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Oman
 
[Oman,
                                    1649-1868 and 1871-1970]
1649 - 1868;
1871 - 17 Dec 1970
[Oman,
                                    1868-1871]
1868 - 1871


[Oman
                                    flag 1970-1995]
17 Dec 1970 - 25 Apr 1995
 
[Oman]
Adopted 25 Apr 1995


Map of Oman
Hear National Anthem
"Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani"
(The Sultan's Anthem)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 10 Dec 1932
 (lyrics 1970)
Constitution
(6 Nov 1996)
Capital: Muscat
(Imamate: Nizwa 1913-1955)
(Salalah
1932-1970;
Muscat 1856-1932;
Summer capital:
Zanzibar 1806-1856;
Winter capital:
Muscat 1806-1856;

Rustaq 1624-1784;
Nizwa  6th-7th cent.)
Currency: Omani Rial
(OMR); 1970-1972 Omani Rial Saidi (OMR); 1959-1970
Persian Gulf Rupee (XPGR);
1891-1959 Indian Rupee (INR)
National Holiday: 13 Oct (1954)
Birthday of
Sultan Haitham
---------------------------
1970-2019:
18 Nov (1940)
Birthday of
Sultan Qabus
Population: 4,613,241 (2017)
note: immigrants make up
approximately 45% of the
total population (2017)
GDP: $190.1 billion (2017)
Exports: $103.3 billion (2017)
Imports: $24.1 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Omani Arab 48.1%, Indo-Pakistani 31.7% (of which
Pakistani (mostly Balochi) 15%, Bengali 4.4%, Tamil 2.5%)
other Arab 7.2%, Persian 2.8%, Zanzibari (blacks originally
from Zanzibar) 2.5%, other 7.7% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 42,600 (2010)
Merchant marine: 51 ships (2018)
Religions: Muslim 85.9%, Christian 6.5%, Hindu 5.5%,
Buddhist 0.8%, Jewish 0.1%, other 1%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AFESD, AIIB, AL, AMF, APA (observer), APM, Arabsat, BTWC, CAEU, CD (observer), CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, GAFTA, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IORA, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIC, OPCW, OPEC (cooperation), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Oman Index
Chronology

224 - c.628                Part of the Sassanian Empire (as province of Mazun).
628                        Azd rulers of coastal Oman convert to Islam, and
                             retain their autonomy within the Muslim Caliphate.

628 - 661                  Part of the Muslim Caliphate.
661 - 749                  Part of the Umayyad Caliphate.

749                        Omanis established their first Ibadi Imamate
                             under
a leader styled Imam al-Muslimin, a member 
                             of the Azd clan.
751 - 793                  Part of the Abbasid Caliphate.
793 - 893                  Ibadi Imamate (restored).
851 - 893                  Civil war deposes three ruling Imams by an alliance
                             of tribes.
893 - 931                  Part of the Abbasid Caliphate.
931 - 932                  Rule by the Karmatians (
Qarmatians).
932 - 933                  Part of the Abbasid Caliphate.
933 - 934                  Rule by the Karmatians (
Qarmatians).
934 - 967                  Part of Abbasid Caliphate.
967 - 1053                 Rule by the Persian Buyyid dynasty.
1053 - 1154                Part of the Seljuk Empire.
1154 - 1406                First kingdom of the Nabhan dynasty.
1443 - 1470                Second kingdom of the Nabhan dynasty.
 1 Apr 1515 - 23 Jan 1650  Muscat a Portuguese possession (Mascate).

1521                       Persian garrison expelled by Husayn bin Said and
                             Portuguese forces.
1550 - 1551                Muscat occupied by the Ottoman Empire

                             (under Piri Reis 1551).
1581 - 1588                Muscat occupied by the Ottoman Empire
                             (under Mir Ali Bey 1580-81).
1600 - 1624                Third kingdom of the Nabhan dynasty.
1624                       Imamate restored (under the Ya`ariba dynasty
                             1624-1724, 1728-1749).

1643                       Portuguese are expelled from Suhar by Imam Nasr bin
                             Murshid (d. 1649).
1649                       Portuguese are expelled from Muscat and Matrah (in
                             1651) by Sultan Sayf bin Sultan (d. 1679).
1743 - 1749                Muscat and Sohar occupied by Persia.

