 Jul 1972 -  2 Mar 1977  Abdul Salam Jalloud                (b. 1944)            Non-party
Chairman of the General People's Committee
 2 Mar 1977 -  2 Mar 1979  Abdul Ati al-Ubaydi (al-Obeidi)    (s.a.)               Non-party
Secretaries of the General People's Committee
 2 Mar 1979 - 23 Feb 1984  Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (1st time) (b. 1939)            Non-party
23 Feb 1984 -  2 Mar 1986  Muhammad al-Zarruq Rajab           (s.a.)               Non-party
 2 Mar 1986 -  2 Mar 1987  Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (2nd time) (s.a.)               Non-party
 2 Mar 1987 -  7 Oct 1990  Umar Mustafa al-Muntasir           (b. 1939 - d. 2001)  Non-party
 7 Oct 1990 - 29 Jan 1994  Abu Zayd Umar Durda                (b. 1944)            Non-party
                             (Abuzed Omar Dorda)
29 Jan 1994 - 29 Dec 1997  Abdul Majid al-Mabruk al-Qa`ud     (b. 1943)            Non-party

29 Dec 1997 -  1 Mar 2000  Muhammad Ahmad al-Manqush          (b. 1967)            Non-party
                            
(al-Mangoush)
 1 Mar 2000 - 13 Jun 2003  Imbarik Abdallah al-Shamikh        (s.a.)               Non-party  
13 Jun 2003 -  5 Mar 2006  Shukri Muhammad Ghanim al-Mismari  (b. 1942 - d. 2012)  Non-party
 5 Mar 2006 - 10 Aug 2011  Al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmudi         (b. 1945)            Non-party
Chairmen
of the Executive Bureau of the (Interim) Transitional National Council
23 Mar 2011 - 23 Oct 2011  Mahmud Jibril al-Warfalli          (b. 1952)            NTC
                             (in opposition in Benghazi to 10 Aug 2011)
23 Oct 2011 - 24 Nov 2011  Ali al-Tarhuni (Tarhouni)(acting)  (b. 1951)            NTC
Prime minister
24 Nov 2011 - 14 Nov 2012  Abdul Rahim al-Kayb (al-Kib)       (b. 1950)            NTC

Chairmen of the Provisional Government
(Prime ministers)
14 Nov 2012 - 11 Mar 2014 
Ali Zaydan (Zidan)                 (b. 1950)            Non-party
11 Mar 2014 -              Abdullah al-Thani                  (b. 1954)            Non-party
                             (acting to 8 Apr 2014; in Tobruk from 4 Aug 2014;
                             [internationally recognized to 30 Mar 2016])

 4 May 2014 -  9 Jun 2014  Ahmad Matiq (in opposition)        (b. 1972)            Non-party
Chairmen
of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
 6 Sep 2014 - 31 Mar 2015  Omar al-Hassi                      (b. 1949)            Non-party

                             (in opposition, in Tripoli)  
 1 Apr 2015 -              Khalifa al-Ghwayl (al-Ghawail)     (b. 1964)            Non-party
                             (acting to 1? Dec 2015; in opposition,
                             [withdrew forces from Tripoli 27 May 2017])

30 Mar
2016 -              Fayiz Mustafa al-Sarraj            (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (in Tunis 17 Dec 2015-30 Mar 2016, then in Tripoli)

  ¹The style of the ruler:
(a) 24 Dec 1951 - 27 Apr 1963: Malik al-Mamlaka al-Libiyya al-Muttahida ("King of the United Kingdom of Libya");
(b) 27 Apr 1963 - 1 Sep 1969: Malik al-Mamlaka al-Libiyya ("King of the Libyan Kingdom").

Party abbreviations (parties banned 1952/1972 - 2011): NFA = Tahalouf al-Quwa al-Wataniyya (National Forces Alliance, liberal, moderate islamist, est.2012); NFP = Hizb al-Jabha al-Wataniyya (National Front Party, liberal progressive, successor to 1981-2012 anti-Qaddafi National Front for the Salvation of Libya, est.2012); Mil = Military;
- Fromer parties: NTC
= al-Majlis al-Wataniyy al-Intiqaliyy - Libya (National Transitional Council - Libya, militant anti-Qaddafi opposition, 2 Mar 2011 - 9 Aug 2012)

Territorial Disputes: Dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya. 








 © Ben Cahoon