10 Jun 1749                Al ´Bu Sa`id lineage accedes to the Imamate
                             (the Sixth Imamate).

1789                       Secular Al ´Bu Sa`id dynasty begins rule in Muscat.
1792 -  8 Sep 1958         Gwadar (Gwadur), port enclave in Baluchistan, ceded
                             to ruler of Muscat by the ruler of Kalat (ceded to
                            
Pakistan on 8 Sep 1958).
1794 -  4 Aug 1868         Bandar-e 'Abbas and a 150 KM coastal strip in Persia
                             leased to Muscat and Oman (re-occupied by
                             Persia 1853-1856).
14 Jul 1854 - 30 Nov 1967  Khuriya Muriya (
Kuria Muria) Islands ceded to U.K.
                             (from 1 Apr 1937 under Aden [see Yemen] to 1963;
                             from 1963 under the chief political resident 
                             of the Persian Gulf [see Bahrain] [included
                             the islands of Hasikiya, Sawda, Hallaniya,
                             and Qibliya]).
 2 Apr 1861                Separation of Zanzibar from Oman by U.K. settlement
                             (the Canning Award)(accepted by
the ruler of
                             Muscat 15 May 1861 and by the ruler
of Zanzibar
                             25 Jun 1861)
.
20 Mar 1892 - 22 Jul 1971  Muscat and Oman a British protected state
                            (under the chief political resident of Persian 
                             Gulf; see under Bahrain)(signed 19 Mar 1891).
24 May 1913 - 11 Aug 1957  Imami government (Eighth Imamate) in the interior
                             of Oman, usually
in opposition to the sultan's
                             rule
(autonomy recognized by Treaty of Seeb [Sib]
                             on 25 Sep 1920).

 9 Jun 1965 - 11 Dec 1975  Secessionist rebellion in Dhofar (Zufar).
 9 Aug 1970                Sultanate of Oman

Imamate
(1913-1957)
Tribal Polities
Bani Bu `Ali
(Ghafiri Arabs) 
Bani Hina
al-Hiri
(al-Harithi Tribe of al-Sharquiyyah)
Bani Riyam
(Ghafiri Arabs)
Bani Ruwaha
in Wadi
Zafar (Dhofar)
 
 

Portuguese commanders in Mascate (Muscat)
(subordinated to the captains-major in Hormuz)
c.1516 - 17 Mar 1517       Gaspar de Andrade Rego             (d. 1517)
15.. - 15..                Manuel Pinto
155. - c.1552              João de Lisboa
155.                       Fernão de Meneses
c.1582                     Martim Afonso de Melo 
1587 – 1589                Belchior Balaça
1589 - ....                Francisco Velho (1st time)
1595                       Antonio de Sousa Falcão
1597
                      Francisco Velho (2nd time)
1598/99                    Francisco de Almeida
.... - ....                Bartolomeu Lobo da Gama
1608                       Antonio Moreira de Fonseca

1614                       Andre Pacheco
161.                       Gaspar Ferreira
1616/17                    Gaspar de Andrade Rego              (d. 1616/17)        
1616/17                    Joao de Quadros
1619                       Paulo Castanho
1620 - 1622                Miguel de Lima Torres
1623                       Pascoal Henriques
1623 - 1625/26?            Martim Afonso de Melo
1626 - 1627                António Calado
1627 - 1630                Vacant
c.Aug 1630                 Luis Sequeira de Faria
1634? - 1636?              Julio Moniz da Silva
1636                       Antonio Botelho de Azevedo
1636                       Miguel Feio de Melo
                             (did not take office)
1636 - 1639?               Gomes Lobo da Silva
1639? - 1641?              Cristovão Rodrigues de Castelo
                             Branco
1641 - 164.                António de Moura de Brito
164. - c.1648              Lopo Gomes de Abreu
Captains-general of the Strait of Hormuz
(Ormus)
1623 - 1633                Rui Freire de Andrade              (d. 1633)
1633 - 1634                Gaspar de Melo de Sampaio (1st time)
1634 - 1636                Francisco Moniz da Silva
1636                       Gaspar de Melo de Sampaio (2nd time)
1637 - 1639                Manuel Pereira
1639 - 1641                Francisco de Távora de Ataíde
                             (1st time)
1641 - 1643                Duarte Lobo
1643 - 1649                Gil Eanes de Noronha               (b. c.1602 - d. 1664)
1649 - 23 Jan 1650         Francisco de Távora de Ataíde
                             (2nd time)
Persian governors
Sep 1740 - Dec 1743        Mirza Mahmoud Taqi Khan
                           + Kalb Ali Khan Afshar

Dec 1743 - 1749            ....
Imams
¹
1692 - 15 Oct 1711         Sayf I bin Sultan "Qayd al-Ard"    (d. 1711)
15 Oct 1711 - 1718/19      Sultan II bin Sayf                 (d. 1718/19)
1718/19 - Sep 1724         Sayf II bin Sultan (1st time)      (b. 1706/07 - d. 1743)
1719 - 1720                al-Muhanna bin Sultan bin Majid    (d. 1720)
                             (in dissidence)
14 Jun 1722 - 16 Mar 1723  Ya`rub bin Bal`arab                (d. 1723)
                             (in dissidence)
 2 Oct 1724 - Mar 1728     Muhammad bin Nasir                 (d. 1728)
11 Apr 1728 - 1743         Sayf II bin Sultan (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1732 - 1738                Bal`arab bin Himyar bin Sultan     (d. 1749)
                             (1st time)(in dissidence)
Feb 1742 - 20 Jun 1743     Sultan III bin Murshid bin `Adi    (d. 1743)
                           - together with Sayf II -
1744 - 1749                Bal`arab bin Himyar bin Sultan     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
10 Jun 1749 - 14 Dec 1783  Abu Hilal Ahmad bin Sa`id          (b. 1710 - d. 1783)
14 Dec 1783 - 1803         Sa`id (I) bin Ahmad                (b. 17.. - d. 1811)
Hamis (informally, from 2 Apr 1861, Sultans)¹
1789 - 13 Mar 1792         Hamad bin Sa`id                    (d. 1792)
18 Mar 1792 - 17 Nov 1804  Sultan (IV) bin Ahmad              (b. 1745 - d. 1804)
18 Nov 1804 - 14 Sep 1806  Salim (I) bin Sultan               (b. 1789 - d. 1821)
                           - jointly with following -
18 Nov 1804 - 19 Oct 1856  Sa`id (II) bin Sultan              (b. 1790 - d. 1856)
18 Nov 1804 - 31 Jul 1806  Badr bin Sayf -Regent              (b. 17.. - d. 1806)
Nov 1856 - 11 Feb 1866     Thuwayni bin Sa`id                 (b. c.1821 - d. 1866)
                             (deputy over Oman from 1833)
11 Feb 1866 - 12 Oct 1868  Salim (II) bin Thuwayni            (b. 18.. - d. 1876)
                             (departed for Persia on 9 Oct 1868)

 3 Oct 1868 - 30 Jan 1871  `Azzan bin Qays                    (d. 1871)
                             (acclaimed as Imam, did not use that style)

 1 Feb 1871 -  4 Jun 1888  Turki bin Sa`id                    (b. 1832 - d. 1888)
May 1874 - Dec 1875        Abdul Aziz bin Sa`id -Regent       (b. 1850 - d. 1907)
 4 Jun 1888 -  4 Oct 1913  Faysal bin Turki                   (b. 1864 - d. 1913)
 9 Oct 1913 - 10 Feb 1932  Taimur bin Faysal                  (b. 1886 - d. 1965) 
10 Feb 1932 - 23 Jul 1970  Sa`id (III) bin Taimur             (b. 1910 - d. 1972)
23 Jul 1970 - 10 Jan 2020  Qabus bin Sa`id                    (b. 1940 - d. 2020)
11 Jan 2020 -              Haitham bin Tariq                  (b. 1954)

Chief ministers (Wazir)
1832 - 1856                Sulayman bin Hamad al-Busa`idi     (b. c.1785 - d. 1873)  
1868 - 1870                Sa`id bin Khalfan al-Khalili       (b. 1811 - d. 1870)
1871 - 13 Aug 1873         Thuwayni bin Muhammad al-Busa`idi  (b. 1838 - d. 1873)
1873 - 1888                Sa`id bin Muhammad al-Busa`idi     (b. 1840 - d. 1901)
                             (1st time)
1888 - 1895                Muhammad bin `Azzan al-Busa`idi
1896 - 1901                Sa`id bin Muhammad al-Busa`idi     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1900 - 1920                Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Ghasham      (b. 18.. - d. 1929)
1920                       Daniel Vincent McCollum            (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
Chairmen of the Council of Deputies

Apr 1920 - 1926            Nadir bin Faysal al-Busa`idi       (b. 1888 - d. 1971)
1926 - 1928                Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Ghasham      (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
1929 - 1970                Sa`id bin Taimur                   (s.a.) 

28 Jul 1970 - 14 Aug 1970  Barayq bin Hamad (acting)

14 Aug 1970 -  2 Jan 1972  Tariq bin Taimur                   (b. 1921 - d. 1980)  Non-party
 2 Jan 1972 -              the Sultans

Imamate of Oman

[Imamate of Oman 1913-1955,
                1957]

Imams¹
24 May 1913 - 23 Jul 1920  Salim bin Rashid al-Kharusi         (b. 1883? - d. 1920)
30 Jul 1920 - May 1954     Abu `Abd Allah Muhammad bin `Abd    (b. 1881? - d. 1954)
                             Allah al-Khalili al-Kharusi
 3 May 1954 - 17 Dec 1955  Ghalib bin `Ali al-Hinawi           (b. 1919? - d. 2009)
                             (1st time)
Jul 1957 - 11 Aug 1957     Ghalib bin `Ali al-Hinawi           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 

British Residents at Muscat
1800 -  6 Sep 1800         Archibald Hamilton Bogle            (b. 1769 - d. 1800)
1801 - 1802                David Seton (1st time)              (b. 1773 - d. 1809) 
1802 - 1803                Vacant
1803 - Nov 1804            David Seton (2nd time)              (s.a.)

Nov 1804 - May 1805        Vacant
May 1805 - 
2 Aug 1809     David Seton (3rd time)              (s.a.)
1808 - Sep 1808            William Watts (acting for Seton)    (b. 178. - d. 1808) 
Sep 1809 - 17 Dec 1809     William Chicheley Bunce (acting)    (b. 1786 - d. 1809)
1809 - 1810                Nicholas Hankey Smith               (b. 1771 - d. 1837)
1810 - 1840                post abolished
                            (subordinated to the residents at Bushire)

East India Company's Agent in the territories of the Imam of Muscat
May 1840 - Dec 1841        Atkins Hamerton                     (b. 1804 - d. 1857)
Consuls at Muscat and East India Company's Agents in the territories of the Imam of Muscat

Dec 1841 - 
6 Jul 1857     Atkins Hamerton                     (s.a.)
Jan 1860 - May 1860        Henry Marjoribanks Chester          (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
May 1860 - May 1861        Hormuzd Rassam (acting)
            (b. 1826 - d. 1910)
British Political Agents and Consuls at Muscat

12 May 1861 - Feb 1862     Walter Murray Pengelley             (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
11 Feb 1862 - Oct 1862     Malcolm Scrimshire Green            (b. 1824 - d. 1906)
Oct 1862 - Jan 1863        .... (acting)
Jan 1863 - Feb 1867        Herbert Frederick Disbrowe          (b. 1826 - d. 1890)
                             (1st time)

Mar 1867 - Feb 1869        George Andrew Atkinson (acting)     (b. 1834 - d. 1870)
Feb 1869 -  8 Jan 1870     Herbert Frederick Disbrowe          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

 8 Jan 1870 -  1 May 1871  Alfred Cotton Way                   (b. 1830 - d. 1871)
 8 May 1871 - 14 Dec 1872  Edward Charles Ross                 (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
30 Dec 1872 -  6 Jun 1877  Samuel Barrett Miles (1st time)     (b. 1838 - d. 1913)
 7 Jun 1877 -  3 Jan 1878  Patrick James Craigie Robertson     (b. 1846 - d. 1889)
                             (acting)

 4 Jan 1878 - 14 Jun 1879  Samuel Barrett Miles (2nd time)     (s.a.)
15 Jun 1879 - 10 Jul 1879  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (b. 1844 - d. 1911)
                             (1st time) (acting)

10 Jul 1879 -  3 Jan 1880  Charles Bean Euan-Smith             (b. 1841 - d. 1910)
 3 Jan 1880 - 25 Feb 1880  Samuel Brereton (acting)            (b. 1844 - d. 1880)
25 Feb 1880 - 29 Oct 1880  
Charles Grant (1st time)            (b. 1836 - d. 1903)
29 Oct 1880 - 15 Aug 1881  Samuel Barrett Miles (3rd time)     (s.a.)
16 Aug 1881 - 22 Mar 1883  Charles Grant (2nd time)            (s.a.)
23 Mar 1883 - 20 Apr 1883  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)

20 Apr 1883 - 20 Sep 1883  Edward Mockler (1st time)           (b. 1849 - d. 1893)
20 Sep 1883 -  1 Apr 1886  Samuel Barrett Miles (4th time)     (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1886 - 25 Oct 1886  Edward Mockler (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1886 - 15 Apr 1887  Edward Barrett Miles (5th time)     (s.a.)
16 Apr 1887 - 27 Feb 1888  Edward Mockler (3rd time)           (s.a.)
27 Feb 1888 -  7 Jul 1888  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting)
 7 Jul 1888 -  1 Mar 1889  Edward Mockler (4th time)           (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1889 - 31 Mar 1889  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (4th time) (acting)

31 Mar 1889 -  4 Sep 1889  Wallace Christopher Ramsay          (b. 1862 - d. 1942)
                             Stratton (1st time)
 4 Sep 1889 - 20 Oct 1889
  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (5th time) (acting)
20 Oct 1889 - 16 Dec 1889  Wallace Christopher Ramsay          (s.a.)

                             Stratton (2nd time)
16 Dec 1889 - 28 Mar 1890  Charles Edward Yate                 (b. 1849 - d. 1940)
29 Mar 1890 -  1 Dec 1890  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (6th time) (acting)

 1 Dec 1890 - 13 Oct 1891  Edward Mockler (4th time)           (s.a.)
14 Oct 1891 - 27 Nov 1892  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (7th time) (acting)

27 Nov 1892 -  3 Jun 1893  James Hayes Sadler (1st time)       (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
 3 Jun 1893 - 28 Oct 1893  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (8th time) (acting)
28 Oct 1893 - 18 Apr 1895  James Hayes Sadler (2nd time)       (s.a.) 

18 Apr 1895 - 23 May 1895  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (9th time) (acting)

23 May 1895 - 23 Nov 1895  John Frederick Whyte (1st time)     (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
18 Jul 1895 - 17 Oct 1895  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (10th time) (acting)
17 Oct 1895 - 14 Nov 1895  John Frederick Whyte (2nd time)     (s.a.)
14 Nov 1895 - 16 Apr 1896  James Hayes Sadler (3rd time)       (s.a.)
17 Apr 1896 - 10 Jun 1897  Francis Granville Beville           (b. 1867 - d. 1923)
11 Jun 1897 - 15 Sep 1897  Atmaram Sadashiva Grandin Jayakar   (s.a.)
                             (11th time) (acting)
16 Sep 1897 - 30 Sep 1899  Christopher George Forbes Fagan     (b. 1856 - d. 1943)
 1 Oct 1899 - 28 Dec 1903  Percy Zachariah Cox                 (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
28 Dec 1903 - 10 Jan 1904  William Lethbridge (acting)         (b. 1872 - d. 1964)
11 Jan 1904 - 25 Jul 1906  William George Grey (1st time)      (b. 1866 - d. 1953)
25 Jul 1906 -  5 Nov 1906  William Henry Irvine Shakespear     (b. 1878 - d. 1915)
                             (acting)
 6 Nov 1906 - 31 Mar 1908  William George Grey (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1908 - 13 Jul 1908  Norman Emil Henry Scott (acting)    (b. 1875 - d. 1958)
13 Jul 1908 -  9 Nov 1908  Frank McConaghey (acting)           (b. 1871 - d. 1924)
10 Nov 1908 - 12 Apr 1910  Robert Erskine Holland              (b. 1873 - d. 1965)
13 Apr 1910 - 19 Apr 1911  Arthur Prescott Trevor              (b. 1872 - d. 1930)
20 Apr 1911 -  3 Mar 1914  Stuart George Knox                  (b. 1869 - d. 1956)
 4 Mar 1914 - 14 Oct 1915  Robert Arthur Edward Benn           (b. 1867 - d. 1940)
15 Oct 1915 - 15 Jan 1916  Hugh Stewart (1st time)             (b. 1872 - d. 1931)
16 Jan 1916 - 16 Feb 1916  Claude Tulloch Ducat (acting)       (b. 1864 - d. 1921)
17 Feb 1916 - 13 Jun 1916  Hugh Stewart (2nd time)             (s.a.)
15 Jun 1916 - 22 Jun 1916  Arthur Robert Burton (acting)       (b. 1872 - d. 1918)
23 Jun 1916 -  9 Oct 1916  Evelyn Berkeley Howell              (b. 1877 - d. 1971)
10 Oct 1916 -  7 Nov 1916  Alan Richard Leopold King-Mason     (b. 1878 - d. 1952)
                             (acting)

 8 Nov 1916 - 12 Oct 1917  Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth        (b. 1873 - d. 1951)
                             (1st time) 
12 Oct 1917 - 30 Nov 1917  John Macdonald Brickman (acting)    (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
30 Nov 1917 - 16 Oct 1919  Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
17 Oct 1919 -  3 Mar 1920  Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate        (b. 1889 - d. 1978) 
                             (1st time)
 3 Mar 1920 - 10 Apr 1920  Mehervan Jamshed Gazdar             (b. 1879 - d. 19..)
                             (1st time) (acting)

11 Apr 1920 - 25 Oct 1921  Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
26 Oct 1921 - 28 Feb 1923  Maitland Easton Rae                 (b. 1880 - d. 1961)
 1 Mar 1923 - 10 Sep 1923  Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
10 Sep 1923 - 28 Sep 1923  Mehervan Jamshed Gazdar             (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
28 Sep 1923 - 30 Oct 1924  Reginald Graham Hinde               (b. 1887 - d. 1971)

31 Oct 1924 - 23 May 1925  Charles Gilbert Crosthwaite         (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
                             (1st time)
24 May 1925 -  7 Oct 1925  Reginald George Evelyn William      (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
                             Alban (1st time) (acting)
 8 Oct 1925 - 11 Feb 1926  Charles Gilbert Crosthwaite         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
12 Feb 1926 -  9 Sep 1926  Cyril Charles Johnson Barrett       (b. 1884 - d. 1933)
10 Sep 1926 - 23 Sep 1926  George Alexander Richardson (acting)(b. 1875 - d. 1933)
24 Sep 1926 - 14 Jun 1930  Gerald Patrick Murphy               (b. 1888 - d. 1978)
15 Jun 1930 - 29 May 1931  Trenchard Craven William Fowle      (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
                             (1st time)
30 May 1931 - 30 Oct 1931  Reginald George Evelyn William      (s.a.)
                             Alban (2nd time) (acting)     
 1 Nov 1931 - 24 Jul 1932  Trenchard Craven William Fowle      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
25 Jul 1932 - 13 Nov 1932  Reginald George Evelyn William      (s.a.)
                             Alban (3rd time) (acting)     
14 Nov 1932 - 23 Mar 1933  Claude Edward Urquhart Bremner      (b. 1891 - d. 1965)
                             (1st time)
23 Mar 1933 - 16 Jun 1933  Reginald George Evelyn William      (s.a.) 
                             Alban (4th time) (acting) 
17 Jun 1933 -  6 Jun 1935  Claude Edward Urquhart Bremner      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 6 Jun 1935 - 26 Apr 1939  Ralph Ponsonby Watts                (b. 1892 - d. 1991)
26 Apr 1939 -  3 Apr 1940  Tom Hickinbotham (1st time)         (b. 1903 - d. 1983)
 3 Apr 1940 - 25 Jul 1940  John Baron Howes (1st time)(acting) (b. 1907 - d. 1982) 
27 Jul 1940 - 14 Aug 1941  Tom Hickinbotham (2nd time)         (s.a.)
14 Aug 1941 - 22 Jan 1942  John Baron Howes (2nd time)(acting) (s.a.)
22 Jan 1942 - 22 May 1942  Reginald George Evelyn William      (s.a.)
                             Alban (5th time) (acting)
23 May 1942 - 21 Sep 1943  Cornelius James Pelly               (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
21 Sep 1943 - 31 Oct 1943  Richard Ernest Rowland Bird         (b. 1912 - d. 1986)
 1 Nov 1943 -  1 Nov 1944  Roy Douglas Metcalfe                (b. 1909 - d. 1981)
 1 Nov 1944 - 22 Apr 1945  Arnold Crenshaw Galloway            (b. 1901 - d. 1988)
22 Apr 1945 - 29 Nov 1945  Ralph Ingram Hallows                (b. 1913 - d. 1990)
 1 Dec 1945 - 13 Jun 1947  Andrew Charles Stewart (1st time)   (b. 1907 - d. 1979)
Nov 1946                   Joseph Edward Havelock Hudson       (b. 1915 - d. 1976)
                             (acting for Stewart)
13 Jun 1947 - 14 Aug 1947  Joseph Edward Havelock Hudson       (s.a.)

Consuls at Muscat
15 Aug 1947 - 16 Aug 1948  Andrew Charles Stewart (2nd time)   (s.a.)

Apr 1948 - Aug 1948        Patrick Desmond Stobart             (b. 1920 - d. 1991)
                             (acting for Stewart)
16 Aug 1948 - 29 Sep 1949  Randall Erskine Ellison             (b. 1904 - d. 1984)

25 Jul 1949 – Sep 1949     Robert McCheyne Andrew              (b. 1918 - d. 2000)
                            
(acting for Ellison)
29 Sep 1949 - 27 Oct 1956  Frederick Charles Leslie Chauncy    (b. 1904 - d. 1986)
Consul for the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
27 Oct 1956 -  1 Sep 1957  Frederick Charles Leslie Chauncy    (s.a.)
Consul-generals for the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
 1 Sep 1957 - 30 Oct 1958  Frederick Charles Leslie Chauncy    (s.a.)

30 Oct 1958 - 31 May 1960  William Neve Monteith               (b. 1915 - d. 2004)
31 May 1960 - 22 May 1963  John Fleetwood Stewart Phillips     (b. 1917 - d. 1998)
22 May 1963 - 23 Oct 1965  John Spenser Ritchie Duncan         (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
23 Oct 1965 -  9 Sep 1969  Derrick Charles Carden              (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
 9 Sep 1969 -  3 May 1971  David Gordon Crawford               (b. 1928 - d. 1981)
 3 May 1971 - 22 Jul 1971  Donald Frederick Hawley             (b. 1921 - d. 2008)

  ¹The full style of the ruler:
(a) 1624 - 1803 and 24 May 1913 - 11 Aug 1957 (in opposition): Imam al-Muslimin ("Imam of the Muslims");
(b) 1792 - 2 Apr 1861: Hami, Sayyid ("Protector, Sayyid"), in international relations the style Sultan Masqat ("Sultan of Muscat") begins to be used;
(c) 2 Apr 1861 - 12 Oct 1868:
Hami, Sayyid, Sultan Masqat ("Protector, Sayyid, Sultan of Muscat"). Style Sultan Masqat is used only in interantional relations, interchageably with Imam Masqat ("Imam of Muscat")
(d) 30 Jan 1871 - 9 Aug 1970: Hami, Sayyid, Sultan Masqat wa `Uman ("Protector, Sayyid, Sultan of Muscat and Oman"), the style Sultan Masqat wa `Uman comes into official use; in occasional official use: Imam Masqaṭ wa `Uman, Sultan`Uman ("Imam of Muscat, and Sultan of Oman");
(e) from 9 Aug 1970: Sultan `Uman ("Sultan of Oman"). 

Territorial Disputes: Boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with U.A.E. in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public.

Political parties: (organized political parties are legally banned).


 

Zufar (Dhofar, Dhufar)
 
[Popular Front
                          for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian
                          Gulf flag 1965-68, 1971-72]
9 Jun 1965 - Sep 1968; 1971 - 1972
[Popular Front
                          for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian
                          Gulf flag 1968-1971]
Sep 1968 - 1971
[Popular Front
                          for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian
                          Gulf flag 1972-1975]
1972 - 1 Dec 1975

c.1096                     Zafar founded with capital at Mirbat.
1265 - 1271                Persian occupation.
1421                       Sultanate of Zafar
1539                       Ottoman occupation for a while. 
Late 17th cent.            Local tribes loosely subject to Mahra.
1804                       Polity restored.   
1829                       Annexed by Oman (Omani authorities withdrew in the early 1830's).

1876                       Polity restored (claimed allegiance to the Ottoman Empire).
1879                       Annexed by Oman, Kathiri and Qara` tribes recognize suzerainty of
                             Oman.
1885 - 1886                Independent during revolt.
 9 Jun 1965                Dhofari revolt directed by the Dhofar Liberation Front (DLF).
Sep 1968                   Renamed Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied
                             Arabian Gulf (PFLOAG).
1971                       PFLOAG merged with the National Democratic Front Liberation of
                             Oman and Arabian Gulf (armed activity in central and northern 
                             Oman from June 1970) to form the Popular Front for the 
                             Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf.
Late 1971                  A revolutionary government established in Dhofar.
19 Jan 1972                Failed attack on port of Mirbat.
Mar 1975                   Peace agreement signed.
 1 Dec 1975                Last PFLOAG occupied village, Dulkut, is liberated.
11 Dec 1975                Sultan of Oman declares the rebellion terminated.

Sultan
1804 - 1829                Sa`id Muhammad bin`Aqil `Adjaybi    (d. 1829)
Emir
1876 – 1879                Sa`id Fadhl bin`Alawi Moplah        (b. 1823/24 - d. 1900)
                             (1st time)
1885 - 1886                S
a`id Fadhl bin`Alawi Moplah        (b. 18.. - d. 1900)
                             (2nd time) (in rebellion)
Secretaries-general of the DLF (from 1968, PFLOAG)
(in rebellion)

 9 Jun 1965 - 1968         Musalim bin Nufl
 1 Sep 1968 - 1975         Muhammad Ahmad Saïd al-Ghassani 


Omani Tribal Polities

Bani Bu `Ali (Ghafiri Arabs)

[Sultanate of
                          Suhar Possible flag 1920-1932 (Oman)]Sultanate of Suhar Possible Flag 1920-1932

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
18.. -  ....               Salim
.... - 1913                `Abd Allah                         (d. 1913)
1913 - 1932                 `Ali
                             (in rebellion at Suhar as Sultan 1920-1932)

af.1932 - 1971?            Muhammad bin Nasir



Bani Hina
 

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
.... - ....                Sa`id bin Muhammad
.... - 1894                Hilal bin Zahir                    (d. 1894)
1894 - 189.                Badr
189. - 192.                `Abd Allah
193. - 19..                Zahir bin Ghusn al-Hini'a
195. - 1971                `Abd Allah



al-Hiri (al-Harith tribe of al-Sharquiyyah)
 

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
18.. - 185.                `Ali bin Nasir
185. - 1896                Salih I bin `Ali al-Harithi        (d. 1896)
1896 - 1946                `Isa bin Salih al-Harithi          (b. 1874 - d. 1946)
1946 - 1947                Muhammad bin `Isa al-Hirithi       (d. 1947)
1947 - Dec 1955            Salih II bin `Isa al-Hirithi
1956 - 1971                Ahmad bin Muhammad al-Hirithi



Bani Riyam (Ghafiri Arabs)

1920                       Emirate of Bani Riyam
1959 - 1971                Omani administration.

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
18.. - 18..                Nasir bin Sayf an-Nabhani
18.. - 18..                Sulayman bin Sayf
186. - 1871                Sayf
bf.1895 - 1920             Himyar bin Nasir
Emir
1920 - 1959                Sulayman bin Himyar al-Nabhani    (b. 1904 - d. ....)



Bani Ruwaha 
 

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
18.. - 1871                Sa`id bin Khalifah al-Khalili
1871 - ....                `Abd Allah
c.1920 - 1954              Abu `Abd Allah Muhammad bin `Abd   (b. 1885? - d. 1954)
                             Allah al-Khalili al-Kharusi
1954 - 1971                `Abd Allah bin `Ali







 © Ben Cahoon